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The Stronger By Science Podcast Profile

The Stronger By Science Podcast

English, Sciences, 1 season, 156 episodes, 5 days, 21 hours, 31 minutes
About
Greg Nuckols and Eric Trexler from Stronger By Science share evidence, anecdotes, and incoherent ramblings on training, nutrition, science, and life in general.
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How To Train The Back

From back training anecdotes to practical recommendations, this episode has got your....back when it comes to back training (apologies for the pun). In this podcast episode, the SBS team goes over back training, including why the current literature directly examining changes in the back musculature is so limited.Note: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on https://strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-135TIME STAMPS00:45:45 - Fiber orientation and neuromechanical matching01:41:36 - Ad Break01:41:41 Why the lack of direct evidence for back training?02:01:09 - Practical takeaways02:17:59 - Audience Q&AWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected]  MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
6/12/20243 hours, 4 minutes, 6 seconds
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SBS Battle Royale

In this podcast episode, Greg, Pak, and Milo enter the impromptu-debate arena for the first SBS Battle Royale. Mental gymnastics, science, drama, and the signature SBS banter you all know and love are all packed into a pilot episode that will either be remembered forever or forgotten in a few weeks. TIME STAMPS:00:22:03 - Topic 01 - Are the "big 3" mandatory for strength and size?00:37:24 - Topic 02 - Always training to failure to maximize hypertrophy00:53:52 - Topic 03 - Sumo deadlifts for non-powerlifters01:06:53 - Topic 04 - Old-skool "YOLO" bulking for maximum gains01:19:42 - Topic 05 - Lifting weights for over 60 mins per week for health01:37:51 - Battle Royale recap and Q&AEpisode page: https://strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-134Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
5/29/20242 hours, 43 minutes, 45 seconds
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Does Lifting Really Improve Mental Health?

Greg, Pak, and Milo review the literature on lifting for mental health. Does exercising improve your mood? How long does this last? What about lifting? Can we improve our long-term mental health through physical activity and lifting weights?TIME STAMPSNote: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com here00:10:02 - Impact of exercise on mood overview00:38:55 - Best forms of exercise for mood improvement00:47:00 - Long-term effects of exercise on mental health01:26:04 - Lifting impacts on mental health01:41:17 - Audience questionsWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
5/15/20242 hours, 26 minutes, 18 seconds
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Is Stretch-Mediated Hypertrophy Overhyped?

In this episode, Milo, Greg, and Pak sit down to discuss the concept of stretch-mediated hypertrophy, from the foundational animal studies, to human stretching studies, to present day hype around stretch-mediated hypertrophy and lengthened partials. They also discuss how they're currently implementing lengthened training into their workout routines.TIME STAMPSNote: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-132 here00:00:00 - Intro and Plugs00:11:33 - Stretch-mediated hypertrophy and hyperplasia in animals00:44:59 - Stretch-mediated hypertrophy in humans/how muscle fibers grow00:56:08 - Impact of stretching interventions on hypertrophy in humans01:44:28 - Results vs lengthened resistance training02:11:08 - Recap/takeaways from resistance training literature02:42:47 - Audience questionsWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
5/1/20243 hours, 24 minutes, 9 seconds
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All About Sleep (Part 2)

In this episode, Greg, Pak, and Milo delve into research on sleep's impact on lifting and sports performance, recount sleep-related anecdotes from their college days, and explore strategies to counteract poor sleep when enhancing sleep quality is not feasible. Note: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-131TIME STAMPS:00:06:34 - Effects of acute sleep loss on physical performance00:22:20 - Sleep anecdotes from our time at College00:54:23 - Impact of sleep interventions on athletic performance01:11:19 - Napping01:25:42 - Mitigating some of the damage caused by poor sleep01:40:37 - Sleep impact on protein synthesis01:51:11 - Can exercise offset the cognitive impacts of sleep deprivation?02:00:50 - QnA & closing thoughtsWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
4/17/20242 hours, 37 minutes, 9 seconds
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All About Sleep (Part 1)

In this episode, Greg, Pak, and Milo take a deep dive in the research around sleep and health, from sleep duration to the latest data on sleep regularity and shift work. 00:00:00 - Intro & Plugs00:20:48 - Sleep duration and all-cause mortality00:42:58 - Sleep regularity and all-cause mortality01:15:13 - Shift work & sleeping irregular hours01:26:40 - Chronotypes & health01:41:47 - The effect of sleep on weight regulation02:23:24 - Practical takeawaysNote: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-130Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
4/3/20242 hours, 36 minutes, 40 seconds
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Is Body Fat Spot Reduction Really a Myth?

In this episode, Greg, Pak, and Milo tackle the research around body fat spot reduction. First, they tackle the research on various ointments, creams, garments, and whole body vibration. Following this, they discuss the evidence for spot reduction as an adaptation to different exercise types such as endurance and resistance training. TIME STAMPSNote: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com here00:00:00 - Intro & plugs00:17:41 - Spot reduction history, whole body vibration, garments & ointments00:46:04 - Training & spot reduction: the first studies00:58:09 - Recent evidence on training and spot reduction01:32:42 - Studies not supporting spot-reduction01:52:52 - Practical takeawaysWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected]  MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
3/20/20242 hours, 3 minutes, 50 seconds
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Extreme Volumes, Extreme Gains? (Part 2)

In the second and final part of the extreme volume for hypertrophy series, Greg, Pak, and Milo delve into the research on volume for hypertrophy. They review the remainder of the evidence and practical concerns, then answer audience questions.TIME STAMPSNote: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-128 here.00:00:00 - Intro00:11:13 - Evidence for high volumes01:02:53 - Evidence with neutral outcomes02:04:51 - Discussing other volume review papers02:33:07 - Diminishing Returns of Volume for Hypertrophy02:48:58 - Can you use high volumes for multiple muscles at once?03:04:07 - Are participants really training hard in these studies?03:18:27 - Hypertrophy vs. Muscle Swelling03:35:25 - What role does rest time play?03:46:01 - Practical Strategies to Increase Training Volume04:24:35 - Audience QuestionsWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected]   MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
3/6/20244 hours, 39 minutes, 22 seconds
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Extreme Volumes, Extreme Gains? (Part 1)

In this episode, the SBS team begins their deep dive into the data around really high training volumes and hypertrophy, going over the history of training volume practices and research while also taking an in-depth look at the latest high volume study by Enes et al.Most of the research discussed in this episode can be found here:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27433992/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37796222/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35291645/Note: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-127 TIME STAMPS00:00:00 - Intro00:20:18 - Historical context: High Volume vs. High Intensity00:48:53 - An overview of the volume research01:14:11 - The recent study by Enes & Colleagues01:39:15 - Interpretations of Study, Context Dependency, Applications and CriticismWant to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected]  MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
2/21/20242 hours, 29 minutes, 1 second
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Q&A: Insulin resistance and hypertrophy, stimulant metabolism, and BMR variability

In this Q&A episode of the podcast, Greg and Lyndsey answer questions about how to research a new subject, the effect of diabetes or insulin resistance on hypertrophy, how a pump might affect moment arms in movements, how much is too much isolation work, and more. They also give an update on the future of the podcast and announce that Dr Pak and Dr Milo Wolf are teaming up with Stronger By Science. TIME STAMPS00:00:00 – Podcast Updateshttps://www.strongerbyscience.com/future/00:21:29 – Q&A Intro and "How do you go about researching a whole new subject?" (Q1 from Teo)00:39:29 – "Does T2DM make hypertrophy impossible?" (Q2 from Jon) https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios-rebuttal/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios-rebuttal-2/For more direct data on diabetic populations: Beyond general resistance training. Hypertrophy versus muscular endurance training as therapeutic interventions in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Acosta-Manzano et al. (2020)Another 2020 systematic review: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Resistance Training on Whole-Body Muscle Growth in Healthy Adult Males. Benito et al. Average increase of about 1.51kg.Metformin: optimism that it would help with hypertrophy: Metformin to Augment Strength Training Effective Response in Seniors (MASTERS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trialBut, that didn’t pan out. Didn’t stop hypertrophy altogether, but did seem to reduce it: Metformin blunts muscle hypertrophy in response to progressive resistance exercise training in older adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial: The MASTERS trial00:55:18 – "Does getting a pump increase strength?" (Q3 from Alexander) https://www.strongerbyscience.com/size-vs-strength/https://peerj.com/articles/1462/01:05:20 –  Stimulant metabolism (Q4 from Connor Smith)01:17:40 – "How much can BMR vary between individuals?" (Q5 from Jon) Do People Really Have “Fast Metabolisms” or “Slow Metabolisms”?01:29:35 – "Is it possible to taper down activity levels (steps) without reducing calories?" (Q6 from Angela) Constrained energy expenditure01:41:10 – "How do you incorporate plyometrics and explosive training for jump height" (Q8 from trugor) 01:54:29 – "Is there any research showing damage to the blood vessels or whatnot in the longer term due to the blood pressure increase, because of bracing/Valsalva maneuver?" (Q9 from No_Performer_8133)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23231790/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33737330/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38142405/  02:00:51 – "How much isolation work is too much?" (Q10 from tompa01) 02:10:05 – "Favorite and least favorite things I’ve cooked" (Q11 from Ali Shah)  MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
2/7/20242 hours, 21 minutes, 53 seconds
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Long Muscle Length Training with Dr. Milo Wolf

In this episode, Greg sits down with Dr. Milo Wolf to discuss long muscle length training. Long-length partials are a hot topic, and Dr. Wolf is one of the folks doing research in this area, and popularizing long-length partials as a training method to increase muscle growth. Enjoy!  TIME STAMPS AND NOTESMost of the research discussed in this episode can be found here:https://journal.iusca.org/index.php/Journal/article/view/182https://www.strongerbyscience.com/rom/00:00:00 - Episode Intro - Einstein, Toothpaste, and Plugs00:18:18 - Intro - Dr. Milo Wolf00:31:03 - Research: Impact of Muscle Length and Range of Motion on Hypertrophic Response00:54:49 - Mechanisms / Explanation of Research01:24:23 - Implications for Different Muscle Groups and Exercises01:40:39 - Long Muscle Length Training Myths01:56:17 - Limits of Long Muscle Length Training/Effects Over Time/Novelty02:33:16 - Analysis of Existing Studies / Conflicting Results / Criticism02:47:20 - Application of Results in Training02:53:45 - Audience Questions and Final Thoughts MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSTry MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
1/24/20243 hours, 19 minutes, 48 seconds
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Exercise Technique and Minimum Effective Dose Training with Dr. Pak

In this episode, Greg is joined by Dr. Patroklos Androulakis-Korakakis (Dr. Pak) to discuss his research on minimum effective dose training, and his recent narrative review on optimizing exercise technique for muscle growth. While this episode does dig into the research, the lads tried to keep a clear focus on actionable takeaways to help you improve your training results. TIME STAMPSIntro and Plugs (00:00:00)Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Send your Q&A questions to [email protected] Dr. Pak Intro, Bio and Projects (00:15:49) Dr. Pak's Paper: Optimizing Resistance Training Technique to Maximize Muscle Hypertrophy (00:34:14)Narrative review: https://sportrxiv.org/index.php/server/preprint/view/349/718Bench vs. incline study mentioned: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32922646/ Technique: Tempo/Eccentric and Concentric Movement (00:59:14) Minimum Effective Dose - Overview (01:16:14) Dr. Pak's PhD Research - Implications for MED (01:24:51)Pak’s meta: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31797219/Pak’s doctoral research: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fspor.2021.713655/full Why Should We Care about MED? (01:41:18) How Does MED Change Over Time? (01:52:01)Q&A (01:59:53)Bickel study: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21131862/ Social Media Q&A (02:13:22) Outro (02:30:47) Follow Pak: https://www.minimumdosetraining.com/https://www.instagram.com/dr__pakhttps://www.youtube.com/@Dr__Pak Recommended products and more from the SBS team Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Send your Q&A questions to [email protected]
1/10/20242 hours, 33 minutes, 1 second
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Does the Evidence Now Support Effective Reps? (From the Data Driven Strength Podcast)

Greg was recently on the Data Driven Strength Podcast to chat about their meta-regression on proximity to failure and hypertrophy. In the episode, Greg, Zac, and Josh discuss what we know about the mechanisms underpinning muscle growth and the weaknesses of the "effective reps" model. We think it's a conversation worth sharing, so we're re-releasing it in our feeds today as a special bonus episode. TIME STAMPS AND NOTESIntro (0:00:00)Overview of New Proximity to Failure Meta-Regression (0:07:31)Common Misinterpretations of the Results (0:19:41)The Resurgence of the Effective Reps Model (0:22:41)The Desire for a Proxy Metric of Hypertrophy (0:42:41)The Mechanistic Rationale of Effective Reps (1:20:41)Other Factors Influencing Muscle Growth (1:52:41)Metabolic Stress as a Mediator (2:11:41)Is Force on the Fiber Level High at the End of a Set? (3:07:41)Practical Applications (3:42:41) PAPERS MENTIONEDExploring the Dose-Response Relationship Between Estimated Resistance Training Proximity to Failure, Strength Gain, and Muscle Hypertrophy : A Series of Meta-Regressions | SportRxivStimuli and sensors that initiate skeletal muscle hypertrophy following resistance exerciseCan cardio (eventually) make you bigger?Mechanisms of mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy: current understanding and future directionsDifferent load intensity transition schemes to avoid plateau and no-response in lean body mass gain in postmenopausal women | SpringerLinkA motor unit-based model of muscle fatigue | PLOS Computational BiologySkeletal muscle models composed of motor units: A review - ScienceDirectNeural Drive is Greater for a High-Intensity Contraction Tha... : The Journal of Strength & Conditioning ResearchEffects of fatiguing, submaximal high‐ versus low‐torque isometric exercise on motor unit recruitment and firing behaviorSurface electromyographic frequency characteristics of the quadriceps differ between continuous high- and low-torque isometric knee extension to momentary failure - ScienceDirectDifferent neuromuscular recruitment patterns during eccentric, concentric and isometric contractions(PDF) Neuromuscular responses to isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensors at the same torque-time integralNeuromuscular fatigue development during maximal concentric and isometric knee extensionsImprovements in skeletal muscle fiber size with resistance training are age-dependent in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis - PMC MORE ABOUT DDSYouTube channelTraining Takeaway Newsletter — Data Driven StrengthIG: @datadrivenstrength @zac.datadrivenstrength @josh.datadrivenstrength @jake.datadrivenstrength @drake.datadrivenstrength  (Credit: Their intro music is by Joystock) Recommended products and more from the SBS team Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Send your Q&A questions to [email protected]
12/27/20234 hours, 3 minutes
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Busting Myths about Cortisol with Beth Skwarecki

In this episode, Greg and Lyndsey sit down for a discussion about cortisol with Beth Skwarecki, the senior health editor at Lifehacker. The dangers of high cortisol are a persistent topic of content on social media content, so the discussion focuses on the types of claims that are being made, the dubious methods of self-diagnosis and “treatment” being recommended, and the potential risks and dangers associated with letting social media convince you that you’re basically an endocrinologist.You can read Beth’s article on this topic here: TikTok Myth of the Week: All Your Problems Are Due to High Cortisol TIME STAMPS What is cortisol? (00:02:52)Epinephrine vs. AdrenalineBasic cortisol physiologyLow cortisol and adrenal crisis 'Normal' cortisol levels (00:18:44)Reference range for normal cortisolVariability in cortisol awakening responseCortisol awakening response poorly associated with total daily cortisol AUCEarly childhood stress (with family income as a proxy) associated with either elevated or depressed cortisol awakening responseCortisol discourse on TikTok (00:33:56)Representative examples of TikTok cortisol content:https://www.tiktok.com/@brittwd/video/7263934911432707374?_r=1&_t=8gQo2Q04An4https://www.tiktok.com/@mallorymh/video/7242431357446556970https://www.tiktok.com/@xomgitsbunnie/video/7272557452095376686https://www.tiktok.com/@liv.ingwell/video/7263106370696695083Cortisol vs other social media trends (00:47:48)The Endocrine Society on adrenal fatigueRepresentative examples of TikTok adrenal fatigue content: https://www.tiktok.com/@clairethenutritionist/video/6964559576985308421?_r=1&_t=8gY2Pf0iBPnhttps://www.tiktok.com/@begreatwithnate/video/7191220532862356778?_r=1&_t=8gY2YIPYDDGhttps://www.tiktok.com/@ambitiousandcaffeinated/video/7201977016571202821?_r=1&_t=8gY2fS0vaRPhttps://www.tiktok.com/@ghallfitness/video/7190694428586151170?_r=1&_t=8gY2uaAaGvShttps://www.tiktok.com/@thewellnesswaylargo/video/7254966223329398058?_t=8gY34NUrjRO&_r=1Cortisol and menstruation (01:07:41)Cortisol and trauma (01:11:32)Representative example of movements claimed to reduce cortisol associated with traumaTapping: https://www.thetappingsolution.com/Cortisol and exercise (01:15:55)Cortisol and overtraining (most notably, Figure 3)Impact of exercise intensity on cortisol responseCortisol levels return to normal very soon after exercise endsHackney review on exercise and cortisolSpecific claims about high cortisol (01:38:30)Cortisol, caffeine and sleep (01:45:39)Plenty of things cause you to wake up at nightSpiritual meaning of waking up at 3AMCaffeine and cortisolCaffeine’s effects on cortisol are attenuated within 5 days of consumptionCoffee intake is associated with plenty of positive health outcomes (hard to square with the idea that caffeine spikes cortisol in a manner that’s deleterious to your health)Real ways to regulate cortisol (01:55:49)Self-diagnosis (02:03:08)Cortisol disorders can cause real disease (story Beth referenced about woman with tumor)Other things that can cause Cushing-like symptomsTakeaways (02:08:13)Where to find BethCheck out Beth’s writing on LifehackerBeth’s 510 Dinnie DeadliftBeth’s books: Outbreak! and Genetics 101Follow Beth on Twitter Recommended products and more from the SBS team Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Send your Q&A questions to [email protected]
12/13/20232 hours, 29 minutes, 59 seconds
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Q&A: Muscle size and strength, advice for minimalistic workout routines, and training to failure

In this Q&A episode, Greg and Lyndsey answer listener questions about how close you should be to your macro targets, the relationship between muscle size and muscle strength, advice for minimalistic workout routines, training to failure, and the benefits of CrossFit. To submit your question for a future episode, email a 30- to 60-second voice memo to [email protected]. TIME STAMPS Intro (0:00)Fat bear week champion reveal (0:23)Recommended products and more from the SBS team (3:51)Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Send your Q&A questions to [email protected] How close do you need to be to your macro targets? (11:15)Episode 103: “Misapplications of Popular Weight Loss Advice” Do some people simply have muscles that are stronger per unit of size? And is that genetic, or trainable? (22:00)First article on the topic: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/size-vs-strength/More recent article on the topic: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/muscle-strength-gains/Muscle growth IS important for strength gains: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-019-01107-8Muscle growth is NOT important for strength gains: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-019-01106-9 Advice for minimalistic workout routines (37:03)Hayden and Pak’s article: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/training-for-time-poor/Exercise quantity and longevity: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/exercise-longevity/Bickel paper: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21131862/Other relevant articles: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/detraining/Minimum effective dose meta: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31797219/Pak’s PhD research on the topic: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fspor.2021.713655/full Thoughts on training to failure (both hypertrophy and fatigue) (57:16)Recent meta-regression: https://sportrxiv.org/index.php/server/preprint/view/295/590Prior article on “Effective Reps” (main point – distinction between studies on trained and untrained subjects): https://www.strongerbyscience.com/effective-reps/Martorelli study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505097/MASS article on eccentric vs. concentric muscle damage over time: https://www.massmember.com/products/mass-subscription/categories/4304723/posts/14560693Study covered in the MASS article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33156414/ Will CrossFit training help me continue to get stronger and improve endurance? (1:26:48)CrossFit systematic review: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2165079916685568
10/18/20231 hour, 40 minutes, 19 seconds
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Which Micronutrients Are Worth Monitoring?

In the final episode of our micronutrient series, Greg and Lyndsey discuss which micronutrients are most worth monitoring and good food sources for the micronutrients you may be under-consuming. Then, we talk more broadly about why you shouldn’t allow a focus on micronutrients specifically to detract from the pursuit of a generally healthy diet.Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] TIME STAMPS Introduction (0:00) Recommendations and good vibes (0:20)FAT BEAR WEEK806 Spring Cub Season HighlightsAdult Bracket Reveal Stream Announcement for next episode: get your questions in for an all-Q&A episode! (8:06)Recommended products and more from the SBS team (9:35)Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Send your Q&A questions to [email protected] into the content; discussing the difference between insufficient intake and deficient intake/status. (13:40)Episode 1 in the Micronutrient seriesEpisode 2 in the Micronutrients seriesLanding page for micronutrient articlesContent discussed in this episode:Which Micronutrients Are Worth Monitoring?Micronutrients Are Important, But They Aren’t EverythingLanding page for micronutrient content in the KB Nutrients that are often overconsumed (21:52)Chart summarizing content in this sectionAdded sugarUSDA: Get the Facts: Added Sugars | Nutrition | CDCNHS: Sugar: the facts - NHSAHA: Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart AssociationSaturated fatIntake in the US: Saturated Fat and Food Intakes of Adults - FSRG Dietary Data Briefs - NCBI BookshelfIntake in the EU: Saturated fat intake across the EU, Norway and the United Kingdom | Knowledge for policyHigher intakes associated with more CVD: Saturated fat and trans-fat intakes and their replacement with other macronutrients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studiesSaturated fat increases LDL cholesterol: Effects of saturated fatty acids on serum lipids and lipoproteins: a systematic review and regression analysisReducing LDL reduces CVD with a strong dose-response relationship, suggesting causation: Association Between Lowering LDL-C and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Among Different Therapeutic Interventions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | Cardiology | JAMASodiumSodium intake and stroke: Association of sodium intake and major cardiovascular outcomes: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studiesUpdate on research related to other diseases: The impact of excessive salt intake on human healthExcluded: Omega-6Inflammation: Omega-6 fatty acids and inflammationHuman health outcomes: Omega‐6 fats for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease - Hooper, L - 2018 | Cochrane LibraryNutrivore article: A Comprehensive Rebuttal to Seed Oil SophistryExcluded: Trans FatsTrans Fats | MacroFactor Nutrients that are frequently under-consumed (44:14)Most of the data related to under-consumed nutrients came from these sources:Micronutrient Inadequacies in the US Population: an Overview | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State UniversityProjected prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes in EuropeOmega-3 Fatty Acids - Health Professional Fact SheetShould I be eating more fiber? - Harvard HealthCholine - Health Professional Fact SheetMore on individual nutrientsFiber: Dietary Fat | MacroFactorOmega 3s: Omega-3 EPA | MacroFactor, Omega-3 DHA | MacroFactorVitamin A: Vitamin A (Retinol) | MacroFactorVitamin B6: Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) | MacroFactorFolate: Folate (Vitamin B9) | MacroFactorVitamin C: Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) | MacroFactorVitamin D: Vitamin D (Calciferol) | MacroFactorVitamin E: Vitamin E (Tocopherol) | MacroFactorEFSA publication on Vitamin E: Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values  for vitamin E as α-tocopherolVitamin K: Vitamin K (Phylloquinone and Menaquinone)Choline: Choline | MacroFactorMagnesium: Magnesium | MacroFactorPotassium: Potassium | MacroFactorZinc: Zinc | MacroFactor Nutrients vegans may want to pay more attention to (1:08:46)Omega 3s: Omega-3 EPA | MacroFactor, Omega-3 DHA | MacroFactorIndividual Amino Acids (primarily lysine, methionine, and tryptophan):Lysine | MacroFactorMethionine | MacroFactorTryptophan | MacroFactorB12: Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) | MacroFactorCalcium, Iron, Zinc, and Selenium:Iron Status of Vegetarian Adults: A Review of Literature - PMCIntake and adequacy of the vegan diet. A systematic review of the evidenceCalcium | MacroFactorIron | MacroFactorZinc | MacroFactorSelenium | MacroFactor Be sure to avoid “micronutrient reductionism” (1:21:58)Polyphenols: The Role of Polyphenols in Human Health and Food Systems: A Mini-Review - PMCIsothiocyanates: Isothiocyanates | Linus Pauling Institute Q&A (1:37:49)Are multivitamins overrated? (1:38:37)2013 meta: Multivitamin-multimineral supplementation and mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsSubsequent metas: Vitamin and Mineral Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: Updated Evidence Report and Systematic Review for the US Preventive Services Task Force | Cardiology | JAMA, Association of Multivitamin and Mineral Supplementation and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease | Circulation2020 BMJ narrative review: Health effects of vitamin and mineral supplements | The BMJCalcium + vitamin D for fractures: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and risk of fractures: an updated meta-analysis from the National Osteoporosis Foundation Is low blood vitamin D often the result of some other underlying problem? (1:57:33)Barbell medicine episode: Episode #152: Vitamin D with Dr. Austin BarakiRelevant research/perspective papers:Real‐world evidence for the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in reduction of total and cause‐specific mortalityLow vitamin D is a marker for poor health and increased risk for disease: But causality is still unclear in most cases | JIMVitamin D: health panacea or false prophet?Vitamin D deficiency 2.0: an update on the current status worldwide - PMCVitamin D: a negative acute phase reactant | Journal of Clinical PathologyVitamin D and Cancer | IARCSkeletal and Extraskeletal Actions of Vitamin D: Current Evidence and Outstanding QuestionsOptimal vitamin D status: a critical analysis on the basis of evidence-based medicineAre there any good proxy measurements to know if you’re meeting micronutrient targets without needing to track micronutrients? (2:09:19)Folic acid supplementation when trying to get pregnant (2:12:38)2011 review: Folic Acid Food Fortification—Its History, Effect, Concerns, and Future Directions - PMC2022 paper arguing for global folate fortification: Preventing birth defects, saving lives, and promoting health equity: an urgent call to action for universal mandatory food fortification with folic acidLetter to the editor calling for caution against universal fortification: Mandatory food fortification with folic acid - The Lancet Global HealthGeneral info on neural tube defects: Neural tube defects: a review of global prevalence, causes, and primary preventionEvidence of vitamin K along with vitamin D and Boron supplementation (2:21:04)Vitamin KOptimistic epidemiological research: Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in the Danish Diet Cancer and Health StudyLess clarity from interventions currently: Vitamin K Supplementation for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Where Is the Evidence? A Systematic Review of Controlled TrialsBoronNIH factsheet: Boron - Health Professional Fact Sheet2015 cheerleading review: Nothing Boring About Boron | IMCJExamine.com page: Boron health benefits, dosage, safety, side effects, and supporting evidence. | Supplements | ExamineImportant note: at one point when answering the question related to boron, I referenced dosages of 2g and 500mg. I meant 2mg and 500mcg. Do not take 2g (or even 500mg) of boron.
10/4/20232 hours, 37 minutes, 26 seconds
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Understanding Micronutrient Targets: What Do They Mean, and Where Do They Come From?

In this episode (which is Part 2 of our micronutrient series), Greg and Lyndsey discuss nutrient targets: where they come from, what they mean, and how to think about them. They also talk about the relative imprecision of micronutrient tracking, why micronutrient content can differ so much within a single food, and why it can be challenging to track your micronutrient intake in the first place.Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] TIME STAMPSIntro (0:00) Recommendations and good vibes (0:20)Lyndsey – Bottoms movieDavie High fight club news reportGreg – Telemarketers docu-seriesReply All “Long Distance” podcast episodes Housekeeping notes (8:45)MacroFactor Annual ReportRecommended products and more from the SBS team (11:50)Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Episode 1 in the Micronutrient SeriesHistory of RDAs and Government Micronutrient Recommendations (14:53)The 100-Year History of Vitamins - Supplement Facts - Better NutritionVitamins Come to Dinner | Science History InstituteAre We Well Fed?: A Report on the Diets of Families in the United States (Miscellaneous Publication No. 430)The History and Future of Dietary Guidance in America - PMCDietary Guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025Dietary Reference Intakes Development | health.govHistory of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and CanadaDRI development retrospectiveOngoing DRV-related publications from the EFSAMicronutrient series on the websiteMicronutrient content in the MacroFactor knowledge base Understanding Micronutrient Targets and the DRI Framework (37:13)General frameworkHow ULs are determinedVitamin A toxicity How EARs, RDAs, and LTIs are Determined (59:52)EFSA publication on calcium, used as an exampleFigure showing data used to define calcium DRVs (from this article)  General discussion of the implications of imprecise research and large inter-individual variability (1:21:21)Note: I was right about magnesium, and wrong about calcium. Calcium carbonate is the more common version in supplements (not oxide). Chelated calcium is generally a bit better than calcium carbonate, but the difference between calcium carbonate and chelated calcium isn’t NEARLY as large as the difference between magnesium oxide and chelated magnesium.The relative imprecision of micronutrient tracking (and WHY micronutrient content can differ so much within a single food) (1:49:30)Why labeling error generally doesn’t matter much for calorie (and macronutrient) tracking: SBS article – Nutrition Labels Are Inaccurate (and the Math Behind Why It Doesn’t Matter)Variable vitamin C content in spinachSlightly higher nutrient levels in similar foods in Germany than the NetherlandsSoil health and nutrient densityMany roles of vitamin C in plantsMacroFactor knowledge base content on seleniumSelenium uptake in plantsRegional selenium differences in the USRegional selenium differences in ChinaSelenium intake and diabetesSelenium and cancerGeneral selenium contentOmega-3 content in farmed vs fresh salmonGenerally high vitamin A levels in the livers of numerous arctic predatorsWhy it can be challenging to track your micronutrient intake in the first place (2:22:27)Nutrient reporting frequencies in the UK graphic:  (from this study, discussed in this article)  Wrap-up and conclusions (2:28:39)Considerably higher rates of vitamin D deficiencies with darker skin at higher latitudesDepressing final thought (2:35:49)Learn more and donate to GAINCool, less depressing final thought (2:42:16)Fun video about cod and the Vikings
9/13/20232 hours, 51 minutes, 13 seconds
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Micronutrients Deserve More Attention

Micronutrients deserve more attention. There's very little content about micronutrients, and the content that *is* out there is often full of fear-mongering or wild claims about wonder drugs and super foods. In this episode, we aim to provide a solid foundation for building a better understanding of micronutrients. Along the way, Greg also shares some fun facts that prove that micronutrients are way more interesting than you may have thought. This is the first part of a micronutrient series we'll be doing on the podcast.  Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] TIME STAMPSIntro (0:00)What’s on your mind? (0:22)Lyndsey – The Fifth Season and the Broken Earth TrilogyGreg – TrackmaniaRecommended products and more from the SBS team (8:16)Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Introduction to the micronutrient discussion (11:25)What are essential nutrients in the first place? What does it mean to call a nutrient essential? (21:28)Creatine intake and depressionCreatine treatment for depressionFurther perspective on creatine potentially being conditionally essentialVitamins (45:43)Long-term kinetics of vitamin DCasimir Funk/very brief history of vitamin researchMinerals (1:40:26)Lithium and suicideEssential Fatty Acids (1:57:21)Note: I Googled it, and Omega is the last letter of the Greek alphabet. Apologies to the Greeks.Essential Amino Acids (2:01:57)Choline (2:06:02)Fiber (2:08:04)Dietary fiber is NOT an essential nutrient“Fiber is an essential nutrient”Where did all the coal come fromCool video about resistant starchWater (2:27:24)Q&A Question: What’s the best way to train for bone health? Are plyometrics safe and effective for people in their 60s? (2:28:56)
8/30/20232 hours, 42 minutes, 27 seconds
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Sleep and Nutrition: Pre-Sleep Snacks, and How Your Diet Impacts Your Sleep

The industry for pre-sleep supplements, foods, and products is booming. But what actually works, and how much does our diet actually impact our sleep quality and quantity? Greg and Lyndsey talk about how pre-sleep products are marketed, break down the science behind popular sleep supplements (like melatonin, magnesium, lavender, and more), and discuss how macronutrient distributions influence sleep. They also answer a few listener questions about pre-sleep protein and about the impact of eating meals right before bedtime. Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] STAMPSNote: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com here: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-118/Intro (0:00)What’s on your mind? (0:27)Plugs (10:03)Sweet Dreams cereal (13:53)Other pre-sleep food brands/claims – Nightfood and Sleepy Chocolate (36:06)Ingredients purported to improve sleep: Zinc, Folic Acid, B Vitamins, Lavender, Chamomile, Typrophan, Magnesium, Melatonin, and Valerian (44:33)Recommendations for pre-sleep meal/snacks (1:30:14)How macronutrient distributions influence sleep (1:37:06)Sugar/Carbohydrates (1:46:40)Protein (2:01:20)Fat (2:03:47)General wrap-up and final thoughts (2:07:20)Listener Questions:Should you still eat protein before bed if doing so decreases sleep quality? (2:10:57)Do you need a slow-digesting protein before sleep? (2:15:09)Are there benefits of eating additional total calories (including carbs and carbohydrate) right before bed? (2:25:09)Note: The full list of sources and notes can be found on the episode page on strongerbyscience.com here: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-118/ MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.
8/16/20232 hours, 29 minutes, 19 seconds
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Creatine Myths: Hair Loss, Bloating, Dosing, and More

Does creatine cause hair loss? What about bloating? In this episode, Greg and Lyndsey bust myths and misconceptions about creatine, one of the most popular supplements on the market. Greg also explains how creatine actually works to increase muscle growth and discusses myths related to creatine dosing (is 5g per day enough?). Then, they play a few listener calls about creatine and answer questions about creatine's impact on individual genetic potential for muscularity, different forms of creatine, and the interaction between caffeine and creatine.Want to get your question answered on the show? Send a voice memo to [email protected] MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMWork with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Join the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.MASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.TIME STAMPS, SOURCES, AND LINKS Intro (0:00)What’s on your mind/bright spots: Love Island (3:23)Recommendations and plugs (8:30)Creatine Introduction (10:49)Recent research spotlight on creatine and muscle growthHistory of Creatine (17:56)1912 study establishing that dietary creatine increases muscle concentrations1926 frog study discovering phosphocreatine (origin of “phosphagen”)1927 study specifically identifying phosphocreatine for what it wasCreatine and hair loss introduction (38:39)Background information on DHT (40:48)DHT basicsDiscussion of the study everyone cites to support the idea that creatine causes hair loss (44:35)The creatine/DHT studyDHT reference rangeIntraindividual variability in DHT levels The key thing everyone misses when discussing the creatine/DHT study: serum DHT is irrelevant to the physiology of androgenic alopecia (54:21)General review article –  Androgens and androgen receptor action in skin and hair folliclesPotential physiological explanations for increased scalp DHT production and hair loss (1:04:09)Scalp blood flow with androgenic alopeciaInteresting (but probably wrong) gravity-related hypothesisDifferent effects of DHT in different hair follicles (specially, see the section heading “Hormones and Androgenetic Alopecia”)Hypothesis related to scalp tensionBotox as a treatment for androgenic alopeciaObesity/metabolic syndrome and androgenic alopecia: One, two, threeHeritability of androgenic alopeciaKnown effects of creatine on the actual causes of hair loss (1:29:40)Creatine/free testosterone studies linked hereMore reading on systemic vs. local DHTSupplemental DHT and lack of prostate growth Why do so many people think that creatine causes hair loss in the first place? (1:38:00)Men’s Health articleWomen’s Health articleSports Illustrated articleHims articleNYTimes articleJose Antonio articleGeneral info about creatine intake and effects How creatine actually works to increase muscle growth (1:48:31)Chilibeck reviewThe idea that creatine doesn’t actually cause bloating (and only causes fluid retention in the muscles) is probably incorrect (2:04:01)Typical creatine concentrationsMyth related to creatine dosing: the typical recommendation of 5g/day is not enough creatine for serious lifters (2:15:34)Hultman study on creatine dosingCreatinine excretion rangesStudy on super jacked people Question 1: does creatine raise the limits of muscularity that you can achieve, or does it just lead to slightly faster progress toward the same limit? (2:38:01)Question 2: is it worth experimenting with other forms of creatine? (2:40:28)Question 3: do caffeine and creatine have inhibitory effects on each other? (2:46:51)There is a creatine and caffeine section in the SBS creatine guide. More recent MASS article on the topic (for MASS subscribers)  
8/2/20233 hours, 2 minutes, 45 seconds
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Aspartame: The Surprisingly Interesting Science and History

Greg and Lyndsey dive into the history, conspiracies, science, and media coverage of aspartame to present a thorough overview of the recent WHO reports linking aspartame and cancer risk. Is this one of the longest "podcast episodes" ever? Probably. But it's packed with fascinating history, relevant research breakdowns and media criticism, and takeaways for interpreting and navigating our society's abundance of health warnings. TIME STAMPSHistory of artificial sweeteners preceding aspartame (9:43)The very sketchy approval process for aspartame and subsequent media coverage (1:02:35)Breaking down the World Health Organization's decision to classify aspartame as "possibly carcinogenic" (3:17:50) The fallout from the WHO's classification (4:24:27) Closing thoughts (5:22:04)MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSMASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. SOURCES AND LINKSIntroGreg's recommendation: Factor mealsLyndsey's recommendations: Sturdy Girl Club stand-up series and Casey Johnston’s newsletter “She’s a Beast”WHO Reports WHO: Aspartame hazard and risk assessment results releasedThe Lancet summary: Carcinogenicity of aspartame, methyleugenol, and isoeugenolFull source listWe had too many links to include here (lol), so please go to the page on Stronger By Science for a fully guided tour of our derangement: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/podcast-episode-116/
7/19/20235 hours, 43 minutes, 57 seconds
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Vibration plates, lifting during pregnancy, and a new era for the SBS podcast

The Stronger By Science podcast is back, and it's the start of a new era for the show! We've got a new hosting line-up, new segments, new cover art, new music, and new way for you to get your questions answered. But a lot remains unchanged: We're still aiming to break down the latest health and fitness research and trends in a way that's easily understandable and fun to listen to. Going forward, we'll be releasing new episodes every two weeks on Wednesdays. In this episode, Greg and Lyndsey delve into the history and science behind vibration plates. Are there legitimate, scientific purposes for this trendy piece of equipment, or is it just a total scam? Then, they discuss a new study that investigated the impact of heavy resistance training on pregnancy and postpartum health outcomes. That discussion leads to a larger conversation about how exercise guidelines evolve.Want to get your question answered on a future episode of the podcast? Record a voice memo on your phone and email it to [email protected]. TIME STAMPSIntroduction of a new era for the podcast (0:00)Lyndsey introduction (8:52)Vibration plates (13:06)Lifting during pregnancy: (1:06:40)MORE FROM THE SBS TEAMJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.Join the SBS Facebook group and Subreddit.Try MacroFactor for free: Use code SBS to get a 14-day free trial of our nutrition app MacroFactor. MacroFactor has the fastest food logger on the market and its smart nutrition coach adapts to your metabolism to keep you on track with your goals. Download it today on the App Store or Google Play.Work with a Stronger By Science coach: Get personalized training and nutrition plans and ongoing support from one of our expert coaches.RECOMMENDED PRODUCTSMASS Research Review: Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.BulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. SOURCES AND LINKSVibration platesVibration plate articles:The main inspiration for this segment was Beth Skwarecki’s Lifehacker article – TikTok Myth of the Week: Vibration PlatesThe history of vibration therapyThe Historical Evolution of the Therapeutic Application of Whole Body Vibrations: Any Lessons to be Learned? | Austin Sports MedicineDr. John Kellogg Invented Cereal. Some of His Other Wellness Ideas Were Much Weirder | HISTORYBelt VibratorWhole-body-vibration meta-analyses: Fat loss metasEffects of Whole-Body Vibration Training on Body Composition, Cardiometabolic Risk, and Strength in the Population Who Are Overweight and Obese: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis - ScienceDirectDoes whole body vibration therapy assist in reducing fat mass or treating obesity in healthy overweight and obese adults? A systematic review and meta-analysesThe effects of whole body vibration therapy on reducing fat mass in the adult general population: A systematic review and meta-analyses - PMCWhole-body-vibration meta-analyses: OthersLong-Term Effects of Whole-Body Vibration on Human Gait: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisLong-Term Effect of Whole Body Vibration Training on Jump HeightEffectiveness of whole-body vibration on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsSystematic review and meta-analyses on the effects of whole-body vibration on bone health - ScienceDirectWhole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis - PMCThe effects of whole-body vibration on muscle strength and power: a meta-analysisThe effect of whole body vibration on balance, mobility and falls in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis - ScienceDirectThe effect of whole-body vibration on lower extremity function in children with cerebral palsy: A meta-analysis | PLOS ONEEvidence of Use of Whole-Body Vibration in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisView of Effects of Whole-Body Vibration Therapy on Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsEffects of Whole Body Vibration on Muscle Strength and Quality of Life in Health Elderly: A Meta-AnalysisEffects of vibration therapy on muscle mass, muscle strength and physical function in older adults with sarcopenia: a systematic review and meta-analysisEffect of whole-body vibration on neuromuscular activation and explosive power of lower limb: A systematic review and meta-analysis | PLOS ONEEffects of whole-body vibration training with different frequencies on the balance ability of the older adults: a network meta-analysisLifting during pregnancy:Greg's Research Spotlight on the topic: How concerned do lifters need to be about training hard during pregnancy?Primary study reviewed: Impact of heavy resistance training on pregnancy and postpartum health outcomesACOG exercise recommendationsHistory of guidelines for physical activity during pregnancy:Physical Activity During Pregnancy - Past and Present - PMCPhysical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations - PMCUrinary incontinence in powerlifters: Urinary Incontinence in Competitive Women Powerlifters: A Cross-Sectional Survey - PMC
7/5/20232 hours, 22 minutes, 19 seconds
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Fireside Chat with Greg Nuckols and Lyndsey Nuckols

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In this Fireside Chat, Greg sits down with a special guest: his business partner and wife Lyndsey Nuckols. They discuss who's a better cook, their most underwhelming talents, trolley problems, their recent foray into reality TV, and their experiences transitioning into tech product people.Raccoon video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfbb4yRBH64 SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every other Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereBulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.
4/24/20231 hour, 8 minutes, 9 seconds
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Weight Loss Plateaus, Tough Love, and Energy Audits (Replay of Episode 77)

While we continue preparing to get our next season up and running, we’re replaying Episode 77, which is all about troubleshooting weight loss plateaus.In this episode from the SBSPOD archive, Eric and Greg discuss topics including metabolic adaptation, energy compensation, and a long list of factors that may lead us to overestimate energy expenditure or underestimate energy intake. The discussion yields several practical, evidence-based tips for overcoming challenges and breaking through plateaus when pursuing a weight loss goal.  SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereSponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (2:27)Feats of Strength (8:14)https://www.reddit.com/r/powerlifting/comments/t2ugyj/jimmy_kolb_benches_1302_lbs590_kg/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W8BaujIRRZYCoach’s Corner: Troubleshooting weight loss plateaus (24:47)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20935667/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/metabolic-adaptation/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34385400/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34453886/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34816627/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34334719/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34977570/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29289613/The general approach (28:39)Issues with “tough love” in coaching (31:19)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20980707/How to conduct an “energy audit” (38:42)Drawing conclusions and planning solutions (54:35)To Play Us Out: Unbelievable 40-yard dash times at the 2022 NFL combine (1:04:48)https://www.cbssports.com/nfl/news/nfl-scouting-combine-2022-tracker-measurements-top-individual-performances-from-nfl-draft-prospects/
3/13/20231 hour, 14 minutes
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Sleep, Health, and Fitness

In today’s episode, Eric Trexler discusses the relationships between sleep, health, and fitness. First, he discusses how sleep impairments can negatively impact health-related outcomes and impede progress toward a variety of fitness-related goals. After that, he describes a number of practical strategies to get better sleep and to mitigate the negative impacts of insufficient sleep. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Issues that arise from insufficient sleep quality and/or quantity (1:58)Impact on health (circadian biology; research in shift workers) (2:17)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/chrononutrition/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31132107/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32895261/Impact on training quality (17:29)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29944513/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35708888/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31288293/Impact on appetite (21:16)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25012962/Impact on body composition (25:04)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32141273/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20921542/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33400856/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32078168/Strategies to minimize the impact of insufficient sleep (31:03)Caffeine (32:23)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33388079/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24235903/Napping (40:14)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31491444/Caffeinated napping (41:54)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-caffeine-naps/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33571957/Modifications to your training program (46:47)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33298711/Sleep hygiene (54:43)Light/dark cycles, sleep/wake cycle consistency (1:03:07)Other notable elements of good sleep hygiene (1:13:31)Supplements for sleep (1:17:56)Summary (1:26:18)
1/30/20231 hour, 31 minutes, 59 seconds
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Hunger and Appetite Management

Whether you’re trying to gain, lose, or maintain weight, strategic management of hunger and appetite can come in handy. In today’s episode, Eric Trexler discusses a variety of practical strategies for managing hunger and appetite to support a more successful and enjoyable dieting experience. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Practical strategies for managing hunger (4:23)Adopt an acceptance-based approach (4:53)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238039/Eat slow and savor (speed, focus while eating) (16:18)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0950329318300582https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30591684/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20351697/Titrate your amount of non-lifting exercise (21:42)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29289613/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30131457/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24355667/Reduce meal-level energy density, and make the easy swaps first (35:57)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-energy-density/Opt for harder food textures (49:55)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-hard-food/Minimize foods that are hyperpalatable (53:01)End the meal strategically (green tea, capsaicin) (1:02:14)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19345452/Eat enough fiber and protein (1:07:29)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21115081/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32768415/Summary of strategies (1:15:31)Strategies for bulking / weight gain (1:16:36)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/bulking/Conclusions and practical applications (1:25:28) 
1/23/20231 hour, 29 minutes, 59 seconds
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Cardio for Health and Weight Management

In today’s episode, Eric takes a comprehensive look at how physical activity and cardiovascular exercise can impact general health and weight management. Specific topics of discussion include non-exercise physical activity, exercise snacks, step counts, appetite, exercise energy compensation, interval versus steady-state cardio, the interference effect, and practical ways to incorporate non-exercise physical activity or structured cardio into your daily or weekly schedule. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Taxonomy of physical activity (4:45)Benefits of physical activity (12:33)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23063021/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30418471/Exercise snacks (13:54)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34669625/Step counts (20:21)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34417979/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35247352/General physical activity guidelines (25:38)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30418471/https://sites.google.com/site/compendiumofphysicalactivities/home?authuser=0Benefits of exercise for fat loss (33:58)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29289613/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30131457/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24355667/Why exercise causes less fat loss than you’d expect (43:01)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34519717/Exercise energy compensation and the constrained total energy expenditure model (49:08)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803033/Factors impacting energy compensation (55:26)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34453886/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34334719/Exercise Calorie Calculator:https://macrofactorapp.com/exercise-calorie-calculator/High-intensity interval training versus low-intensity steady-state training (1:06:48)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34822354/https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/krj/aop/article-10.1123-kr.2022-0003/article-10.1123-kr.2022-0003.xmlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1469029222001637Concurrent training and the interference effect (1:13:35)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34757594/Best practices for concurrent training (1:21:34)Basic guidelines for intensity and duration (per session of cardio) (1:25:38)Summary and conclusions (1:30:06)
1/16/20231 hour, 38 minutes, 11 seconds
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Diet Tracking and Mindful Eating

In today’s episode, Eric responds to a few pieces of listener feedback, then covers two popular nutrition topics. In the first, he discusses the utility of calorie counting or diet tracking, and how to make the process as feasible and effective as possible. After that, he provides a thorough overview of mindful eating, while addressing some common misconceptions along the way. While many people think that mindful eating is the same thing as intuitive eating, or that mindful eating is incompatible with weight loss goals or diet tracking, neither of these popular perspectives are true. In reality, mindful eating and diet tracking can be used synergistically when pursuing a variety of goals, including weight loss. Today’s episode discusses how to use both of these evidence-based strategies in a complementary fashion. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)A clarification about intrinsic motivation (9:42)https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/2020_RyanDeci_IntrinsicandExtrinsic.pdfDoes diet tracking “work?” (24:06)What are the major challenges that threaten the effectiveness of diet tracking or calorie counting? (31:33)https://macrofactorapp.com/problems-with-calorie-counting/How to make diet tracking as effective and enjoyable as possible (41:27)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/goal-setting/https://macrofactorapp.com/behavior-change/https://macrofactorapp.com/cheat-meals/The relationship between diet tracking or calorie counting and eating disorders (53:34)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/diet-tracking/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34427188/Mindful eating (1:05:47)Mindful eating versus intuitive eating (1:06:51)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33279464/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556586/How is mindful eating actually implemented? (1:10:23)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556586/Is mindful eating a weight loss strategy? (1:16:36)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31368631/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24854804/https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0950329318300582https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30591684/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20351697/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4238039/Psychology-related applications of mindful eating (1:38:08)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24854804/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32551798/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27862826/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32549835/Can mindful eating and macro tracking co-exist? (1:43:28)Episode summary and conclusions (1:49:21)
1/9/20231 hour, 57 minutes, 31 seconds
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Popular Diets and Common Nutrition Misconceptions (Part 2)

In today’s episode, Eric Trexler continues his discussion about some of the advantages and disadvantages of popular diets, and explores some common misconceptions in the world of nutrition. Topics include low-fat diets, the Ornish diet, vegetarian diets, vegan diets, cleanses, detoxes, single-food diets, time-restricted feeding, intermittent fasting, the Mediterranean diet, seed oils, and the DASH diet. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Healthy diet indicator criteria (3:53)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30364851/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33344879/Low-fat diet (6:54)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/diet/https://sigmanutrition.com/lipids/https://sigmanutrition.com/diet-on-lipids/https://sigmanutrition.com/diet-cvd/Ornish diet (20:47)Vegetarian/vegan diet (25:38)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26853923/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35924941/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33599941/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32885996/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36045075/Raw vegan diet (34:29)Cleanses and Detoxes (38:41)Single-food diets (43:13)Time-restricted feeding (includes breakfast skipping literature, IMO) (50:12)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-if-body-comp/Intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting, 5:2 diet, etc) (1:01:04)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-5-2-fasting/Long fasting periods for health benefits (1:06:38)Mediterranean diet (1:11:40)Seed oils and vegetable oils (1:15:17)https://www.the-nutrivore.com/post/a-comprehensive-rebuttal-to-seed-oil-sophistryDASH diet (1:21:40)Plant-based diets (1:23:18)Summary and conclusions (1:29:30)
1/2/20231 hour, 36 minutes, 23 seconds
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Popular Diets and Common Nutrition Misconceptions (Part 1)

In today’s episode, Eric Trexler discusses some of the advantages and disadvantages of popular diets, and explores some common misconceptions in the world of nutrition. Topics include low-carb diets, the Zone diet, the South Beach diet, the glycemic index, continuous glucose monitors, gluten-free diets, “eating clean,” ketogenic diets, the Atkins diet, the Paleo diet, and the carnivore diet. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)The SBS podcast co-host union is out of control (0:49)Healthy diet indicator criteria (5:54)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30364851/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33344879/Low-carb diets (9:18)The Zone diet (13:10)The South Beach diet (14:39)Glycemic index (15:39)Continuous glucose monitors (21:44)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-glucose-monitors/Gluten-free diets (27:57)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23648697/“Eating clean” (37:41)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29140151/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243453/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6681103/Ketogenic diets (45:12)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/research-spotlight-ketogenic-diets/The Atkins diet (55:34)https://sigmanutrition.com/lipids/https://sigmanutrition.com/diet-on-lipids/https://sigmanutrition.com/diet-cvd/The Paleo diet (1:02:32)https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/obr.12785The carnivore diet (1:09:59)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266228/
12/26/20221 hour, 34 minutes, 40 seconds
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Common Questions About Weight Loss Diets

Today’s show is a continuation of our series leading into the New Year. Weight loss is one of the most common New Year’s Resolutions, so this episode explores and answers some of the most common questions about weight loss diets. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)How do I set and adjust calorie targets? (4:37)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/diet/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34172636/Is “recomping” possible? (29:52)https://journals.lww.com/nsca-scj/fulltext/2020/10000/body_recomposition__can_trained_individuals_build.3.aspxhttps://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios/How do I set and adjust macro targets? (52:08)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/diet/How worried should I be about metabolic adaptation? (1:14:17)https://macrofactorapp.com/reverse-dieting/Should I use non-linear dieting strategies? (1:26:29)https://macrofactorapp.com/cheat-meals/Should I do a reverse diet? (1:40:09)https://macrofactorapp.com/reverse-dieting/
12/19/20222 hours, 58 seconds
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Meta-Analysis Errors; Motivation and Behavior Change

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric discuss a new study reporting that 85% of highly cited meta-analyses in the field of strength and conditioning research contain at least one statistical error. The conversation covers common meta-analysis errors, how to spot them, and how to critically interpret meta-analyses. After that, Eric presents a segment on motivation and behavior change. He begins by reviewing evidence-based goal setting strategies, then discusses how we can leverage self-determination theory to get motivated to pursue our goals, and how we can lean on the COM-B (capability, opportunity, motivation, behavior) model to change behaviors in accordance with our goals. This leads to a unified, comprehensive, evidence-based model that covers goal setting, motivation, and behavior change from start to finish. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements,  be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order at BulkSupplements.com.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Origins of meta-analyses (6:15)New study on meta-analysis errors (11:53)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-022-01766-0The most common errors (17:10)Interpretation and conclusions (29:22)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/meta-analyses/Defining “motivation” (50:11)Goal setting (52:51)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/goal-setting/https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01879/fullMotivation (1:00:43)Self-determination theory (1:06:07)https://selfdeterminationtheory.org/research/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11392867/https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-68513-001Psychological needs (competence, relatedness, autonomy) (1:11:18)The COM-B model of behavior change (1:29:19)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3096582/Practical application: a unified model combining goal hierarchies, self-determination theory, and the COM-B model of behavior change (1:37:30)
12/12/20221 hour, 51 minutes, 19 seconds
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Goal Setting and Behavior Change (Replay of Episode 71)

In preparation for the new year (and the resolutions that come with it), we’re replaying Episode 71, which is all about goal setting and behavior change. In this episode from the SBSPOD archive, Eric and Greg have a long, evidence-based conversation about the research on setting effective goals and successfully changing health behaviors. The discussion yields several evidence-based tips for setting better goals and maximally supporting your ability to achieve them. To learn even more about goal setting, check out the in-depth SBS article at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/goal-setting. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research Review Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereSponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Research Review: Goal setting and behavior change (1:04)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/goal-setting/Fake urgency (3:17)https://www.bmj.com/content/371/bmj.m4143Success rates of New Year’s Resolutions (5:47)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11920693/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33296385/Temporal landmarks (13:30)https://pubsonline.informs.org/doi/10.1287/mnsc.2014.1901https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3621221SMART goals (18:42)https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SMART_criteriaCreating a goal hierarchy (21:30)https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01879/fullSuperordinate goals (25:27)https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01879/fullEquifinality and Multifinality (32:23)Mental contrasting (35:23)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30879403/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8149892/Approach versus avoidance  (43:48)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6796229/Flexible versus rigid restraint (0:49:56)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6681103/Process versus outcome (55:07)https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322850635_The_Way_is_the_Goal_The_Role_of_Goal_Focus_for_Successful_Goal_Pursuit_and_Subjective_Well-BeingMastery versus performance (59:44)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6796229/Goal difficulty; “slack with a cost” (1:07:23)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC6796229/https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1509/jmr.15.0231?journalCode=mrjaSetting specific goals (1:16:51)Implementation intentions (1:17:26)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC8149892/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC4381662/Stimulus control; modifying your environment (1:24:03)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15982113/Social support and feedback (1:26:47)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC2762806/https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0749597820303903#b0125How MacroFactor supports evidence-based goal striving and behavior change (1:38:45)
12/5/20221 hour, 51 minutes, 7 seconds
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Q&A: Exercise Selection, Fitness Testing, and Work-Life Balance

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about exercise selection for general strength purposes, testing protocols for overall fitness levels, vegan diets, optimizing exercise selection and execution based on anatomical principles, incline bench pressing, deadlifting on an uneven floor, and work-life balance. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MASS Research Review (All subscriptions discounted from 11/21-11/28)Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereSponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPS​If you were building a long-term program for someone who was interested in general, overall strength, which 3-6 exercises would you choose? (3:46)For someone interested in general strength, fitness, and athleticism, what tests would you use to periodically assess their progress? Call it the “SBS Combine.” (16:41)Eric mentioned on a recent podcast that he's now fully vegan. Aside from avoiding animal products, I'm curious about any changes he has made or differences he has noticed related to training and nutrition. (26:24)What are your thoughts on the recent trend of “optimizing” exercises so as to “take advantage of anatomy” (33:07)Is benching with a low incline (8-15 degrees) a suitable way to reduce strain on the shoulders while effectively targeting the pectoralis major and anterior deltoid? (48:24)I deadlift on a platform with a 5% incline. It feels pretty awkward, and seems to be negatively impacting my training loads. Is deadlifting on an incline actually affecting my deadlift numbers, or is it just in my head? (59:12)How do you guys manage work-life balance? (1:08:58)
11/28/20221 hour, 34 minutes, 10 seconds
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Q&A: Ergogenic Effect of Music, Testosterone Replacement, and Misinformation in Fitness

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about dietary fat targets, future competition plans, ergogenic effects of music, testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), statistics-focused content, and the circulation of misinformation and disinformation in the world of health, fitness, and nutrition. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MASS Research Review (All subscriptions discounted from 11/21-11/28)Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereSponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Any issue in approaching one’s minimum dietary fat target as a weekly average target instead of daily target? (9:42)Do you guys have any plans to compete again? Not specifically in powerlifting or bodybuilding, but in anything at all? (12:52)Does listening to music improve exercise performance? If so, how or why?  (19:55)Potential Impact of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on nutrition and training recommendations? (31:33)Have you thought about writing a book or in-depth article about statistics and research methodology? (41:51)There's a lot of faulty science out there for sure, but what is some questionable or out-right incorrect advice or insights that industry experts or researchers still circulate? (45:38)
11/21/20221 hour, 39 minutes, 38 seconds
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Q&A: Deltoid Training, NSAIDs, Controversial Fitness Opinions, and More

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about insulin, maintenance phases, controversial fitness opinions, maintaining muscle while cutting, the effects of NSAIDs on training adaptations, deltoid training, ashwagandha supplementation, content creation, social media, and the best gauge of overall strength. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Can medical insulin (i.e., to treat diabetes) boost strength and/or hypertrophy? (6:35)Is it important to do a maintenance phase after bulking or cutting? (20:12)What are your most controversial fitness opinions that would rile up the evidence-based fitness community? (22:58)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8539813/How important is it to maintain most of your muscle on a cut?  (50:58)How do NSAIDs impact training adaptations? (55:13)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/antioxidants/https://journals.lww.com/nsca-scj/Abstract/9900/No_Pain,_No_Gain__Examining_the_Influence_of.38.aspxAre lateral raises enough to grow the medial portion of the deltoids, or do you need to do some kind of shoulder press or upright row variation? (1:02:54)Ashwagandha for strength and hypertrophy - yea or nay? (1:09:02)Do you ever look back on old content of yours and cringe? If so, does it make you question whether you'll look back on your current content and cringe in the future? (1:15:26)How do you go about managing your time on social media? (1:36:38)Is bench press the best gauge of raw physical strength? If not, what is? (1:51:46)
11/14/20221 hour, 56 minutes, 3 seconds
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Misapplications of Popular Weight Loss Advice, and Identifying the “Healthiest” Diet

After Eric’s first earthquake experience, today’s episode begins with a brief discussion of natural disasters. That’s followed by Greg’s segment, which covers popular weight loss advice that may do more harm than good. While most of the ideas that catch on and get popular originate with bodybuilders and physique athletes, they are often misapplied when generalized to other populations (that is, most people). Finally, Eric presents a segment that addresses a very common question: what is the healthiest diet? This yields a discussion about evidence-based guidelines for structuring a diet that supports general health, wellbeing, and longevity, while addressing some common misconceptions along the way. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Natural disasters (1:37)How to support the show (17:03)Popular weight loss advice that may do more harm than good (21:16)Characteristics of an effective long-term weight loss diet (29:56)Rigid macro counting (31:07)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/goal-setting/https://macrofactorapp.com/cheat-meals/Really high protein targets (50:08)https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6GRoE7SYmIEat bland foods (59:33)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15930436/Focus on outcome (1:11:25)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/goal-setting/Summary and conclusions (1:23:14)What is the healthiest diet? (1:35:35)Major health issues that are impacted by dietary habits (1:45:14)The purpose and value of broad dietary guidelines (1:51:12)2015 Healthy Diet Indicator criteria (1:54:29)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30364851/2020 Healthy Diet Indicator criteria (1:57:46)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33344879/General overview of healthy dietary pattern characteristics (2:04:03)“Named” diets that meet many of the Healthy Diet Indicator criteria (2:15:11)https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/education/dash-eating-planhttps://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/a-practical-guide-to-the-mediterranean-diet-2019032116194Popular perspectives that are unsupported by evidence (2:21:11)Summary and conclusions (2:27:09)
11/7/20222 hours, 43 minutes, 12 seconds
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Partial ROM Training for Strength, and Protein Requirements for Muscle Growth

Today’s episode begins with a discussion about an ambitious experiment in the world of academic publishing, and the real-world costs of striving for bench press excellence. After that, Greg presents a segment about partial range-of-motion (ROM) training for strength outcomes. Greg digs into the available research about whether or not partial reps can be used to facilitate greater strength gains, and provides practical recommendations about when and how to incorporate this style of training. That’s followed by Eric’s segment that tackles a fairly widespread misconception about protein requirements for muscle growth. Many people believe that 1.6 g/kg/day is a very clear minimum requirement for supporting hypertrophy, and that falling a little bit short of this target severely limits muscle growth. However, the data suggest otherwise. He explores the available research and discusses some protein target recommendations for people who are prioritizing muscle growth or retention. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.SponsorsBulkSupplements: Next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Sports Nutrition Association: Learn more or become a member of SNA. The Sports Nutrition Association is dedicated to ensuring the sustainable prosperity of the Sports Nutrition Profession, and they offer a unique pathway to robust insurance coverage for your sports nutrition business. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)An innovation in academic publishing (4:53)https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/700070https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1420798/https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2018/09/26/the-rise-of-peer-review-melinda-baldwin-on-the-history-of-refereeing-at-scientific-journals-and-funding-bodies/Reviewing Greg’s shitpost (19:39)https://twitter.com/GregNuckols/status/1582925528054796288?s=20&t=c0GSpdpj8gE2C5XzUfTzSwCombining ROMs for larger strength gains? (25:12)https://sportrxiv.org/index.php/server/preprint/view/198The history and tradition of partial-ROM training (29:39)https://breakingmuscle.com/andersons-1200lb-squat-did-he-do-it/Study #1 (Bazyler) (38:51)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24662234/Study #2 (Gillingham) (40:14)http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.sports.20221201.03.htmlStudy #3 (Pedrosa) (43:14)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33977835/Study #4 (Whaley) (45:07)https://thesportjournal.org/article/progressive-movement-training-an-analysis-of-its-effects-on-muscular-strength-and-power-development/ Summary of findings and mechanisms (46:56)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24832974/Conclusions and practical applications (56:20)How much protein do you actually need for muscle growth? (1:01:38)What are the most important dietary metrics to track and manipulate for a hypertrophy-oriented diet? (1:01:55)New meta-analysis by Nunes et al (1:05:18)https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcsm.12922The 2018 meta-analysis by Morton and colleagues (1:13:04)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28698222/What if we only look at values above 1.2 g/kg/day? (1:19:01)A note on “leave-one-out” analyses and cherry-picking (1:20:41)What if we only look at values above 1.24 g/kg/day? (1:27:54)Summary and conclusions (1:31:07)Practical applications (1:37:25)
10/31/20221 hour, 49 minutes, 42 seconds
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Accommodating Resistance for Power; Net Energy Cost of Exercise

Today’s episode begins with a discussion about the very predictable scandal that rocked Fat Bear Week. After that, Greg presents a segment about accommodating resistance (that is, training with bands and chains). Greg digs into the available research and explains why accommodating resistance is beneficial for power development and explosive muscle actions, while failing to meaningfully impact maximal strength. That’s followed by Eric’s segment that clears up some misconceptions about the actual net energy cost of exercise. He explores how physical activity impacts total daily energy expenditure, describes some key characteristics that influence inter-individual differences in the net energy cost of exercise, and explains why and how to estimate the net energy cost of exercise using a new tool developed by the Stronger By Science team. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)New SBS article by Cameron Gill (Neck Strength Training: Are Deadlifts And Shrugs Enough?) (3:24)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/neck-strength-training/Fat Bear Week Controversy: Completely and Totally Vindicated (6:22) Increase explosiveness with ONE WEIRD TRICK (10:42)Background info about accommodating resistance (bands and chains) (10:56)Meta-analysis: Do bands and chains increase maximal strength? (17:36)https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/fulltext/2018/11000/effects_of_variable_resistance_training_on_maximal.36.aspxAn overview on key determinants of maximal strength versus jump height (19:42)Band Study #1: Shi et al (28:06)https://www.researchgate.net/publication/360260644_Effects_of_variable_resistance_training_within_complex_training_on_neuromuscular_adaptations_in_collegiate_basketball_playersBand Study #2: Katushabe and Kramer (32:07)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449328/pdf/ijes-13-4-950.pdfBand Study #3: Joy et al (32:40)https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2016/08000/Elastic_Bands_as_a_Component_of_Periodized.2.aspxBand Study #4: Andersen et al (34:03)https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2015/10000/Elastic_Bands_in_Combination_With_Free_Weights_in.33.aspxSummarizing the available evidence (35:27)Conclusions and practical applications (37:49) What’s the actual energy cost of exercise? (47:55)What is exercise energy compensation? (48:36)Cardio is less effective for fat loss than mathematically predicted (48:51)https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2021/10000/Effect_of_Aerobic_Exercise_induced_Weight_Loss_on.15.aspxAdditive versus constrained models of total daily energy expenditure (52:54)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26832439/The relationship between biological sex and exercise energy compensation (1:01:44)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34453886/The relationship between physical activity level and exercise energy compensation (1:02:17)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26832439/The relationship between energy balance and exercise energy compensation (1:03:06)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34334719/The relationship between BMI and exercise energy compensation (1:05:09)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34453886/The utility of estimating the net added energy cost of exercise (1:15:20)How to use our new exercise energy calculator (1:25:05)https://macrofactorapp.com/exercise-calorie-calculator/How to NOT use our new exercise energy calculator (1:28:41)Miscellaneous (off-topic) closing thoughts (1:35:44)
10/24/20221 hour, 40 minutes, 22 seconds
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Shortcomings of Body Composition Assessments, and Fitness-Related Applications of Mindfulness and Meditation

In today's episode, Greg and Eric pat themselves on the back for breaking the 100 episode barrier, in addition to sharing their picks for Fat Bear Week 2022. After that, Greg encroaches on Eric’s territory with a segment about body composition assessments. In the segment, Greg discusses what common body composition devices actually measure, how accurate (or inaccurate) they are for individuals (rather than groups), and some better strategies for monitoring progress toward fitness goals. After that, Eric steers others toward the Road to Enlightenment with a segment on the fitness-related applications of mindfulness and meditation. He specifically looks at the research evaluating mindfulness-based interventions for mental fatigue, sleep, pain management, and eating behaviors. Eric also discusses scenarios in which mindfulness-based interventions might be contraindicated, and provides some resources for people who want to give meditation or other mindfulness-based interventions a shot. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Fat Bear Week (5:09)https://www.nps.gov/katm/learn/fat-bear-week-2022.htmRecipe sharing in MacroFactor (14:57)www.macrofactorapp.comBody Composition Assessments are Less Useful Than You Think (17:19)https://macrofactorapp.com/body-composition/What’s actually being measured by the most common body composition devices? (18:48)How accurate are the estimates at the group level? (34:07)https://weightology.net/the-pitfalls-of-body-fat-measurement-part-1/How accurate are the estimates at the individual level? (36:49)A hypothetical example with calculations (45:02)Can your bathroom scale track changes effectively over time, even if the exact body-fat value isn’t perfectly valid? (Another issue with bioelectrical impedance devices) (50:09)Why worry about body composition in the first place? (54:29)What should we actually track to monitor progress over time? (1:03:48)Fitness-Related Applications of Mindfulness and Meditation (1:09:08)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33593124/Important disclaimer (1:12:21)Defining mindfulness and meditation (1:15:21)https://www.headspace.com/meditation/techniquesMindfulness and mental fatigue (1:20:21)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35805484/Mindfulness and sleep (1:27:45)https://www.sleepfoundation.org/sleep-hygienehttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27663102/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30714811/Mindfulness for pain management (1:35:20)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545194/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29126747/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27658913/Mindful eating (1:42:48)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28848310/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24854804/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32551798/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27862826/Important caveats (1:46:13)https://forrt.org/reversals/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30708288/Introductory resources for mindfulness and meditation (1:58:28)https://mhealth.jmir.org/2015/3/e82/https://www.nytimes.com/wirecutter/reviews/best-meditation-apps/https://www.womenshealthmag.com/health/g25178771/best-meditation-apps/https://lifehacker.com/7-meditation-apps-that-are-cheaper-and-better-than-he-1847455111https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556586/https://yesherabgye.comhttps://plumvillage.org/thich-nhat-hanh/key-books/
10/17/20222 hours, 4 minutes, 21 seconds
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Differences in Gains Between Individuals, and What You Can Do About It

In today's episode, Eric briefly addresses some feedback and responses to his previous article and segment about reverse dieting. After that, it’s all about differences in gains between individuals. Greg begins by exploring research that describes the degree to which training-induced improvements in strength, muscularity, and aerobic fitness vary from person to person. After that, Greg leans on the available research to provide evidence-based advice about what you can actually do about it, particularly if you suspect that you’re experiencing below-average gains. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Reverse dieting: feedback, responses, and a clarification (2:17)Reverse Dieting: Hype Versus EvidenceFeat of Strength (22:10)Jamal BrownerHow much do muscle growth and strength gains differ between people? (25:10)Genetics And Strength Training: Just How Different Are We?Hypertrophy variation in response to resistance training (29:08)Cluster analysis tests the importance of myogenic gene expression during myofiber hypertrophy in humans (Bamman, 2007)Strength and hypertrophy variation in response to resistance training (33:10)Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training (Hubal, 2005)Aerobic fitness variation in response to endurance training (36:56)Familial aggregation of VO2max response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study (Bouchard, 1999)How much do strength gains vary? A look at SBS survey data and empirical data across the field (39:08)Improbable Data Patterns In The Work Of Barbalho Et Al: An ExplainerData-Based Muscle, Strength, And Fat-Loss Targets To Set Realistic Training GoalsWhy is there so much inter-individual variability? (50:09)Genetics of muscle strength and power: polygenic profile similarity limits skeletal muscle performancePotent myofiber hypertrophy during resistance training in humans is associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear addition: a cluster analysisHigh responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expressionPhysiological Differences Between Low Versus High Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophic Responders to Resistance Exercise Training: Current Perspectives and Future Research DirectionsCluster analysis tests the importance of myogenic gene expression during myofiber hypertrophy in humansMuscle Androgen Receptor Content but Not Systemic Hormones Is Associated With Resistance Training-Induced Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Healthy, Young MenDo Non-Responders to Exercise Exist—and If So, What Should We Do About Them?What can you do about it? (59:21)Make sure you have your ducks in a row outside of the gym (1:00:01)Keep training (1:02:33)Separate Effects of Intensity and Amount of Exercise on Interindividual Cardiorespiratory Fitness ResponseTrain more/harder (1:05:37)Refuting the myth of non‐response to exercise training: ‘non‐responders’ do respond to higher dose of trainingMeasure more variables (1:12:52)There Are No Nonresponders to Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Older Men and WomenExperiment with different training styles (1:18:28)Different load intensity transition schemes to avoid plateau and no-response in lean body mass gain in postmenopausal womenEmbrace other benefits of training and/or find another entire type of training that you respond better to (1:31:14)Individual Responses to Combined Endurance and Strength Training in Older Adults1:45:16 Summary/conclusions
10/10/20221 hour, 58 minutes, 59 seconds
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Mechanical Tension for Hypertrophy and Strategic Food Selection

Mechanical tension, muscle damage, and metabolic stress are often viewed as the key stimuli for muscle hypertrophy. A new study asserts that mechanical activation of fast-twitch muscle fibers is the strongest determinant of muscle hypertrophy, which suggests that mechanical tension is the most noteworthy stimulus for muscle growth. This is an intuitive idea, but Greg’s segment explains why the results of this study fail to support the conclusions that were stated in the paper (and shared widely on social media). After that, Eric presents a segment that’s all about food selection. As flexible dieting and “IIFYM” continue to gain popularity, it’s indisputable that dieters can succeed using a virtually limitless variety of food sources, as long as they (approximately) hit their calorie or macro targets consistently. While it’s very true that dieters enjoy a great deal of flexibility in their food choices, this doesn’t mean that food source selection is irrelevant or inconsequential. In Eric’s segment, he discusses some evidence-based guidance for making food choices to facilitate a smoother dieting experience. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Shampoo versus conditioner (2:15)Artificial intelligence for summarizing research (6:10)ConsensusElicitWhat’s the primary mechanism of muscle hypertrophy? (16:01)Confirmation bias (20:32)Abstract and summary of new study by Hatanaka and Ishii (22:46)Effect of resistance training mainly depends on mechanical activation of fast-twitch fiberEstimating the mechanical activation of fast twitch muscle fibers (27:47)How validation studies work (31:33)Exploring the equations used to estimate mechanical activation of fast twitch muscle fibers (34:30)Proposal and validation of mathematical model for resistance trainingImplications of the model used by Hatanaka and Ishii (41:18)Comparing and contrasting with longitudinal data (48:07)Muscle Failure Promotes Greater Muscle Hypertrophy in Low-Load but Not in High-Load Resistance TrainingConclusions (50:28)Flexible dieting and “IIFYM” work, but specific food selection still matters (58:25)Regulation of food intake (1:05:24)The satiety index (1:15:53)A satiety index of common foodsEffect Of Different Food Groups On Energy Intake Within And Between Individuals (1:18:43)Effect of different food groups on energy intake within and between individualsSome key food characteristics to consider (1:28:10)Ultra-Processed Diets Cause Excess Calorie Intake and Weight Gain: An Inpatient Randomized Controlled Trial of Ad Libitum Food IntakeTexture-based differences in eating rate influence energy intake for minimally processed and ultra-processed mealsTime to revisit the passive overconsumption hypothesis? Humans show sensitivity to calories in energy-rich mealsPractical applications (1:32:10)
10/3/20221 hour, 41 minutes, 56 seconds
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Individual Responses to Training and Protein Quality

It’s very common to assume that group-level findings from research will reliably predict how you (or your clients) will respond to a particular training strategy, but that’s not always the case. In today’s episode, Greg discusses the substantial amount of inter-individual variability observed in responses to training interventions, and how to navigate training decisions in light of these hard-to-predict differences among individuals. After that, Eric discusses protein quality: what it is, what affects it, and how much it does (or doesn’t) matter from a practical perspective. His segment summarizes the research directly comparing a wide range of protein sources, and provides practical strategies for protein source selection in vegan, vegetarian, and omnivorous diets. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Greg’s segment: Individual responses versus group responses in resistance training (10:25)The importance of assessing individual-level responses (12:43)Study: Different Load Intensity Transition Schemes to Avoid Plateau and No-Response in Lean Body Mass Gain in Postmenopausal Women.  (17:40)Broader discussion of individual-level responses and variation from person-to-person (24:19)What has worked atypically well for Greg and Eric? (33:06)Eric’s segment: protein quality (40:40)When you think about consuming raw eggs, what comes to mind? (40:46)Overview of protein quality (47:47)Protein – Which is Best?Digestibility of raw versus cooked eggs (49:24)Digestibility of Cooked and Raw Egg Protein in Humans as Assessed by Stable Isotope TechniquesStudy: Raw Eggs to Support Post-Exercise Recovery in Healthy Young Men: Did Rocky Get It Right or Wrong? (50:42)Raw Eggs to Support Post-Exercise Recovery in Healthy Young Men: Did Rocky Get It Right or Wrong?The “chain of assumptions” between protein quality, blood amino acid response, muscle protein synthesis response, and long-term hypertrophy (58:26)Amino acid profiles of various protein sources (1:01:30)The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein ConsumptionDirectly comparing high-quality versus low-quality protein sources (1:05:42)Protein Source and Quality for Skeletal Muscle Anabolism in Young and Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisAnimal Protein versus Plant Protein in Supporting Lean Mass and Muscle Strength: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsMaking Sense of Muscle Protein Synthesis: A Focus on Muscle Growth During Resistance TrainingA mycoprotein-based high-protein vegan diet supports equivalent daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates compared with an isonitrogenous omnivorous diet in older adults: a randomised controlled trialHigh-Protein Plant-Based Diet Versus a Protein-Matched Omnivorous Diet to Support Resistance Training Adaptations: A Comparison Between Habitual Vegans and OmnivoresFlipping the “chain of assumptions” (1:14:03)How much protein comes from plant-based sources in an omnivorous diet? (1:16:58)The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein ConsumptionComplementary proteins and practical applications related to selection of protein sources (1:20:43)
9/26/20221 hour, 31 minutes, 52 seconds
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Bonus Live Q&A: MacroFactor One-Year Anniversary Celebration

Today’s episode is a celebration of the one-year anniversary of launching MacroFactor. It was recorded with a live YouTube audience on September 16, 2022. In this episode, Greg and Eric answer some viewers’ questions that are specific to MacroFactor, but they also answer several unrelated questions about a wide range of training and nutrition topics. If you’re a MacroFactor user, this episode is a great opportunity to join in on the celebration and get some previews about what the future has in store for MacroFactor. If you aren’t, this episode is still worth a listen, as it offers plenty of evidence-based training and nutrition information. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro (0:00)Who’s the host? (1:24)Greg and Eric’s talking speeds (3:09)Thanking everyone for joining us and for supporting MacroFactor in year 1 (5:33)MacroFactor annual report (6:37)https://macrofactorapp.com/annual-report-2022/Biggest unexpected challenges for MacroFactor in year 1 (7:58)A preview of upcoming feature updates for MacroFactor (11:29)Predictors of successful dieting experiences (15:33)Any plans to translate MacroFactor to other languages? (23:05)Getting more protein on a vegetarian diet (27:59)What’s your favorite nutrient? (34:24)Rigid versus flexible cognitive restraint (36:15)Any tips on bouncing out of “the hole” effectively when doing very deep squats? (43:29)How do you determine when a cut is done? How long should a cut take, and how long should a subsequent maintenance phase be? Do you need to periodically insert diet breaks or maintenance phases during a long cut? (47:27)Quick guidance on monitoring rate of weight change within MacroFactor (51:41)How satiety changes in response to weight loss diets (54:34)Greg and Eric’s athletic and fitness-related goals for the near future (1:02:44)Thoughts on 3-minute rest periods between sets for hypertrophy? (1:10:47)Any plans to include protein quality scores in MacroFactor? (1:15:17)Looking back on the first year of MacroFactor, do you have any regrets? Would you do anything differently? (1:18:51)Got any evidence-based information pertaining to the prevention or reversal of hair loss? (1:25:19)Should someone interested in long-term muscle growth do a long, slow bulking phase, or several repeated cycles involving more aggressive bulking and cutting phases? (1:29:51)How many days should you rest between workouts? (1:34:44)Clarifying the podcast publishing schedule (1:37:32)How does MacroFactor account for abrupt scale weight increases related to increased food intake at the beginning of a bulking phase? (1:38:42)https://help.macrofactorapp.com/dashboard/weight_trend/Should people specifically restrict or eliminate dairy intake when focusing on fat loss goals? (1:41:38)How do Greg and Eric approach deloads in their own training? Do they change their calorie targets during a deload? (1:44:01)How much sleep is needed to support recovery from training? (1:51:55)Greg and Eric each share 1-2 recipes (1:56:42)Wrap-up (2:06:21)
9/22/20222 hours, 11 minutes, 52 seconds
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Stretch-Mediated Hypertrophy and Reverse Dieting

We’re officially back for a brand new season! In today’s episode, Greg discusses the research behind how resistance training range of motion impacts muscle growth, with a special focus on stretch-mediated hypertrophy. After that, Eric dives deep into the topic of reverse dieting, which is often touted as a remedy for metabolic adaptation and a strategy to facilitate easier and more sustainable weight loss. However, this popular approach was originally driven by industry marketing rather than scientific evidence. Eric’s segment explores the actual research related to reverse dieting, which tells a much different story than the hyped-up anecdotes you’ll see on social media. He also explains why reverse dieting often appears to work in the short term while falling flat in the long term, and why a simple maintenance phase is a better option than reverse dieting. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Opening segment: mandatory open-access academic publishing (5:27)White House requires immediate public access to all U.S.-funded research papers by 2025Greg’s segment: stretch-mediated hypertrophy (19:15)References:Can stretching directly cause muscle growth?Stronger By Science Research Spotlight post on InstagramEffect of range of motion in heavy load squatting on muscle and tendon adaptationsPartial range of motion training elicits favorable improvements in muscular adaptations when carried out at long muscle lengthsMuscle Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following 12-Weeks of Stretching in Adolescent Female AthletesStretch training induces unequal adaptation in muscle fascicles and thickness in medial and lateral gastrocnemiiInfluence of Long-Lasting Static Stretching on Maximal Strength, Muscle Thickness and FlexibilityPartial versus full-ROM for hypertrophy (21:58)Partial ROM at different muscle lengths (24:08)Loaded stretching for calf growth (29:10)“Proof-of-concept” studies (36:13)More intensive calf stretching for hypertrophy (37:57)Eric’s segment: reverse dieting (49:32)References:Reverse Dieting: Hype Versus EvidencePotential conflicts of interest and background information (53:07)Overview of metabolic adaptation and relative energy deficiency (56:42)The theoretical basis (and resulting claims) for reverse dieting (1:00:49)Pertinent questions to be answered in this segment (1:05:29)Metabolic adaptation versus metabolic damage (1:06:41)To what extent does metabolic adaptation actually interfere with weight loss and weight maintenance? (1:11:20)Is dieting with a higher calorie target actually easier? (1:21:17)Why the metabolic phenotype research casts serious doubts on reverse dieting (1:24:07)Empirical data from physique athletes (1:33:20)Overfeeding at natural body weight versus weight regain after dieting (1:38:22)Empirical data from the Minnesota Starvation Experiment (1:47:15)Important clarifications (1:53:26)Illusions that make reverse dieting seem way more effective than it is (1:54:56)Is there ever a good reason to reverse diet? (2:18:56)Practical applications and conclusions (2:23:52)
9/15/20222 hours, 33 minutes, 29 seconds
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Fireside Chat #13: Cooking, Leisure Time, Organization, and the Loneliness Epidemic

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #13, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss cooking, leisure time activities (other than exercise), organization and efficiency tips, the loneliness epidemic, and a bunch of other miscellaneous topics. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)What seems difficult to cook or bake, but is actually pretty easy and worth trying? (2:19)What is the worst meal you’ve ever cooked? (19:35)What is the worst thing you’ve ever smelled? (29:13)What are some organizational habits you employ that improve your work, learning, or life? (38:03)What are your thoughts on the "loneliness epidemic"? (55:21)How might you spend your extra leisure time during a layoff from training? (1:13:58)A Guide To Detraining: What To Expect, How To Mitigate Losses, And How To Get Back To Full StrengthDo you feel like you've accomplished all the major life goals you set for yourself as a kid? (1:27:38)
9/8/20221 hour, 38 minutes, 19 seconds
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Fireside Chat #12: Look-Alikes, Pivotal Moments, and Trolley Problems

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #12, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss celebrity look-alikes, facial hair, student loan forgiveness, pivotal life moments, least favorite jobs, music, movies, trolley problems, the Road to Enlightenment, and a bunch of other miscellaneous topics. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.CoachingGet personalized training and nutrition plans from our expert coaches: Learn more hereMASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Update/clarification: Eric’s disinterest in gadgets, and even basic technologies (3:02)Celebrity look-alikes (7:44)Reconstruction of Greek philosopher Aristotle based on his bust.What are the different facial hair styles you've tried? What was the most ridiculous? (15:09)Thoughts on student loan forgiveness? (20:35)What is the biggest “what if” moment in your lives? What small event completely could have changed the trajectory of your life unknowingly? (28:34)What is the worst job you’ve ever had? What made it the worst? (35:45)Any “under the radar” music that you’re listening to? (46:23)What are your favorite 5 movies of all time? (49:57)You are being sent back to Florence, Italy in the year 1000 CE. You can bring one item with you, as long as it fits in a backpack. Your mission is to accelerate human civilization. What do you bring? (57:03)Trolley Problems (1:00:52)When and why did Eric’s Road to Enlightenment begin? (1:25:05)
9/1/20221 hour, 38 minutes, 2 seconds
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Fireside Chat 11: Freak athletes, pets, luxury items, alternative careers, podcast recommendations

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #11, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss freak athletes, pets, luxury items, alternative careers, podcast recommendations, and a bunch of other miscellaneous topics. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)How was summer break? (3:18)Do you guys have any more stories about freak athletes? (8:26)If every NFL athlete were to compete in bodybuilding, how many would you guess would have the ability to make the Olympia stage, if any? (20:24)I would like you to speak about your relationships with animals/pets. Do you have gym “mascots” for your home facility or outside of the home facility? Also, the obvious question: cats or dogs? (23:37)What's the coolest country you've been to? Is it cooler than America? (31:28)If you had to give up gluten or dairy for the rest of your life, which would you pick? (38:20)What is the most “luxurious” thing you own, that you don’t ever want to live without? (44:05)Who would win in a fight: a Greg sized Eric, or an Eric sized Greg? (51:20)What is the best method for starting a campfire? (56:12)If you weren't doing what you do now, what would you be doing with your life? Any other passions or near-misses when it comes to other ways your life would've gone that you can think of? (1:00:39)What is a piece of modern technology/gadget that you flat out reject, and insist on doing things the way you've always done before said technology/gadget? (1:09:54)What are your favorite podcasts? Other than Iron Culture and Joe Rogan, of course? (1:17:30)
8/25/20221 hour, 32 minutes, 15 seconds
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Restoring Motivation, Issues in Research, and Walking for Weight Loss

In today’s episode, Eric kicks things off by answering two questions from listeners. The first is about proper mixing and storage of creatine, and the second is about rediscovering and restoring motivation to work out. Next, Greg provides a research-packed answer to a listener’s question about whether or not there is a point of diminishing returns when it comes to weight loss and walking. After that, Eric discusses a few issues in the world of research and academic publishing that should impact the way we interpret some scientific research papers. Finally, to play out the show, Eric provides some more recommendations for music to train to. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Q&A: I mix my creatine in boiling water, and leave it in the refrigerator overnight. Is that okay? (2:11)Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatineNot Another Boring Creatine Guide: Answers To FAQs And Lesser-Known BenefitsCreatine and CaffeineQ&A: I’ve lost motivation to work out, and I truly don’t enjoy it anymore. What should I do? (16:20)An Evidence-Based Approach To Goal Setting And Behavior ChangeSelf-Determination Theory Q&A: Is there a point of diminishing returns when it comes to weight loss and walking? (32:10)Dose-response relationship between walking and the attenuation of inherited weightRelationship Between Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Heart FailureA Meta-Analysis of Pedometer-Based Walking Interventions and Weight LossResearch Roundup: Issues in Research and Academic Publishing (58:18)Medical HypothesesThe Citation of Retracted COVID-19 Papers is Common and Rarely CriticalIs There an Epidemic of Research Fraud in Natural Medicine?To Play Us Out: Rage Against the Machine and Audioslave (1:23:02)
7/14/20221 hour, 27 minutes, 32 seconds
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Intuitive Eating, Plyometrics for Hypertrophy, and a Sauna Update

In today’s episode, Eric shares a sauna update that explores the effects of sauna bathing on exercise recovery and training adaptations. Next, Greg presents a research review segment that covers the surprisingly positive effects of plyometric exercises on muscle hypertrophy. After that, Eric answers a listener’s questions related to intuitive eating, mindful eating, and health at every size. Finally, to play out the show, Eric revisits the topic of cultural life in Ohio. SUPPORT THE PODCASTJoin the Research Spotlight newsletter: Get a two-minute breakdown of one recent study every Wednesday. Our newsletter is the easiest way to stay up to date with the latest exercise and nutrition science.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Q&A: How does sauna bathing impact recovery and training adaptations? (3:54)Acute Neuromuscular and Hormonal Responses to Different Exercise Loadings Followed by a SaunaEffects of Postexercise Sauna Bathing on Recovery of Swim PerformanceEffect of post-exercise sauna bathing on the endurance performance of competitive male runnersIntermittent post-exercise sauna bathing improves markers of exercise capacity in hot and temperate conditions in trained middle-distance runnersThe Prevalence of Use of Various Post-Exercise Recovery Methods after Training among Elite Endurance AthletesResearch Review: Plyometrics for hypertrophy (23:58)Effects of plyometric vs. resistance training on skeletal muscle hypertrophy: A reviewEffect of Plyometric Jump Training on Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review With Multilevel Meta-AnalysisEffects of Plyometric Training on Lower Body Muscle Architecture, Tendon Structure, Stiffness and Physical Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisSmith Machine Curl Throw by Jim StoppaniQ&A: How can someone claim to use “intuitive eating” within the context of weight loss? (48:56)The influence of mindful eating and/or intuitive eating approaches on dietary intake: A systematic reviewHealth at every size, body positivity, and embracing body diversity (1:00:27)To Play Us Out: Update on Ohio culture (1:18:50)
7/7/20221 hour, 24 minutes, 29 seconds
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Cheat Meals, Sauna, and Time Off From Training

In today’s episode, Eric discusses his newest article that describes the drawbacks of “cheat meals” while recommending some more advisable alternatives. After that, Greg presents a Research Review about the time course of detraining when you take some time off from the gym. Finally, Eric answers a listener’s question about the potential health benefits of sauna bathing, then closes out the show with some bluegrass music recommendations. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:10)Feats of Strength (9:04)Front squats 260 x 3281kg front squat at 99kg bodyweightSBS Article Discussion: Cheat meals (11:26)The Drawbacks of “Cheat Meals” (and More Advisable Alternatives)Planned hedonic deviation (29:59)Slack with a cost / “calorie reserve” (31:53)Research Review: Time off from training (41:27)Effect of training cessation on muscular performance: A meta-analysisDelayed myonuclear addition, myofiber hypertrophy, and increases in strength with high-frequency low-load blood flow restricted training to volitional failureEffect of Immobilisation on Neuromuscular Function In Vivo in Humans: A Systematic ReviewExercise dosing to retain resistance training adaptations in young and older adultsHow To Return To Strength Training After An Extended BreakQ&A: Is sauna bathing actually beneficial, or does it just feel nice? (1:03:53)Association between sauna bathing and fatal cardiovascular and all-cause mortality eventsClinical Effects of Regular Dry Sauna Bathing: A Systematic ReviewThe Cardiometabolic Health Benefits of Sauna Exposure in Individuals with High-Stress Occupations. A Mechanistic ReviewSauna use as a lifestyle practice to extend healthspanWhat Is the Impact of Energy Expenditure on Energy Intake?To Play Us Out: Bluegrass music recommendations (1:23:36)
6/30/20221 hour, 30 minutes, 15 seconds
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Turkesterone, Carb Overfeeding, and Commonly Neglected Muscles

Today’s show begins with a recap of results from the men’s division of the IPF world championships and USAPL Mega-Nationals. After that, Eric revisits the topic of beta-ecdysterone and turkesterone supplementation in light of some controversy within the supplement industry. Next, Greg discusses the newest Stronger By Science article by Cameron Gill, which explores the most commonly neglected movements and muscles. That’s followed by a Coach’s Corner segment in which Eric discusses carbohydrate overfeeding in the context of bulking diets, and directly compares it to fat overfeeding. Finally, Greg discusses an unfortunate example of “science by press release” related to running’s effects on aortic stiffness, and Eric closes out the show by recommending some music to lift to. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:22)Feats of Strength (3:53)World Open Classic Powerlifting Championships scoresheetsUSAPL Mega Nationals resultsRevisiting turkesterone and phytoecdysteroids (10:37)Lab Testing Results Of Turkesterone, Beta EcdysteroneEcdysteroids as non-conventional anabolic agent: performance enhancement by ecdysterone supplementation in humansSBS Podcast Episode 8: Drug Testing, New Supplement Research, Squat Science, and Dr. Eric HelmsTurkesterone Explained: What's All The Hype About? by Jeff NippardTurkesterone Talk with Dr. Eric Trexler and Jeff NippardSBS Article Discussion: The Most Commonly Neglected Movements and Muscles (and Exercises to Address Weak Links) (28:27)The Most Commonly Neglected Movements And Muscles (And Exercises To Address Weak Links)Coach’s Corner: Carbohydrate overfeeding and bulking macros (37:31)De novo lipogenesis during controlled overfeeding with sucrose or glucose in lean and obese womenEffect of carbohydrate overfeeding on whole body and adipose tissue metabolism in humansGlycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in manIf You Go "High Carb", You Better Go Really High! Seven Meals/Day, More than 800g of Carbs, Less Than 50g of Fat & 1000kcal Over Maintenance and Still "Lean Gains"!Research Review: Does running increase aortic stiffness in men? (1:00:15)Endurance exercise may affect body's largest artery differently in men and womenFrom runner’s face to dodgy knees: Why running helps keep women young, but ages menIs running associated with a lower risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and is the more the better? A systematic review and meta-analysisReduction in incident stroke risk with vigorous physical activity: evidence from 7.7-year follow-up of the national runners' health studyRunning to Lower Resting Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisTo Play Us Out: Music recommendations for lifting (Tool and Mastodon) (1:13:09)
6/23/20221 hour, 21 minutes, 46 seconds
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Cognitive Effects of Creatine, Nasal Breathing, and Current Trends in Science

Today’s show begins with a recap of results from the women’s division of the IPF world champions. After that, Greg shares a hybrid Article Discussion/Tech Support segment about a new article covering MacroFactor’s revamped food logging system, which makes it (objectively) the fastest food logger on the market. After that, Greg and Eric debut the “Armchair Scientist’s Corner,” a spinoff of the Coach’s Corner segment, in which they discuss some unfavorable trends in the scientific literature. That’s followed by a Q&A segment covering topics including how to make incremental changes to your daily calorie target, creatine’s effects on hydration and cognitive function, nasal breathing, and how exercise might (or might not) impact certain health-oriented nutrition recommendations. Finally, to close out the show, Eric presents a history lesson about how the field of exercise science came to be. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage (1:12)Feats of Strength (8:00)Results of the 2022 World Open Classic Powerlifting ChampionshipsSBS Article Discussion / Tech Support: Confirming MacroFactor’s top spot as the fastest food logger on the market (14:20)What is the Fastest Food Logger? We Designed a System to Find OutArmchair Scientist’s Corner: The state of science, and rethinking the hierarchy of evidence (25:24)Tweet about systematic reviews and RCTsNew evidence pyramidMany researchers were not compliant with their published data sharing statement: mixed-methods studyQ&A (50:58)Once you set an initial daily calorie target based on your estimated total daily energy expenditure, how do you adjust your diet from there? (51:07)From Mass To Energy: The Basic Physiology Of CaloriesMacroFactor’s Algorithms and Core PhilosophyCan you actually “use” the extra water that’s associated with intramuscular creatine storage? (55:37)The Physiological Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Hydration: A ReviewWhat does the research on the cognitive benefits of creatine supplementation look like these days? (59:10)Creatine Supplementation and Brain HealthIs there any detriment to mouth breathing versus nose breathing? (1:10:04)Why do some people assume that many health-oriented nutrition principles don't apply to them just because they’re lean, well-trained, or physically active? (1:16:18)Metabolic effects of a prolonged, very-high-dose dietary fructose challenge in healthy subjectsTo Play Us Out: The history of exercise physiology (1:30:58)
6/16/20221 hour, 41 minutes, 13 seconds
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Fatigue Mechanisms, HIIT Programming, and Sex Disparities in Research

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric revisit the topic of buffering supplements and fatigue as Eric presents a Research Review about the mechanisms driving neuromuscular fatigue. After that, Greg discusses his cover story from the most recent issue of the MASS Research Review, which is also available at strongerbyscience.com. In the article, Greg explores under-representation of female participants within strength, hypertrophy, and supplement research. The discussion covers the extent of the disparity, the surprising observation that the gap is getting worse over time, and how this research imbalance impacts training and nutrition recommendations for female lifters. Next, Eric shares a Coach’s Corner segment about programming high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) for lifters. Finally, to close out the show, Eric and Greg share some music and video game recommendations. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:26)Feats of Strength (6:53)Antonino PizzolatoResearch Review: Fatigue mechanisms (8:32)Lactic Acid and Exercise PerformancePeripheral fatigue: new mechanistic insights from recent technologiesNeural Contributions to Muscle Fatigue: From the Brain to the Muscle and Back AgainPhosphate and acidosis act synergistically to depress peak power in rat muscle fibersThe major challenges (and low success rates) of mechanistic speculation (23:07)SBS Article Discussion: Where are all the Female Participants in Strength, Hypertrophy, and Supplement Research? (29:32)Where Are All The Female Participants In Strength, Hypertrophy, And Supplement Research?Strength And Physique Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Master ListDo findings from male participants typically generalize to female participants? (42:25)Why more research with female participants is needed (53:27)Coach’s Corner: HIIT programming (59:27)High-intensity interval training for health benefits and care of cardiac diseases - The key to an efficient exercise protocolEndurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent TrainingCentral and peripheral fatigue following non-exhaustive and exhaustive exercise of disparate metabolic demandsExercise-induced muscle damage following a bout of sport specific repeated sprintsClarification about sex disparities in research (1:16:12)To Play Us Out: The Black Keys, Hill Country Blues, and Pokémon Legends: Arceus (1:24:52)Hill country blues
6/9/20221 hour, 33 minutes, 30 seconds
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Buffering Strategies, Calorie Counting, and Estimating TDEE

Today’s episode begins with a spoiler in the Feats of Strength segment, as we discuss the winner of this year’s World’s Strongest Man competition. After that, Eric presents a Research Roundup segment about buffering strategies. The segment is mostly about new research on beta-alanine and a couple of related ingredients (carnosine and anserine), but also includes discussions about hyperventilation and the mechanisms involved with various buffering strategies. After that, Greg discusses his newest article on the MacroFactor website, which is called “The Problems with Calorie Counting.” It explores the shortcomings of many common strategies implemented by calorie counters, such as aiming for generic calorie targets or using wearable technologies or predictive equations to estimate energy expenditure. Finally, the show closes with a music recommendation from Eric, and some interesting lichen facts presented by Greg. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (3:18)Feats of Strength (4:26)Research Roundup: Buffering strategies (6:36)Beta-alanine (7:34)Does beta-alanine supplementation enhance adaptations to resistance training? A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind studyMechanisms (17:41)Hyperventilation (23:41)Hyperventilation-Aided Recovery for Extra Repetitions on Bench Press and Leg PressCarnosine and Anserine (30:55)The ergogenic effect of acute carnosine and anserine supplementation: dosing, timing, and underlying mechanismErgogenic effect of pre-exercise chicken broth ingestion on a high-intensity cycling time-trialSBS Article Discussion: The Problems with Calorie Counting (43:20)Issues with generic calorie targets (46:53)Issues with wearables for estimating energy expenditure (54:05)Issues with common TDEE estimation equations (1:00:56) To Play Us Out: Wilco and Lichens (1:19:21)
6/2/20221 hour, 30 minutes, 47 seconds
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Sedentary Time, Mating Success, and HIIT Protocols

Today’s episode begins with two unconventional but remarkable Feats of Strength. After that, Eric presents a Research Review segment about the deleterious effects of sedentary time (even in people who regularly exercise), and some practical strategies for reducing sedentary time. Next, Greg reviews a study linking certain masculine traits to mating success, which has been spread widely (and misinterpreted widely) on social media. That’s followed by a brief segment about high-intensity interval training (HIIT), in which Eric clarifies some definitions and describes the wide range of protocols that fall under the “HIIT” umbrella, which can be very adaptable and accessible to all fitness levels. Finally, the show closes with a music recommendation from Eric.SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:29)Feats of Strength (9:00)John BrzenkDon GorskeResearch Review: Sedentary Time (19:33)Sedentary behaviour and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular and cancer mortality, and incident type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose response meta-analysisSedentary time and its association with risk for disease incidence, mortality, and hospitalization in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysisJoint associations of accelero-meter measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality: a harmonised meta-analysis in more than 44 000 middle-aged and older individualsMET levels and physical activity (25:59)2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET valuesExercise snacks (33:58)Exercise Snacks: A Novel Strategy to Improve Cardiometabolic HealthResearch Review: Mating Success (40:17)The Male Trait That Best Predicts Men's Mating SuccessA meta-analysis of the association between male dimorphism and fitness outcomes in humansCoach’s Corner: HIIT Protocols (1:02:19)High-intensity interval training for health benefits and care of cardiac diseases - The key to an efficient exercise protocolTo Play Us Out: Music Recommendation (Radiohead) (1:13:10)Radiohead Wikipedia page
5/26/20221 hour, 19 minutes, 51 seconds
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Modified OMAD, Joint-Friendly Warm-Ups, and Muscle Retention While Cutting

Today’s show is an uncharacteristically anecdote-heavy episode of the podcast. After Greg shares some new Feats of Strength, Eric presents a Coach’s Corner segment about a modified version of the “one-meal-a-day” (OMAD) eating pattern. This strategy, which may be described as protein-sparing-modified-time-restricted-eating, aims to capitalize on the potential upsides of OMAD while attenuating the downsides. After that, Greg shares his own Coach’s Corner segment about joint-friendly warm-up strategies, which leads to a broader discussion about where anecdotal evidence fits within an evidence-based approach to training, nutrition, or content creation. Next, Eric answers a listener’s question about how to retain muscle while cutting. Finally, to close out the show, Greg recommends some people you should follow on social media, along with a new media recommendation.  SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:20)Feats of Strength (4:43)Coach’s Corner: protein-sparing-modified-time-restricted-feeding (modified OMAD) (6:45)Coach’s Corner: joint-friendly warm-up strategies (25:16)General discussion about where anecdotal evidence fits within an evidence-based approach to training, nutrition, or content creation (38:18)Q&A: How to retain muscle while cutting (49:28)Effect of two different weight-loss rates on body composition and strength and power-related performance in elite athletesSystematic Review and Meta-analysis: When One Study Is Just not EnoughLean mass sparing in resistance-trained athletes during caloric restriction: the role of resistance training volumePeople to follow on social media (1:12:58)Ben Patrick, Ben Carpenter, Claire Zai, Emma Storey-GordonTo Play Us Out: Media recommendation (1:24:41)Under the Banner of Heaven
5/19/20221 hour, 29 minutes, 14 seconds
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Dietary Fiber, Responses to Feedback, and Encouraging Exercise

Today’s episode features two remarkable Feats of Strength – one from a human, and one from a tree. After that, Eric presents a Research Review segment in defense of dietary fiber, and Greg responds to some feedback about previous segments on oral contraceptives and the impact of exercise on mortality. Finally, the show closes with a discussion about how to encourage people to start exercising (and maintain it), along with some vague words of caution and a shocking revelation about kiwis. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:06)Feats of Strength (3:52)Jessica Buettner deadlifts 250kg x 2Jessica Buettner squats 217.5kgResearch Review: Dietary fiber (7:25)A Short-Term Low-Fiber Diet Reduces Body Mass in Healthy Young Men: Implications for Weight-Sensitive SportsHealth benefits of dietary fiberThe Health Benefits of Dietary FibreThree common anti-fiber (or anti-plant) claims (23:02)Q&A (31:52)Responding to feedback about oral contraceptives (32:00)Discussion on prior episodeResponding to feedback about exercise and mortality (36:10)Discussion on prior episodeHow can I encourage someone who doesn't currently exercise to start exercising and maintain it? (49:37)Self-determination theoryTo Play Us Out: Vague words of caution, and a shocking revelation about kiwis (1:09:16)Jeff Nippard's video: Is The Sumo Deadlift Cheating? (Response To CBum)
5/12/20221 hour, 16 minutes, 18 seconds
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Sumo Deadlifts, Procrastination, and Oral Contraceptives

Today’s episode features a crazy (and historic) Feat of Strength, which leads into a discussion about whether or not sumo deadlifting is cheating. After that, Eric answers a few questions from listeners about topics including easy vegetarian protein sources, how to deal with a tendency to procrastinate, how long a weight loss phase can last, and whether or not you should have a maintenance phase immediately after a bulking phase. Finally, to close out the show, Greg discusses his recent article about how oral contraceptives impact (or don’t impact) training adaptations, along with a brief discussion about some good (and absolutely terrible) television show endings. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:37)Feats of Strength (9:42)Krzysztof WierzbickiIs the sumo deadlift cheating? (11:50)Is The Sumo Deadlift Cheating? (Jeff Nippard video)Should You Deadlift Conventional Or Sumo?Q&A (34:46)Considering the road to enlightenment: is there a vegetarian variation of the culinary shredded chicken staple? (35:05)Any insight on dealing with procrastination? (37:21)If you intend to lose a lot of weight, should you break the cut into 12-week increments with some maintenance periods in between, or lose it all in one continuous cut? (54:14)More info on diet breaksDo you need to do a maintenance period after a bulk to effectively retain the newly added muscle mass? (57:47)SBS Article Discussion: Do Oral Contraceptives Affect Your Gains? (1:04:45)Do Oral Contraceptives Affect Your Gains?Molecular markers of skeletal muscle hypertrophy following 10 wk of resistance training in oral contraceptive users and nonusersTo Play Us Out: Endings of television seasons/shows (1:17:34)
5/5/20221 hour, 25 minutes, 1 second
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Body Recomposition, Estimating Energy Expenditure, and Sex Differences in the Bench Press

Today’s episode features a huge breakthrough in Eric’s Road to Athens segment, which leads to a mini Coach’s Corner segment about training around hip pain. After that, Eric discusses his recent Stronger By Science article about body recomposition and gaining strength or muscle mass while in a caloric deficit. Finally, much of the show is dedicated to reviewing the research covered in the newest “Best of MASS” issue, which is now free to download. To close out the show, Eric provides further proof that reading is bad, and Greg provides some media recommendations (and anti-recommendations). SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewGet the free 130-page "Best Of" issue of MASS Research Review. This brand new "Best Of" issue of MASS contains 5 articles, 2 videos, and 10 Research Brief articles breaking down some of the best and most relevant nutrition, strength, and physique research from 2021-2022.Subscribe to the MASS Research Review during the big anniversary sale (ending May 3).MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements: MASS Anniversary Sale (0:00)Feats of Strength (4:04)Krzysztof WeirzbickiRoad to the Stage / Road to Athens (8:13)Coach’s Corner: Training around hip pain (11:26)SBS Article Discussion: Building Muscle in a Caloric Deficit: Context is Key (20:25)Research Roundup: MASS anniversary edition (44:06)All articles and studies discussed in this segment can be found hereA Heuristic For Estimating Energy Expenditure During Resistance Training (44:34)The Bench Press May Target Different Muscles in Male and Female Lifters (55:06)Attentional Focus May Influence Strength Development (1:02:53)The Interference Effect is Getting Less Scary by the Day (1:20:39)Episode 74: Energy Compensation, Interference Effect, Underestimating SupplementsAn Update on Sarcoplasmic Hypertrophy (1:21:01)Extra-quick summaries (1:35:37)Replacing Animal Proteins With Plant Proteins: Are There Any Downsides?Collagen Protein Isn’t Great for Promoting Muscle HypertrophyAdding Another Layer to the Energy Compensation DiscussionIs Everything That’s Measured Worth Managing?Cold Exposure For Fat Loss: Physiology Can Be “Cool” Without Being UsefulWhen and How are Flexible Templates Actually Useful?The Link Between Overtraining and Low Energy AvailabilityThe Most Comprehensive Look at Proximity to Failure YetTime-Efficient Programming StrategiesPeriodizing Singles in Powerlifting TrainingTo Play Us Out: Why reading is bad, and media recommendations (1:47:42)
4/28/20222 hours, 1 minute, 55 seconds
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Lifting & Mortality, Global Versus Localized Hypertrophy, and Pre-Sleep Meals

Today’s episode features a big milestone in Greg’s Road to the Stage update, followed by a Research Review that’s sure to stir up some controversy and debate. Researchers recently reported that a little bit of resistance training is associated with lower risk of chronic disease and mortality, but doing more than 2-2.5 hours per week appeared to be considerably worse than doing only 30-60 minutes per week, and potentially worse than doing none at all. In this Research Review, Greg gets to the bottom of it and provides some tentative but practical conclusions. After that, Greg and Eric answer a few questions from listeners, covering topics including potential sleep disruption from pre-bed meals, cannabis for lifters, creatine timing, what to do when you’ve met your daily protein target but you’re below your total calorie target, the way overhead press strength scales with body weight, consequences of insufficient protein intake, how volume for one muscle influences hypertrophy for other muscles, and the role of debates in evidence-based fitness. To close out the show, Eric presents his second (but very disappointing) installment of the fan-favorite segment, “Eric’s Seder Stories.” SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewGet a free 130-page issue of MASS Research Review. This brand new "Best Of" issue of MASS contains 5 articles, 2 videos, and 10 Research Brief articles breaking down some of the best and most relevant nutrition, strength, and physique research from 2021-2022.Subscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (3:21)Research Review: The effects of lifting on mortality risk (11:10)Muscle-strengthening activities are associated with lower risk and mortality in major non-communicable diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies Q&A (42:23)Is a high-protein meal before bed worth the potential boost for muscle protein synthesis if it causes sleep disruption? (43:07)Walking Benefits and Pre-Sleep ProteinAny updates on the effects of cannabis on strength or hypertrophy? (48:35)Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-RespondersCannabis Use and Sport: A Systematic ReviewCannabis and Athletic PerformanceShould creatine be consumed after workouts to maximize its effects? (52:55)Timing of Creatine Supplementation around Exercise: A Real Concern?Creatine guide: Addendum about gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort in response to creatine ingestionYou’re planning for three meals per day, but already hit your protein target within the first two meals. How much protein should you eat in your third meal? (55:12)Why does the strict overhead press scale so hard with bodyweight compared to other lifts, particularly the jerk? (1:01:36)What happens if you massively undereat protein? (1:07:46)How much does one’s volume for any given muscle affect (positively or negatively) hypertrophy for other muscles? (1:09:29)Why don’t you debate ? (1:18:19)To Play Us Out: Eric’s Seder Stories, Part 2 (1:32:09)Episode 1: Creatine, Genetics, and Dr. Peter Fitschen
4/21/20221 hour, 36 minutes, 11 seconds
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Spirulina, Satiety, and Vitamin Supplementation

Today’s episode features a Road to the Stage update by Greg, followed by a fascinating Research Review about the effects of spirulina supplementation on symptoms of allergic rhinitis. After that, Greg and Eric answer a few questions from listeners, covering topics including the effects of dietary fat intake on satiety, the pros and cons of supplementing with vitamins and fish oil, and the utility of bathroom scales with bioelectrical impedance technology for tracking longitudinal changes in body composition. To close out the show, Eric shares a remarkable stat from the NBA, and Greg shares a movie recommendation. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MASS Research ReviewSubscribe to the MASS Research Review to get concise and applicable breakdowns of the latest strength, physique, and nutrition research – delivered monthly.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (2:01)Research Review: Spirulina for allergic rhinitis (3:53)Efficacy of Spirulina for Allergic RhinitisQ&A (22:31)Is dietary fat actually satiating? (22:40)Fats and SatietySome people in the fitness industry are fairly outspoken critics of multivitamin, vitamin D, and fish oil supplementation. What’s Eric’s take on the matter? (51:52)U.S. adults are not meeting recommended levels for fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake: results of an analysis using observational data from NHANES 2003–2008Long-chain omega-3 fatty acid serum concentrations across life stages in the USA: an analysis of NHANES 2011–2012Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among US adults: prevalence, predictors and clinical implicationsRisk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United StatesInadequacy of Immune Health Nutrients: Intakes in US Adults, the 2005–2016 NHANESMultivitamin/mineral supplement contribution to micronutrient intakes in the United States, 2007-2010Foods, fortificants, and supplements: Where do Americans get their nutrients?Nutrients in the US Diet: Naturally Occurring or Enriched/Fortified Food and Beverage Sources, Plus Dietary Supplements: NHANES 2009-2012Risk of Deficiency in Multiple Concurrent Micronutrients in Children and Adults in the United StatesImpact of Frequency of Multi-Vitamin/Multi-Mineral Supplement Intake on Nutritional Adequacy and Nutrient Deficiencies in U.S. AdultsWhen it comes to estimating body-fat percentage, BIA scales aren’t valid. But are they reliable enough to track body composition changes over time? (1:10:04)To Play Us Out: Stat of the day (NBA edition) and a movie recommendation (1:21:24)
4/14/20221 hour, 26 minutes, 32 seconds
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Protein Scaling, Fiber Types, Artificial Sweeteners

To begin today’s episode, Greg and Eric clear the air and provide some updates about the recent chaos within the Stronger By Science Cinematic Universe. After that, Greg shares some Feats of Strength, followed by a Q&A segment. Topics covered include scaling protein recommendations to various body size metrics, how muscle fiber types should (or should not) impact your approach to training, how concerned we should (or should not) be about a new study linking artificial sweeteners to increased risk of cancer, and the health-related risks and benefits associated with dietary nitrate intake. To close out the show, Eric shares some stuff he learned about at the beach. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Feats of Strength (7:50)Danny Grigsby – DeadliftJesus Olivares – TotalTiffany ChaponNoémie AllabertQ&A (14:05)How do protein requirements scale for people of differing body size and body composition? (14:13)The response of muscle protein synthesis following whole-body resistance exercise is greater following 40 g than 20 g of ingested whey proteinA systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adultsIndicator Amino Acid-Derived Estimate of Dietary Protein Requirement for Male Bodybuilders on a Nontraining Day Is Several-Fold Greater than the Current Recommended Dietary AllowanceProtein to Maximize Whole-Body Anabolism in Resistance-trained Females after ExerciseHow much can muscle fiber type vary between individuals? What factors determine or influence an individual’s fiber type distribution? How can an individual determine their approximate fiber type ratio for a given muscle, and how would this influence their approach to training? (40:56)How concerned should we be about a new study linking artificial sweeteners to increased risk of cancer? (58:24)Artificial sweeteners and cancer risk: Results from the NutriNet-Santé population-based cohort studySugary drink consumption and risk of cancer: results from NutriNet-Santé prospective cohortAside from performance, what are the health-related risks and benefits associated with dietary nitrate intake? Do the risks and benefits differ when comparing nitrate-rich vegetables to cured meats containing nitrate? (1:19:35)Inorganic nitrite and nitrate: evidence to support consideration as dietary nutrientsDietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-AnalysisTo Play Us Out: Stuff Eric learned about at the beach (1:33:14)Graveyard of the AtlanticRoanoke ColonyWright brothers 
4/7/20221 hour, 39 minutes
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Carbohydrate, Water, and Electrolyte Manipulation For Physique Athletes

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric explore the art and science of “peaking” for physique athletes. The discussion covers carbohydrate loading, water intake adjustments, and electrolyte manipulation for the purpose of transient physique optimization. This conversation digs into the limited research available, while also providing practical recommendations guided by a combination of scientific evidence and real-world experience. Finally, Greg and Eric close out the episode by unanimously recommending a TV show that aligns with the values of the Stronger By Science Podcast. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro (0:00)Road to the Stage (4:16)Road to Athens (6:47)Feats of Strength: Jen Thompson (9:13)Video of Jen Thompson's 145.5kg world record benchResearch Review: Physique science and peak week (12:31)Defining “peaking” in physique sport (12:44)History of bodybuilding/physique research (15:31)How common is “peaking?” (21:51)Nutritional Peak Week and Competition Day Strategies of Competitive Natural BodybuildersObservational research on “peaking” (23:05)Changes in body composition, diet, and strength of bodybuilders during the 12 weeks prior to competitionExperimental research on carbohydrate loading (24:02)Effects of carbohydrate loading and weight-lifting on muscle girthQuasi-experimental research on carbohydrate loading (28:43)Carbohydrate Loading Practice in Bodybuilders: Effects on Muscle Thickness, Photo Silhouette Scores, Mood States and Gastrointestinal SymptomsResearch on intracellular and extracellular fluid shifts (38:38)Changes in Intra-to-Extra-Cellular Water Ratio and Bioelectrical Parameters from Day-Before to Day-Of Competition in Bodybuilders: A Pilot StudyPractical peaking strategies (58:13)Future directions for bodybuilding and physique research (1:01:38)Q&A: When will Greg become a full-time host of the podcast? (1:10:09)To Play Us Out: Righteous Gemstones (1:12:17)
4/1/20221 hour, 18 minutes, 7 seconds
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Protein Digestion Speed, Bone Density, Push-Pull Ratios

In today’s episode, Eric discusses the ins and outs of protein digestion speed, and why you probably don’t have to worry about consuming “fast proteins” post-workout and “slow proteins” pre-bed. After that, Greg and Eric field a number of questions from listeners, covering a range of topics including the relationship between exercise variety and hypertrophy, how to train for greater bone density, what acute protein synthesis studies can (or can’t) tell us about eating to maximize hypertrophy, and whether or not you need to balance “pushing” and “pulling” volume to keep your shoulders healthy and pain-free. To close out the show, Eric confidently recommends a travel destination he’s never been to. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Research Roundup: Protein digestion speed (1:35)Q&A (28:42)If overall volume and intensity are equated, is doing 5 different exercises for a particular muscle group more effective (for hypertrophy) than doing a single exercise for that muscle group? (29:30)Why does the Stronger By Science Community Facebook group only have 4,400 members, while Jim Stoppani’s Facebook group has almost 120,000? (32:20)How should you train to maximize bone density? (38:05)What’s a training or nutrition strategy from the past that you’d like to see come back into style? (47:17)Are short-term measures of muscle protein synthesis predictive of longitudinal muscle hypertrophy? As long as total protein and calorie intake are matched, is there a significant difference between eating two meals per day versus eating every 3-4 hours? (57:27)Do you really need to balance your “pushing” and “pulling” volume to keep your shoulders healthy and pain-free? (1:01:24)To Play Us Out: Travel recommendation - Rottnest Island, Australia (1:13:05)
3/24/20221 hour, 18 minutes, 49 seconds
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Walking Benefits and Pre-Sleep Protein

In today’s episode, Greg presents a deep dive into the multifaceted benefits of walking. Rather than focusing exclusively on correlations from observational studies, this Research Roundup covers several meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. During the conversation, Greg and Eric discuss how walking might impact general health and wellness, in addition to performance, recovery, and body composition. After that, Eric answers a listener’s question about pre-bed protein consumption, and Greg shares some interesting biographical information about the host of the show. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (4:54)Research Roundup: the multifaceted benefits of walking (6:26)Research Spotlight: Walking away from an early graveWalking - general health and wellness implications (6:59)Daily Step Count and All-Cause Mortality: A Dose-Response Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort StudiesThe effect of walking on fitness, fatness and resting blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trialsThe effect of walking intervention on blood pressure control: a systematic reviewA meta-analysis of pedometer-based walking interventions and weight lossWalking for depression or depressive symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysisWalking and primary prevention: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studiesInactivity Causes Resistance to Improvements in Metabolism After ExerciseIs there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysisSedentary time - body composition and performance implications (33:30)Sedentary behaviours and their relationship with body composition of athletesAvoiding Cardio Could Be Holding You BackQ&A: How much should I stress over a pre-bed protein feeding? (44:58)The Impact of Pre-sleep Protein Ingestion on the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise in Humans: An UpdateProtein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young MenCasein Protein Supplementation in Trained Men and Women: Morning versus EveningDaytime and nighttime casein supplements similarly increase muscle size and strength in response to resistance training earlier in the day: a preliminary investigationEvenly Distributed Protein Intake over 3 Meals Augments Resistance Exercise–Induced Muscle Hypertrophy in Healthy Young MenTo Play Us Out: Get to know your host (57:38)Facts Buddy article
3/17/20221 hour, 7 minutes, 5 seconds
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Weight Loss Plateaus, Tough Love, and Energy Audits

In this week’s episode, Greg shares some incredible Feats of Strength, followed by an in-depth discussion about how to do an “energy audit” to troubleshoot weight loss plateaus. The conversation covers topics including metabolic adaptation, energy compensation, and a long list of factors that may lead us to overestimate energy expenditure or underestimate energy intake. After covering some of the most common physiological (and non-physiological) variables that may contribute to erroneous tracking, blunted energy expenditure, and increased energy intake, the conversation shifts toward practical solutions. Finally, to close out the show, Greg and Eric discuss some unbelievable 40-yard dash times at the 2022 NFL combine. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:35)Feats of Strength (7:22)Jimmy KolbChloe BrennanCoach’s Corner: Troubleshooting weight loss plateaus (23:55)Adaptive thermogenesis in humansThe Metabolic Adaptation Manual: Problems, Solutions, And Life After Weight LossDaily energy expenditure through the human life courseEnergy compensation and adiposity in humansEnergy compensation and metabolic adaptation: "The Biggest Loser" study reinterpretedPhysical Activity and Total Daily Energy Expenditure in Older US Adults: Constrained versus Additive ModelsAcute Behavior of Oxygen Consumption, Lactate Concentrations, and Energy Expenditure During Resistance Training: Comparisons Among Three IntensitiesHomeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite control along the spectrum of physical activity levels: An updated perspectiveThe general approach (27:47)Issues with “tough love” in coaching (30:27)How you provide corrective feedback makes a difference: the motivating role of communicating in an autonomy-supporting wayHow to conduct an “energy audit” (37:50)Drawing conclusions and planning solutions (53:43)To Play Us Out: Unbelievable 40-yard dash times at the 2022 NFL combine (1:03:56)NFL Scouting Combine 2022 tracker: Measurements, top individual performances from NFL Draft prospects
3/10/20221 hour, 13 minutes, 8 seconds
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Fish Oil, Body-Fat Set Points, and Junk Volume

In this week’s episode, Eric presents a Research Review about the effects of fish oil on recovery and body composition, and answers a listener’s question about body-fat set points, settling points, and alternative models to explain weight regulation. In addition, Greg shares a brief research review about sports psychology, and answers listeners’ questions about training at long muscle lengths, micro-workouts, and junk volume. To close out the show, Eric revisits the topic of seed oil scaremongering. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Research Review: Effects of fish oil on recovery and body composition (2:04)Impact of Varying Dosages of Fish Oil on Recovery and Soreness Following Eccentric ExerciseImpact of varying doses of omega-3 supplementation on muscle damage and recovery after eccentric resistance exerciseMuscle hypertrophy induced by N-3 PUFA supplementation in absence of exercise: a systematic review of randomized controlled trialsN-3 PUFA as an ergogenic supplement modulating muscle hypertrophy and strength: a systematic reviewDoes Fish Oil Have an Anti-Obesity Effect in Overweight/Obese Adults? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled TrialsResearch Review: Sport psychology (21:43)Sport psychology and performance meta-analyses: A systematic review of the literatureQ&A: Can you address/summarize the topic of body-fat set points? (34:08)Set points, settling points and some alternative models: theoretical options to understand how genes and environments combine to regulate body adiposityQ&A: What is the proposed mechanism by which working muscles at longer muscle lengths produces more hypertrophy? (45:00)Q&A: Would “micro-workouts” be helpful for building muscle? For example, getting 100 daily reps of bicep curls by doing 10 sets of 10 throughout the day. (53:58)Q&A: On the topic of “junk volume” - what are your thoughts on a maximum number of sets per session for a given muscle group? (58:57)Muscle Hypertrophy Response Is Affected by Previous Resistance Training Volume in Trained IndividualsTo Play Us Out: An update on seed oils (1:05:25)A Comprehensive Rebuttal to Seed Oil SophistryOf Rats and Sydney Diet-Heart: Drawing a Line Under Polyunsaturated Pseudoscience 
3/3/20221 hour, 11 minutes, 58 seconds
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Body Recomposition, Interpreting Different Types of Research

In this week’s episode, Eric presents a Coach’s Corner segment about how to set up a diet for body recomposition. After that, Greg shares a research review about eating french fries, which kicks off an in-depth discussion about how to interpret different types of research, ranging from animal models and epidemiology to randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Finally, Greg and Eric discuss a very remarkable Feat of Strength to close out the show. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage (1:27)Coach’s Corner: How to set up a diet for body recomposition (4:17)Body Recomposition: Can Trained Individuals Build Muscle and Lose Fat at the Same Time?Slow and Steady, or Hard and Fast? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Body Composition Changes between Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Continuous TrainingEffects of High Versus Low Protein Intake on Body Composition and Maximal Strength in Aspiring Female Physique Athletes Engaging in an 8-Week Resistance Training ProgramEnergy deficiency impairs resistance training gains in lean mass but not strength: A meta-analysis and meta-regressionResearch Review: French-fried potatoes consumption and energy balance: a randomized controlled trial. (28:32)French-fried potatoes consumption and energy balance: a randomized controlled trialGeneral discussion on interpreting different types of research (48:49)Q&A: What’s the advice/viewpoint you’ve shared over the years that you most regret giving? Something you’ve totally changed your perspective on, and are embarrassed for ever having said out loud? (1:07:52)To Play Us Out: It appears that the 800lb raw bench press barrier has unofficially been broken (gym lift) (1:19:44)Video of the lift
2/24/20221 hour, 29 minutes, 18 seconds
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Energy Compensation, Interference Effect, Underestimating Supplements

In this week’s episode, Eric shares a research review with an updated perspective on the constrained energy expenditure model and compensation for calories burned during exercise. After that, Greg shares a research update on whether or not lifters need to worry about the interference effect when they add some cardio to their weekly routine. Finally, Greg and Eric discuss the possibility that we may be underestimating the effects of some fairly well-known dietary supplements, and share their thoughts on the NFL playoffs and Super Bowl. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (1:40)Research Review: Energy balance influences compensation for calories burned during exercise (6:28)Research Review: Revisiting concurrent training and the interference effect (32:00)Bonus Segment: Are we underestimating the effects of certain supplements due to a lack of dose-response studies? (47:27)To Play Us Out: The Super Bowl (1:05:15)
2/17/20221 hour, 15 minutes, 27 seconds
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Q&A: Protein Overfeeding, Individualizing Training, and Strength Changes During Weight Loss

In this week’s episode, Greg and Eric answer a number of questions from listeners. Topics include protein overfeeding, aches and pains during deloads, ashwagandha supplementation, the impact of weight loss on strength, interval training versus steady state cardio, and the potential value of personalizing/individualizing training programs. To close out the show, Eric shares a couple unbelievable facts about longevity in the animal kingdom. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPS Intro/Announcements (0:00)Can extra calories from protein be stored as fat? (1:33)The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individualsEffects of Graded Whey Supplementation During Extreme-Volume Resistance TrainingEffect of dietary protein content on weight gain, energy expenditure, and body composition during overeating: a randomized controlled trialWhy do I feel more aches and pains during a deload compared to a typical training week? (17:43)Does ashwagandha improve performance? (26:50)Effects of Ashwagandha ( Withania somnifera) on Physical Performance: Systematic Review and Bayesian Meta-AnalysisHow has Greg’s weight loss impacted his strength? (40:31)Is interval training better than steady state cardio for body composition purposes? (46:25)Slow and Steady, or Hard and Fast? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Studies Comparing Body Composition Changes between Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Continuous TrainingCompatibility of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Size and Function: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisHave there been attempts to quantify the benefits associated with personalizing/individualizing training programs? (54:25)Effectiveness of an Individualized Training Based on Force-Velocity Profiling during JumpingEffect of direct supervision of a strength coach on measures of muscular strength and power in young rugby league playersInfluence of supervision ratio on muscle adaptations to resistance training in nontrained subjectsThe influence of direct supervision of resistance training on strength performanceEric clarifies one part of his ashwagandha answer (1:06:36)To Play Us Out: Unbelievable animal physiology (lifespan) (1:09:34)
2/10/20221 hour, 13 minutes, 53 seconds
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ATP Supplementation, Goal Alignment, Glycemic Index

We are officially back from winter break with a brand new schedule! We’ll be releasing episodes more frequently from this point forward, with new episodes posted every Thursday.In today’s episode, Greg and Eric share some updates on their Road to the Stage and Road to Athens segments, which is followed by a discussion of some recent Feats of Strength. After that, Eric’s Research Review segment takes a deep dive into the research on ATP supplementation, and Greg briefly discusses a brand new Stronger By Science article about row variations. Next, Greg presents a Coach’s Corner segment that revisits the topic of goal setting with an in-depth discussion about how to set an effective superordinate goal, and how important it is to continuously maintain alignment throughout your entire goal hierarchy. Eric also answers a listener's question about carbohydrate sources and the glycemic index, and Greg and Eric close out the show by paying their respects to two remarkable people who recently passed away. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight newsletter, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (2:39)Feats of Strength (5:07)Krzysztof pulls 484.5kg, 1068lbs with strapsJamal Browner pulls 483kg/1065lbs with strapsDanial Zamani 350kg(771lb) Bench Press in trainingBill Gillespie Benches 1129 [ATWR]!Research Review: ATP supplementation (12:33)Studies discussed:Effects of oral ATP supplementation on anaerobic power and muscular strengthEffects of a supplement designed to increase ATP levels on muscle strength, power output, and enduranceDiscrepancies in publications related to HMB-FA and ATP supplementationInteraction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained IndividualsA Single Dose of Oral ATP Supplementation Improves Performance and Physiological Response During Lower Body Resistance Exercise in Recreational Resistance-Trained MalesDose Response of Acute ATP Supplementation on Strength Training PerformanceSBS Article Discussion: Does Your Rowing Grip Actually Affect Back Development? (42:19)Coach’s Corner: Goal alignment (44:00)An Evidence-Based Approach To Goal Setting And Behavior ChangeQ&A: Does the glycemic index matter? (1:02:09)To Play Us Out: (In memoriam) Thich Nhat Hanh, Bud Jeffries (1:09:39)
2/3/20221 hour, 18 minutes, 3 seconds
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Goal Setting and Behavior Change

In preparation for the new year (and the resolutions that come with it), today’s episode is all about goal setting and behavior change. Eric and Greg have a long, evidence-based conversation about the research on setting effective goals and successfully changing health behaviors. The discussion yields several evidence-based tips for setting better goals and maximally supporting your ability to achieve them. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight emails, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (2:29)Feats of Strength (4:12)Research Review: Goal setting and behavior change (9:54)Fake urgency (12:06)The time to act is now: pseudo-systematic reviewSuccess rates of New Year’s Resolutions (14:36)Auld lang syne: success predictors, change processes, and self-reported outcomes of New Year's resolvers and nonresolversA large-scale experiment on New Year's resolutions: Approach-oriented goals are more successful than avoidance-oriented goalsTemporal landmarks (22:19)The Fresh Start Effect: Temporal Landmarks Motivate Aspirational BehaviorAnticipated Temporal Landmarks Undermine Motivation for Continued Goal PursuitSMART goals (27:31)SMART criteriaCreating a goal hierarchy (30:19)How Focusing on Superordinate Goals Motivates Broad, Long-Term Goal Pursuit: A Theoretical PerspectiveSuperordinate goals (34:16)How Focusing on Superordinate Goals Motivates Broad, Long-Term Goal Pursuit: A Theoretical PerspectiveEquifinality and Multifinality (41:12)Mental contrasting (44:12)Mental contrasting for health behaviour change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effects and moderator variablesA Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Mental Contrasting With Implementation Intentions on Goal AttainmentApproach versus avoidance  (52:37)Goal Setting and Action Planning for Health Behavior ChangeFlexible versus rigid restraint (56:16)Towards a Sustainable Nutrition Paradigm in Physique Sport: A Narrative ReviewProcess versus outcome (1:01:28)The Way is the Goal: The Role of Goal Focus for Successful Goal Pursuit and Subjective Well-BeingMastery versus performance (1:06:05)Goal Setting and Action Planning for Health Behavior ChangeGoal difficulty; “slack with a cost” (1:13:44)Goal Setting and Action Planning for Health Behavior ChangeThe Benefits of Emergency Reserves: Greater Preference and Persistence for Goals that Have Slack with a CostSetting specific goals (1:23:12)Implementation intentions (1:23:47)A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Mental Contrasting With Implementation Intentions on Goal AttainmentHolding the Hunger Games Hostage at the Gym: An Evaluation of Temptation BundlingStimulus control; modifying your environment (1:30:24)Changing circumstances, disrupting habitsSocial support and feedback (1:33:08)Periodic Prompts and Reminders in Health Promotion and Health Behavior Interventions: Systematic ReviewDesigning in-app messages to nudge behavior change: Lessons learned from a weight management app for young adultsHow MacroFactor supports evidence-based goal striving and behavior change (1:45:06)To Play Us Out: Protein Bread, Winter Break (1:54:54)
12/30/20212 hours, 26 seconds
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Reverse Dieting, Bodybuilding Mortality, and Optimizing Biomechanics

Today’s episode begins with updates from the dueling “Road to the Stage” and “Road to Athens” segments, followed by Feats of Strength. After that, Eric gives some contextualized clarifications about how the concept of “reverse dieting” has, in his opinion, been commonly misapplied. Next, Greg explores mortality rates among untested bodybuilders using a data-driven approach, and Eric provides a quick and practical “Coach’s Corner” segment about proactively managing your sleep and circadian rhythm in the winter months. Finally, Greg and Eric answer some listener questions, and Eric closes out the show by thanking the pharmaceutical industry for giving him a new lease on life. SUPPORT THE PODCASTReceive our Research Spotlight emails, and check out our Facebook group and subreddit.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk SupplementsFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Athens (4:00)Feats of Strength (7:36)John Haack deadlifts 903 lbs / 410 kgJohn Haack 600lb benchEmil Lundgren 200kg / 441lb benchCarlos Nasar 208kg clean and jerkContextualized Clarifications: Reverse Dieting (10:37)The Metabolic Adaptation Manual: Problems, Solutions, And Life After Weight LossReduced adaptive thermogenesis during acute protein-imbalanced overfeeding is a metabolic hallmark of the human thrifty phenotypeResearch Review: Bodybuilding Mortality (34:26)Do Pro Bodybuilders Die Younger Than Average?MP47-17 RATES OF MORTALITY ARE HIGHER AMONG PROFESSIONAL MALE BODYBUILDERSCoach’s Corner: Sleep and Circadian Rhythm Stuff (55:08)Effects of light on human circadian rhythms, sleep and moodSleep Hygiene for Optimizing Recovery in Athletes: Review and RecommendationsQ&A (1:03:07)How important is "optimizing" biomechanics for hypertrophy? (1:03:21)How’s the transition from a meat-heavy omnivorous diet to a vegetarian diet? (1:18:57)Should you stop taking creatine before and/or during a water cut? (1:23:33)When tracking macros, how should we account for low-quality proteins like collagen? (1:26:27)The Skeletal Muscle Anabolic Response to Plant- versus Animal-Based Protein ConsumptionWhat are your personal and professional opinions on designated bouts of low-intensity cardio at a certain percentage of maximum heart rate versus step counts? Would either option be superior to the other? (1:39:44)Do artificial sweeteners increase appetite, food cravings, or caloric intake at a subsequent meal? (1:49:39)NPR: Diet soda may prompt food cravings, especially in women and people with obesityObesity and Sex-Related Associations With Differential Effects of Sucralose vs Sucrose on Appetite and Reward ProcessingEffects of nonnutritive sweeteners on body weight and BMI in diverse clinical contexts: Systematic review and meta-analysisTo Play Us Out: Thanking Big Pharma (2:07:37)
12/16/20212 hours, 11 minutes, 19 seconds
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Partial ROM, Intra-Workout Carbs, MASS Research Roundup

Today’s episode begins with a reminder about the current Black Friday Sale for the MASS Research Review, which ends November 29. After that, Greg and Eric share updates regarding their dueling Road to the Stage and Road to Athens segments. Next, Greg delivers the Feats of Strength segment, which features a legend in the world of iron sports. After that, Greg and Eric discuss some of their favorite MASS articles from the past year or so, with topics including p-ratios, plant-based protein, carbs for lifters, effects of diet on testosterone, emerging supplements, partial-ROM training, the interference effect (concurrent training), and muscle damage. Finally, Eric answers some listener questions about soy protein and intra-workout carbohydrate, then closes out the show by recommending some focus-enhancing music to play while you work. SUPPORT THE PODCASTMASSCheck out a free issue of the MASS Research Review.If you’re interested in taking advantage of our MASS Black Friday sale (November 22 - November 29), you can learn more and subscribe here.MacroFactorIf you want to learn more about our MacroFactor diet app, check it out  here.To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Stronger By ScienceIf you’d like to receive our Research Spotlight emails, please sign up for our email list.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Link to learn more and subscribe to MASSRoad to the Stage (4:45)Road to Athens (12:19)Feats of Strength (19:50)Bev FrancisMASS Research Roundup (27:59)Best of MASS issueEric’s study roundup (p-ratios, plant-based protein, carbs for lifters, effects of diet on testosterone, emerging supplements) (29:42)Key links:https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios-rebuttal/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios-rebuttal-2/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33172506/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33599941/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/glycogen-depletion/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33741447/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28682933https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31800470https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34666412/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34154603/https://www.strongerbyscience.com/betaine/Partial Range of Motion Training Might Increase Muscle Growth (If You Do the Right Type of Partials) (57:55)Partial Range of Motion Training Elicits Favorable Improvements in Muscular Adaptations When Carried Out at Long Muscle Lengths. Pedrosa et al. (2021)Elbow Joint Angles in Elbow Flexor Unilateral Resistance Exercise Training Determine Its Effects on Muscle Strength and Thickness of Trained and Non-trained Arms. Sato et al. (2021)Does the Interference Effect Get Larger as Training Status Increases? (1:19:27)Development of Maximal Dynamic Strength During Concurrent Resistance and Endurance Training in Untrained, Moderately Trained, and Trained Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Petré et al. (2021)Does Eccentric Training Always Cause More Muscle Damage? (1:32:33)Eccentric Exercise Per Se Does Not Affect Muscle Damage Biomarkers: Early and Late Phase Adaptations. Margaritelis et al. (2020)Q&A (1:52:38)Any concerns regarding upper limits for soy intake? (1:52:45)Links:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30042516/https://examine.com/nutrition/is-soy-good-or-bad/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33599941/On the topic of intra-workout carbohydrate beverages: are fancy carb sources actually better, or would a traditional sports beverage be equally effective? (2:02:18)Links:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26373645/Recommendations for carb intake during exerciseTo Play Us Out: Focus-Enhancing Music (2:12:35)https://open.spotify.com/artist/7DWL1f2n0bdG747Hb1SUrC
11/25/20212 hours, 17 minutes, 7 seconds
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Cooling Gloves, Cardio Considerations, and Protein in Aging

Today’s episode begins with an exciting announcement about the forthcoming Black Friday Sale for the MASS Research Review, which extends from November 22 to November 29. After that, Greg shares a Road to the Stage update, and Eric takes a sharp turn onto the Road to Athens. That’s followed by Feats of Strength, and a Tech Support segment sharing MacroFactor reminders and updates related to the knowledge base, food database expansion, and the new public roadmap. Next, Greg provides an in-depth review of the literature related to cooling gloves and performance, and Eric gives some contextualized clarifications about low-calorie diets, age-related protein considerations, and positive aspects of cardio. Finally, Greg answers some listener questions, and Eric closes out the show by issuing a sobering warning about the grave consequences of Fat Bear Week.Support the podcast: Check out a free issue of the MASS Research Review. If you’re interested in taking advantage of our MASS Black Friday sale (November 22 - November 29), you can subscribe at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/mass/MacroFactor: Learn more about our MacroFactor diet app. To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Sign up for the Research Spotlight newsletter: If you’d like to receive our Research Spotlight emails, sign up for our email list. Join the community: To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Bulk Supplements: Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements: MASS Black Friday Sale (0:00)Get a free issue of MASSRoad to the Stage / Road to Enlightenment (3:17)Why Are Marathons 26.2 Miles Long?Feats of Strength (21:20)Marek ZychTech Support: Knowledge base, database expansion, public roadmap (28:05)Learn more about MacroFactorMacroFactor Knowledge BaseMacroFactor Roadmap and FeedbackResearch Review (32:28)Cooling during exercise enhances performances, but the cooled body areas matter: A systematic review with meta-analysesEffect of two recovery methods on repeated closed-handed and open-handed weight-assisted pull-upsResistance exercise inter-set cooling strategy: effect on performance and muscle damagePalm cooling delays fatigue during high-intensity bench press exerciseIntermittent Palm Cooling's Impact on Resistive Exercise PerformanceWork volume and strength training responses to resistive exercise improve with periodic heat extraction from the palmContextualized Clarifications: Low-calorie diets, age-related protein considerations, and positive aspects of cardio  (59:56)Low-calorie diets (1:00:49)The evolution of very-low-calorie diets: an update and meta-analysisAge-related protein considerations (1:13:57)Anabolic Resistance of Muscle Protein Turnover Comes in Various Shapes and SizesProtein Requirements for Master Athletes: Just Older Versions of Their Younger SelvesShould You Cut Before You Bulk?: How Body-Fat Levels Affect Your P-RatioPositive aspects of cardio and physical activity (1:22:23)Exercise and longevityCompatibility of Concurrent Aerobic and Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Size and Function: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Q&A (1:33:36)“If I'm not in a hurry to get somewhere in my fitness journey, what would happen if I just progress incrementally by adding half (or even a quarter of) a pound to the bar each week, and concentrate on good form, technique, and contraction?” (1:33:41)“What factors seem to be predictive of successful weight loss maintenance?” (1:38:59)Weight-loss maintenance for 10 years in the National Weight Control Registry“In terms of training, what’s the most I can get done in the least amount of time?” (1:48:17)The Minimum Effective Training Dose Required to Increase 1RM Strength in Resistance-Trained Men: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis“How big of a deal are the negative effects of NSAIDs on hypertrophy?” (1:54:29)High doses of anti-inflammatory drugs compromise muscle strength and hypertrophic adaptations to resistance training in young adultsTo Play Us Out: The grave consequences of Fat Bear Week (2:00:34)Grizzly bear takes cubs for wander through Jackson Hole, Wyoming 
11/18/20212 hours, 7 minutes, 17 seconds
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Calorie Restriction, Protein Restriction, App Updates

Today’s episode features a number of protein-themed segments. First, Eric summarizes some recent discussions regarding the consumption of whey protein among vegetarians, along with some information about fascinating innovations in lab-based production of protein sources. After that, Eric reviews the literature linking calorie restriction and protein restriction to health and longevity. Greg then discusses a new Stronger By Science article on reverse Nordic curls, and shares some exciting updates about the MacroFactor diet app. That’s followed by a Q&A segment in which Eric answers questions about discrepancies between MPS research and hypertrophy research, the lowest advisable protein intake that can adequately support gains, and the concept of using alkaline water or other dietary manipulations to influence blood pH. Finally, to close out the show, Greg discusses his quest to perfect high-protein bread.Learn more about our MacroFactor diet app. To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit. Sign up to receive our Research Spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage (1:50)Road to Enlightenment (11:45)Feats of Strength (21:26)Daniel ClementsResearch Review: Calorie restriction and protein restriction for longevity (23:22)Calorie restriction versus protein restrictionComparing speciesClean cupboard hypothesisExercise and longevityEnergy fluxTech Support: Swipe features and database updater (58:45)SBS Article Discussion: Reverse Nordic curls (1:06:45)Q&A (1:13:46)What's the lowest protein intake someone could eat while still building an appreciable amount of muscle? (1:14:09)https://academic.oup.com/nutritionreviews/article/79/1/66/5936522https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28698222/Why don’t MPS results match up with hypertrophy results? (1:26:30)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/labs/pmc/articles/PMC7791816/https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/aop/article-10.1123-ijsnem.2021-0139/article-10.1123-ijsnem.2021-0139.xmlDoes alkaline water increase blood pH? Is it possible to eat or drink anything that would change blood pH? Does it matter? (1:38:54)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20836884/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11446566/https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0309-4To Play Us Out: Protein bread (1:54:25) 
10/28/20212 hours, 5 minutes, 8 seconds
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Refeeds, Diet Breaks, Fructose, and Sodium

Today’s episode begins with some good vibes from the Road to the Stage, Road to Enlightenment, and Feats of Strength segments. After that, Eric shares a research-heavy update on diet breaks and refeeds, followed by a Tech Support segment in which Greg discusses food databases and some practical tips for easy and efficient food logging. That’s followed by a Q&A segment featuring questions about topics including sleep, sodium, fructose, accuracy of self-reported food intake, managing exercise and nutrition during vacations, and much more. Finally, Eric and Greg graciously and nobly accept defeat while recapping the final results of Fat Bear Week 2021.Learn more about our MacroFactor diet app. To join in on the MacroFactor conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit. Sign up to receive our Research Spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage  (1:01)Road to Enlightenment (8:56)Feats of Strength (13:25)Tamara WalcottJohn HaackResearch Review: Revisiting Diet Breaks and Refeeds (19:00)www.strongerbyscience.com/metabolic-adaptationhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1057740815000443https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28975722/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28925405/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33467235/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33587549/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33630880/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33375938/Tech Support: Food Databases and Efficient Food Logging (1:01:17)Q&A (1:28:33)I’m on a 2-week vacation. How bad could fat gain/muscle loss be? (1:28:43)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32469388/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21131862/Thoughts on high sodium for strength sports? (1:35:33)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26835607/Can athletes get around the negative effects of high sugar consumption because they are more active? (1:43:43)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31796953/I am a fitness instructor, and I have a female client who wishes to lose weight. I tried putting her on a caloric deficit, but she is not losing weight. Is it because she is lying about her diet or there might be other external factors? (1:49:03)Simple question(s): recognizing needs will vary by person, how critical is adequate sleep to gains? To body comp? And are negative effects more acute or chronic? (2:02:08)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2951287/Much of sport science studies are conducted on young males. Are there any studies/areas in particular that we have reasons to think female physiology would give different results? (2:13:10)Is there anything within the industry that Greg and Eric fundamentally disagree on? (2:24:08)If there is to be another major breakthrough in powerlifting training, which area of training do you see it being? (2:24:31)To Play Us Out: Bear Week is Cancelled (2:30:29)
10/14/20212 hours, 37 minutes, 8 seconds
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Carbohydrate-Insulin Model, Counting Calories, and Setting Up a Diet

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric debut a new segment called “Tech Support,” in which they discuss a few common questions and comments about MacroFactor. After that, Greg discusses a new review paper about the carbohydrate-insulin model of obesity, and Eric discusses the newest Stronger by Science article about how to set up a diet. To wrap up the show, Greg and Eric select their favorites and place their bets for the upcoming Fat Bear Week.If you want to learn more about our diet app (on sale through September 30), check it out here. Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage / Road to Enlightenment (0:56)Feats of Strength (13:08)https://barbend.com/strongman-nicolas-cambi-block-press-log-lift-world-records-2021-clash-at-the-corral/https://barbend.com/strongman-laurence-shahlaei-dinnie-stones-world-record/https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cYCY0zH0VBchttps://www.instagram.com/reel/CT0_jFmg-d8/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_linkTech Support (27:05)Research Review: Carbohydrate-insulin model versus energy balance model (1:00:54)https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqab270/6369073?redirectedFrom=fulltexthttps://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunity/posts/3002174166727623/SBS Article Discussion: The Definitive Diet Setup Guide (1:21:42)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/diet/To Play Us Out: Fat bear week (1:51:53)https://www.nps.gov/katm/learn/fat-bear-week.htm
9/23/20212 hours, 3 minutes, 4 seconds
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Bonus: MacroFactor Launch Party and Live Q&A

This special bonus episode of the Stronger By Science Podcast is a recording of the show’s live launch party for the MacroFactor diet app. In the future, we’ll be streaming more live podcast episodes right from the Stronger By Science YouTube channel. We hope you can join us live for the next one! To stay up to date and get reminders about upcoming live episodes, be sure to join our email newsletter, Facebook group and subreddit.If you want to learn more about our diet app (on sale through September 30), check it out at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/macrofactor/Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. Time StampsIntro/Announcements (0:00)About the MacroFactor team (1:52)Q&A (MacroFactor) (14:28)Q&A (fitness topics) (22:14)Q&A (MacroFactor) (33:46)Our favorite features of MacroFactor (43:17)Q&A (MacroFactor + off-topic) (52:58)More MacroFactor features (1:28:00)
9/21/20211 hour, 43 minutes, 6 seconds
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Bonus Live Q&A: Energy Constraint Model, Training Volume, Creatine Kinase Levels, and More

This special bonus episode of the Stronger By Science Podcast is a recording of the show’s first ever live Q&A episode. In the future, we’ll be streaming more live Q&As right from the Stronger By Science YouTube channel. We hope you can join us live for the next one! To stay up to date and get reminders about upcoming live episodes, be sure to join our email newsletter, Facebook group, and subreddit.If you want to learn more about our diet app (available on September 16), check it out at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/macrofactor/Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSWelcome (0:00). Energy compensation and energy constraint model (Pontzer study) (2:14). Evidence for Rhodiola usage as a pre-workout supplement (9:23)If you aren’t primarily focused on increasing 1RM, should you still arch your back while bench pressing? (17:15)Can surplus calories eventually become maintenance calories? (22:49)Is training volume the main driver for hypertrophy? (28:32)Date in 3 days: Anything you can do to enhance your physique? (38:04)What is a normal creatine kinase level for people who are lifting? (40:29)What is brown adipose tissue? (45:25)Does mouthwash blunt the ergogenic effect of nitrate supplements? (49:20)Can Greg elaborate on his hypothesis that strength loss during weight loss may be due to upper body glycogen loss? How long does it take to restore glycogen once you go back to maintenance? (51:13)What are some studies you would like to see conducted? (58:49)MacroFactor questions (1:12:07)
9/14/20211 hour, 19 minutes, 17 seconds
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Constrained Energy, Modeling Hypertrophy, and Effects of Aging on Performance

In today’s episode, the show transforms from the Stronger By Science Podcast to the Stronger By Science Multimedia Experience. In other words, a video of the recording session will now be posted to YouTube rather than audio only.Today’s show features a research review segment in which Eric covers a couple papers that made headlines: one reported that we offset some of the calories burned during exercise by saving energy elsewhere, and another reported that hot dogs can shorten our lives by about 36 minutes. After that, Greg discusses a new paper about modeling muscle growth that also generated plenty of headlines, along with an important update about the performance effects of caffeine for women. This episode also features a Coach’s Corner segment about setting calorie targets for a wide range of diet goals, and a Q&A segment addressing topics including the effects of aging on performance, the long-term health ramifications of bulking and cutting, the effect of pre-bed meals on sleep quality, and more.If you want to learn more about our diet app (available on September 16), check it out here. Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00). Road to the Stage / Road to Enlightenment (2:39). Feats of Strength (7:29). Thomas Davis.Research Review: Constrained energy model, hot dogs & lifespan (10:05). Energy compensation and adiposity in humansSmall targeted dietary changes can yield substantial gains for human health and the environmentResearch Roundup: Modeling muscle growth, ankle mobility for squats, caffeine for women (31:52). Mathematical model predicts best way to build muscleWhy exercise builds muscles: titin mechanosensing controls skeletal muscle growth under loadAnkle mobility for squats – SBS Instagram postErgogenic Effects of Acute Caffeine Intake on Muscular Endurance and Muscular Strength in Women: A Meta-AnalysisCoach’s Corner: How to set calorie targets (54:32). Setting a Calorie Target – SBS Instagram postQ&A: Press out rule, organic food, effects of aging on performance, long-term health ramifications of bulking and cutting, effects of pre-bed meals on sleep quality (1:02:50). To Play Us Out: Fruit bars (1:34:17). 
9/9/20211 hour, 44 minutes, 27 seconds
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Metabolic Rate, Blood Flow Restricted Training, and Turkesterone

Eric gives a thorough overview of a recent study that has generated a lot of buzz about how age and biological sex relate to metabolic rate and total energy expenditure (20:46). After discussing the new findings, Eric provides several practical strategies for estimating total daily energy expenditure (1:07:50). In addition, Greg presents a research update summarizing some new findings in the area of blood flow restricted training (54:05). Finally, Greg and Eric discuss the research (or lack thereof) assessing the effects of Turkesterone supplementation on exercise performance and resistance training adaptations (1:22:25).Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage/Road to Enlightenment (4:50)Feats of Strength (8:28)Dave RicksAndrey SapozhonkovDanial ZamaniHidilyn DiazThis Olympic Weightlifter Was Targeted by Her Government. It Took a Gold Medal for Her to Get an Apology.Shi ZhiyongLü XiaojunLasha TalakhadzeResearch Review: Age, sex, and energy expenditure (20:46)Daily energy expenditure through the human life courseDoubly labelled water assessment of energy expenditure: principle, practice, and promiseSpecific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues across adulthood: evaluation by mechanistic model of resting energy expenditureResearch Roundup: Blood flow restricted training (54:05)Effect of resistance training with blood flow restriction on muscle damage markers in adults: A systematic reviewFrequent blood flow restricted training not to failure and to failure induces similar gains in myonuclei and muscle massEffects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on vascular function in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysisCoach’s Corner: Estimating total daily energy expenditure (1:07:50)Some helpful equations: Resting Metabolic Rate: Best Ways to Measure It—And Raise It, TooQ&A: Turkesterone supplementation (1:22:25)To Play Us Out: Scacce ragusana (1:38:33)
8/26/20211 hour, 45 minutes, 33 seconds
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Energy Deficiency, Training Frequency, and Beginner Gains

Greg and Eric provide an update about MacroFactor, their forthcoming nutrition app that is in the final stages of development (8:14). They also cover a variety of topics including relative energy deficiency, diet recovery (25:33), training frequency (41:14), beginner gains (55:49), the “constrained energy model” (1:29:15), ideal durations for bulking and cutting phases (1:06:35), and more.Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00). MacroFactor update (8:14). Get more details and sign up for email updates on the MacroFactor "Coming Soon" page. Road to the Stage/Road to Enlightenment (8:57)Monk Yeshe Rabgye's websiteFeats of Strength (17:36)Abhimanyu Mishra, 12, becomes youngest grandmaster in chess historyChris Yip pulls 350 kg/772 lbs at 70 kg/154 lbs BWResearch Review: Recovering from a diet or relative energy deficiency (25:33)A Review of Nonpharmacological Strategies in the Treatment of Relative Energy Deficiency in SportThe Metabolic Adaptation Manual: Problems, Solutions, and Life After Weight LossResearch Review: Training frequency for strength gains (41:14)Effects of Variations in Resistance Training Frequency on Strength Development in Well-Trained Populations and Implications for In-Season Athlete Training: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisIndividual Muscle Hypertrophy and Strength Responses to High vs. Low Resistance Training FrequenciesQ&A (55:30)Is it possible to make “beginner gains” after years of training if you spent your first years of training with an ineffective approach to exercise and nutrition? (55:49)What's your take on short bulk/cut cycles? (1:06:35)Is it a good idea to use caffeine as an ergogenic aid if you can only train in the evening? (1:20:53)What do Greg and Eric’s cardio routines look like? Have they ever competed in endurance sports? (1:23:43)Any thoughts about Pontzer's "constrained energy model" and its implications for folks trying to use exercise to increase calorie burn? (1:29:15)Constrained Total Energy Expenditure and Metabolic Adaptation to Physical Activity in Adult HumansIt is often said that one pound of fat loss corresponds to a deficit of around 3500 kilocalories. What about one pound of muscle loss? Is it possible to gain weight in an energy deficit, or to lose weight in an energy surplus? (1:41:04)What are the most common errors that you see people make when interpreting statistics? (1:45:17)To Play Us Out: Media recommendations from Greg (1:59:51)
7/15/20212 hours, 4 minutes, 16 seconds
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Responders, Non-Responders, and Fish Oil

In this episode, Greg and Eric provide a huge update related to the good news segment, some very impressive and potentially controversial feats of strength (10:36), and dueling research reviews about fish oil (24:06) and distinguishing between responders and non-responders to training (53:52). They also answer some listener questions (1:14:59) and congratulate the sport of baseball for becoming interesting again (1:53:08).Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Road to the Stage/Road to Enlightenment (2:01)Feats of Strength (10:36)Jimmy KolbDanial ZamaniResearch Review: Fish Oil and Recovery (24:06)https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34128440/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5577766/Research Review: Training Responders and Non-Responders (53:52)https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S144024401930670Xhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1440244020308070Q&A (1:14:59)Is there any validity to the idea that athletes should avoid things like NSAIDs or fish oil in order to better realize training adaptations? (1:15:34)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/antioxidants/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046361/Thoughts on the OMAD (one-meal-a-day) diet? How important is it to get protein and leucine right before sleep to continue muscle protein synthesis throughout the night? (1:28:50)How should older folks train if their goal is maintaining/improving daily functioning and mitigating bone/muscle loss? (1:36:32)Is the Dunning-Kruger effect based on legit evidence? (1:44:44)https://skepchick.org/2020/10/the-dunning-kruger-effect-misunderstood-misrepresented-overused-and-non-existent/https://www.gleech.org/psychTo Play Us Out: Baseball (Shohei Ohtani, Jacob deGrom, and SpiderTack) (1:53:08)
7/1/20212 hours, 13 minutes, 20 seconds
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Capsaicin, Multivitamins, and Time Off

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric discuss some Good News (1:06) and Feats of Strength (16:08), in addition to a quick update about the new nutrition app that is in development (12:18). After that, Eric has a Research Roundup segment (19:36) that covers capsaicin supplementation for performance (23:12) and ketogenic diets for hypertrophy (40:44). That’s followed by a Coach’s Corner (56:14) in which Greg discusses how to navigate vacations and potential periods of time away from the gym. After that, Greg and Eric answer some listener questions (1:16:08), and Greg wraps up the show by telling his harrowing tale of undergoing a fitness assessment in a commercial gym (1:46:56).Help shape our new nutrition app (or express interest in becoming a beta tester) by filling out this quick survey on the website. Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro (0:00)Good news (1:06)Nutrition app update (12:18)Link to app surveyFeats of Strength (16:08)Sawyer KlattBrandon StriegelResearch Roundup (19:36)Capsaicin for performance (23:12): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33383571/Keto for hypertrophy (40:44): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34090453/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33624538/Coach’s Corner: Vacation and time off from the gym (56:14)https://www.strongerbyscience.com/no-gym/Q&A (1:16:08)Preferred body hair removal techniques (1:16:21)Multivitamins: good or bad? (1:19:55)Better for hypertrophy: straight sets with final set to failure, or target RPE with variable rep number? (1:35:51)Biggest fitness myths on Instagram these days (1:42:39)To Play Us Out: Greg’s fitness assessment (1:46:56)
6/17/20212 hours, 9 minutes, 33 seconds
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Beta-Alanine, Training Frequency, and Strength for Hypertrophy

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric announce the hiring of two new SBS coaches and provide some exciting updates about the diet app that is currently in development (1:26). After that, Eric shares a Research Roundup segment with fascinating new findings related to beta-alanine supplementation (25:08), and Greg presents a Research Roundup covering topics including training frequency, sticking points, non-nutritive sweeteners, the effects of strength on hypertrophy potential, and more (1:00:57). Eric also shares some practical tips for modifying your pressing exercises in the presence of elbow and shoulder discomfort in a Coach’s Corner segment (1:44:35). Finally, Greg and Eric wrap up the show by answering a few questions from listeners (1:50:40). Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research spotlight emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSGood news: New SBS coaches, updates on the diet app! (1:26)Eric's good news article: After researchers implanted microchips into his brain, a paralyzed man was able to write with his mindFeats of Strength (20:25)Joy's deadlift.Gerald's deadlift. Research Roundup: Beta-Alanine (25:08)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501114/https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/japplphysiol.00602.2020https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30209603/https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2020.00913/fullhttps://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2021/05000/Kinetics_of_Muscle_Carnosine_Decay_after___Alanine.22.aspxResearch Roundup (several topics) (1:00:57):Effects of strength on hypertrophy potential (1:01:14)https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124523/Squat sticking point (1:10:35)https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fspor.2021.691459/abstractTraining frequency (1:20:23)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-021-01460-7History of strength training research (1:24:05)https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Fulltext/2021/05000/History_of_Strength_Training_Research_in_Man__An.34.aspxImpact of COVID-19 on training behaviors (1:33:33)https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-021-01438-5Effects of non-nutritive sweeteners on body weight (1:38:12)https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/obr.13020Coach’s Corner: Modified pressing variations in response to shoulder/elbow discomfort (1:44:35)Q&A (1:50:40):What's the most ludicrous programming or workout you've ever heard of or seen with your own eyes? (1:50:49)Can you HIIT yourself into marathon shape? (2:02:37)Best tendon strengthening protocol? (2:11:45)If you could redesign the Presidential Fitness Test to be science-based, what exercises would you select to assess physical fitness? (2:14:45)A brief history of the bizarre and sadistic Presidential Fitness TestMaintenance Phase episode about the Presidential Fitness Test
6/3/20212 hours, 27 minutes, 34 seconds
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Q&A Extravaganza

Topics include the relative impact of lifting and protein intake on muscle protein synthesis (3:03), strategies for dealing with suboptimal sleep patterns (35:18), how to handle anti-lifting advice from your doctor (20:03), nutrition strategies that may or may not reduce muscle loss during detraining (29:13), how hard you should train (45:39), studies they’d like to see completed (1:19:46), topics where their opinions are firmly against the common wisdom (1:38:46), and more.Sign up to get 28 free training programs and research roundup emails.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPS Intro/Announcements (0:00)How does MPS caused by protein consumption compare to the magnitude of MPS caused by resistance training? (3:03)Why don’t researchers start tracking sleep and including it in their analysis? (9:17)How would you personally respond to a medical professional that tells you to stop squatting because it’s bad for your knees?  (20:03)I have an upcoming surgery that will require 3-4 weeks without training. How should I eat to maintain my gains? How quickly can I return to lifting? (29:13)For people with sporadic sleep issues, what are some strategies to avoid detrimental impacts on performance, recovery, and body composition? (35:18)How hard should you train? (45:39)You’ve already met your calorie intake target for the day, but you haven’t reached your protein target yet. Should you eat more protein and go over your calorie target? (56:56) How do you periodize bodybuilding training? (1:10:56)If ethics and money were no concern, what’s a study you’d love to see? (1:19:46)How do excessively low body-fat percentages impact strength and hypertrophy gains? (1:32:03)What are some (fitness) topics where your opinion is firmly against the common wisdom and why? (1:38:46)How much does fasted training impair performance? How much does this actually matter for goals related to health and body composition (rather than performance goals)? (1:47:46)Correlation doesn’t imply causation. But what does? (1:55:52)Can breakfast cereal be categorized as a soup? (2:07:36)
5/20/20212 hours, 15 minutes, 43 seconds
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Caffeinated Naps, Intuitive Eating, and Q&A Catch-Up

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric begin by sharing a Good News segment (2:08), followed by a series of updates and clarifications (9:43). After some Feats of Strength (19:51), Eric provides a Research Roundup segment (25:50) with studies related to caffeine naps (26:15), intuitive eating (30:05), and metabolic adaptation to weight loss (38:50). After that, Greg and Eric lament the current state of peer-reviewed scientific publishing (1:09:58), and Greg catches up on a ton of Q&A questions from listeners (1:37:30).Sign up to receive Research Roundup emails or access the free “Best of MASS” issue.To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00)Good News (2:08)Updates/Clarifications: Prohormones, Fashion, Olive Oil Desserts (9:43)Feats of Strength (19:51)18 YO Jackson Powell squats 420 kg/925 lbs for a doubleChad Penson Totals 2197lb/996.5kg @198/90 to win the 2021 Kern US Open2021 Kern US Open - Hunter Henderson Squats 295kg/650lb @165 for a new ATWRPavlo Nakonechnyy pulls 435 kg/959 lbs for a triple (equipped)Lasha Talakhadze Hits Heaviest Snatch And Clean & Jerk Ever Caught On Film — 225KG And 270KGResearch Roundup (25:50)Caffeine naps (26:15): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33571957/Intuitive eating  (30:05): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33279464/Metabolic adaptation  (38:50): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33762040/Greg’s controversial content (1:09:58): SBS Studies ArchiveMasks (1:16:18): RETRACTED: Facemasks in the COVID-19 era: A health hypothesisVitamin D (1:28:11)Letter from FDAPeer-reviewed paper on the topicQ&A (1:37:30)Is training for strength and hypertrophy simultaneously really useless? (1:37:54)Do the triceps become the prime movers when you get near maximal bench press loads? (1:43:42)Effect of Barbell Weight on the Structure of the Flat Bench PressVarying the Order of Combinations of Single- and Multi-Joint Exercises Differentially Affects Resistance Training AdaptationsVariety is the Spice of Life: If You Want Well-Rounded Triceps Growth, You Need Both Compound and Single-Joint Exercises (MASS subscription required)A BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF THE BENCH PRESSAre there types of muscles that are resistant to hypertrophy? (1:51:02)Is combined supplementation with glucosamine and chondroitin an efficacious strategy for older lifters? Will it prevent or repair any joint wear and tear? (1:59:09)Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysisEffectiveness and safety of glucosamine and chondroitin for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsWhat are some indicators that one needs extra conditioning for strength and hypertrophy? (2:03:40)How important is good food, really? (2:07:47)To Play Us Out: Bay leaves, people who speed up the podcast, foot shapes for intermittent fasting, and another podcast recommendation from Greg (2:15:07)
5/6/20212 hours, 26 minutes, 19 seconds
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Testosterone Boosters, Sticking Points, and Bar Velocity Technology

Summary: In today’s episode, Greg and Eric reflect on the 4-year anniversary of their monthly research review called “Monthly Applications in Strength Sport,” also known as “MASS,” which they write alongside co-authors Dr. Mike Zourdos and Dr. Eric Helms (15:05). To commemorate the occasion, they’ve released a free “Best of MASS” issue and they're launching a big charity sale from April 27 - May 4. Greg and Eric also present Research Reviews about testosterone boosters (54:46) and barbell velocity-tracking technologies (39:37) in this episode, along with a Coach’s Corner segment about sticking points (1:35:54), some shocking information about eels (1:49:01), and much more. Links: Free PDF: Concise breakdowns of 10 recent training and nutrition studies. https://www.strongerbyscience.com/mass-best-of/To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunitySubreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. Time Stamps:Intro/Announcements (0:00). Good news (2:20). Feats of Strength (9:10). 4-year anniversary of MASS (15:05). Research Review: Technologies for measuring bar velocity (39:37). https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33666594/Research Review: Testosterone boosters (54:46).https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24559105/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30790614/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11701431/Coach’s Corner: Sticking Points (1:35:54). To Play Us Out: Breakfast casserole, frogs, and eels (1:49:01). https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2020/05/25/where-do-eels-come-from
4/22/20212 hours, 3 minutes, 8 seconds
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BMI, Plant-Based Protein, Stretching, and Mouthguards

SummaryGreg and Eric are back for Season 4! This episode begins with a big announcement about what Greg and Eric have been up to (0:01:17), followed by some Good News (0:06:11) and Feats of Strength (0:19:49). After that, Eric discusses some new research that appears to vindicate plant-based proteins (0:28:48), and Greg discusses new research about how BMI, fat mass, and fat-free mass relate to mortality risk (0:49:03). They close out the show with some practical tips from a Coach’s Corner segment (1:15:33), a few miscellaneous Q&As (1:20:12), and some cooking info to wrap up the episode (2:13:58).LinksIf you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our  Facebook group and subredditFinally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Time StampsWe’ve been building a diet app! (0:01:17). Good news  (0:06:11). Feats of Strength (0:19:49). Research Review (0:28:48). Plant proteins revisited:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26224750/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33670701/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33172506/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33599941/. Relation of body fat mass and fat-free mass to total mortality (0:49:03):https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/113/3/639/6092216How your Myers-Briggs score dictates your intermittent fasting protocol (1:03:16). Very brief p-ratio update (1:13:46). https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios/. https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios-rebuttal/. https://www.strongerbyscience.com/p-ratios-rebuttal-2/. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QACnWACSZrs. Coach’s Corner (1:15:33). Q&A (1:20:12). Do mouthguards impact performance? (1:20:58). https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/idj.12406. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16888465/. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323169/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19583574/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22290521/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25187241/. What are the connections between flexibility and hypertrophy or strength training? (1:24:44). Is ATP supplementation effective for performance enhancement? (1:36:34). Is phosphatidic acid supplementation effective? (1:40:40). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340968601_Emerging_Nutritional_Supplements_for_Strength_and_Hypertrophy_An_Update_of_the_Current_LiteratureAre sugar-sweetened beverages inherently bad for health? (1:49:26). https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqz271/5651310?redirectedFrom=fulltexthttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31116420/https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199877/Does neck strength influence concussion risk? (1:56:33). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6222152/Should volume, intensity, and/or frequency of training be titrated based on whether one is cutting or bulking? (2:04:51). To Play Us Out: Olive oil blondies of Sohla El-Waylly (2:13:58): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oQk9JmtJ2FcCheck Greg’s Instagram for macro-friendly meal prep recipes: https://www.instagram.com/gregnuckols/
4/8/20212 hours, 21 minutes, 21 seconds
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Fireside Chat #10: Imposter syndrome, sports, life after COVID, and more

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #10, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss imposter syndrome, sports, life after COVID, and a bunch of other miscellaneous topics.LinksIf you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit. Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Time StampsFeelings on Ohio State’s shot at next year’s college football championship (0:02:57). Post-COVID activities (0:10:03). Zombie survival gear (0:13:27). What led to Eric’s previous statement: “If you can’t go down to the courthouse and get married today because you are already married, then that is too married to call yourself single” (0:15:57). Update on The Netherlands Situation (0:17:32). Imposter syndrome (0:19:48). Food rationing strategies on a deserted island (0:27:47). If you could design the perfect human to excel at your chosen sport, what would that human look like and be like? (0:30:08). Favorite fitness influencers by sense of humor/personality (0:46:03). Post-COVID travel (0:52:35). Food and cooking stuff (0:58:13). 
3/4/20211 hour, 12 minutes, 16 seconds
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EMERGENCY CORRECTION: Greg's Episode 54 correction

Greg issues an emergency correction to a false claim he made in the most recent episode of the podcast.
1/23/20211 minute, 30 seconds
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P-Ratios, Ischemic Preconditioning, and Q&A

SummaryThis is the final episode of season 3, and it features a couple of really in-depth research reviews. After some Good News and Feats of Strength, Eric takes a deep dive into a commonly-held belief in the evidence-based fitness world, and discusses whether or not getting lean will enhance your ability to gain muscle by improving your insulin sensitivity and increasing your p-ratio. After that, Greg has an excellent review covering the topic of ischemic preconditioning, followed by a Q&A segment in which Greg and Eric answer a couple of common questions with some very practical applications.Content warning: In Greg’s research review, he discusses research that was carried out in dogs. If you love dogs as much as Greg and Eric do, this might be upsetting, and you might want to skip that part of the show. If so, please skip the discussion that occurs between 1:07:16 and 1:09:56.LinksIf you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:01:00). Good news (0:04:17). Feats of Strength (0:12:44). Research Review: P-Ratios and Hypertrophy (0:20:02). Relevant studies: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/10865771/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17367567/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31263701/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29559726/ Research Review: Ischemic Preconditioning (1:04:22). Relevant studies:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33312313/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17446439/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2060105/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31333890/  Content warning begins: discussion of invasive research carried out in dogs (1:07:16). Content warning ends: discussion of dog research is complete (1:09:56). Q&A (1:28:02). Can you gain muscle while eating at maintenance calories if you’re getting adequate protein and have body fat to spare? (1:28:28). Do you think that new lifters might be better off by initially avoiding an “evidence-based” approach to training and nutrition? (1:29:54). What are some recipes for high-volume, low-calorie foods for limiting hunger when you’re trying to get shredded? (1:44:49). To Play Us Out: SMART goals and cooking flavor pastes (1:50:45). 
1/21/20212 hours, 3 minutes, 34 seconds
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Fireside Chat #9: 2020 Year in Review and Goals for 2021

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #9, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss observations and lessons learned from 2020, along with new goals for 2021. They try their hardest to keep it light and fun, but ultimately fail.If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunitySubreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.TIME STAMPSEric’s observations and lessons learned (0:03:25). Greg’s observations and lessons learned (0:24:10). The good vibes sour (0:29:52). Eric’s goals for 2021 (0:54:58). Greg’s goals for 2021 (1:05:59). Parting words of wisdom (1:11:29). 
1/7/20211 hour, 20 minutes, 20 seconds
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Protein, Fish Oil, Glycogen, and What Limits Muscle Growth

This is the final episode of 2020, and it’s a science-heavy episode packed full of information. After some Good News and Feats of Strength, Eric revisits a couple of previous segments and social media posts about optimal protein intakes and the potential benefits of fish oil. Greg got some new information about a paper evaluating the use of strength blocks to increase hypertrophy, so he revisits that topic as well. Finally, Greg and Eric share some new research reviews about the importance of muscle glycogen depletion for lifters and biological factors that may limit the growth of muscle fibers, followed by a sincere “thank you” to close out the year.If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunity. Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/. Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00:41). Good news (0:01:08). Big Ramy: https://barbend.com/big-ramy-wins-the-2020-mr-olympia/. Possums: https://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-australia-55240839. Feats of Strength (0:06:16). Clarifications, Rigid Defensiveness, and Aggressive Counter-Attacks (0:16:28). Protein (0:16:55): Studies discussed: Dose–response relationship between protein intake and muscle mass increase: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Fish oil (0:46:41): Studies discussed: Marine Omega‐3 Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease: An Updated Meta‐Analysis of 13 Randomized Controlled Trials Involving 127 477 Participants. Are There Benefits from the Use of Fish Oil Supplements in Athletes? A Systematic Review. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Benefits and Endpoints in Sport. Strength blocks to enhance hypertrophy (1:00:51): Study discussed: Is stronger better? Influence of a strength phase followed by a hypertrophy phase on muscular adaptations in resistance-trained men. Research Review (1:04:59). Modest Glycogen Depletion May Impact Lifting Performance More Than You Think (1:06:06). Study discussed: Subcellular Localization- and Fibre Type-Dependent Utilization of Muscle Glycogen During Heavy Resistance Exercise in Elite Power and Olympic Weightlifters. Biological factors that may limit muscle fiber growth (1:21:51 ). Studies discussed: Myonuclear content regulates cell size with similar scaling properties in mice and humans. Nuclear numbers in syncytial muscle fibers promote size but limit the development of larger myonuclear domains. To Play Us Out: Thank you (1:57:55). 
12/24/20202 hours, 3 minutes, 55 seconds
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Protein, Lactate, and Strength Phases to Boost Hypertrophy

SummaryToday’s episode features some Good News and Feats of Strength, followed by a huge Research Roundup to get you all caught up on recent happenings in the world of exercise science and sports nutrition. Topics covered include optimal protein intake, essential amino acids, meal timing, lactate, relationships between sleep and hunger, and muscle memory. Greg also discusses a recent study suggesting that adding strength phases to your training may promote greater hypertrophy. This study has made the rounds on social media and been widely discussed in the evidence-based fitness world, but there are some important details to consider before drawing conclusions on the topic. Finally, to play them out, Eric and Greg discuss some major food controversies that have shaken Eric to his core.LinksIf you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.Time StampsIntro/Announcements (0:01:00). Good news: COVID vaccines, open science (0:04:12). Feats of Strength (0:17:16). Research Roundup (0:24:33). Optimal Protein Intake (0:25:15). Article discussed: Dose–response relationship between protein intake and muscle mass increase: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Essential Amino Acids (0:35:39). Article discussed: Essential Amino Acids and Protein Synthesis: Insights into Maximizing the Muscle and Whole-Body Response to FeedingMeal Timing (0:42:55). Articles discussed: Late eating is associated with cardiometabolic risk traits, obesogenic behaviors, and impaired weight loss. Higher eating frequency is associated with lower adiposity and robust circadian rhythms: a cross-sectional study. Impact of Meal Frequency on Anthropometric Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Danny Lennon’s article on chrononutrition. Preceding a Hypertrophy Phase with a Strength Phase (0:52:22). Article discussed: Is stronger better? Influence of a strength phase followed by a hypertrophy phase on muscular adaptations in resistance-trained men. Sleep and Hunger (1:13:45). Article discussed: Caloric and Macronutrient Intake and Meal Timing Responses to Repeated Sleep Restriction Exposures Separated by Varying Intervening Recovery Nights in Healthy Adults. Lactate (1:22:23). Articles discussed: The emerging role of lactate as a mediator of exercise-induced appetite suppression.Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations. Potential involvement of lactate and interleukin-6 in the appetite-regulatory hormonal response to an acute exercise bout. Lactate as a Signaling Molecule That Regulates Exercise-Induced Adaptations. Muscle Memory (1:40:07). Article discussed: Muscle memory: myonuclear accretion, maintenance, morphology, and miRNA levels with training and detraining in adult mice. To Play Us Out: Major food conspiracies (1:49:15). 
12/10/20202 hours, 5 minutes, 43 seconds
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2020's Most Notable Research (with guests Eric Helms and Mike Zourdos)

If you’d like to subscribe to MASS (or read more about it), you can find it at: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/mass/. If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit. Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.  TIME STAMPSIntroductions (0:02:00). The First Bodybuilding Refeed Research (0:07:58). MASS article. Paper discussed. Penalty: Reduction in Gains for Interference (0:23:43).  MASS article. Paper discussed. The Evidence for Myonuclear Muscle Memory May be Murkier Than Commonly Believed (0:55:17).  Read this article for free on Stronger by Science. MASS article. Papers discussed: One, Two. Shedding Some Light on Vitamin D Supplementation: Does It Increase Strength In Athletes? (1:09:29). Read this article for free on Stronger by Science. MASS article. Papers discussed: One, Two, Three. A Progression Framework for Hypertrophy (1:21:31).  MASS article. Papers discussed: One, Two. 
11/26/20201 hour, 44 minutes, 22 seconds
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Q&A: Cortisol, Hydration, Anti-Nutrients, and Deadlift Recovery

If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunitySubreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00:44). Good News and Bad News (0:03:35). Q&A (0:13:41). Should people be worried about “anti-nutrients?” (0:13:46). How can we re-sensitize our muscles to hypertrophy? (0:22:15). How much water does the typical lifter need? Does timing of ingestion matter? Should water intake be reduced at night? (0:29:38). Why is deadlifting considered more fatiguing than squatting? (0:44:22). Do “altitude masks” enhance training adaptations? (0:54:41). Studies discussed:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4879455/. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7338098/. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444164/. What are the risks and benefits of using nicotine to suppress appetite and increase energy? (1:08:17 ). Does cortisol really impact body composition and fat storage? (1:27:28). Research for further reading:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3959161/. Should people generally do minimalist, barbell-only warmups before their workouts? Are more extensive warmups a waste of time and energy? (1:34:24). Will blood tests for an avid lifter or natural bodybuilder reveal any expected abnormalities? (1:40:37). Studies discussed:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33105363/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28119632/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31134054/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30837600/. To Play Us Out: Replication in science (1:51:11). https://journals.sagepub.com/eprint/VEZTE8C9RDIBQ52CWMCP/full?fbclid=IwAR1kyJVg9_vXWa8pX5gIpz_tRdrcb93gOQkpd-hsFyDfhZWPrw5NxD9Ptl0
11/19/20202 hours, 5 minutes, 8 seconds
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Protein & Kidney Function; Cholesterol & Training Adaptations

If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunity. Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/. Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements (0:00:30). Good news (0:02:33). Feats of Strength (0:08:43). Research Review: High-protein diets and kidney function (0:09:58). Studies discussed:https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article/35/1/1/5614387https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article-abstract/35/1/98/5511599https://academic.oup.com/ndt/article/35/1/106/5320337Research Review: Dietary cholesterol and training adaptations (0:48:57). Studies discussed:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32576297/https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28978542/https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1096/fasebj.25.1_supplement.lb563https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Fulltext/2007/05001/Effect_of_Dietary_Cholesterol_on_Muscle.1949.aspxhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12603-009-0016-yhttps://academic.oup.com/biomedgerontology/article/62/10/1164/568431 Q&A (1:29:05). Is there a simple way to judge if I'm gaining too much fat during a bulk? (1:29:14). When we talk about CNS fatigue, what are we actually talking about mechanistically? Is there anything we can specifically do to improve CNS recovery? (1:41:52). Rapid fire for Eric (1:55:56):Is there any benefit regarding creatine cycling?What's your take on supplementing with leucine at every meal to optimize MPS?Does the effect of citrulline malate decrease with continuous use?If you are supplementing with collagen to help repair soft tissue and possibly mitigate pain, do you think it would be beneficial to antagonize the problem areas during your workouts to elicit an inflammatory response?For body comp and performance purposes, what are your thoughts on “behavior based” dietary interventions, rather than focusing solely on macro targets?Should athletes focused on cutting weight in a caloric deficit be worried about micronutrient deficiency?To play us out: Off-topic question (2:04:46). Given how you both train, what’s the biggest animal you think you could fight with caveman technology and win?
11/5/20202 hours, 13 minutes, 1 second
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Breakfast, Glycine, Muscle Knots, and Trigger Points

Season 3 pushes forward, and today’s episode is packed with information. The episode begins with some announcements, arguably good news, and feats of strength, followed by a couple quick research reviews about optimal breakfast composition to adequately fuel training and the potential applications of glycine supplementation for tendon and ligament adaptations. Then, Greg and Eric field listener questions about caffeine tolerance, muscle knots, trigger points, and more. To play us out, Greg shares some stunning revelations that will change the way you think about crabs. If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunitySubreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order.TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements, and a major correction (0:00:33). Good news (0:01:55). Selling Out (0:13:59). Feats of Strength (0:21:35). Research Review (0:26:29). Optimal breakfast to fuel training (0:26:45)Relevant studies:https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30707135/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32174286/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32674691/. Glycine supplementation for tendons and ligaments (0:42:23). Relevant studies: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6153947/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20093739/. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5371618/. Q&A (1:01:57). Ant-Man Wilks score revisited (1:02:01). Can you rank cooking methods from best to worst in terms of how they impact micronutrient content? (1:03:57). If strength/size gains come back relatively quickly after a cut, is there any benefit to cutting at a less conservative pace in order to spend a higher percentage of the year in a lean bulking phase? (1:07:43). Is flywheel training good for hypertrophy? (1:20:23). It is necessary to cycle caffeine for its ergogenic effects? (1:26:15). Are muscle knots and trigger points “real” and worth caring about? (1:36:10). To play us out: Crabs (1:44:40). 
10/22/20201 hour, 51 minutes, 38 seconds
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Bench Angles, Appetitive Traits, and Mesocycle Progression

If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/. To join in on the SBS conversation, check out our new Facebook group and subreddit.Facebook Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/StrongerByScienceCommunity. Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/StrongerByScience/. Finally, next time you stock up on supplements from BulkSupplements.com, be sure to use the promo code “SBSPOD” (all caps) to get 5% off your entire order. TIME STAMPSIntro/Announcements: new Facebook group, subreddit, and sponsor (0:00:36). Good news: animal edition (0:07:00). Feats of Strength (0:16:05). Research Roundup (0:18:49). Acute effects of cannabis consumption on exercise performance: a systematic and umbrella review (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32734752/) (0:19:10). Caffeine increases strength and power performance in resistance‐trained females during early follicular phase (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sms.13776) (0:26:15). Appetitive traits as targets for weight loss: The role of food cue responsiveness and satiety responsiveness (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0031938420303322) (0:33:37). Effects of Horizontal and Incline Bench Press on Neuromuscular Adaptations in Untrained Young Men (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449336/) (0:43:28). Creatine Supplementation Does Not Influence the Ratio Between Intracellular Water and Skeletal Muscle Mass in Resistance-Trained Men (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32916658/) (0:50:15). µ-Opioid receptor–induced synaptic plasticity in dopamine neurons mediates the rewarding properties of anabolic androgenic steroids (https://stke.sciencemag.org/content/13/647/eaba1169) (1:00:11). Metabolic adaptation is an illusion, only present when participants are in negative energy balance (https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa220/5897225) (1:10:30). Are questionable research practices facilitating new discoveries in sport and exercise medicine? The proportion of supported hypotheses is implausibly high (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32699001/) (1:18:01).Call to increase statistical collaboration in sports science, sport and exercise medicine and sports physiotherapy (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32816788/) (1:25:37). Coach’s Corner: how to progress load throughout a mesocycle (1:28:33). Q&A: what is Ant-Man’s Wilks score? (1:45:31). To play us out: football season barbecue tips (1:54:38). 
10/8/20202 hours, 5 minutes, 47 seconds
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Fireside Chat #8: Motivation, sports, steroids, and more

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #8, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss motivation, sports, steroids, and more.If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqaTime StampsWhat's the best way to motivate yourself? (0:01:20). What happens behind the scenes of SBS? (0:10:33). If you were to compete in a sport that was neither a strength sport nor one of the big 4-5 spectator sports of the western world, what would it be and why? (0:24:50). What sport is the most fascinating to you, or the sport in which it seems most unbelievable to reach the top levels of competition? (0:32:04). Why have you stayed steroid-free? (0:51:10). If you could take a pill to make you smarter, would you do it? (1:09:33). 
9/10/20201 hour, 19 minutes, 8 seconds
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Fireside Chat #7: Open science and biggest gym fails

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #7, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss the open science movement and their biggest gym fails.If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqaTIME STAMPSQuick “good news segment” update (0:00:19). What’s your take on the “open science” movement? (0:01:49). Article mentioned: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1420798/. Organization mentioned: http://storkinesiology.org/. What are your most hilarious gym fails? (0:59:32). 
8/6/20201 hour, 11 minutes, 19 seconds
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Season Finale: Tons of New Meta-Analyses and Q&A Catch-Up

Description: After opening the final episode of the season with a Good News segment, Greg & Eric make SBS Podcast history with the first ever prospective Feats of Strength segment. After that, Greg & Eric have an extensive Research Roundup segment in which they cover some brand new highlights from the freshly-updated Meta-Analysis Master List on StrongerByScience.com. That’s followed by a lengthy Q&A segment in which Greg & Eric try to answer as many training and nutrition questions as possible before the current season of the show comes to a close. Finally, they answer a couple of professional development questions for aspiring trainers and research interpreters To Play Them Out. Summer break begins with the conclusion of this episode, but Greg & Eric will be back with regular episodes in the fall. In the meantime, keep an eye out for the bonus audio content that will be released throughout the summer. To access the full Meta-Analysis Master List, you can go to https://www.strongerbyscience.com/master-list/. If you’d like to submit a question for a future Q&A segment, please go to tiny.cc/sbsqa. If you’d like to recommend someone for a future “On the Rise” segment, please go to tiny.cc/creators. If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/. TIME STAMPSAnnouncements (0:01:30). Good news (0:02:13): Supreme court decision: employment discrimination for LGBTQ+ people ruled unconstitutional.Creative solution for library book delivery. Feats of Strength: Prediction Edition (0:03:56). Research Roundup: Meta-analysis update highlights (0:09:15). Greg’s metas (0:11:01): The effect of exercise interventions on resting metabolic rate: A systematic review and meta-analysis. MacKenzie-Shalders et al. (2020). The Placebo and Nocebo effect on sports performance: A systematic review. Hurst et al. (2019). A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Foam Rolling on Performance and Recovery. Wiewelhove et al. (2019). Acute Effects of Foam Rolling on Range of Motion in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review with Multilevel Meta-analysis. Wilke et al. (2019). Is tDCS an Adjunct Ergogenic Resource for Improving Muscular Strength and Endurance Performance? A Systematic Review. Machado et al. (2019). Eric’s metas (0:40:00): Acute Effects of Citrulline Supplementation on High-Intensity Strength and Power Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Trexler et al. (2019). Effects of vitamin C on oxidative stress, inflammation, muscle soreness, and strength following acute exercise: meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Righi et al. (2020). Effect of Betaine on Reducing Body Fat—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Xiang et al. (2019). Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Muscular Strength and Endurance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Grgic et al. (2020). The Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Recovery Following Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review. Lakićević. (2019). The Effect of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Yarizadh et al. (2020). Effects of Arginine Supplementation on Athletic Performance Based on Energy Metabolism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Viribay et al. (2020). Q&A (1:14:18): Based on its mercury content, how much canned tuna can you eat on a weekly basis? (1:14:26). https://www.fda.gov/food/consumers/advice-about-eating-fish. Can I spread my training throughout the entire day instead of doing everything within a 60-90 minute “workout” period? (1:17:37).  Does hypothalamic amenorrhea impact hypertrophy? If eating at maintenance (or in a caloric surplus), does hypothalamic amenorrhea still have a negative impact on hypertrophy and athletic performance?" (1:20:47). How should we approach kids/adolescents and resistance training? How young is too young? Are there additional safety concerns? (1:25:30). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5532191/Rapid fire Q&A for Eric (1:34:14): Is it likely that habitual intake of nitrate-rich vegetables can induce the same ergogenic benefits that highly-concentrated supplements can? L-citrulline dosing guidelines. What is the optimal speed for consumption of a protein bolus? Is there a link between high-protein diets and kidney stones? L-theanine: purpose and dosing guidelines. Rapid fire Q&A for Greg (1:45:53): Lifting belts. Does acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) blunt hypertrophy or strength gains? Does being younger (16-19 years old) affect strength negatively? Categorizing lifters as “beginner,” “intermediate,” and beyond. To play us out: professional development questions (2:00:48). I am a newly certified personal trainer, and I am planning to submit applications for personal trainer positions at commercial facilities in a couple weeks. How does a new trainer know when they are "ready" to take on clients? I'm a first year psychology student. We recently had a class on how to read research articles, and many course materials laid out processes that would take about 5-6 hours for every single paper. What is your process for reading research? Does this change when you’re trying to get acquainted with a whole new body of literature versus evaluating a single paper on a familiar topic? 
7/2/20202 hours, 31 minutes
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Betaine, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Evaluating New Research as it Develops

Today’s episode starts off with a Good News segment and some brand new Feats of Strength. After that, Eric discusses his most recent SBS article about Betaine, and addresses some of the feedback that the article has received. This segment opens up into a broader discussion about how to evaluate a new body of research as it’s developing. Topics include conflicts of interest, how much evidence is required to justify experimentation, and when we can confidently conclude that an intervention simply doesn’t work. Some historical examples are discussed along the way, with some background information about how the steroid, creatine, caffeine, and citrulline malate literature developed over time. After that, Greg and Eric share a quick Research Roundup segment, followed by some off-topic questions To Play Them Out. If you’d like to submit a question for a future Q&A segment, please go to tiny.cc/sbsqa. If you’d like to recommend someone for a future “On the Rise” segment, please go to tiny.cc/creators. If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/.  TIME STAMPSAnnouncements (0:01:14). Good news (0:02:44): SBD replacing Metal singlets and DL socks for lifters who bought them in the past year.Bionic Eye, As Sensitive as The Human Retina, May Give Sight to Millions: https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/bionic-eye-sensitive-as-a-human-retina-may-give-sight-to-millions/.  Simple Injection Could Be the Cure for Wrestlers and Athletes Suffering From ‘Cauliflower Ear’: https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/injection-could-cure-cauliflower-ear/. Feats of Strength (0:10:16). SBS Article Discussion: Betaine (0:19:58): https://www.strongerbyscience.com/betaine/. Broader discussion on research interpretation (0:26:14). Subtopics include:How much do conflicts of interest matter? Are some conflicts more notable than others? When do we have enough evidence to justify trying something that’s unproven? When do we have enough evidence to conclude that something definitely doesn’t work? Historical perspectives: How did the steroid, creatine, caffeine, and citrulline malate literature develop over time? What would have been some ramifications of forming conclusions too quickly as the initial studies came out? Other recent SBS articles (1:01:46): https://www.strongerbyscience.com/returning-to-training/ (By Dr. Mike Zourdos and the MASS team). https://www.strongerbyscience.com/risks-of-returning/ (By Dr. Jason Eure, DPT). Research Roundup (1:05:37): To receive research roundup emails, you can sign up at: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/. Vitamin C and recovery (1:06:16): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32162041/, https://www.strongerbyscience.com/antioxidants/. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation and strength/muscular endurance (1:12:00): https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32096113/ , https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31533750/Effect size discussion (1:28:53). Power analysis for interactions: http://daniellakens.blogspot.com/2020/03/effect-sizes-and-power-for-interactions.html. To play us out: A few off-topic questions (1:37:54). Will you guys rescind your statements about liking Rage Against the Machine now that it has come out that they are actually leftists? How do you maintain focus while doing work very late at night? What’s your favorite method for making coffee? 
6/18/20201 hour, 51 minutes, 45 seconds
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Caffeine Genes, Brown Adipose Tissue, Concurrent Training, and Hangovers

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric share a little bit of good news, followed by a Feats of Strength segment. That’s followed by a Research Roundup segment discussing brand new research on the influence of genes on caffeine responses, recovery postures during high-intensity exercise, time-restricted feeding (intermittent fasting), and concurrent training (cardio + lifting). After that, Greg and Eric field some listener questions in a Q&A segment covering topics including cold exposure, the effects of race and ethnicity on body composition estimation, nutrition during deloads, and hangover prevention tips. Finally, Evan Peikon is featured in this week’s On The Rise segment, and a few off-topic questions are answered to play us out.If you’d like to submit a question for a future Q&A segment, please go to tiny.cc/sbsqa. If you’d like to recommend someone for a future “On the Rise” segment, please go to tiny.cc/creators. If you’d like to receive Research Roundup emails, please sign up for our email list at https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/.  TIME STAMPSAnnouncements (0:01:00). Good news (0:02:47). Breakthrough For Kenyan Scientists Who Discover Natural Microbe That Completely Stops Malaria in Mosquitoes: https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/microbe-completely-stops-malaria-in-mosquitoes-discovered/. Specially-Trained Dogs Have Saved 45 Rhinos From Poachers in South Africa: https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/dogs-have-saved-45-rhinos-from-poachers/. Feats of Strength (0:06:38). Research Roundup (0:16:38). To receive research roundup emails, you can sign up at: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/newsletter/. Caffeine and genetics (0:17:40). Grgic et al. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161272/. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32168870/. Effects of Two Different Recovery Postures during High-Intensity Interval Training (0:33:52). Michaelson et al. https://journals.lww.com/acsm-tj/fulltext/2019/02150/effects_of_two_different_recovery_postures_during.1.aspx. Four Weeks of Time-Restricted Feeding Combined With Resistance Training Does Not Differentially Influence Measures of Body Composition, Muscle Performance, Resting Energy Expenditure, and Blood Biomarkers (0:45:37).  Stratton et al. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32316561/. Adaptations to strength training differ between endurance-trained and untrained women (0:58:14). Vikmoen et al. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00421-020-04381-x. Q&A (1:09:48). Can cold exposure be used as a fat loss strategy? (1:10:01). Do you buy the idea that certain ethnicities have a genetic tendency to store fat in different places? (1:24:04). Should nutrition be altered during a deload? (1:31:51). Best hangover cure/prevention tips? (1:37:41). On the Rise (1:49:39). Evan Peikon: https://www.instagram.com/evan_peikon/. https://www.trainingthinktank.com/To play us out (1:53:32): Pancakes vs. waffles? Cool Ranch Doritos vs. Nacho Cheese? R or SPSS or Excel? 
6/4/20202 hours, 9 minutes, 32 seconds
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Fireside Chat #6: Research pet peeves, alternate careers, social media, and self-love

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #6, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss common research things that bother them, other careers they’ve considered (or are considering), their social media habits, how to develop self-love and positivity, and some of the most unbelievable outliers they’ve seen in the gym.If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqa. TIME STAMPSWhat bothers you the most when you come across it in a study? (0:00:55). What other careers have you considered? Are there any other careers that you’d like to pursue in the future? (0:24:06). Are you mindful about what you share on social media? What’s your thought process behind what you post? (0:35:25). How does one develop self-love, self-confidence, and a positive outlook on life? (0:46:59). What are some of the most unbelievable “outlier things” you’ve seen in the gym? (1:02:18). 
5/21/20201 hour, 20 minutes, 38 seconds
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Pelvic Health, Lifting During and After Pregnancy, and More with Marika Hart and Molly Galbraith

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric sit down for an interview with Molly Galbraith and Marika Hart from Girls Gone Strong. The conversation covers a wide range of female-specific lifting topics, including pelvic health, resistance training during and after pregnancy, and more. If you are a female lifter, or train female lifters, this interview is full of incredibly useful (and potentially surprising) information that isn’t discussed nearly as frequently as it should be.Time StampsPelvic health (incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, pelvic floor dysfunction, and more) (0:00:49). Unbelievable prevalence statistics related to pelvic health in female athletes (0:15:26). Lifting and pregnancy: First trimester (0:39:38). Lifting and pregnancy: Second trimester (0:55:00). Lifting and pregnancy: Third trimester (1:02:31). Lifting and pregnancy: After childbirth (1:09:57). Other “blind spots” that male coaches should know about (1:27:51). Contact information and resources (1:35:15). Links to resources: Guidelines for pre- and postnatal exercise: Canadian guidelines for exercise in pregnancy/postnatal period: https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/52/21/1339. BJSM/IOC guidelines for exercise in pregnancy for recreational and elite athletes: https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/10/571. Free resources for continued learning: GGS Free 5-day course: What You Must Know About Pelvic Health: https://go.girlsgonestrong.com/pelvic-health-free-course. GGS Free 5-day course: Exercises Your Clients Should Do and Avoid During and After Pregnancy: https://go.girlsgonestrong.com/cppc-free-course-exercises-do-avoid.Podcast: Women's Health Podcast with Marika Hart and Antony Lo: https://womenshealthpodcast.info/. Free FB Group: GGS Coaching & Training Women: https://www.facebook.com/groups/GGSCoachingandTrainingWomen/. Paid resource for continued learning:Certification: Girls Gone Strong's Pre- & Postnatal Coaching Certification: http://girlsgonestrong.com/cppc. 
5/14/20201 hour, 41 minutes, 44 seconds
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Behavior Change and Eating Habits with Dr. Krista Scott-Dixon

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric sit down for an interview with Dr. Krista Scott-Dixon. Topics of discussion include behavior change, how to change eating behaviors, common mistakes that dieters and nutrition coaches make, and how someone might assess (and potentially improve) their relationship with food. Of course, this discussion is for educational purposes; if you suspect that you have disordered eating habits, you should consult with a qualified medical professional. Time StampsKrista’s background (0:01:18). Why is it so difficult to change behavior in general? (0:04:01). Are eating habits particularly hard to change? How do we successfully change them? (0:09:12). What are some big or common mistakes that nutrition coaches make with their clients? (0:28:42). What are the biggest mistakes you see people make when they have an unsuccessful diet attempt? (0:32:08). How do you make behavior change seem “sexy” or “exciting” to people? (0:38:12). What exactly influences our relationship with food, and how might we go about improving it? (0:47:51). The importance of cooking (0:58:00). 
5/7/20201 hour, 4 minutes, 17 seconds
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Interview with Jeff Nippard: On genetic limits, FFMI, training, and nutrition

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric sit down for an interview with Jeff Nippard. Topics of discussion include genetic limits, fat-free mass index, high-frequency training, how Jeff’s training and nutrition approaches have evolved over the years, Jeff’s process for creating high-quality content, and the applications and limitations of EMG research. TIME STAMPSHow does it feel to be fake natty? (discussion on FFMI and genetics and FFMI) (0:01:12). How has your training evolved over the years? (0:13:55). High-frequency training (0:36:12). Jeff's video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_jD2WvvP0Jw. What’s your diet history? (discussion on bulking, post-cut weight gain, etc.) (1:06:50). The content side (discussion about Jeff’s process for creating content) (1:19:12). Applications and limitations of EMG research (1:32:43). 
4/30/20201 hour, 46 minutes, 14 seconds
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Fireside Chat #5: Fitness myths, music, determinism, and the infamous 'Florida Man'

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #5, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss fitness myths that they wish were true, music, determinism, and the infamous “Florida Man.”If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqaTime StampsEric makes announcements (and flexes) (0:00:30). Links: https://www.nutritioncoachingglobal.com/. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00329/full. Fitness myths we wish were true (0:03:11). Music (0:17:24). Eric's favorites: Radiohead, INTERPOL, the strokes, the black keys, wilco/rage against the machine, audioslave, dave rawlings & gillian welch. Greg's favorites: Rise Against, Anberlin, Yellowcard, Silverstein.  Harder stuff:  RATM, Lamb of God, Children of Bodom. Mainstream stuff: Post Malone, Katy Perry (Teenage Dream), Taylor Swift (1989), Early BOB (adventures of bobby ray and strange clouds), Daft Punk, Muse, Kanye, Jay-Z, Eminem (super hit and miss), Borns, Chvrches, Kendrick, early Luda, Arctic Monkeys, J Cole. Slightly less popular: Coheed, Tech N9ne, Saosin, Run the Jewels, Shiny Toy Guns, Stormzy, Brother Ali, Freddie Gibbs. Older: Biggie, Billy Joel, Elton John, David Bowie, Earth Wind and Fire. While I’m working: classical guitar (John Williams, Andy McKee, Andres Segovia), or synthwave. Determinism (0:26:33). “Florida Man…” (0:45:12). 
4/23/202056 minutes, 19 seconds
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Gut Health with Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric sit down for an interview with Dr. Gabrielle Fundaro. The discussion covered a wide range of topics related to gut health, including fiber intake, meat intake, artificial sweeteners, sugar alcohols, probiotics, and much more. TIME STAMPSDr. Fundaro’s background (0:00:29). What exactly is “gut health”? (0:04:14). Are “enterotypes” legit?  (0:11:16). Fiber (0:15:50). Meat (0:18:57). Artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols (0:26:46). Fermentable foods (0:40:00). Prebiotics and probiotics (0:44:55). Antibiotics (0:51:09). Fecal transplants (0:57:15). Summary and conclusions (1:02:44). Does Dr. Fundaro use any training or nutrition strategies that aren’t fully supported by scientific evidence yet? (1:06:01). 
4/16/20201 hour, 10 minutes, 12 seconds
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Q&A: Training frequency, reducing caloric intake on rest days, and isometric training

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric share a little bit of good news, followed by a Q&A segment. Topics covered include training frequency, reducing caloric intake on rest days, strength reductions during weight loss, low-calorie diets, isometric training, and much more. Then, this week’s On The Rise segment features Daniel DeBrocke. Finally, Eric shares an easy lentil soup recipe that is actually pretty good.   If you’d like to submit a question for a future Q&A segment, please go to tiny.cc/sbsqaIf you’d like to recommend someone for a future “On the Rise” segment, please go to tiny.cc/creators TIME STAMPSGood News (00:01:08). Links: https://www.goodnewsnetwork.org/tour-2500-world-famous-museums-from-comfort-your-own-sofa/. https://www.coursera.org/learn/the-science-of-well-being. Q&ADo you try to limit things like caffeine, artificial sweeteners, diet soda, or any calorie-free things, either during a weight loss diet or during maintenance or bulking phases? (00:07:11). How much of a difference do steroids make for muscle growth? (00:16:01). Links: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/much-steroids-increase-hypertrophy/. https://www.strongerbyscience.com/steroids-and-strength-differences/. When experiencing strength loss while cutting, how can you tell if the loss in strength is a natural part of being in a caloric deficit, or a result of overreaching? (00:23:06). I have been squatting 2 or 3 times a week for the last year. Is it reasonable to expect to continue progressing while only squatting once a week? How should I structure it to get the most out of it? (00:35:36). I've heard meal timing throughout the day is fairly inconsequential, but does the literature show any meaningful benefits to having high calorie workout days and low calorie rest days? Specifically for limiting fat accumulation? (00:44:04). What's the latest on strength and isometrics? Given gym closures and my limited home equipment, I'm thinking of using isometrics to help maintain strength on the squat, bench, and deadlift. (00:58:08). Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30580468. Eric has mentioned a couple times that he's gotten down to 1500 calories during prep. Other than copious amounts of shredded chicken, what would the most nutritionally-complete 1500 calorie meal plan look like? (01:07:21). On The Rise: Daniel DeBrocke (01:21:13). https://kabukistrength.com/optimize-recovery-maximal-strength-gains-daniel-debrocke/. https://www.stackedstrength.com/. https://www.instagram.com/stackedstrength/. To Play Us Out: Chef Eric’s Easy Lentil Soup (01:24:58). 
4/9/20201 hour, 31 minutes, 43 seconds
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Fireside Chat #4: Hidden talents, changing people's minds, and beer

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #4, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss their hidden talents, their transitions from “bro-science” to evidence-based fitness, changing peoples’ minds, and beer. If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqaTime StampsHidden talents (00:01:07). Transitioning from “bro-science” to evidence-based fitness (00:19:38). Changing people’s minds (00:32:45). Beer (01:01:19). 
4/6/20201 hour, 15 minutes, 50 seconds
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Fireside Chat #3: Style and fashion, defining moments, and food questions

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #3, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss their style and fashion preferences, reflect on a couple of defining moments in their lives, and answer a series of controversial food questions.If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqa**TIME STAMPS** Style and fashion (00:00:35). Defining moments (00:22:13). Controversial food questions (00:43:03). 
4/2/202059 minutes, 30 seconds
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Fireside Chat #2

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #2, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss their biggest pet peeves and provide unreliable advice about dating and relationships.If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqa**TIME STAMPS** Biggest pet peeves (00:05:23). Favorite games (board games, video games, etc.) (00:19:03). Dating (00:27:50). Relationships (00:44:30).
3/30/20201 hour, 9 minutes, 37 seconds
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Fireside Chat #1

Fireside chats are a collection of conversational, off-topic episodes hosted by Greg Nuckols. In Fireside Chat #1, Greg sits down with Eric Trexler to discuss television, film, and work-life balance.If you’d like to ask questions or recommend topics for a future Fireside Chat, you can submit them at tiny.cc/sbsqa**TIME STAMPS** Television (00:01:37). Film (00:27:45). Work-life balance (00:39:04).
3/26/202059 minutes, 41 seconds
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Immune Function, Home-Based Workouts, Fat Burners, and Lifting with Long Limbs

The COVID-19 pandemic has had wide-ranging impacts, with some of those impacts relating to fitness. In today’s episode, Greg and Eric discuss the small, free, easy things you can do to support normal immune function, and how to construct some effective home-based workouts with little to no equipment. After that, they debut a “Good News” segment, which we all could use, followed by a Q&A segment that includes questions about protein intake, lifting with long limbs, eating to support injury prevention (or recovery), bench press range of motion, fat burners, and more. Finally, Greg shares a risotto recipe to play us out, and Eric adds a couple extra tips to take that risotto to the next level.   New article – "How to Make Gains Without a Gym" – https://www.strongerbyscience.com/no-gym/. If you’d like to submit a question for a future Q&A segment, please go to tiny.cc/sbsqa. If you’d like to recommend someone for a future “On the Rise” segment, please go to tiny.cc/creators. Finally, keep an eye out for some extra, off-topic episodes in the days to come.  TIME STAMPSNews and Announcements (0:01:35). Coach’s Corner (0:06:55). Supporting immune function (0:07:00). Home-based workouts with no (or minimal) equipment (0:20:29). Good News (0:48:20). Q&A (0:54:18). What is the evidence around nutrition and injury prevention or recovery? Specifically, is there any research on prolonged cuts and effect on risk of injury? (0:54:26).Should long-limbed lifters train differently than lifters with more typical proportions? Does this advice change if the focus is strength versus hypertrophy? (1:00:05).Two protein questions. 1) There are huge discrepancies with protein recommendations. Some organizations recommend as low as 0.36g per pound, but some bodybuilders eat 400-500g per day. Where is the sweet spot, and is it possible to over-do it? 2) For my total daily protein intake, should I only count proteins from animal and dairy sources, since they are considered “high-quality” or “complete” proteins? (1:17:29).Is there enough evidence to justify modifying training to include some bench pressing with a particularly long range of motion? For example, adding in some bench pressing with a flatter back arch and narrower grip? (1:30:57).I am currently taking a stim-free fat burner with several ingredients, and I feel like it helps curb my appetite. Are these ingredients actually doing anything, or am I just wasting my money? (1:41:13).To Play Us Out: How to make risotto (1:52:46). 
3/23/20202 hours, 8 minutes, 3 seconds
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Heart Rate Variability, Antagonist Stretching, and Chrononutrition

Greg and Eric’s plans to morph the show into a political podcast have met an untimely end, but the show must go on. In today’s episode, they discuss some totally unsubstantiated claims about the coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, followed by some impressive Feats of Strength. After that, Eric shares a research review about how the timing of your meals may alter the metabolic response to feeding, then Greg shares a research roundup about energy expenditure during times of vigorous mental effort, antagonist stretching for strength and power, and using heart rate variability to gauge your recovery from lifting. Then, Greg and Eric answer a few listener questions, share a very tentative recommendation for the “On the Rise” segment, and share a very confident recommendation for the “On the Rise” segment. To close the episode, Greg discusses some of his favorite sources of fun, informative educational content that is not fitness related, and Eric one-ups him by sharing the only source of information a person would ever need.If you’d like to submit a question for a future Q&A segment, please go to tiny.cc/sbsqaIf you’d like to recommend someone for a future “On the Rise” segment, please go to tiny.cc/creators – TIME STAMPS –New program for sale: Average to Savage 2.0: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/average-to-savage/ (0:00:59). Lamenting the untimely terminations of the Klobuchar and Bloomberg campaigns (0:05:30). Coronavirus (COVID-19) impacts the fitness world (0:07:29). Article from Beth Skwarecki: https://vitals.lifehacker.com/no-the-keto-diet-wont-give-you-special-protection-from-1842057362.  Feats of Strength (0:13:20). Research Review: Twice as High Diet-Induced Thermogenesis After Breakfast vs Dinner On High-Calorie as Well as Low-Calorie Meals (0:21:03). Study: https://academic.oup.com/jcem/article-abstract/105/3/dgz311/5740411?redirectedFrom=fulltext. SBS Guest Article by Danny Lennon: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/chrononutrition/. Research Roundup (0:35:31). The stress of chess players as a model to study the effects of psychological stimuli on physiological responses: an example of substrate oxidation and heart rate variability in man: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18987876. Effect of acute antagonist static stretching on upper-body agonist power: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1747954119884441. Profiles of Heart Rate Variability and Bar Velocity following Resistance Exercise: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Profiles_of_Heart_Rate_Variability_and_Bar.96369.aspx. Q&A (0:59:44).  Advice for reducing the interference effect for recreational lifters? (0:59:49). Do you need to worry about your muscle fiber type when it comes to power and rate of force development? From a training perspective, what can be done to improve power and rate of force development? (1:10:31). Given its osmolytic properties, could taking trimethylglycine (betaine) during “peak week” be a good idea for natural bodybuilders? Has it been tried before? (1:27:59). Are programs limited by our natural tendency to think in weeks? Could it be beneficial to have microcycles that last, for example, 5 days or 9 days? (1:45:15). On the Rise? Marco Sterpa (1:52:21). https://www.science2muscle.it/. https://www.instagram.com/marco.sterpa/. Science to Muscle on YT:  https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyJ5Mu0exw8ol89Y3Vu8FfA. On the Rise: Travis Pollen (1:57:10). http://www.fitnesspollenator.com/search. https://www.3m-ap.com/. https://www.instagram.com/fitness_pollenator/. To Play Us Out (2:01:00)Sources of fun, informative educational content that is not fitness-related. 
3/12/20202 hours, 10 minutes, 2 seconds
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Antioxidants, Injury Risk Factors, and the Conjugate Method

We’re back with a new episode after a week of exhausting President’s Day and National Sticky Bun Day celebrations. In today’s episode, Greg shares some Feats of Strength, along with an announcement about how to participate in a Reddit Program Party featuring his new program, Average to Savage 2.0. This episode also features discussions about two new articles on the website; one article discusses everything lifters would want to know about antioxidants, and the other discusses which factors influence injury risk in powerlifters. After that, we discuss some research about muscle protein synthesis and links between artificial sweeteners and stroke risk, followed by some Q&A questions. We also debut a new segment called “On the Rise,” in which we showcase up-and-coming creators of fitness content that are worth a follow. Finally, to close out the show, Greg shares some cooking-related information, then I totally upstage and outshine him with my spicy chicken recipe. TIME STAMPSPreparing for Leap Day (0:00:53). Announcement: Reddit Program Party, featuring Average to Savage 2.0 (0:01:32). Link. Happy President’s Day and National Sticky Bun Day from the Stronger By Science Family (0:03:22). Feats of Strength (0:04:47). SBS Article Discussion: “Antioxidants for Lifters: A Review of the Evidence” (0:10:17). Link. SBS Article Discussion: “What Factors Influence Injury Risk in Powerlifters? (Injury series, Part 3)” (0:36:57). Link. Artificial Sweeteners and Risk of Stroke and Dementia (0:51:04). Links: https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023100https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.024456https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/strokeaha.116.016027https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/full/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.017198https://www.tctmd.com/news/new-aha-advisory-waffles-artificially-sweetened-drinks-citing-dearth-studieshttps://www.sciencealert.com/everything-we-eat-both-causes-and-prevents-cancerQuick Research Review about factors influencing muscle protein synthesis (1:08:05)Study title: The effect of sleep restriction, with or without high‐intensity interval exercise, on myofibrillar protein synthesis in healthy young men. Link: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1113/JP278828?fbclid=IwAR0rI37tD9XvmnkVCmknqqsRzZSLobHkQ4QPIyqFv_qq2A1XanfHYWpENlE. Q&A (1:21:02). Does mouthwash affect blood pressure and muscle pumps by altering nitric oxide production? (1:21:09). What is Greg’s stance on the conjugate method for raw lifters? How would he adjust it, if necessary, for a raw lifter? (1:24:45). Is it okay to mix your creatine drink the night before you drink it? (1:35:50). New segment: On the Rise (1:39:55). Meghan Callaway: https://www.instagram.com/meghancallawayTo Play Us Out: Dueling Cooking Tips (1:45:41). Greg’s attempt: Cooking with mushrooms. Eric’s triumph: Easy spicy chicken recipe. 
2/27/20201 hour, 58 minutes, 25 seconds
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Metabolic Rate, Artificial Sweeteners, Electromyography, and Non-Failure Training

Just in time for Valentine’s Day, Greg and Eric are back with another episode. First, Greg shares some recent Feats of Strength. Next, Greg & Eric answer some listeners’ questions about topics such as resting metabolic rate prediction equations, electromyography, vitamin D and fish oil supplementation, standing desks, and more. That’s followed by a Research Roundup segment, which covers recent research on plant-based proteins, training shy of failure, and artificial sweeteners, in addition to a critical review of “Why We Sleep.” Finally, the relationship between lifting technique and injury risk is discussed in a brief Coach’s Corner segment, and Greg shares some sous vide cooking tips to close out the episode.Time Stamps(0:00:26) Happy Valentine’s Day from the Stronger By Science Family.(0:02:41) Feats of Strength.Q&A:(0:14:06) Can you cover the (in)accuracy of online RMR calculators?(0:25:34) Lots of questions about EMG, stemming from the recent Barbalho study.Study link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31975359. (0:40:10) I've heard that having additional muscle mass can have effects on metabolism. Is this true?(0:44:58) When combining unilateral and bilateral training in the same session, is it more advantageous to do unilateral or bilateral first?(0:50:53) Do either of you guys still see a point in vitamin D and fish oil supplementation?(1:23:19) If I was born with poor lifting genes, yet continued to perform resistance exercises out of passion, and then give birth to a child who inherited my poor genes, who also performed resistance exercise...how many generations of children would be needed before a noticeable difference in lifting-specific genes was present?(1:32:16) Are standing desks scientifically any better for athletes then sitting all day and how is that quantifiable?Research Roundup(1:42:43) Differential Responses of Blood Essential Amino Acid Levels Following Ingestion of High-Quality Plant-Based Protein Blends Compared to Whey Protein-A Double-Blind Randomized, Cross-Over, Clinical Trial. Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31817691. (1:51:41) Non-failure training for strength. Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26666744. (2:06:32) Artificial sweeteners.Effects of Stevia Extract on Postprandial Glucose Response, Satiety and Energy Intake: A Three-Arm Crossover Trial. Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31842388. Short-Term Impact of Sucralose Consumption on the Metabolic Response and Gut Microbiome of Healthy Adults. Study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31258108.(2:28:04) A critical review of “Why We Sleep.” Article: https://guzey.com/books/why-we-sleep/.(2:43:39) Coach’s Corner: Lifting technique and injury risk. Roundtable link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tt1869DNYLY.(2:54:45) To Play Us Out: Sous vide cooking tips.
2/13/20203 hours, 10 minutes, 46 seconds
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Cell Swelling, Genetic Ceilings, Touch-and-Go Deadlifts, and Load-Specific Adaptations

Greg and Eric are back with the second episode of Season 2, and it’s a great one. First, the guys discuss a ton of remarkable Feats of Strength from the last few weeks. Next, Greg & Eric answer some listeners’ questions about topics such as fat-free mass index, pre-workout nutrition, building strength without adding muscle, and whether or not you should use touch-and-go reps while deadlifting. That’s followed by a Research Roundup segment, which discusses some fascinating new articles about the relationship between muscle fluid volume and force, the effects of protein intake on bone health, and high-load versus low-load training. After that, Eric gives an explosive update on the drama related to the red meat/processed meat research that has caused quite a stir in the nutrition world. Finally, Greg delivers on his promise and explains how to bake the perfect loaf of sourdough bread. TIME STAMPS: (0:01:14) Announcement: Stronger By Science Studies Archive: Link: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/studies-archive/ . (0:08:15) Feats of Strength. Q&A:(0:32:48) What percentage of guys do you think can achieve a fat-free mass index above 25? (0:51:35) What are your thoughts on touch-and-go deadlifts versus resetting every rep? (0:59:57) Do you think it would be beneficial to implement “diet breaks” while bulking? (1:07:16) Do you have any evidence based suggestions for a female who is looking to maintain muscle and gain strength without inducing further hypertrophy? (1:20:40) How does my pre-workout meal look? 2 scoops of whey, 10g of dextrose, 30-45 minutes before working out. Also, would there be any benefit of a post-workout shake? Research Roundup: (1:27:57) Effects of Dietary Protein Quantity on Bone Quantity following Weight Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31301138. (1:32:49) Passive muscle tension increases in proportion to intramuscular fluid volume. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/222/21/jeb209668. (1:50:48) Resistance Exercise-induced Changes in Muscle Phenotype Are Load Dependent. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31306302. Drama (update): (2:01:10) MORE stuff on red meat/processed meat.https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2759201?fbclid=IwAR0DN_lQzvP4xowrddgSKID_68szayGFCqAtlOzSQPs5-c0iAj1TW7exZjs. https://www.tamus.edu/texas-am-chancellor-calls-on-harvard-to-investigate-its-faculty-members/. To Play Us Out: (2:18:54) How to bake the perfect loaf of sourdough bread. 
1/30/20202 hours, 36 minutes, 36 seconds
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Doping, Collagen, Goals, and Hyperplasia

We’re back from our winter break with an excellent episode to kick off Season 2. This episode features an important update from the Game Changers cinematic universe, and some incredible feats of strength involving athletes with unbelievable longevity in a variety of physically demanding sports. Greg discusses a new documentary with some explosive allegations about doping in weightlifting, and then we get into some science-heavy segments with a Q&A and a Research Roundup. Topics include collagen supplementation, muscle hyperplasia, new caffeine research, and more. Finally, we discuss some more practical information about goal setting, programming your training during weight loss, and how to make really, really good caramel.TIME STAMPS0:00:52 Winter break recap, show structure moving forward. 0:06:23 Hugely important developments from the Game Changers cinematic universe. 0:09:02 Feats of Strength. 0:21:05 New documentary about doping in weightlifting. 0:40:06 Q&A. 0:40:21 What is the best way to achieve/plan for lifting goals going into the new year? 0:45:10 Is anyone looking into how we can increase our overall potential for muscle growth by boosting hyperplasia? 0:59:35 Does collagen or glycine supplementation provide any benefit to connective tissue, muscle, or skin, beyond simply increasing protein quantity? 1:13:13 What do you think about Brian Minor’s theory that being able to lift more is a result of hypertrophy, rather than hypertrophy being a result of lifting heavier? 1:26:09 Research Roundup. 1:26:32 Effects of acute caffeine, theanine and tyrosine supplementation on mental and physical performance in athletes. https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0326-3. 1:35:45 High Compared with Moderate Protein Intake Reduces Adaptive Thermogenesis and Induces a Negative Energy Balance during Long-term Weight-Loss Maintenance in Participants with Prediabetes in the Postobese State: A PREVIEW Study. https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/jn/nxz281/5637681. 1:43:51 Coach’s Corner: Programming your training during weight loss. 1:53:28 To Play Us Out: Mailbag update on processed meat meta-analysis, and how to make really good caramels at home. 
1/16/20202 hours, 28 minutes, 42 seconds
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Year in Review, Effective Reps and Antioxidants Revisited, Behavior Change, and Mike Tuchscherer

The final episode of the year begins with a brief recap of the wins and losses we experienced in 2019, and an announcement about our podcasting plans for 2020. After that, Greg shares some Feats of Strength, along with a “Hot Off the Presses” segment about recent research on the effective reps concept and antioxidant supplementation. In addition, Eric discusses some key behavior change theories to help you (or your clients) successfully modify their health-related habits and behaviors in 2020. Finally, Greg and Eric interview world champion powerlifter Mike Tuchscherer about all things powerlifting.TIME STAMPS0:00:41 Recap of 20190:11:24 Podcast plans for 20200:18:54 Feats of Strength0:33:03 Hot Off the Presses: Effective RepsLink to study: https://journals.lww.com/nsca-jscr/Abstract/publishahead/Is_Performing_Repetitions_to_Failure_Less.94611.aspxLink to Stronger By Science article: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/effective-reps/Link to previous discussion on the “effective reps” concept: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/qa/training/#What_is_the_evidence_for_8220effective_reps82210:42:49 Hot Off the Presses: Antioxidants. Studies discussed:Clifford 2019: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31851538Bjornsen 2015: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/sms.12506Paulsen 2014: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1113/jphysiol.2014.279950Dutra 2018: https://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/10.1139/apnm-2017-0866Dutra 2019: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413849/1:06:00 Coach’s Corner: Changing health-related habits and behaviorsArticle link: https://blog.nasm.org/behavior-change-and-motivation/behavior-change-science/1:19:39 To Play Us Out: New Year’s Resolutions1:24:49 Interview: Mike Tuchscherer1:31:50 Mike’s background1:40:17 What are your biggest accomplishments as an athlete?1:41:40 RPE (rating of perceived exertion) and RIR (repetitions in reserve) have become increasingly popular training concepts in recent years. Is this a double-edged sword? Are people using them in ways you didn’t foresee, or misusing them in ways that you find frustrating?1:52:39 Emerging strategies - what’s the idea? How do you choose what to try in the first place?1:59:53 How do you go about helping athletes find the best technique for themselves?2:21:07 Since you’ve coached so many world-class lifters, what are signs a lifter is nearing their ultimate limits? What do you think ultimately limits progress?2:30:16 Do you swear by any training methods or techniques that go against the scientific consensus (or conventional wisdom)?2:40:40 Where can people stay up-to-date with Mike online?
12/26/20192 hours, 43 minutes, 47 seconds
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Q&A: Myonuclei, Sodium Bicarbonate, Bands For Hypertrophy, and More Game Changers

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about how the myonuclear domain theory relates to hypertrophy, sodium bicarbonate supplementation, using bands for hypertrophy training, and more. In addition, Eric defends his honor, his integrity, and his original review of the Game Changers movie in response to harsh criticism.  If you want your questions answered on a future episode, you can submit them using the following link: tiny.cc/sbsqa TIME STAMPS0:00:44 What is Greg's take on the current state of the literature regarding the myonuclear domain theory and hypertrophy? Has he updated his position or recommendations since he published his “Grow Like a Newbie” article back in 2015?Article referenced: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/grow-like-a-new-lifter-again/Interview with Alex: https://sbspod.com/episodes/reading-research-the-placebo-diet-muscle-memory-and-alex-kolliari-turner0:16:46 What are your thoughts on sodium bicarbonate supplementation for the enhancement of sprint performance?Study on sodium bicarbonate and training adaptations: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=29718968Study on sodium bicarbonate dosing protocols:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/315337500:33:35 What is your take on using chains or bands, specifically when the goal is hypertrophy?0:47:23 Can Eric discuss the recent “Game Changers” debate on the Joe Rogan podcast? Can he defend his indefensible review of the “Game Changers” movie, and defend his honor and integrity in the process?Original review of the documentary: https://sbspod.com/episodes/the-game-changers-vegan-diets-foam-rolling-and-keto-with-michael-hullTwitter thread reviewing the debate: https://twitter.com/ChrisMasterjohn/status/12026858508045066241:13:28 Can your aerobic fitness level hinder your progress in a strength training program?
12/19/20191 hour, 26 minutes, 55 seconds
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Fructose, Knee Sleeves, Weight Loss Variability, and James Krieger

Greg kicks off the episode with an insincere but legally valid apology, followed by some impressive feats of strength. Then, Eric covers a brand new fructose study in a new segment called “Hot Off the Presses,” and Greg shares some new research related to knee sleeves. After that, Eric has a big Research Roundup segment about why some people struggle to lose weight, and Greg provides some tips to help you perfect your turkey roasting. Finally, Greg and Eric interview James Krieger about topics including the insulin hypothesis, non-exercise activity thermogenesis, why you should or shouldn’t get your body composition measured, and more. TIME STAMPS0:01:19 Greg’s formal apology0:05:50 Feats of strength0:17:52 Hot Off The Press: High fructose dietsSmajis et al. Metabolic effects of a prolonged, very-high-dose dietary fructose challenge in healthy subjects: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqz271/5651310?redirectedFrom=fulltext0:23:17 Hot Off The Press: Greg’s knee sleeve hypothesis. Studies referenced:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S002192901930555Xhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11332-019-00595-50:33:50 Research Roundup: Weight loss success is highly, highly individualOrtega-Santos et al: The Key to Successful Weight Loss on a High-Fiber Diet May Be in Gut Microbiome Prevotella Abundance: https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-abstract/149/12/2083/5580874Hollstein et al: Metabolic response to fasting predicts weight gain during low-protein overfeeding in lean men: further evidence for spendthrift and thrifty metabolic phenotypes: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article/110/3/593/5512175Buckland et al: Women with a low-satiety phenotype show impaired appetite control and greater resistance to weight loss: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition/article/women-with-a-lowsatiety-phenotype-show-impaired-appetite-control-and-greater-resistance-to-weight-loss/E47492322273FB7DF00DC688F4882E83Yokum and Stice: Weight gain is associated with changes in neural response to palatable food tastes varying in sugar and fat and palatable food images: a repeated-measures fMRI study: https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqz204/5570572?redirectedFrom=fulltextKlatzkin et al: Negative affect is associated with increased stress-eating for women with high perceived life stress: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S00319384193040681:00:58 The incomplete list of things that affect weight loss variability1:11:55 To Play Us Out: Turkey roasting tips1:25:40 Interview with James Krieger1:28:32 Insulin hypothesis: Definition and shortcomings1:47:20 Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and weight loss/weight regain2:10:06 Body composition measurementWhat are the most accurate methods?How bad is too bad for individual use?Alberto Nunez DEXA: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4X2DFfaTvjI2:19:25 Research in exercise science/sports nutritionBiggest area requiring improvement?What trends or changes do you hope or expect to see in the near future?2:42:35 As a coach, do you use any strategies that lack scientific substantiation, or even “go against the grain” of the current consensus in the evidence-based fitness community?2:46:49 Where can people find James online?
12/12/20192 hours, 48 minutes, 50 seconds
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Q&A: High Protein Diets, Hardgainers, Exercise Variety, and Bone Adaptations

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about the use of machines versus free weights, the importance of exercise variety, why some “hardgainers” struggle to gain weight, some interesting physiological roles of bone, and much more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric share some advice on how aspiring students can obtain good letters of recommendation, and how to make your way into the world of research.  If you want your questions answered on a future episode, you can submit them using the following link: tiny.cc/sbsqa TIME STAMPS0:02:14 Are there any downsides associated with high protein diets? Is the “one gram per pound of body weight” rule good?Study referenced: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2016/9104792/0:13:50 Is there any reason to believe that changing exercises circumvents the diminishing returns observed with completing several sets of the same exercise?Study referenced: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/248329740:24:49 Are machines better or worse than free weights for hypertrophy?Study referenced: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/277358880:36:39 We know that bone mineral density improves with weight training. Is there any reason to believe that purposefully improving bone mass could be a way to improve muscle mass and strength? Is it even possible to prioritize bone mass accretion in this manner?Study referenced: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/278854100:50:13 Do "hardgainers" benefit from exceeding one gram of protein per pound of body weight? Do you see much in the literature about "hardgainers" who are female?1:09:46 Is it possible to speculate that the diminished return from ‘training too hard’ can partly be explained by the magnitude of muscle protein breakdown exceeding the maximum magnitude of muscle protein synthesis that your body can stimulate in a single training session?1:20:36 Do either of you have any recommendations on how to seek out a quality academic reference, without being a complete jerk about it? How can someone with aspirations of becoming a researcher get their start in the research world?
12/5/20191 hour, 37 minutes, 50 seconds
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Glycogen Loading, Lower Back Pain, PowerBuilding, and Physical Culture with Ben Pollack

Greg kicks off the episode with some incredible feats of strength, followed by an enormous Research Roundup segment. Topics include glycogen depletion and loading, coffee as a pre-workout supplement, lower back pain, a phototherapy update, and more. Finally, Greg and Eric interview Ben Pollack, who tells us all about powerbuilding and the history of physical culture.To take advantage of our big MASS Black Friday sale (Nov 25 - Dec 2), head over to https://www.strongerbyscience.com/mass/ TIME STAMPS0:01:29 Feats of Strength0:11:57 Research roundup0:16:07 Castro et al: Comparative Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Concentrated, Hydrolyzed, and Isolated Whey Protein Supplementation on Body Composition of Physical Activity Practitionershttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/9/2047/htm0:36:02 Update on PhototherapyPhotobiomodulation in human muscle tissue: an advantage in sports performance? FerraresiEffect of low-level laser therapy on muscle adaptation to knee extensor eccentric training. Baroni.Effects of Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Muscle Hypertrophy, Gene Expression, Performance, Damage, and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: Case-control Study with a Pair of Identical Twins. FerraresiEffects of low level laser therapy (808 nm) on physical strength training in humans. FerraresiLow level laser therapy associated with a strength training program on muscle performance in elderly women: a randomized double blind control study. Toma1:02:08 Macklin et al: A Meta-Analytical Review of Muscle Glycogen Replenishmenthttp://www.asep.org/asep/asep/JEPonlineAUGUST2019_Ian_Wyatt.doc1:15:15 Pickering & Grgic: Is Coffee a Useful Source of Caffeine Preexercise?https://journals.humankinetics.com/view/journals/ijsnem/aop/article-10.1123-ijsnem.2019-0092.xml1:21:55 Owen: Which specific modes of exercise training are most effective for treating low back pain? Network meta-analysishttps://bjsm.bmj.com/content/early/2019/10/28/bjsports-2019-1008861:30:04 To Play Us Out: Reminder about MASS black friday sale (Nov 25 - Dec 2)1:31:47 Interview with Ben Pollack1:31:58 What is your background?1:34:28 PowerBuilding: Are you 50/50, or do you prefer one more than the other?1:35:49 How do you generally set up a powerbuilding program? How does it change as short-term focus shifts from one sport to the other?1:43:58 How do you feel about recent opinion papers suggesting that the change in muscle size over a training career is virtually unrelated to changes in strength?1:48:04 Do you think most bodybuilders would benefit from adopting certain aspects of powerlifting training?1:49:24 Do you think most powerlifters would benefit from adopting certain aspects of bodybuilding training?1:53:19 As someone who has a foot in both communities, what are things that bodybuilders don’t understand about powerlifting?  What are things that powerlifters don’t understand about bodybuilders?1:56:04 What is physical culture?1:57:28 Why pursue physical culture as an academic pursuit? Why is it important?2:00:26 What are the roots of physical culture in the West?  What are some major physical culture traditions elsewhere that people may not be aware of?2:08:03 Why did you choose to study Jack LaLanne?2:23:39 What is your favorite lifter (or lifting achievement) that most people have never heard about?2:26:50 How have opinions on strength training changed over time?  How has media portrayal of strength training changed over time?2:32:59 Where can people find you online?
11/28/20192 hours, 34 minutes, 46 seconds
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Q&A: Bands, Chains, Useful Supplements, and Tweaking Your Program

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about protein powders, accommodating resistance (bands, chains, etc.), pull-up technique, how to tweak your training program to break through plateaus, and much more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric share their perspectives on the most useful, evidence-based supplements.  If you want your questions answered on a future episode, you can submit them using the following link: tiny.cc/sbsqaTo take advantage of our big MASS Black Friday sale (Nov 25 - Dec 2), head over to https://www.strongerbyscience.com/mass/ TIME STAMPS0:01:52 Announcement: Biggest MASS sale of the year0:03:25 Responding to the controversy0:10:17 How do you ease into a high volume, hypertrophy-focused mesocycle after a powerlifting meet without losing your strength gains?0:17:13 Is there any benefit to a "personalized" protein supplement blend, or is it just an excuse to increase the price?0:26:04 How do you tweak a lifting program to break through plateaus and ensure continued progress?0:43:03 What is your opinion on mass gainers? 0:50:58 “The Other Eric” (Helms) doesn’t appear to lift his chin all the way to the bar when doing pull-ups. For strength and hypertrophy goals, is it important to do so?0:58:56 Are there any merits to this study (https://tinyurl.com/y2mzemnw)? Are its conclusions accurate?1:10:18 What's your take on accommodating resistance for absolute strength?1:23:18 Which supplements don't suck?1:41:42 Important lasagna and pasta feedback
11/21/20191 hour, 45 minutes, 41 seconds
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Protein, Fiber, Phototherapy, and Intro to Strongman with James Deffinbaugh

In this episode, Greg and Eric have no idea what a new discovery about lactate means, but it seems important. Greg shares some impressive feats of strength, followed by a research roundup segment in which Eric discusses protein intake, sodium bicarbonate supplementation, dietary fiber, and more. After that, Greg gives an overview of the research pertaining to phototherapy or laser therapy, and shares some tips for baking really good bread. Finally, Greg and Eric interview pro strongman James Deffinbaugh, who tells us all about the world of strongman, including tips on how to get started if you’re interested in the sport.As a reminder, we recently extracted and categorized clips from all of our previous podcast episodes to help you find the exact topics you’re looking for. To check out this new resource, head over to StrongerByScience.com/qa TIME STAMPS0:01:28 In the news: histone lactylation links metabolism and gene regulationLinks: https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-03122-1?fbclid=IwAR05X9iOk50n84Tu6-Yp2z8gHgXhTu98hz2u9lZVnKnmqF2ckFYJxD6dLdAhttps://suppversity.blogspot.com/2015/01/revisiting-caffeine-lactate-in.html?fbclid=IwAR2zNlc_TzLpQuh2j4OaKwfkVC9l7nqWcDPQyqRzgTNAvOpxxwVXik_6yzg0:09:50 Feats of strength0:18:20 Research Roundup: Sodium bicarbonate, detoxification supplements, protein, and fiberLinks:https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0309-4https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29958034https://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jn/nxz249/5588642?redirectedFrom=fulltexthttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31028659https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-abstract/149/10/1742/5512578?redirectedFrom=fulltexthttps://academic.oup.com/jn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/jn/nxz248/5580874?redirectedFrom=fulltext0:51:23 An overview of phototherapy/laser therapyLink:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00421-014-3055-y1:07:48 To Play Us Out: Greg’s cooking tips (baking bread)1:17:50 Interview: James Deffinbaugh1:19:10 What’s James’ background? What got him into lifting and strongman?1:24:00 What are James’ biggest achievements and best lifts?1:27:21 Most of the audience are powerlifters and bodybuilders. What glaring weaknesses would a typical powerlifter or bodybuilder have if they wanted to transition to strongman?1:30:42 A common misconception is that all strongmen are 6’8” and 400lbs. What are the divisions?1:32:27 How do you find a strongman gym? How can you train for strongman if there’s not a strongman gym nearby? How do you find competitions in your area?1:36:17 How do you balance general strength training versus event training1:41:37 Most powerlifters and bodybuilders think in terms of sets and reps. How do you program for events like carries and holds?1:45:29 Technique requirements in powerlifting versus strongman1:51:07 Nutrition in strongman- is there a big focus on nutrition among higher-level competitors? Are there any specific diets that are currently popular or trending?1:53:02 Drugs in strongman - what percentage of competitors do you think are drug-free? How’s the plan for drug-tested nationals coming along?2:03:41 How do you know you’re strong enough to actually make competing worthwhile?2:05:50 It seems like there’s more injuries in strongman than other strength sports. Does that match your experience? What sorts of injuries are common? What prehab work or training modifications help make training safer?2:13:31 Who are some strongmen and strongwomen on the rise to look out for?2:19:28 Any closing advice for someone interested in getting into the sport?2:21:08 Where can people find James online?
11/14/20192 hours, 22 minutes, 58 seconds
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Q&A: Rest Periods, Deadlifts, Bulking, and Hypertrophy for Powerlifters

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about how much time powerlifters should spend training for hypertrophy, how frequently to bulk, optimal rest periods for strength and hypertrophy, whether or not you need to be doing deadlifts or deadlift variations for physique-related goals, and much more. To finish off the episode, Greg shares some tips on how aspiring fitness professionals can improve their writing skills and start getting published.On a related note, we recently rolled out a new feature on the Stronger By Science website. We have extracted clips from all of our previous podcast episodes and organized them by topic, so you can quickly find in-depth answers to your training and nutrition-related questions. To check it out, head over to strongerbyscience.com/QAIf you want your questions answered on a future episode, you can submit them using the following link: tiny.cc/sbsqa TIME STAMPS0:01:05 History lesson: Strength coaches in college sports0:04:43 Two questions:In a good powerlifting program, how much time or volume should be spent on hypertrophy work, and how should this change based on training experience and in-season versus off-season training? I want to look jacked. How do I know if I am strong enough to be messing with bodybuilding-style training and accessory work? Should I just be focused on getting stronger until my main lifts are more competitive?0:14:20 There has been a lot of discussion about bulking on recent shows. I would be interested in hearing about practical recommendations regarding the frequency of bulking and cutting. How often is common? Is there a ceiling where it's no longer effective, or even harmful, over a given time period?0:29:57 Two questions:I've noticed that as my lifts have gotten stronger, my rest periods are becoming longer. What's the mechanism behind that?What does the literature say about rest time between sets for maximizing hypertrophy versus maximizing strength? Is it possible to take too much or little?0:52:18 Rank these sports in order of difficulty and competitiveness: men's natural bodybuilding, men's natural classic physique, baseball, basketball and football.0:55:09 Is body mass index (BMI) still accurate for people who are much taller (or shorter) than average?1:05:53 Is completely eschewing the deadlift and all deadlift variations acceptable from a bodybuilding standpoint? If so, can you name a couple of accomplished bodybuilders who have reached their level without incorporating deadlifts into their training? To what extent can I make up for deadlift gains with a bunch of other exercises targeting the posterior chain, forearms, and upper traps?1:12:45 I’ve been trying to get more sleep (at least 8-9 hours or more per night). However, I typically end up either waking up earlier or waking up more frequently throughout the night, resulting in poorer sleep than normal. Is this a sign that I shouldn't be trying to force more sleep, and should return to my typical sleep habits?1:22:06 Are you ever concerned about a client having high creatinine levels? 1:27:00 I once heard Greg say that one reason he's never taken anabolic steroids is their potential impact on cognition, but I've never seen anyone else reference that as a side effect. Could he elaborate?1:37:13 More and more studies show that a plant based diet is healthier than one that includes meat and other animal products. How does this relate to gains and weight loss?1:48:18 I was wondering if you guys could provide any advice for students looking to improve their writing skills for science-based fitness articles. Related to that, what would be a useful approach for getting published on well-known websites?
11/7/20192 hours, 7 minutes, 57 seconds
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The Game Changers, Vegan Diets, Foam Rolling, and Keto with Michael Hull

In this episode, Greg and Eric judge a carnivore diet book by its cover. After feats of strength, Greg and Eric discuss “The Game Changers,” a recent documentary with some bold claims about vegan diets, followed by a Research Roundup segment in which Greg discusses recent studies about foam rolling and training. Finally, Greg and Eric interview Michael Hull from Examine.com, who tells us all about the pros and cons of ketogenic diets. TIME STAMPS0:00:54 In-depth book cover review: carnivore diet edition0:07:15 Feats of Strength0:26:24 Film Review: “The Game Changers”0:52:01 Research Roundup: Foam rolling and trainingPapers discussed:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-019-01205-7https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0531556519301937https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2019.01203/fullhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/311044841:22:27 To Play Us Out: a follow-up on our pain discussion from Episode 221:29:53 Interview: Michael Hull from Examine.com1:30:03 Michael’s background and role at Examine.com1:32:08 Examine’s new guide on ketogenic diets1:34:14 What were the topics that the authors disagreed about during the writing process?1:36:29 Were any of the authors extremely pro-keto or anti-keto when the project began?1:37:41 How do you define a ketogenic diet?1:38:39 What are the potential benefits of adopting a ketogenic diet?1:41:08 For a ketogenic diet, how low do carbs need to be? Does it vary from person to person?1:42:21 Does high protein intake kick you out of ketosis?1:45:09 How do you know if you’re in ketosis or not?1:50:35 Do you really need to have high fat intake, or is carb restriction sufficient?1:51:56 How good or bad is the adherence rate in keto diet studies?1:55:17 What are the potential drawbacks of a ketogenic diet? What micronutrients might be missing?1:58:52 Do ketogenic diets have negative effects on cholesterol/blood lipids or hair loss?2:03:46 Is it possible to predict who will respond relatively well (or poorly) to a ketogenic diet?2:07:11 Net carbs versus total carbs2:08:44 What are the effects of keto on fat loss, muscle gain, and muscle retention?2:16:02 What are the effects of keto on physical performance?2:24:01 Summarizing the effects of keto2:27:31 Is keto potentially helpful for any conditions other than certain types of epilepsy?2:34:52 Are there any applications for ketone supplements?2:39:24 How popular are ketogenic diets?2:45:55 Who is keto good for?2:48:45 Where can people keep up with Michael online?
10/31/20192 hours, 50 minutes, 46 seconds
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Q&A: Carbs, Sodium, and Experimenting with Your Training

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about carbohydrate intake, sodium intake, training to improve speed or strength-endurance, experimenting with training styles and variables to find out what works for you, the minimum necessary volume per session, and more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric discuss Bayesian statistics, and how to start a fitness career without a formal academic background in exercise or nutrition.If you want your questions answered on a future episode, you can submit them using the following link: tiny.cc/sbsqa TIME STAMPS0:01:55 What is the best approach for increasing strength endurance (that is, increasing maximum reps for a given exercise)?0:16:36 Two questions combined:Is it ever beneficial to lift weights in a fasted state?I train very early in the morning and drink a protein shake prior to training. Anything else you recommend to do or eat before working out in a fasted state?0:29:00 What is the relationship between training frequency and recoverable volume? Spreading work across more sessions seems as if it would allow more to be done, but is a minimum volume per session necessary to get sufficient stimulus?0:37:32 What effects does sugar intake have on performance and composition?0:49:44 What are the best ways to improve speed using resistance training?0:52:29 Does the relative split of daily dietary intake of carbs and fat really matter for hypertrophy, strength, and body composition?1:08:46 How important is delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)? I've been powerlifting for a little over 18 months and have never experienced any significant amount of soreness, but my program contains reasonably high training volume and frequency.1:13:46 What are your thoughts on sodium intake for lifters, whether in absolute terms or relative to potassium intake?1:29:23 How important is it for trainees to experiment with different training styles to see what methods may work best for them? How would you recommend organizing an experimental period of training to see if for example you respond better to speed or power training and what should be measured/benchmarked against?1:41:10 Do you think that Bayesian Statistics will be used in future studies for analysis?1:53:41 As someone who went the standard business route after college and is getting minimal satisfaction from their current career, how possible is it to get proper certifications for nutrition and personal training to make a career out of something I am more passionate about?
10/24/20192 hours, 4 minutes, 6 seconds
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Red Meat, Deloads, and Pain with Dr. Michael Ray

0:00:38 Thorough report on whether or not Iceland is windy (it is)0:02:02 Feats of Strength0:14:14 Research Review: Red meat and processed meatPaper discussed: https://annals.org/aim/fullarticle/2752328/unprocessed-red-meat-processed-meat-consumption-dietary-guideline-recommendations-fromFor more reading, an examine.com article on the paper: https://examine.com/nutrition/red-meat-is-good-for-you-now/1:01:50 Coach’s Corner: DeloadsDiscussion covers why, when, and how to implement deloadsStudies discussed:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23053130https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/217712611:24:58 To Play Us Out: A quick primer on the biopsychosocial model, as it relates to pain1:32:23 Interview: Michael Ray1:33:37 Mike’s background1:36:05 The chiropractic field1:47:40 Pain science2:04:02 Relationship between joint morphology and pain/injury2:15:01 Practical aspects of addressing or dealing with pain2:28:46 Good versus bad movement, as it relates to pain and injury2:38:41 A practical discussion on applied kinesiology2:43:01 Does Michael believe in any specific training strategies that lack supporting research, or that directly oppose the existing research findings?2:46:11 Where to find Michael online
10/17/20192 hours, 49 minutes, 24 seconds
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Q&A: BCAAs, Mini-Cuts, Sex Differences, and First Meet Tips

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about branched chain amino acids, mini-cuts, potential differences between males and females, tips for your first powerlifting meet, and more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric discuss their favorite quad exercises for building up big legs and a big squat. Remember: We have a NEW process for submitting questions! If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using the following link:tiny.cc/sbsqa TIME STAMPS0:00:56 How does chronological age affect potential training status? Do you limit your potential by starting to lift later in life?0:12:08 Are essential amino acids (EAAs) more useful than branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)?0:32:10 Most research uses men as a sample population. Do you think that the findings apply to women in equal measure?0:41:40 What is your opinion on mini cuts during an extended gaining phase? How long a mini cut should be, how aggressive should the caloric deficit be, and what should be training like?0:50:15 Do either of you have any recommendations for someone preparing for their first powerlifting meet?1:09:59 In a recent podcast you suggested buying an exercise physiology textbook. Is an old edition of a textbook worth reading, or would there be too much outdated information?1:21:57 What are the best exercises for increasing quadriceps size and strength to help with squatting?
10/10/20191 hour, 32 minutes, 37 seconds
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Reading Research, the Placebo Diet, Muscle Memory, and Alex Kolliari-Turner

In this episode, college football makes its first ever appearance in the “Feats of Strength” segment. Then, Greg and Eric share some practical tips for evaluating and interpreting exercise and nutrition research, Eric shares a Read of the Week segment about the placebo effect of believing you’re on a diet, and Greg discusses training lift variations that are different than your competition lifts. Finally, Greg shares his onion jam recipe, followed by an interview with Alex Kolliari-Turner, who tells us about his exciting new research on “muscle memory” and the effects of steroid use on muscle myonuclei.As we mention in this episode, Alex Kolliari-Turner is currently recruiting participants for his study on how muscle myonuclei numbers change during and after steroid use. For 2019 data collection, October 26th, 27th, 28th are the last opportunities for current and past steroid users living within Europe to get involved. They will be doing sampling in 2020, so even if you can't make the October dates, you should still get in touch with Alex using the following email address: [email protected] STAMPS0:01:17 Feats of Strength0:07:05 Discussion on how to read and interpret research0:08:21 Going beyond the abstract0:13:51 Misleading referencing0:14:48 Author bias0:20:45 “Generous” statistical interpretation0:28:56 Conclusions about things that weren’t actually measured0:35:07 Radical ideas about what introduction and discussion sections should look like0:42:18 Read of the Week: “Studying a Possible Placebo Effect of an Imaginary Low-Calorie Diet”Study: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00550/full0:43:41 Methods0:45:57 Results and discussion1:01:33 Coach’s Corner: Training lifts vs. competition lifts. Sometimes it makes sense to focus on non-competition lifts, or train a competition lift with altered technique that you don’t compete with1:13:00 To play us out: recipe time (onion jam)1:28:23 Interview with Alex Kolliari-Turner1:28:36 Alex’s background1:31:06 Why are satellite cells and myonuclei important for muscle physiology?1:33:34 Why do so many studies measure satellite cells instead of myonuclei?1:34:24 The concept of “muscle memory”1:42:37 How do anabolic steroids affect myonuclei? Do myonuclear changes revert back to normal when people stop using steroids?1:54:22 An overview of Alex’s current study on myonuclei numbers in current and former steroid users (note: recruitment is ongoing. Please contact Alex if interested in participating)2:02:53 Steroid policies differ from country to country2:06:31 When Alex’s current study is done, what effects could it have on anti-doping policy in the future? 2:10:12 How long should someone be banned from sport when they’re caught using steroids?2:15:31 To what degree is satellite cell activation predictive of the accumulation of myonuclei? What are the mechanisms that contribute to myonuclear accretion? Are there important physiological roles of satellite cells that do not become activated?2:29:52 Why do muscles eventually stop growing?2:46:59 How can people stay in touch with Alex Kolliari-Turner, or contact him about participating in his study?Email: [email protected]
10/3/20192 hours, 50 minutes, 14 seconds
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Q&A: Fasted Training, Training Frequency, and How Much Research is Enough?

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about fasted training, peaking for meets, recovering from a diet, training frequency, and more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric discuss how much evidence is needed before they consider applying a new strategy to their own training or coaching. As we mention in this episode, Alex Kolliari-Turner is currently recruiting participants for a study on how muscle myonuclei numbers change during and after steroid use. For 2019 data collection, October 26th, 27th, 28th are the last opportunities for current and past steroid users living within Europe to get involved. They will be doing sampling in 2020, so even if you can't make the October dates, you should still get in touch with Alex using the following email address:[email protected]: We have a NEW process for submitting questions! If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using the following link:tiny.cc/sbsqa TIME STAMPS0:00:49 Alex Kolliari-Turner is recruiting participants for a very important study0:02:57 Are there benefits of fasted cardio for performance?0:18:05 I have two powerlifting meets, separated four weeks apart. How do I train to be peaked for both of them?0:39:28 How long it takes to metabolically recover from long-duration diets?0:52:35 Which training approach is preferable for strength: daily undulating periodization (DUP) within blocks, or high-frequency Norwegian-style training?1:00:47 Discussion on training frequency1:14:14 What is your take on intuitive eating? Does our body have a built in mechanism which will increase hunger when our body registers the necessity for muscle growth?1:28:04 What exercise would you use for mechanical tension/overload for the chest when not doing the bench press?1:38:54 Do weighted thrusts help squats much?1:43:47 How much evidence and research would it take for you to implement new findings into your own practice? One study with a large effect size, or multiple replicated studies?
9/26/20191 hour, 57 minutes, 49 seconds
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Effective Reps, Antioxidants, Optimal Training Volume, and Lauren Colenso-Semple

In this episode, Eric Trexler formally announces that he is a different person than Eric Helms. Greg shares some impressive feats of strength, Eric shares a Research Review segment about how antioxidants relate to nitric oxide and hypertrophy, and Greg tells us all about his new article on the concept of “effective reps.” Greg and Eric also interview Lauren Colenso-Semple, who tells us about muscle fiber types, her recent study on training volume for resistance-trained females, and the optimal Doritos flavor.TIME STAMPS0:00:40 Eric Trexler formally announces that he is a different person than Eric HelmsStronger By Science coaching program: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/coaching/0:09:12 Feats of Strength0:21:30 Research Review: how antioxidants relate to nitric oxide and hypertrophy0:47:01 Discussion about Greg’s recent Stronger By Science article on “effective reps." Article link: http://www.strongerbyscience.com/effective-reps/1:27:06 “Hard sets” and training to failure1:43:59 To play us out: an update on Ohio State trademarking the word “THE”1:46:04 Interview with Lauren Colenso-Semple1:47:45 Lauren’s recent study on training volume in resistance-trained females2:12:54 Lauren’s research on muscle fiber types2:39:51 Completely useless discussion on wine tasting certifications2:45:03 Does Lauren believe in any specific training or nutrition strategies that lack supporting research, or that directly oppose the existing research findings?2:50:32 Where can people find Lauren Colenso-Semple online?2:51:58 Completely useless discussion on social media, snack foods, and Shrek ketchup
9/19/20193 hours, 49 seconds
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Q&A: Dreamer Bulks, Concurrent Training, Recovery Modalities, and Valuing Research

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about the optimal rate of weight gain while bulking, rep ranges for hypertrophy, soreness, concurrent training, recovery modalities, and more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric explain why research should still broadly be valued and utilized, despite the likelihood that there’s some pretty low-quality research hiding within the overall body of literature.Remember: We have a NEW process for submitting questions! If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using the following link:https://tiny.cc/sbsqaTIME STAMPS0:00:48 Results are IN for the Stronger By Science Lasagna Cook-Off0:04:56 When bulking, what are the pros and cons of utilizing a rapid rate of weight gain? Studies discussed:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31247944https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/314820930:25:01 In terms of hypertrophy, how do routines with sets of 20-30 repetitions differ in comparison to a similar volume of sets in the 8-12 rep range?0:35:23 How can we improve sleep to help training? Study discussed:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/312882930:47:03 If soreness isn't a good indicator of gains, how do you know how hard to train?0:51:14 What are the best ways to do concurrent training (i.e., combining cardio with resistance training)? Study discussed:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/303559761:09:00 What effects can active release therapy, acupuncture, massages, stretching have on training?1:20:35 How do you reconcile value for research, with the likelihood that there’s some degree of really bad research out there, and that many people can’t tell the difference between good and bad research?
9/12/20191 hour, 38 minutes, 13 seconds
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Changing Your Mind, Internet Arguments, Metabolic Adaptation, and Leigh Peele

In this episode, Eric has some grievances to get off his chest, and Greg and Eric team up on “Feats of Strength” to highlight some impressive lifts and pay tribute to a legend. Eric has a Coach's Corner segment about some practical aspects of metabolic adaptation during weight loss, and a new “Question of the Day” segment challenges Eric and Greg to share some ideas they’ve changed their mind about throughout their careers. Finally, Greg shares some cooking tips for making macro-friendly (but flavorful) stews, and Eric and Greg share predictions for the forthcoming college football season. Greg and Eric also interview Leigh Peele, who tells us about the early days of the evidence-based fitness movement, weight loss, and metabolic adaptation. TIME STAMPS 0:02:54 Airing of grievances 0:07:51 Feats of Strength 0:20:44 Coach's Corner, part 1: Metabolic adaptation 0:31:10 Coach's Corner, part 2: Don’t inject your urine 0:49:46 Question of the day: What are some big things that you’ve changed your mind about over the years? 1:23:51 Recipe time: stews 1:36:18 To play us out: college football predictions, and trademarking the word “THE” 1:41:14 Interview with Leigh Peele 1:42:04 Why is Leigh too busy to accept our dinner invitation, but free enough for a lengthy podcast appearance? 1:46:19 What is a “layman researcher?” 1:47:51 Early days on the evidence-based fitness forums 1:49:54 The transition from trainer to layman researcher and teacher 2:02:04 When ideas rapidly turn from “outrageous” to “obvious” 2:11:17 Metabolic adaptation and starvation mode 2:29:19 Transitioning after weight loss is achieved 2:50:10 Does Leigh believe in any specific training or nutrition strategies that lack supporting research, or that directly oppose the existing research findings? 3:00:06 Where can people find Leigh Peele online?
9/5/20193 hours, 4 minutes, 39 seconds
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Q&A: Keto, Rapid Fat Loss, Deadlifts, and Faulty Movement Patterns

In today’s episode, Greg and Eric field listener questions about the keto diet, rapid fat loss, carryover between squat and deadlift, corrective exercises for faulty movement patterns, and much more. To finish off the episode, Greg and Eric share some great reading materials for trainers looking to expand their training knowledge, and some tips for students hoping to excel academically. Remember: If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using one of the following links: https://www.facebook.com/gregory.nuckols/posts/10156245869443779 https://www.instagram.com/p/Bx0ugZHl1GV/ https://twitter.com/GregNuckols/status/1131711576426389513 Time Stamps: 0:00:59 Do you have to squat to reach your ultimate deadlift potential? 0:15:58 Is keto the best diet for weight loss? 0:32:10 What exercises would you base a routine around for non-powerlifters? 0:46:43 What are the repercussions of rapid fat loss? How can you achieve rapid fat loss while minimizing the repercussions as much as possible? 1:02:31 Do you still believe that planks increase hip mobility? 1:08:18 What’s the best and most accurate way to track daily energy expenditure? Are Fitbits the best option? 1:23:04 What is the best resource for someone looking for corrective exercises for their particular faulty movement pattern? 1:34:09 What are some of the best reading materials you'd recommend for a trainer that is just starting out? 1:39:19 What are some of the biggest tips you would give someone who wants to get into an exercise science program at a university and excel academically?
8/29/20192 hours, 6 minutes, 5 seconds
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Sleep, Response Heterogeneity, and Dr. Brandon Roberts

TIME STAMPS 0:00:40 Feats of Strength 0:21:26 Research Review: myostatin, follistatin, the hormone hypothesis, and sleep’s effects on fat loss Studies discussed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31240397 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11782267/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21327794 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29257792 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20921542 0:49:32 Research Roundup: sleep’s effects on performance, and new research on caffeine and sleep quality Studies discussed: https://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/publishahead/Extended_Sleep_Maintains_Endurance_Performance.96572.aspx https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02640414.2019.1612504 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40279-019-01123-8 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jsr.12670 https://academic.oup.com/sleep/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/sleep/zsz136/5535848?redirectedFrom=fulltext http://jcsm.aasm.org/viewabstract.aspx?pid=29198 1:10:23 To play us out: Eric’s chicken tips 1:18:25 Interview with Dr. Brandon Roberts 1:19:09 How is your current bodybuilding prep going? 1:21:34 What is the lowest caloric intake you have implemented? 1:24:57 How are your hunger/hormone/sleep issues this time around? 1:26:38 What is response heterogeneity, and why is it important? 1:30:44 How variable are responses to resistance training (strength, hypertrophy) 1:34:13 Why are responses so variable? 1:41:58 What are your thoughts on sarcoplasmic hypertrophy? Study discussed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31166954 1:50:02 Why do we sleep? 1:51:13 Does poor sleep impact performance or body composition? 1:56:21 Are there people who simply need less sleep than others? 2:04:25 What are chronotypes, and how do they matter in relation to sleep? 2:08:11 Will naps help me recover from a lack of sleep? 2:10:12 The Gang recklessly speculates about Spanish culture 2:11:35 What is sleep debt and can it be repaid? 2:13:38 Greg talks about bears 2:19:39 After searching the literature about sleep, has Brandon changed his sleep habits based on what he learned? 2:20:28 Does Brandon believe in any specific training or nutrition strategies that lack supporting research, or that directly oppose the existing research findings? 2:24:21 Where can people find Brandon Roberts online?
8/22/20192 hours, 26 minutes, 29 seconds
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Q&A: Warming Up, Calculating Volume, Assessing Fatigue, and Creatine Non-Responders

Remember: If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using one of the following links: Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. TIME STAMPS 0:00:49 What is the best way to calculate volume for hypertrophy training? 0:10:23 How does marijuana affect recovery from strength and hypertrophy training when it’s smoked, eaten, or vaped? 0:24:06 How important are warm-ups, and what constitutes an effective warm-up? What are some common misconceptions about warm-ups? 0:37:26 Is it beneficial to include incline chest exercises in your program? 0:45:46 How is the concept of functional overreaching applicable in a hypertrophy training block and how often would you advise to use this technique? How would you best reap the benefits of supercompensation following a successful overreaching period? 0:54:51 Can you tell if you're a creatine non-responder by whether or not you gain weight when you start taking it? 1:08:40 What is the most pragmatic and valid way to objectively measure fatigue? 1:13:03 Is fasting more effective than normal calorie restriction when it comes to retaining muscle mass whilst losing body fat? 1:22:54 How do you make really, really good homemade ice cream?
8/15/20191 hour, 36 minutes, 13 seconds
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Bench Press, Intermittent Fasting, Body Composition Testing, and Dr. Grant Tinsley

TIME STAMPS 0:00:45 Greg advertises his new premium service for up-and-coming fitness professionals 0:05:16 Feats of Strength (In Memoriam): Gene Rychlak 0:09:23 Coach’s Corner: Bench press tips 0:10:27 Squeezing the bar 0:12:05 Falling into the bench to lock out 0:19:55 The history of intermittent fasting in the fitness world 0:26:49 What research has taught us about intermittent fasting and time-restricted feeding Meta-analyses on intermittent fasting strategies: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29419624 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924195/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6304782/ Studies on time-restricted feeding: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27550719 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635036/ https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-016-1044-0?s=ovzgowspzgzjrjm83r95 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2645638/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29754952 40:13 Potential mechanisms by which time-restricted feeding would be superior 0:44:19 Theoretical reasons for favoring high meal frequency 0:46:12 Brand new study by Tinsley et al 0:49:02 Training during an extended fast (study) 0:56:07 Time-restricted feeding during bodybuilding contest preparation 1:03:27 To play us out, Greg answers a listener’s question: “What are some mistakes that coaches make when working with beginners?” 1:16:58 Interview with Dr. Grant Tinsley 1:17:24 Grant’s background 1:20:36 How can a person get their body fat percentage accurately estimated? 1:23:15 Are body composition tests useful for the typical lifter? If so, how can people get their body composition tested in a reliable manner? 1:32:45 What’s up with these new 3-D body composition scanners? What are some potential uses? 1:38:31 Fat distribution: apple-shaped, pear-shaped, and much, much more 1:42:05 Grant tells us about his studies on bodybuilders and physique athletes 1:47:01 Why it’s important to check references in studies that use estimation equations 1:54:09 Grant tells us about his research on time-restricted feeding, along with some practical recommendations 2:03:57 How to stay up to date with Grant and his research
8/8/20192 hours, 6 minutes, 4 seconds
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Q&A: Lifting Shoes, Alcohol, and Over/Underrated Exercises

Remember: If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using one of the following links: Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. TIME STAMPS 0:00:41 Is there any benefit of adding electromyostimulation (EMS) to your training for strength or hypertrophy? If so, how should it be used? Relevant studies: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993042 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22067247 0:07:32 What are the effects of alcohol consumption on body composition? 0:19:44 I’ve been lifting for many years, but I’m still far from my “genetic potential,” according to an online calculator. Am I advanced or intermediate? 0:28:08 Can you eat fruit during a contest prep (or weight loss) diet? Relevant studies: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2991323/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5893377/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6549781/ 0:35:11 What are the benefits of using weightlifting shoes (with an elevated heel) for squat and leg press? 0:40:50 How do I prevent my traps from getting too big? 0:47:27 Can we train to intentionally change the fiber type of a muscle? 0:57:41 Research suggests there is a refractory period for muscle protein synthesis following protein ingestion. Will eating a snack with protein between meals disrupt protein synthesis? Articles discussed: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/athlete-protein-intake/ http://www.nutritiontactics.com/measure-muscle-protein-synthesis/#79_Muscle_full_effect 1:08:19 What are the chronic effects of resistance training on hormone levels? 1:13:14 What are the best strategies to reverse the effects of metabolic adaptation from a fat loss phase, while minimizing fat gain? 1:20:23 Which exercises are overrated? Which exercises are underrated?
8/1/20191 hour, 32 minutes, 58 seconds
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Coaching Cues, Fat-Free Mass Index, Non-Responders, and Dr. Brad Dieter

0:00:41 The Stronger By Science Media Empire expands to SoundCloud, joining the likes of Lil Yachty, Lil Uzi Vert, Lil Pump, and Takeshi 6ix9ine 0:01:27 Feats of strength 0:10:32 Coach’s Corner: Using over-exaggerated cues. The MASS article that was referenced. The research article it was based on. 0:22:50 Research Roundup 0:23:14 Fat-free mass index. Studies discussed: one, two. 0:34:45 Dietary nitrate. Studies discussed: one, two. 0:44:11 Caffeine. Studies discussed: one, two. 0:53:09 Statistics. Studies discussed: one, two. 1:06:00 Eric and Greg rant about effect sizes 1:15:44 Sleep. Study discussed. 1:19:47 To Play Us Out: Kool-Aid is egregiously labeled as “fruit punch” Study: “Putting out the fire – Efficacy of common beverages in reducing oral burn from capsaicin”. 1:22:28 Interview with Dr. Brad Dieter, PhD 1:23:02 Contrary to Fake News rumors, Brad isn’t that handsome 1:24:54 Brad’s background and current projects 1:29:35 A recent paper came out stating that people who drink diet soda are more likely to have a stroke... is this actually true? Are there any legit concerns about artificial sweeteners? Paper 1:47:57 Recently, a study was published that was designed to examine the effect of processed food on total daily calorie intake. What did it find? Paper 1:56:13 There was recently a debate between Gary Taubes and Stephan Guyenet. To use the prompt from this debate… What is the REAL cause of obesity? 2:04:50 What is a “set point” for body fat or body weight? Can we reset it? An article about “set point theory” by Brad 2:09:32 A discussion about metabolic adaptation to weight loss 2:19:12 Where to find/follow Brad 2:20:28 Does Brad do anything (or recommend anything) that isn’t necessarily evidence-based?
7/25/20192 hours, 25 minutes, 8 seconds
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Q&A: Hormonal Contraceptives, Rates of Weight Loss/Weight Gain, Timeline of Training Adaptations

Remember: If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using one of the following links: https://www.facebook.com/gregory.nuckols/posts/10156245869443779 https://www.instagram.com/p/Bx0ugZHl1GV/ https://twitter.com/GregNuckols/status/1131711576426389513 TIME STAMPS 0:00:41 – USA > The Netherlands 0:03:12 – How do birth control and menstrual cycle hormones affect periodization? Should I program with that in mind? 0:12:02 – If you’re trying to lose fat but maintain performance, what is the “optimal” rate of weight loss? 0:16:49 – Eric is unable to read 0:17:29 – For the folks with anterior pelvic tilt, what are some tips for maintaining a neutral pelvis while squatting and deadlifting? 0:22:08 – When bulking, should you continuously re-calculate your maintenance calorie requirements as you go? 0:26:57 – Do connective tissues display a delayed response to resistance training? If so, what does Greg know about it? 0:39:21 – Related discussion on human growth hormone 0:47:58 – Is there any benefit to manipulating dietary fat distribution throughout the week (in essence, “fat cycling”)? 0:56:32 – Which is better: 10mm or 13mm belt? 1:00:29 – Do you know how intra-abdominal pressure is measured? 1:01:49 – Eric references the disturbing horror film, “The Human Caterpillar” 1:02:29 – When we do resistance exercise, how long does it take for hypertrophy to manifest? 1:14:57 – Greg has previously talked about turning a good hypertrophy program into a good strength program by adding some singles. Practically speaking, how do you implement this strategy? 1:19:41 – How do you help clients that struggle with motivation, emotional decision-making, or taking responsibility for their decisions? 1:29:08 – Does blending your food render it less nutritious?
7/18/20191 hour, 37 minutes, 2 seconds
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Drug Testing, New Supplement Research, Squat Science, and Dr. Eric Helms

Time stamps: 0:00:28 Addressing the ludicrous allegations that we didn’t create the first ever fitness podcast 0:03:05 Addressing the very true allegations that we are mad at Omar Isuf and Eric Helms 0:05:44 Feats of strength; Greg forgets that Brian Shaw is American 0:18:53 A discussion on drug testing in sport Papers discussed: Cohen et al 2014, Van Wagoner et al 2017 0:40:10 Research round-up: New studies on protein and overfeeding Papers discussed: Charidemou et al, Kassis et al, Johannsen et al. 0:55:14 Research round-up: New studies on HMB supplementation Papers discussed: Tritto et al, Teixeira et al , 0:55:42 Mark Teixeira’s career MLB stats 0:57:07 Research review: Surprising new study on ecdysterone supplementation Study reviewed: Isenmann et al. Ecdysteroids as non-conventional anabolic agent: performance enhancement by ecdysterone supplementation in humans. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31123801 1:16:03 Which muscle groups are really targeted by the back squat? Greg discusses his new article, which is available here: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/squats-adductors/ 1:32:39 To play us out: A gentle reminder that GREG IS NOT A HOST. 1:34:30 Interview with Dr. Eric Helms 1:34:58 Eric Helms’ background 1:39:37 Helms is currently prepping for a bodybuilding competition. Compared to previous competition preps, what is he doing differently this time around? 1:40:51 Doing contest prep without strictly tracking macros 1:48:31 How low do Helms’ calories get during contest prep? 1:54:05 How long is Helms’ current prep going to be? 2:00:12 When you get late into a weight loss phase, do you cut down training volume or intensity? 2:06:37 Are you doing anything to proactively address reductions in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) during contest prep? 2:07:33 Helms and Trexler bash the regular use of HIIT during contest prep 2:08:02 Does Helms have any strategies or approaches that he likes to use, despite the fact that they aren’t necessarily backed by scientific evidence? 2:10:02 What are a lot of bodybuilders getting wrong these days? (Discussion: Ideal training frequency for bodybuilding) 2:13:54 Training studies are often quite short, and in relatively untrained people. Do the results from these short-term studies translate to long-term differences over a training career? 2:19:31 Is bodybuilding unhealthy? Should it be encouraged? 2:28:11 Helms plugs his “podcast” with Omar Isuf (Note: after a thorough review, it does not meet the Stronger By Science criteria for formal identification as a “fitness podcast,” and therefore is not the first fitness podcast ever) 2:30:50 How can people get in touch with Helms?
7/11/20192 hours, 33 minutes
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Q&A: CBD, Junk Volume, Eccentric Training, and Building a Following in Fitness

Remember: If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using one of the following links: Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. TIME STAMPS 3:31 “What is your opinion on CBD?” 10:07 “Does volume or intensity drive strength gains?” 20:10 “Is ‘junk volume’ a real thing?” 23:53 “If we say that metabolite accumulation may play a causative role in hypertrophy, shouldn’t that mean that supplements designed to enhance the pump actually increase hypertrophy?” 39:14 “I’ve read that having a lower body fat percentage is more conducive to building muscle/strength. Is there truth to this, or is the change in body function/hormones negligible between high and low body fat percentage?” 48:19 “How possible is it that eccentric overload causes preferential hypertrophy of titin, meaning that people who only perform conventional training get a percentage of the available gains? What study designs/tools (blood markers, biopsies) would you use to test? If true, what kind of difference do you feel it would amount to?” 57:16 “In regards to re-feeds and/or diet breaks, from what I understand at least 2 consecutive days of re-feeding is needed to have any impact on the metabolic adaptations of a prolonged calorie deficit (3 days is probably better). That being said, how much of an effect does it really have, and is the cost to benefit ratio really worth it? 1:06:18 “How did you (Greg) build a following in the fitness industry?”
7/4/20191 hour, 25 minutes
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Caffeine and Health, Sex-Based Caffeine Differences, and IPF World Champion Natalie Hanson

Time stamps: 1:01 Fitness podcasters: you’re on notice 3:01 Feats of strength 15:38 Research Review. “25 cups of coffee per day is not unhealthy”- any truth to this? Study abstract 19:43 Who the hell is drinking 25 cups of coffee a day? 21:09 What happens when you turn a continuous variable into a grouped variable? 33:43 Is caffeine bad for heart health? 35:18 What’s the highest daily caffeine dose that seems to be okay? 37:52 What factors affect caffeine metabolism and the relationship between caffeine and health? (Genes, diet, hormones, etc.) 40:05 Why do lifters like caffeine so much? 42:19 Eric realizes he needs to diversify his friend network to incorporate some non-lifters 46:53 Relationship between caffeine, theacrine, and sleep issues 52:04 Research review. Do men and women experience the same performance effects from caffeine? Study link 52:59 The gap between male research and female research in exercise science 55:37 Study design, methods, and results 1:00:06 Why this study is so important 1:07:16 Interview with Natalie Hanson 1:07:43 Recap of IPF World Bench Press Championships 1:15:20 How often does Natalie miss reps or reach failure while training? 1:16:21 Natalie formally receives permission to cuss on the podcast 1:20:23 Raw vs. equipped lifting: How much of a boost does Natalie get from her equipment? 1:21:32 How hard is it to transition from raw to equipped powerlifting? How long does it take to learn to use the equipment effectively and refine your technique? 1:26:06 Experimentation, deviating from popularized training advice, and the influence of social media 1:30:12 As a multiple-time world champion, what is Natalie’s favorite moment in powerlifting so far? 1:36:49 Why are single-ply bench press records increasing so rapidly? 1:41:39 Moving forward, does Natalie plan to compete raw, equipped, or both? 1:42:56 What is Natalie up to at Corvus Strength Co.? 1:48:37 What are some unique challenges or social pressures that women experience in strength sports? 1:54:46 The balance between body image, body weight, and strength goals 1:59:32 What are some steps that people can take to help shift attitudes and help women feel more comfortable in strength sports and other fitness communities? 2:04:42 Deciding when to bump up or down a weight class 2:09:53 Continuing the conversation with women in strength sports moving forward 2:22:15 How to stay in touch with Natalie: Corvus Strength Co. and Instagram
6/27/20192 hours, 24 minutes, 29 seconds
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Q&A: Dropping Weight, Building Strength to Promote Hypertrophy, and Training Around Pain

Remember: If you want your questions answered on a future episode, submit them using one of the following links: Facebook, Instagram, or Twitter. TIME STAMPS 0:57 “Is there any carry over or need to develop strength in the 1-5 rep range in order for that strength to be carried over into the 8-12 rep range for hypertrophy promotion?” Meta-analysis of high load vs. low-load training; similar hypertrophy in spite of different strength gains. Also worth noting that the theory behind reverse linear periodization (starting with low volume/high intensity and progressing to high volume/lower intensity) is that early strength gains will help lead to more hypertrophy, but that’s never panned out in the research (one example here). 14:33 “When in a caloric deficit, should you reduce training volume, or training intensity?” Localized depletion of stored glycogen. 27:11 “How should you train for explosive activities, such as parkour?” Individualized programming for people with force vs. velocity deficits. 37:30 “Does pineapple belong on pizza?” 41:32 “Which is best: chicken wing, chicken thigh, or chicken breast?” 47:51 “What’s the best way to cut weight for powerlifting, in terms of performance? 54:30 “When you have pain during a certain exercise, how do you decide whether it’s worth rehabbing that movement vs. picking a different exercise?” 58:29 “What things have contributed most to your success in powerlifting/bodybuilding?” 1:15:03 How to get YOUR questions answered on the show
6/20/20191 hour, 17 minutes, 13 seconds
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Supplement Regulation, Steroids, and Rick Collins, Esq.

To keep up with Rick Collins and all of his work in the realm of steroid and supplement law, check him out on Facebook, Instagram, his website, or his regular column in Muscular Development magazine. TIME STAMPS 0:36 Eric is sick of being called “The Next Bo Jackson” 5:50 Greg shares some feats of strength 27:39 Eric defends himself against baseless accusations of methamphetamine use 30:08 How exactly are dietary supplements regulated by the government? Note: For more information on this topic, be sure to check out the Stronger By Science article on dietary supplement regulation 34:45 History of prohormones on the supplement market 36:20 Review of a paper showing that prohormones remained on the supplement market after they were recalled by the FDA 38:16 What exactly counts as a “dietary supplement,” according to the law? How do new ingredients find their way onto the market? 42:23 What is “self-affirmed generally recognized as safe?” 45:52 Review of a paper showing that banned stimulants remained on the supplement market after they were recalled by the FDA. 51:05 Is CBD oil actually a supplement, legally speaking? 56:16 How can consumers make safe, informed decisions about which supplements to take? 1:02:51 To play us out: just because something is on PubMed, doesn’t mean it automatically counts as rigorous evidence. Greg and Eric share two examples that they recently found 1:13:45 Interview with Rick Collins, Esq, CSCS begins 1:16:36 How did Rick carve out a niche as the top lawyer in the world of steroids and dietary supplements? 1:21:33 Rick explains how the government regulates dietary supplements in detail 1:29:08 What are “current good manufacturing practices?” 1:34:39 Do new supplement ingredients require “approval” from the government? 1:39:36 Rick explains the “self-affirmed generally recognized as safe” exemption for new supplement ingredients 1:43:54 The history of non-supplement ingredients being sold as supplements (pro-hormones, stimulants, etc.) 1:49:10 Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) 1:54:34 Are “designer stimulants” still prevalent on the supplement market? 1:58:38 People often blame failed drug tests on tainted supplements. Are they being truthful, or is that just a convenient excuse? 2:09:10 Do we need more laws to help regulate the supplement industry? 2:11:00 Rick weighs in on the legal status of CBD oil supplement products 2:15:15 How to stay in touch with Rick Collins
6/13/20192 hours, 18 minutes, 12 seconds
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Q&A: Beltless Training, Leucine, and the Health Benefits of Strength

Stronger By Science will now be releasing an episode every single week. Every other episode will be a “Question & Answer” (Q&A) episode, in which Eric and Greg answer questions submitted by listeners. If you want your questions answered on a future episode, please submit them using any of the following links: Facebook post Instagram post Twitter post Timestamps 1:30 Should you change the way you train as you approach the age of 40 (and beyond)? How and why do performance and recovery change as we age? 11:42 Considering the result of this 2014 study, would you see similar long-term results from eating a normal amount of a whole protein source, or a smaller protein dose that is supplemented with extra leucine? Article on dietary amino acid balance and hyperphagia. 19:53 What’s your take on long-term effects of heavy lifting on spine and joint health? 31:47 Any recommendations for lifters with spinal loading issues? 43:27 For an advanced lifter, is beltless training useless? 49:02 At what point do you see diminished returns when it comes to the health benefits of getting stronger? 56:40 What would happen if Terry Tao started studying exercise science? What kind of progress would the field make? 1:07:47 A few scientific fields have recently identified issues with replication, reproducibility, and transparency in research. How prevalent are these issues in exercise science?
6/6/20191 hour, 27 minutes, 14 seconds
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Sex Differences in Fatigue and Recovery, and Dr. Jason Cholewa

Timestamps 00:02:09 Introducing Master Greg Nuckols 00:06:06 Eric was confused at The Avengers: Endgame 00:09:44 Feats of Strength: John Haack, Marianna Gasparyan 00:16:35 Background and rationale for Greg’s study (fatigue and recovery differences between men and women) 00:32:26 Study design and methods for Greg’s study 00:42:18 A summary of the results of the study 00:46:38 How do Greg’s results apply to “real world” training? 00:52:33 To Play Us Out: Advice for pursuing a degree in Exercise Science 01:06:34 Interview with Dr. Jason Cholewa (Associate Professor, Coastal Carolina University) 01:07:57 Jason’s background 01:10:04 Jason’s research on how betaine supplementation affects body composition and strength performance 01:20:52 Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement formulas 01:31:17 The state of research in exercise science and sports nutrition 01:43:00 The state of higher education 01:55:43 Non-evidence-based strategies: does pre-competition cryotherapy help for bodybuilding/physique athletes? Links Get one-on-one coaching from the Stronger By Science team: https://www.strongerbyscience.com/coaching/ . All coaching packages are discounted until June 6.
5/30/20192 hours, 1 minute, 40 seconds
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Creatine, Genetics, and Dr. Peter Fitschen

Outline and Timestamps 0:00:00 Preview of today’s topics 0:01:15 Introductions 0:02:38 Format of the podcast and (low) expectations 0:10:59 Discussion on the link between creatine and hair loss 0:17:48 Summary of study linking creatine to hair loss 0:24:16 Does an increase in DHT necessarily mean more rapid hair loss? And how does this relate to anabolic steroids and hair loss? 0:26:28 Interesting theories from the hair loss literature 0:31:40 The interaction between caffeine and creatine, and gastrointestinal discomfort associated with creatine supplementation 0:38:45 How do combinations of dietary supplements work when consumed together? 0:42:55 How do your genes, and even just knowing about your genes, affect your performance and physiology? 0:49:18 Which makes a bigger difference: your actual genes, or your perception of your genetic predisposition? Is direct-to-consumer genetic testing a good idea for determining your athletic potential? 0:57:26 How strong do people get when they think they’re on steroids, but actually aren’t? 1:06:06 In the first (and final) installment of “Eric’s Seder Stories,” we discuss how gems and crystals relate to exercise science 1:16:17 Interview with Dr. Peter Fitschen begins. Peter shares his background in research and bodybuilding 1:18:52 Peter gets reprimanded for shamelessly shilling his new book 1:19:50 Peter’s research on HMB supplementation 1:26:01 Peter’s research on blood flow restricted training 1:35:20 Peter’s research on bodybuilding contest preparation 1:38:17 “Peak week” approaches for bodybuilding 1:47:55 Making weight for strength sports 1:55:04 Peter’s new book on training and nutrition for bodybuilding Links Eric's article: Not Another Boring Creatine Guide: Answers to FAQs and Lesser-Known Benefits Greg's article: Genetics-Based Expectations Affect Your Physiology Peter's book: Bodybuilding: The Complete Contest Preparation Handbook
5/9/20192 hours, 4 minutes, 46 seconds