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Python Bytes

English, Technology, 1 season, 385 episodes, 1 day, 13 hours, 1 minute
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Python Bytes is a weekly podcast hosted by Michael Kennedy and Brian Okken. The show is a short discussion on the headlines and noteworthy news in the Python, developer, and data science space.
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#385 RESTing on Postgres

Topics covered in this episode: PostgresREST How Python Asyncio Works: Recreating it from Scratch Bend The Smartest Way to Learn Python Regular Expressions Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Mailtrap: pythonbytes.fm/mailtrap Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 10am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Michael #1: PostgresREST PostgREST serves a fully RESTful API from any existing PostgreSQL database. It provides a cleaner, more standards-compliant, faster API than you are likely to write from scratch. Speedy First the server is written in Haskell using the Warp HTTP server (aka a compiled language with lightweight threads). Next it delegates as much calculation as possible to the database. Finally it uses the database efficiently with the Hasql library PostgREST handles authentication (via JSON Web Tokens) and delegates authorization to the role information defined in the database. This ensures there is a single declarative source of truth for security. Brian #2: How Python Asyncio Works: Recreating it from Scratch Jacob Padilla Cool tutorial walking through how async works, including Generators Review The Event Loop Sleeping Yield to Await Await with AsyncIO Another great async resource is: Build your Own Async David Beasley talk from 2019 Michael #3: Bend A massively parallel, high-level programming language. With Bend you can write parallel code for multi-core CPUs/GPUs without being a C/CUDA expert with 10 years of experience. It feels just like Python! No need to deal with the complexity of concurrent programming: locks, mutexes, atomics... any work that can be done in parallel will be done in parallel. Brian #4: The Smartest Way to Learn Python Regular Expressions Christian Mayer, Zohaib Riaz, and Lukas Rieger Self published ebook on Python Regex that utilizes book form readings, links to video course sections puzzle challenges to complete online It’s a paid resource, but the min is free. Extras Brian: Replay - A graphic memoir by Prince of Persia creator Jordan Mechner, recounting his own family story of war, exile and new beginnings. Michael: PyCon 2026 Joke: Shells Scripts
5/27/202424 minutes, 4 seconds
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#384 Force push lightly

Topics covered in this episode: Git: Force push safely with --force-with-lease and --force-if-includes Thoughts from PyCon 2024 Being friendly: Strategies for friendly fork management tach Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Mailtrap: pythonbytes.fm/mailtrap Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 10am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Brian #1: Git: Force push safely with --force-with-lease and --force-if-includes Adam Johnson Using gentle force Avoid stomping on remote changes with a couple extra flags. Michael #2: Thoughts from PyCon 2024 PyCon is special - the connections you make are always more than you expect Great to see many old friends Did a ”live” Talk Python episode that’ll be out in a few weeks. The talks look great, we’ll let you know when they land on YouTube. Masks were a mistake - universally heard complaints from fellow attendees. This is my two cents towards a more reasonable next PyCon. Brian #3: Being friendly: Strategies for friendly fork management That’s part 2. Part 1 is Being friendly: Friendly forks 101 Lessley Dennington on GitHub Blog Examples of long running friendly forks git-for-windows/git, microsift/git, github/git two public, one private Fork management strategies - when pulling changes downstream merging rebase git-for-windows/git uses this proactively and regularly fake merge + rebase new branch microsoft/git uses this new branch from upstream major versions merge previous changes to new branch traditional merge github/git uses this, conservatively, after a few point bug fix versions Michael #4: tach A Python tool to enforce a modular, decoupled package architecture. tach allows you to define boundaries and control dependencies between your Python packages. Each package can define its public interface. If a package tries to import from another package that is not listed as a dependency, tach will report an error. If a package tries to import from another package and does not use its public interface, with strict: true set, tach will report an error. Zero runtime impact. Extras Brian: Logfire - new observability platform from the pydantic team - free for now Michael: 10% off the new spaCy course throughout May Joke: Evolution of smart products
5/21/202425 minutes, 50 seconds
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#383 Why aren’t devs shipping faster?

Topics covered in this episode: I asked 100 devs why they aren’t shipping faster. Here’s what I learned Python 3.13.0 beta 1 released A theme editor for JupyterLab rich-argparse Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Mailtrap: pythonbytes.fm/mailtrap Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 10am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Michael #1: I asked 100 devs why they aren’t shipping faster. Here’s what I learned by Daksh Gupta (via PyCoders) What’s stopping you from shipping faster? Dependency bugs Complicated codebase >There is so much undocumented in our service, including poor records of new features, nonexistent or outdated info on our dependencies, or even essential things like best practices for testing, a lot of time is wasted in syncs trying to find the right information QA Loops Waiting for spec > At Amazon? Meetings, approval, talking to 10 different stakeholders because changing the color of a button affects 15 micro services Writing tests Deployment/build speed Scope creep > The human tendency to stuff last-minute items into the crevices of their luggage minutes before leaving for the airport manifests itself at software companies as scope creep. Unclear requirements Excessive meetings Motivation >honest answer is i was on ads >and that’s a very old / complicated / large stack (edited) >and i didn’t understand it >my friends on younger teams seemed happier, i was miserable DORA metrics Brian #2: Python 3.13.0 beta 1 released "Python 3.13 is still in development. This release, 3.13.0b1, is the first of four beta release previews of 3.13.” New REPL, featuring multi-line editing, color support, colorized exception tracebacks Cool GIL, JIT, and GC features Typing changes, including typing.TypeIs . See last weeks episode and TypeIs does what I thought TypeGuard would do in Python Some nice dead battery removals and more But seriously, the REPL is cool. Just ask Trey The new REPL in Python 3.13 - Trey Hunner Michael #3: A theme editor for JupyterLab by Florence Haudin A new tool for authoring JupyterLab themes To lower the bar for customizing JupyterLab we created a new tool providing a simple interface for tuning the JupyterLab appearance interactively. See jupyterlab-theme-editor on github Brian #4: rich-argparse “Format argparse and optparse help using rich.” “rich-argparse improves the look and readability of argparse's help while requiring minimal changes to the code.” They’re not kidding. 2 line code change. from rich_argparse import RichHelpFormatter parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(..., formatter_class=RichHelpFormatter) Extras Brian: pytest course is now switched to the new platform. I sent out an email including how to save their spot on the old site and mark that spot complete on the new site. There’s now comments on the course now. Trying that out. If you’ve got a question, just ask in that section. Michael: A new Talk Python course: Getting Started with NLP and spaCy Joke: Testing holiday
5/14/202431 minutes
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#382 A Simple Game

Topics covered in this episode: act: Run your GitHub Actions locally! portr Annotating args and kwargs in Python github badges Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Brian #1: act: Run your GitHub Actions locally! Why? “Fast Feedback - Rather than having to commit/push every time you want to test out the changes you are making to your .github/workflows/ files (or for any changes to embedded GitHub actions), you can use act to run the actions locally. The environment variables and filesystem are all configured to match what GitHub provides.” “Local Task Runner - I love make. However, I also hate repeating myself. With act, you can use the GitHub Actions defined in your .github/workflows/ to replace your Makefile!” Docs: nektosact.com Uses Docker to run containers for each action. Michael #2: portr Open source ngrok alternative designed for teams Expose local http, tcp or websocket connections to the public internet Warning: Portr is currently in beta. Expect bugs and anticipate breaking changes. Server setup (docker basically). Brian #3: Annotating args and kwargs in Python Redowan Delowar I don’t think I’ve ever tried, but this is a fun rabbit hole. Leveraging bits of PEP-5891, PEP-6462, PEP-6553, and PEP-6924. Punchline: from typing import TypedDict, Unpack *# Python 3.12+* *# from typing_extensions import TypedDict, Unpack # < Python 3.12* class Kw(TypedDict): key1: int key2: bool def foo(*args: Unpack[tuple[int, str]], **kwargs: Unpack[Kw]) -> None: ... A recent pic from Redowan’s blog: TypeIs does what I thought TypeGuard would do in Python Michael #4: github badges A curated list of GitHub badges for your next project Extras Brian: Fake job interviews target developers with new Python backdoor Later this week, course.pythontest.com will shift from Teachable to Podia Same great content. Just a different backend. To celebrate, get 25% off at pythontest.podia.com now through this Sunday using coupon code PYTEST Getting the most out of PyCon, including juggling - Rob Ludwick Latest PythonTest episode, also cross posted to pythonpeople.fm 3D visualization of dom Michael: Djangonauts Space Session 2 Applications Open! More background at Djangonauts, Ready for Blast-Off on Talk Python. Self-Hosted Open Source - Michael Kennedy on Django Chat Joke: silly games Closing song: Permission Granted
5/7/202428 minutes, 10 seconds
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#381 Python Packages in the Oven

Topics covered in this episode: Announcing py2wasm: A Python to Wasm compiler Exploring Python packages with Oven and PyPI Browser PyCharm Local LLM Google shedding Python devs (at least in the US). Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Michael #1: Announcing py2wasm: A Python to Wasm compiler py2wasm converts your Python programs to WebAssembly, running them at 3x faster speeds thanks to Nuitka Brian #2: Exploring Python packages with Oven and PyPI Browser pypi.org is great, but there are some handy alternatives Oven Shows how to install stuff with pip, pdm, rye, and poetry Similar meta and description as PyPI Includes README.md view (no tables yet, though) Nice listing of versions Ability to look at what files are in wheels and tarballs (very cool) Can deploy yourself. Node/Remix app. Really slick. PyPI Browser View versions View wheel and tarball contents. Metadata and contents. No README view Is a Starlette app that you can deploy on your on with a private registry. So that’s cool. Michael #3: PyCharm Local LLM Pretty awesome full line completer based on a local LLM for PyCharm Requires PyCharm Professional An example, given this partial function in Flask: @blueprint.get('/listing') def listing(): videos = video_service.all_videos() Typing ret → That is, typing ret autocompletes to: return flask.render_template('home/listing.html', videos=videos) Which is pretty miraculous, and correct. Brian #4: Google shedding Python devs (at least in the US). Google lays off staff from Flutter, Dart and Python teams weeks before its developer conference - techcrunch Python, Flutter teams latest on the Google chopping block - The Register “Despite Alphabet last week reporting a 57 percent year-on-year jump in net profit to $23.66 billion for calendar Q1, more roles are being expunged as the mega-corp cracks down on costs.” “As for the Python team, the current positions have reportedly been "reduced" in favor of a new team based in Munich.” MK: Related and timely: How one power-hungry leader destroyed Google search Extras Brian: Python Gotcha: strip, lstrip, rstrip can remove more than expected Reminder: You probably want .removesuffix() and .removeprefix() Michael: Using Llama3 in LMStudio Joke: Broken System
4/30/202428 minutes, 55 seconds
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#380 Debugging with your eyes

Topics covered in this episode: NumFOCUS concerns leaping pytest debugger llm Extra, Extra, Extra, PyPI has completed its first security audit Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Brian #1: NumFOCUS concerns Suggested by Pamphile Roy Write up of the current challenges faced by NumFOCUS, by Paul Ivanov (one of the OG of Scientific Python: Jupyter, Matplotlib, etc.) Struggling to meet the needs of sponsored and affiliated projects. In February, NumFOCUS announced it is moving in a new direction. NumFOCUS initiated an effort to run an election for open board seats and proposed changing its governance structure. Some projects are considering and actively pursuing alternative venues for fiscal sponsorship. Quite a bit more detail and discussion in the article. NumFOCUS covers a lot of projects NumPy, Matplotlib, pandas, Jupyter, SciPy, Astropy, Bokeh, Dask, Conda, and so many more. Michael #2: leaping pytest debugger llm You can ask Leaping questions like: Why am I not hitting function x? Why was variable y set to this value? What was the value of variable x at this point? What changes can I make to this code to make this test pass? Brian #3: Extra, Extra, Extra, 2024 Developer Summit Also suggested by Pamphile, related to Scientific Python The Second Scientific Python Developer Summit , June 3-5, Seattle, WA Lots of great work came out of the First Summit in 2023 pytest-regex - Use regexs to specify tests to run Came out of the ’23 summit I’m not sure if I’m super happy about this or a little afraid that I probably could use this. Still, cool that it’s here. Cool short example of using __init__ and __call__ to hand-roll a decorator. ruff got faster Michael #4: PyPI has completed its first security audit Trail of Bits spent a total of 10 engineer-weeks of effort identifying issues, presenting those findings to the PyPI team, and assisting us as we remediated the findings. Scope: The audit was focused on "Warehouse", the open-source codebase that powers pypi.org As a result of the audit, Trail of Bits detailed 29 different advisories discovered across both codebases. When evaluating severity level of each advisory, 14 were categorized as "informational", 6 as "low", 8 as "medium" and zero as "high". Extras Brian: pytest course community to try out Podia Communities. Anyone have a podia community running strong now? If so, let me know through Mastodon: @[email protected] Want to join the community when it’s up and running? Same. Or join our our friends of the show list, and read our newsletter. I’ll be sure to drop a note in there when it’s ready. Michael: VS Code AMA @ Talk Python [video] Gunicorn CVE Talk submissions are now open for both remote and in-person talks at the 2024 PyConZA? The conference will be held on 3 and 4 October 2024 in Cape Town, South Africa. Details are on za.pycon.org. FlaskCon 2024 will be happening Friday, May 17 inside PyCon US 2024. Call for proposals are now live! Joke: Debugging with your eyes
4/23/202424 minutes, 7 seconds
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#379 Constable on the debugging case

Topics covered in this episode: How to Set Up Pre-Commit Hooks A step-by-step guide to installing and configuring pre-commit hooks on your project. difftastic Quarto constable Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Michael #1: How to Set Up Pre-Commit Hooks A step-by-step guide to installing and configuring pre-commit hooks on your project. by Stefanie Molin Pre-commit hooks are code checks that run as part of the “pre-commit” stage of the git commit process. If any of these checks fail, git aborts the commit Sometimes, we need to bypass the hooks temporarily. For these instances, we can pass the --no-verify option when we run git commit Brian #2: difftastic Found this a couple years ago, but really using it a lot now. Excellent structurally diff tool that compares code based on syntax, not line by line. Michael #3: Quarto via Mathias Johansson An open-source scientific and technical publishing system Transforming a notebook into a pdf / HTML / MS Word / ePub with minimal effort, or even all formats at once. Author using Jupyter notebooks or with plain text markdown in your favorite editor. Write using Pandoc markdown, including equations, citations, crossrefs, figure panels, callouts, advanced layout, and more. Brian #4: constable “inserts print statements directly into the AST at runtime “ “If you find yourself aimlessly adding print statements while debugging your code, this is for you. !” Add decorators like @constable.trace('a', 'b') to functions and you’ll get nice output showing when and how a and b changed. see also icecream for another fun debugging with print project. Extras Brian: pointers being added to the standard library A couple weeks old, but still worth covering Guido’s take on adding this, "Why the hell not?" Michael: Python 3.12.3 is out Joke: Hugo SciFi Award
4/16/202420 minutes, 13 seconds
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#378 Python is on the edge

Topics covered in this episode: pacemaker - For controlling time per iteration loop in Python. PyPI suspends new user registration to block malware campaign Python Project-Local Virtualenv Management Redux Python Edge Workers at Cloudflare Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Brian #1: pacemaker - For controlling time per iteration loop in Python. Brandon Rohrer Good example of a small bit of code made into a small package. With speedups to dependencies, like with uv, for example, I think we’ll see more small projects. Cool stuff Great README, including quirks that need to be understood by users. “If the pacemaker experiences a delay, it will allow faster iterations to try to catch up. Heads up: because of this, any individual iteration might end up being much shorter than suggested by the pacemaker's target rate.” Nice use of time.monotonic() deltas are guaranteed to never go back in time regardless of what adjustments are made to the system clock. Watch out for pip install pacemaker-lite NOT pacemaker pacemaker is taken by a package named PaceMaker with a repo named pace-maker, that hasn’t been updated in 3 years. Not sure if it’s alive. No tests (yet). I’m sure they’re coming. ;) Seriously though, Brandon says this is “a glorified snippet”. And I love the use of packaging to encapsulate shared code. Realistically, small snippet like packages have functionality that’s probably going to be tested by end user code. And even if there are tests, users should test the functionality they are depending on. Michael #2: PyPI suspends new user registration to block malware campaign Incident Report for Python Infrastructure PyPi Is Under Attack: Project Creation and User Registration Suspended — Here’s the details I hate medium, but it’s the best details I’ve found so far Brian #3: Python Project-Local Virtualenv Management Redux Hynek Concise writeup of how Hynek uses various tools for dealing with environments Covers (paren notes are from Brian) In project .venv directories direnv for handling .envrc files per project (time for me to try this again) uv for pip and pip-compile functionality Installing Python via python.org Using a .python-version-default file (I’ll need to play with this a bit) Works with GH Action setup-python. (ok. that’s cool) Some fish shell scripting Bonus tip on using requires-python in .pyproject.toml and extracting it in GH actions to be able to get the python exe name, and then be able to pass it to Docker and reference it in a Dockerfile. (very cool) Michael #4: Python Edge Workers at Cloudflare What are edge workers? Based on workers using Pyodide and WebAssembly This new support for Python is different from how Workers have historically supported languages beyond JavaScript — in this case, we have directly integrated a Python implementation into workerd, the open-source Workers runtime. Python Workers can import a subset of popular Python packages including FastAPI, Langchain, numpy Check out the examples repo. Extras Michael: LPython follow up from Brian Skinn Featured on Python Bytes badge A little downtime, thanks for the understanding We were rocking a 99.98% uptime until then. :) Joke: C++ is not safe for people under 18 Baseball joke
4/9/202431 minutes, 24 seconds
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#377 A Dramatic Episode

Topics covered in this episode: justpath xz back door LPython dramatic Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Finally, if you want an artisanal, hand-crafted digest of every week of the show notes in email form? Add your name and email to our friends of the show list, we'll never share it. Michael #1: justpath Inspect and refine PATH environment variable on both Windows and Linux. Raw, count, duplicates, invalids, corrections, excellent stuff. Check out the video Brian #2: xz back door In case you kinda heard about this, but not really. Very short version: A Microsoft engineer noticed a performance problem with ssh and tracked it to a particular version update of xz. Further investigations found a multi-year installation of a fairly complex back door into the xz by a new-ish contributor. But still contributing over several years. First commit in early 2022. The problem is caught. But if it had succeeded, it would have been bad. Part of the issue of how this happened is due to having one primary maintainer on a very widely used tool included in tons-o-Linux distributions. Some useful articles Everything I Know About the XZ Backdoor - Evan Boehs - recommended read Don’t think your affected? Think again if you use homebrew, for example: Update and upgrade Homebrew and xz versions Notes Open source maintenance burnout is real Lots of open source projects are maintained by unpaid individuals for long periods of time. Multi-year sneakiness and social bullying is pretty hard to defend against. Handing off projects to another primary maintainer has to be doable. But now I think we need better tools to vet contributors. Maybe? Or would that just suppress contributions? One option to help with burnout: JGMM, Just Give Maintainers Money: Software Needs To Be More Expensive - Glyph Michael #3: LPython LPython aggressively optimizes type-annotated Python code. It has several backends, including LLVM, C, C++, and WASM. LPython’s primary tenet is speed. Play with the wasm version here: dev.lpython.org Still in alpha, so keep that in mind. Brian #4: dramatic Trey Hunner More drama in the software world. This time in the Python. Actually, this is just a fun utility to make your Python output more dramatic. More fun output with terminaltexteffects suggested by Allan Extras Brian: Textual how has a new inline feature in the new release. Michael: My keynote talk is out: The State of Python in 2024 Have you browsed your github feed lately? 3.10, 3.9, 3.8 security updates Joke: Definition of terms
4/2/202432 minutes, 55 seconds
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#376 Every dunder method in a Python Lockbox

Topics covered in this episode: 🤖 On Robots.txt niquests Every dunder method in Python Lockbox Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: 🤖 On Robots.txt Jeff Triplett “In theory, this file helps control what search engines and AI scrapers are allowed to visit, but I need more confidence in its effectiveness in the post-AI apocalyptic world.” Resources to get started Block the Bots that Feed “AI” Models by Scraping Your Website Go ahead and block AI web crawlers Dark Visitors Django Add robots.txt to a Django website How to add a robots.txt to your Django site Hugo Hugo robots.txt Podcast questions: Should content creators block AI from our work? Should’t we set up a standard way to do this? I still haven’t found a way to block GitHub repositories. Is there a way? Licensing is one thing (not easy), but I don’t think any bots respect any protocol for repos. Michael #2: niquests Requests but with HTTP/3, HTTP/2, Multiplexed Connections, System CAs, Certificate Revocation, DNS over HTTPS / TLS / QUIC or UDP, Async, DNSSEC, and (much) pain removed! Niquests is a simple, yet elegant, HTTP library. It is a drop-in replacement for Requests, which is under feature freeze. See why you should switch: Read about 10 reasons why Brian #3: Every dunder method in Python Trey Hunner Sure, there’s __repr__(), __str__(), and __init__(), but how about dunder methods for: Equality and hashability Orderability Type conversions and formatting Context managers Containers and collections Callability Arithmetic operators … and so much more … even a cheat sheet. Michael #4: Lockbox Lockbox is a forward proxy for making third party API calls. Why? Automation or workflow platforms like Zapier and IFTTT allow "webhook" actions for interacting with third party APIs. They require you to provide your third party API keys so they can act on your behalf. You are trusting them to keep your API keys safe, and that they do not misuse them. How Lockbox helps: When a workflow platform needs to make a third party API call on your behalf, it makes a Lockbox API call instead. Lockbox makes the call to the third party API, and returns the result to the workflow platform. Extras Brian: Django: Join the community on Mastodon - Adam Johnson No maintenance intended - Sent in from Kim van Wyk Michael: US sues Apple Good video on pluses and minuses The hot water just the day before [and this one] https://9to5mac.com/2024/03/25/app-store-proposals-rejected/ PyPI Support Specialist job VS Code AMA, please submit your question here PyData Eindhoven 2024 has a date and open CFP Joke: Windows Certified
3/26/202432 minutes, 4 seconds
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#375 Pointing at Countries

Topics covered in this episode: pycountry Does Python have pointers? ingestr Make your terminal nice Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: pycountry A Python library to access ISO country, subdivision, language, currency and script definitions and their translations. pycountry provides the ISO databases for the standards: 639-3 Languages 3166 Codes for representation of names of countries and their subdivisions 3166-1 Countries 3166-3 Deleted countries 3166-2 Subdivisions of countries 4217 Currencies 15924 Scripts Brian #2: Does Python have pointers? Ned Batchelder Turns out, this is really the description of “what’s a variable in Python?” that helps to make sense of the “variables as names” model in Python, especially for people coming from languages that use pointers a lot. You can use id() to find out what a variable points to You just can’t do the reverse of access it given an id. There’s no “dereference” operator. See also Python Names and Values, also by Ned Should be required reading/viewing for all Python curriculum. Michael #3: ingestr ingestr is a command-line application that allows ingesting or copying data from any source into any destination database. Works on both MongoDB and Postgres and many more. incremental loading: append, merge or delete+insert Brian #4: Make your terminal nice David Lord David’s switched to Fish and Starship I tried switching to Fish several times, and I guess I’m good with zsh. Although I admire the brave comic sans motto: “Finally, a command line shell for the 90s” But I’m finally ready for Starship, and it takes almost no time to set up Plus it’s fast. (Has it always been Rust?) Extras Brian: Doing some groundwork for a SaaS project, using SaaS Pegasus I just talked with Cory from Pegasus for an upcoming PythonTest episode I haven’t decided whether to save up SaaS episodes for one big series, or spread them out. But mostly I’m excited to get my project started. Michael: Excellent video about “cloud exit” uv - The Next Evolution in Python Packages? Python 3.13 a5 Target’s Open Source Fund via Pat Decker Joke: Anti-social engineer
3/19/202424 minutes, 56 seconds
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#374 Climbing the Python Web Mountain

Topics covered in this episode: 6 ways to improve the architecture of your Python project (using import-linter) Mountaineer Why Python's Integer Division Floors Hatchet Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: 6 ways to improve the architecture of your Python project (using import-linter) Piglei Using import-linter to define architectural layers check to make sure imports don’t violate (import from upper layers) can also check for more contracts, such as forbidden - disallow a specific from/to import independence - list of modules that shouldn’t import from each other Fixing violations a process introduced to set exceptions for each violation in a config file then fix violations 1 at a time (nice approach) use the whole team if you can Common methods for fixing dependency issues Merging and splitting modules Dependency Injection, including using protocols to keep type hints without the need to import just for types Use simpler dependency types Delaying function implementations module global methods set by caller, or adding a simple plugin/callback system Configuration driven Setting import statements in a config file and using import_string() at runtime Replace function calls with event-driven approaches Michael #2: Mountaineer Mountaineer is a batteries-included web framework for Python and React. Mountaineer focuses on developer productivity above all else, with production speed a close second. 📝 Typehints up and down the stack: frontend, backend, and database 🎙️ Trivially easy client[HTML_REMOVED]server communication, data binding, and function calling 🌎 Optimized server rendering for better accessibility and SEO 🏹 Static analysis of web pages for strong validation: link validity, data access, etc. 🤩 Skip the API or Node.js server just to serve frontend clients Brian #3: Why Python's Integer Division Floors Guido van Rossum Integer division always floors (toward negative infinity) instead of truncating. (C truncates) 5//2 → 2 -5//2 → -3 5//-2 → -3 Reason, For nice mathematical relationships with // and % (modulo). a//b = quotient (q), a%b = remainder (r) such that b*q + r = a, and 0 <= r < b This works for both positive and negative a values For negative b, the second rule has to change to 0 >= r > b If you truncate (like C does), you have to use abs(r) for the first rule to work. Theory of why C doesn’t do it this way: Probably a hardware limitation at the time when C was designed, due to “sign + magnitude” integers instead of modern two’s compliment integers. Michael #4: Hatchet Hatchet is a distributed, fault-tolerant task queue which replaces traditional message brokers and pub/sub systems. It’s built to solve problems like concurrency, fairness, and durability Concurrency, Fairness, and Rate limiting: Enable FIFO, LIFO, Round Robin, and Priority Queues with built-in strategies to avoid common pitfalls. Architected for Resiliency: Customizable retry policies and built-in error handling to recover from transient failures. Extras Brian: Charlie Marsh on uv in PythonTest episode 216 Michael: Build An Audio AI App Course [free!] Rock Solid Python with Python Typing Course Coolio Joke: Breaking Prod
3/11/202432 minutes, 50 seconds
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#373 Changing Directories

Topics covered in this episode: zoxide Smart CLIs with Typer Python recommended officially by the US Government Textual tutorials at Mouse vs Python Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: zoxide zoxide is a smarter cd command, inspired by z and autojump. It remembers which directories you use most frequently, so you can "jump" to them in just a few keystrokes. zoxide works on all major shells and platforms. Brian #2: Smart CLIs with Typer Rahul Pai Lots of TILs here, even though I’ve been using Typer for years. Examples of Auto-detection of arguments and types based on type hints Help text is a smidge clunkier Prompting for missing arguments Defaulting to an enviromental variable for missing args Print help if no args given Explicit app and subcommands with a comparison to argparse Reusable commands with result_callback Several topics covered in comparison with argparse See also Testing argparse Applications Michael #3: Python recommended officially by the US Government The US government explicitly recommends memory safe languages. Python is one of them The comparison to big tech by Samuel is interesting Brian #4: Textual tutorials at Mouse vs Python Mike Driscoll Most recently Creating a Modal Dialog For Your TUIs in Textual Textualize already has some pretty great documentation at textual.textualize.io But it’s cool to see some different tutorials on it. Extras Brian: Is UV the FUTURE of Python PACKAGING? 🐍📦 - Hynek Nice context on how uv fits into all of the existing packaging challenges and some hope for the future. venmo feed is public by default Michael: ngrok Python SDK Djangonauts on Talk Python Maybe just a new case and battery for your phone? Joke: Ship it!
3/5/202426 minutes, 33 seconds
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#372 uv - an impressive pip alternative

Topics covered in this episode: uv: Python packaging in Rust jpterm Everything You Can Do with Python's textwrap Module HTML First Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. First, we are likely skipping next week folks. I’ll be at PyCon Philippines. Brian #1: uv: Python packaging in Rust Suggested by Collin Sullivan “uv is designed as a drop-in replacement for pip and pip-tools” Intended to support the pip and pip-tools APIs, just use uv pip instead. Oh yeah, also replaces venv and virtualenv. And it’s super zippy, as you would expect. I’m still getting used to it uv pip venv didn’t have --prompt at first. But that’s fixed. should get released soon. first thing I tried uv pip install ./ and uv pip install pytest second. worked awesome uv pip list third thing I tried not there either, but uv pip freeze is similar. Issue already filed Seriously, I’m excited about this. It’s just that it seems I wasn’t the target workflow for this. See also tox-uv - speed up tox with uv [rye](https://lucumr.pocoo.org/2024/2/15/rye-grows-with-uv/) from Armin Ronacher, will be supported by Astral - MK: Switched to this for dev. It’s excellent. For some reason, doesn’t work on Docker? From Henry Michael #2: jpterm via David Brochart jpterm is a JupyterLab-like environment running in the terminal. What sets jpterm apart is that it builds on the shoulders of giants, one of which is Textual. It is designed similarly to JupyterLab, where everything is a plugin. Brian #3: Everything You Can Do with Python's textwrap Module Martin Heinz Nice quick demo of one of my favorite builtin modules. Features shorten text and insert placeholders wrap can split lines to the same length but can also just split a string into equal chunks for batch processing TextWrapper class does all sorts of fancy stuff. dedent is my fave. Awesome for including a multiline string in a test function as an expected outcome. Michael #4: HTML First HTML First is a set of guidelines for making it easier, faster and more maintainable to build web software Principles Leveraging the default capabilities of modern web browsers. Leveraging the extreme simplicity of HTML's attribute syntax. Leveraging the web's ViewSource affordance. Practices Prefer Vanilla approaches Use HTML attributes for styling and behaviour Use libraries that leverage HTML attributes Avoid Build Steps Prefer Naked HTML Be View-Source Friendly Extras Brian: pytest 8.0.1 released. Fixes the parametrization order reversal I mentioned a couple episodes ago, plus some other fixes. Learn about dependency injection from Hynek If you want to jump into some Rust to help speed up Python tools, maybe check out yarr.fyi I just interviewed Nicole, the creator, for Python Test, and this looks pretty cool Her episode should come out in a couple of weeks. Ramping up more interviews for Python People. So please let me know if you’d like to be on the show or if you have suggestions for people you’d like me to interview. Also, I know this is weird, some people are still on X, and not like “didn’t close their account when they left”, but actually still using it. This is ironically a reverse of X-Files. “I don’t want to believe”. However, I’ve left my account open for those folks. I check it like twice a month. But eventually I’ll see it if you DM me. But really, there are easier ways to reach me. Michael: PyData Pittsburg CFP Wyden: Data Broker Used Abortion Clinic Visitor Location Data To Help Send Targeted Misinformation To Vulnerable Women SciPy 2024 - Call for Proposals Joke: Yeti tumbler
2/20/202434 minutes, 23 seconds
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#371 Python in a Crate

Topics covered in this episode: AppleCrate One way to package Python code right now Flask8 but why? Extra, Extra, Extra Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by ScoutAPM: pythonbytes.fm/scout Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: AppleCrate By Rhet Turnbull (from Building macOS Apps episode) AppleCrate is a tool for creating native macOS installers for your command line tools. It's useful for creating installers for command line tools written in any language. Tools written in interpreted languages like Python will need to be first processed with a tool like pyinstaller to create a standalone executable. AppleCrate uses Jinja2 templates to generate the files required for the installer. This allows you to use template variables in your files or command line parameters to customize the installer. Brian #2: One way to package Python code right now Ned Batchelder An example repo with all the parts for package A lot of discussion and what to think about in the README (unfortunately rst and not md, but we can’t have everything) Includes pyproject.toml dev-requirements.txt README.rst Makefile LICENSE.txt .bitignore .editorconfig see https://editorconfig.org Shout out to to Packaging Python Projects on python.org, which is pretty good Michael #3: Flask8 but why? Ihor Kalnytskyi: Something I really like about #ruff, a new tool for both linting and formatting in the #python ecosystem. You can literally pick any lint rule it supports and see both reasoning and examples. Ruff supports over 700 lint rules, many of which are inspired by popular tools like Flake8, isort, pyupgrade, and others. Brian #4: Extra, Extra, Extra Flat.app kinda like trello, etc. but a very simple interface that makes it pretty easy to use tosdr.org Terms of Service; Didn’t Read Kind of a wikipeda way to summarize the terms of service of different web services, and give them ratings/grades Why I write I talked about blogging more last episode. Here’s a cool write-up by Sheena O'Connell reasons to remember to refine my thinking to impact to get through hard times to connect Three pytest Features You Will Love Helen Scott at JetBrains/PyCharm Fixtures, Markers, Parametrize Plus shoutouts to my course and book Extras Brian: Wikipedia List of common misconceptions - just for fun Ear Trumpet Labs (a Potland Company) Edwina mic - just something on my wish list Michael Mozilla Monitor Python 3.12.2 Upgraded all the Python apps (11 of them) in about 2 minutes and one command Got a Vision Pro? Try the Talk Python Courses app Great video event: Data Doodling with Martina Pugliese Joke: Free Tier
2/13/202436 minutes, 4 seconds
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#370 Your Very Own Heroku

Topics covered in this episode: Dokku Summary of Major Changes Between Python Versions How to check Internet Speed via Terminal? speedtest-cli Blogs: We all should blog more Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Dokku An open source PAAS alternative to Heroku. Dokku helps you build and manage the lifecycle of applications from building to scaling. Powered by Docker, you can install Dokku on any hardware. Once it's set up on a host, you can push Heroku-compatible applications to it via Git. Rich plug in architecture. Brian #2: Summary of Major Changes Between Python Versions Nicholas Hairs Changes between versions & Tools & utilities to help with switching Hopefully you’re already at least at 3.8, but come on, 3.11 & 3.12 are so fun! Useful things pyupgrade can automatically upgrade code base (However, I frequently just upgrade and run tests and let my old code be as-is until it bugs me. - Brian) black checks pyproject.toml requires-python setting and uses version specific rules. Versions (way more highlights listed in the article) 3.8 Assignment expressions := walrus f"{variable=}" now works 3.9 Typing has built in generics like dict[], so no more from typing import Dict Dict union operator Strings can removeprefix and removesuffix 3.10 Structural pattern matching match/case Typing: Union using pipe | Dataclasses support slots=True and kw_only=True 3.11 tomllib included as a standard TOMP parser Exception groups Exception Notes add_note() Typing: A Self type Star unpacking expressions allowed in for statements: for x in *a, *b: 3.12 f-strings can re-use quotes Typing: better type parameter syntax Typing: @override decorator ensures a method being overridden by a child class actually exists. Michael #3: How to check Internet Speed via Terminal? speedtest-cli Command line interface for testing internet bandwidth using speedtest.net Just pipx install speedtest-cli Has a Python API too Brian #4: Blogs: We all should blog more Jeff Triplett is attempting one post per day in February Feb 1: Choosing the Right Python and Django Versions for Your Projects Feb 2: My First Mac Which also links to a quite interesting Personal: Default Apps 2023 Feb 3: What’s Your Go-to Comfort Media? [rough cut] Feb 4: The Django apps I actually use (rough cut) Feb 5: How to test with Django and pytest fixtures Need ideas? Check out Build an idea bank and never run out of blog ideas Not using AI? Thanks. We appreciate that. Maybe tag it as Not By AI Extras Brian: If upgrading to pytest 8, be aware that running individual tests with parametrization will result in a reverse order. It shouldn’t matter. You shouldn’t be depending on test order. But it was surprising to me. Issue has been logged Michael: Orbstack follow up Joke: White Lies
2/6/202436 minutes, 35 seconds
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#369 The Readability Episode

Topics covered in this episode: Granian pytest 8 is here Assorted Docker Goodies New GitHub Copilot Research Finds 'Downward Pressure on Code Quality' Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Granian via Andy Shapiro and Bill Crook A Rust HTTP server for Python applications. Granian design goals are: Have a single, correct HTTP implementation, supporting versions 1, 2 (and eventually 3) Provide a single package for several platforms Avoid the usual Gunicorn + uvicorn + http-tools dependency composition on unix systems Provide stable performance when compared to existing alternatives Could use better logging But making my own taught me maybe I prefer that! Originates from the Emmett framework. Brian #2: pytest 8 is here Improved diffs: Very verbose -vv is a colored diff, instead of a big chunk of red. Python code in error reports is now syntax-highlighted as Python. The sections in the error reports are now better separated. Diff for standard library container types are improved. Added more comprehensive set assertion rewrites for comparisons other than equality ==, with the following operations now providing better failure messages: !=, <=, >=, <, and >. Improvements to -r for xfailures and xpasses Report tracebacks for xfailures when -rx is set. Report captured output for xpasses when -rX is set. For xpasses, add - in summary between test name and reason, to match how xfail is displayed. This one was important to me. Massively helps when checking/debugging xfail/xpass outcomes in CI. Thanks to Fabian Sturm, Bruno Oliviera, and Ran Benita for help to get this release. Lots of other improvements See full changelog for all the juicy details. And then upgrade and try it out! pip install -U pytest Michael #3: Assorted Docker Goodies OrbStack Say goodbye to slow, clunky containers and VMs OrbStack is the fast, light, and easy way to run Docker containers and Linux. Develop at lightspeed with our Docker Desktop alternative. Podman Podman is an open source container, pod, and container image management engine. Podman makes it easy to find, run, build, and share containers. Manage containers (not just Podman.) Podman Desktop allows you to list, view, and manage containers from multiple supported container engines* in a single unified view. Gain easy access to a shell inside the container, logs, and basic controls. Works on Podman, Docker, Lima, kind, Red Hat OpenShift, Red Hat OpenShift Developer Sandbox. CasaOS Your Personal Cloud OS. Community-based open source software focused on delivering simple personal cloud experience around Docker ecosystem. Also have the ZimaCube hardware (Personal cloud. Re-invented.) Brian #4: New GitHub Copilot Research Finds 'Downward Pressure on Code Quality' David Ramel Regarding “…the quality and maintainability of AI-assisted code compared to what would have been written by a human.” Q: "Is it more similar to the careful, refined contributions of a Senior Developer, or more akin to the disjointed work of a short-term contractor?" A: "We find disconcerting trends for maintainability. Code churn -- the percentage of lines that are reverted or updated less than two weeks after being authored -- is projected to double in 2024 compared to its 2021, pre-AI baseline. We further find that the percentage of 'added code' and 'copy/pasted code' is increasing in proportion to 'updated,' 'deleted,' and 'moved 'code. In this regard, AI-generated code resembles an itinerant contributor, prone to violate the DRY-ness [don't repeat yourself] of the repos visited." Extras Brian: Did I mention pytest 8? Just pip install -U pytest today And if you want to learn pytest super fast, check out The Complete pytest Course or grab a copy of the book, Python Testing with pytest Michael: I’d like to encourage people to join our mailing list. We have some fun plans and some of them involve our newsletter. It’s super private, no third parties, no spam and is based on my recent Docker and Listmonk work. Big release for Pydantic, 2.6. New essay: Use Custom Search Engines Way More Joke: Pushing to main Junior vs Senior engineer
1/30/202434 minutes, 44 seconds
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#368 That episode where we just ship open source

Topics covered in this episode: Syntax Error #11: Debugging Python umami and umami-analytics pytest-suite-timeout Listmonk and (py) listmonk Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Syntax Error #11: Debugging Python Juhis Issue 11 of a fun debugging newsletter from Juhis Debugging advice mindeset take a break adopt a process talk to a duck tools & techniques print snoop debuggers Django debug toolbar & Kolo for VS Code Michael #2: umami and umami-analytics Umami makes it easy to collect, analyze, and understand your web data — while maintaining visitor privacy and data ownership. umami-analytics is a client for privacy-preserving, open source Umami analytics platform based on httpx and pydantic. Core features ➕ Add a custom event to your Umami analytics dashboard. 🌐 List all websites with details that you have registered at Umami. 🔀 Both sync and async programming models. ⚒️ Structured data with Pydantic models for API responses. 👩‍💻 Login / authenticate for either a self-hosted or SaaS hosted instance of Umami. 🥇Set a default website for a simplified API going forward. Brian #3: pytest-suite-timeout While recording Python Test 213 : Repeating Tests I noted that pytest-repeat doesn’t have a timeout, but pytest-flakefinder does. And perhaps I should add a timeout to pytest-repeat But also, maybe there’s other places I’d like a timeout, not just with repeat, but often with other parametrizations and even parametrize matrices. So, pytest-suite-timeout is born But Why not pytest-timeout? asks Mike Felder timeout is only timeouts per test, and it isn’t always graceful suite-timeout is for the full suite, and only times out between tests. so, you could use both Michael #4: Listmonk and (py) listmonk Listmonk Self-hosted newsletter and mailing list manager (think mailchimp) Built on Go and Vue Backed by a company charing for this service as SaaS Still requires a mail infrastructure backend (I’m using Sendgrid) listmonk (on PyPI) API Client for Python Created by Yours Truly I tried 4 other options first, they were all bad in their own way. Features: ➕Add a subscriber to your subscribed users. 🙎 Get subscriber details by email, ID, UUID, and more. 📝 Modify subscriber details (including custom attribute collection). 🔍 Search your users based on app and custom attributes. 🏥 Check the health and connectivity of your instance. 👥 Retrieve your segmentation lists, list details, and subscribers. 🙅 Unsubscribe and block users who don't want to be contacted further. 💥 Completely delete a subscriber from your instance. 📧 Send transactional email with template data (e.g. password reset emails). These pair well in my new docker cluster infrastructure Calls to the API from a client app (e.g. Talk Python Training) are basically loopback on the local docker bridge network. Extras Michael: Every github repo that has “releases” has a releases RSS feed, e.g. Umami Kolo Django + VS Code Warp Terminal on linux bpytop and btop - live server monitoring Joke: The cloud, visualized
1/23/202432 minutes, 18 seconds
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#367 A New Cloud Computing Paradigm at Python Bytes

Topics covered in this episode: Leaving the cloud PEP 723 - Inline script metadata Flet for Android harlequin: The SQL IDE for Your Terminal. Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Bright Data : pythonbytes.fm/brightdata Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Leaving the cloud Also see Five values guiding our cloud exit We value independence above all else. We serve the internet. We spend our money wisely. We lead the way. We seek adventure. And We stand to save $7m over five years from our cloud exit Slice our new monster 192-thread Dell R7625s into isolated VMs Which added a combined 4,000 vCPUs with 7,680 GB of RAM and 384TB of NVMe storage to our server capacity They created Kamal — Deploy web apps anywhere A lot of these ideas have changed how I run the infrastructure at Talk Python and for Python Bytes. Brian #2: PEP 723 - Inline script metadata Author: Ofek Lev This PEP specifies a metadata format that can be embedded in single-file Python scripts to assist launchers, IDEs and other external tools which may need to interact with such scripts. Example: # /// script # requires-python = ">=3.11" # dependencies = [ # "requests<3", # "rich", # ] # /// import requests from rich.pretty import pprint resp = requests.get("https://peps.python.org/api/peps.json") data = resp.json() pprint([(k, v["title"]) for k, v in data.items()][:10]) Michael #3: Flet for Android via Balázs Remember Flet? Here’s a code sample (scroll down a bit). It’s amazing but has been basically impossible to deploy. Now we have Android. Here’s a good YouTube video showing the build process for APKs. Brian #4: harlequin: The SQL IDE for Your Terminal. Ted Conbeer & other contributors Works with DuckDB and SQLite Speaking of SQLite Jeff Triplett and warnings of using Docker and SQLite in production Anže’s post and and article: Django, SQLite, and the Database is Locked Error Extras Brian: Recent Python People episodes Will Vincent Julian Sequeira Pamela Fox Michael: PageFind and how I’m using it When "Everything" Becomes Too Much: The npm Package Chaos of 2024 Essay: Unsolicited Advice for Mozilla and Firefox SciPy 2024 is coming to Washington Joke: Careful with that bike lock combination code
1/16/202436 minutes, 21 seconds
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#366 Put It In The Backlog

Topics covered in this episode: Python 3.13 gets a JIT UniDep - Unified Conda and Pip Dependency Management Don’t Start Pull Requests from Your Main Branch instld: The simplest package management Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Python 3.13 gets a JIT Anthony Shaw Great article that walks through JIT concepts with a small example as if you were writing a parser in Python instead of C. Covers What is a JIT? What is a copy-and-patch JIT? and Why? How does the Python JIT work? Is it faster? This is a building block to future improvements Michael #2: UniDep - Unified Conda and Pip Dependency Management 🔄 Single requirements.yaml for both #Conda & #Pip. ⚙️ Works with pyproject.toml & setup.py. 🏢 Perfect for monorepos. 🔒 Create consistent conda-lock files for multiple projects. 🌍 Platform-specific support. 🚀 unidep install for easy setup. Full source page. Brian #3: Don’t Start Pull Requests from Your Main Branch Hynek Schlawack When contributing to other users’ repositories, always start a new branch in your fork. Reasons to not use main Forces you to only have one change in progress Merges will generate conflicts and you can’t pull from that branch anymore. Need to kill the fork and start over If the target repo has branch protection on, then maintainers can’t push to your branch. Hynek also provides a way to fix things if you’ve already started your changes on a main branch fork. Michael #4: instld: The simplest package management Thanks to this package, it is very easy to manage the lifecycle of packages. ⚡ Run your code without installing libraries. ⚡ You can use 2 different versions of the same library in the same program. ⚡ You can use incompatible libraries in the same project, as well as libraries with incompatible/conflicting dependencies. ⚡ It's easy to share written scripts. The script file becomes self-sufficient - the user does not need to install the necessary libraries. ⚡ The library does not leave behind "garbage". After the end of the program, no additional files remain in the system. Extras Brian: The Complete pytest Course is now actually complete Although updates will happen when and if necessary as pytest/Python changes. To celebrate, use code 2024 in January for 10% off any pricing option. More episodes of Python People and Python Test on the way now That course took up a lot of my time in late 2023 Just released an episode with Will Vincent and Python Test will have a new episode this week and for the foreseeable future. Let me know if you want to be on Python People or Python Test Michael: Hatch follow up: Great coverage of Hatch v1.8.0! One small correction: only the binaries for Hatch are signed with the certificate from the PSF. - Ofek PyPI new user registration temporarily suspended Pagefind and how I’m using it Talk Python Live: Data Doodles event coming early Feb New essay: AI Features a Waste of Time? Joke: Put it in the backlog
1/9/202432 minutes, 1 second
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#365 Inheritance, but not Inheritance!

Topics covered in this episode: * Hatch v1.8* svcs: A Flexible Service Locator for Python Steering Council 2024 Term Election Results Python protocols. When to use them in your projects to abstract and decoupling Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Hatch v1.8 Hatch now manages installing Python for you. Hatch can build .app and .exe stand-alone binaries for you The macOS ones are signed (signed!) Discussion here Brian #2: svcs : A Flexible Service Locator for Python Hynek A library to help structure and test Python web applications. “svcs (pronounced services) is a dependency container* for Python. It gives you a central place to register factories for types/interfaces and then imperatively acquire instances of those types with automatic cleanup* and **health checks.” “Benefits: Eliminates tons of repetitive boilerplate code, unifies acquisition* and cleanups of services, provides full static type safety for them, simplifies testing through loose coupling, improves live introspection and monitoring* with **health checks.” Hynek has started a YouTube channel, and is starting with an explanation of svcs. Yes, Hynek, we want more videos. I like that it’s not a beginner level. My request for future videos: just past beginner, and also intermediate level. There are plenty of basics videos out there, not as many filling the gaps between beginner and production. Michael #3: Steering Council 2024 Term Election Results The 2024 Term Python Steering Council is: Pablo Galindo Salgado Gregory P. Smith Emily Morehouse Barry Warsaw Thomas Wouters Full results are available in PEP 8105 . How do you become a candidate? Candidates must be nominated by a core team member. If the candidate is a core team member, they may nominate themselves. Brian #4: Python protocols. When to use them in your projects to abstract and decoupling Carlos Vecina “Protocols are an alternative (or a complement) to inheritance, abstract classes and Mixins.” Understanding interactions between ABC, MixIns and Protocols in Python With examples Extras Brian: Donations. It’s a decent time of the year to donate to projects that help you Python Software Foundation Django Software Foundation Python Bytes Also, look for “Sponsor this project” links in GitHub for projects you depend on. Michael: Mastodon guidelines (mine): If you have a picture and description, I’ll probably follow you back If you have posts that seem relevant +1 If you have a verified webpage +1 If your account is private, won’t. I don’t understand really since private group messages already exist and the profile itself is public. Speaking of Mastodon. I had a productive conversation with the PSF and others around masks and conferences. Dropbox spooks users by sending data to OpenAI for AI search features There was a comment in the above article to the effect of “Once you give your data to a third party (even trusted like Dropbox), you no longer control that data.” That sent me searching and thinking… sync.com? proton drive (discount code)? nextcloud? filen.io? icedrive.net? ownCloud’s recent CVE makes me a bit nervous of self-hosted options. Either way, Cryptomator is very interesting. Beyond privacy, this got me thinking, just how many hours of dev time have been diverted to add mediocre-at-best AI features to everything? I’m doing a big digital decluttering and have lots to say on that soon. Not submitting my talks to PyCascades this year. But I did submit 3 talks to PyCon US. 🤞 I will be giving the keynote at PyCon Philippines. Joke: The dream is dead?
12/20/202334 minutes, 29 seconds
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#364 Holy Match-Cases Batman!

Topics covered in this episode: A Python/Django Advent calendar Dropbase helps you build internal web apps with Python Real-world match/case Extra, extra, extra, so many extras! Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: A Python/Django Advent calendar James Bennett’s take on an Advent Calendar “I’m going to try to publish one short blog post each day of Advent 2023, each covering a small but hopefully useful tip or bit of information for Python and/or Django developers” First post also discusses using enums A couple cool testing posts Don’t mock Python’s HTTPX I didn’t know HTTPX had built in transport mocking, very cool Test your documentation doctest discussion Michael #2: Dropbase helps you build internal web apps with Python Build fullstack web apps for your internal teams. Import existing Python scripts Quickly layer UIs and granular permissions on top. Turn any SQL SELECT into an admin panel with Smart Tables. Watch the video for the zen of it. Freemium model Brian #3: Real-world match/case Ned Batchelder Structural pattern matching example taken from a GitHub bot Matching nested dictionaries, pulling out bits of data The examples of not just matching but using case [structure] if [test on component] are neat. Michael #4: Extra, extra, extra, so many extras! WAY better DNS with Bunny.net DNS Terminal Secrets essay Meet the Supporting Developer in Residence (via Pycoders) Songs in Python code BohemianRhapsody.py MoneyForNothing.py PyCascades 2024 Project names blocked on PyPI to avoid name collision for downstream free-threaded Python distributions An Open Letter to the Python Software Foundation PSF’s official mission https://discuss.python.org/t/python-3-12-1-now-available/40603 https://discuss.python.org/t/python-3-11-7-is-available/40778 Obfuscated Python winning (via Johannes Lippmann) Extras Brian: Python for VSCode, Dec 2023 release, rolls out better test discovery to everyone. Forcing pip to use virtualenv Advent of Code Joke: Too many open tabs
12/12/202327 minutes, 9 seconds
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#363 DNS Again? It's Always DNS.

Topics covered in this episode: Fixit 2: Meta’s next-generation auto-fixing linter FastUI Mail list / newsletter conversation CLIs from type hints Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Fixit 2: Meta’s next-generation auto-fixing linter via Bart Kappenburg Fixit is dead! Long live Fixit 2 – the latest version of our open-source auto-fixing linter. Fixit provides a highly configurable linting framework with support for auto-fixes, custom “local” lint rules, and hierarchical configuration, built on LibCST. Fixit 2 is available today on PyPI. Created by Meta’s Python Language Foundation team — a hybrid team of both PEs and traditional SWEs — helps own and maintain the infrastructure and tooling for Python. Interesting comments on this article on Hacker News I wonder if ruff format was already a thing when Fixit was adopted, whether it would exist? Brian #2: FastUI Samuel Colvin “FastUI is a new way to build web application user interfaces defined by declarative Python code.” MK: Reminds me of the code matches DOM style of Flutter. See code samples at the end. Michael #3: Mail list / newsletter conversation I’ve been tired of Mailchimp for a long time Raising the prices month over month by $100 several months may be the straw But what are the options? Lets ask Mastodon: emailoctopus.com listmonk.app [self hosted, open source] keila.io [self/saas, open source] mailyherald.org [self hosted, open source] sendportal.io [self hosted, open source] brevo.com buttondown.email [django] zoho.com/campaigns/ sendy.co [use your own bulk emailer (e.g. sendgrid or aws ses) convertkit.com mautic.org [open source] constantcontact.com getresponse.com convertkit.com Brian #4: CLIs from type hints From Sander76 Pydantic Argparse “is a Python package built on top of pydantic which provides declarative typed argument parsing using pydantic models.” Clipstick is a “cli-tool based on Pydantic models.” tyro “is a tool for generating command-line interfaces and configuration objects in Python.” tyro includes support for dataclasses and attrs in place of Pydantic Extras Brian: Django 5.0 has been released vim-keybindings-everywhere-the-ultimate-list - submitted by Paul Barry PythonTest (the podcast formerly known as Test & Code, to be read in an undertone similar to the way one used to say “The artist formerly known as Prince”) has moved form testandcode.com to podcast.pythontest.com Plus more guests are listed now. I think I’ve gone backwards from current to episode 182. I tried to get my kid to help out, unsuccessfully. May have to hire someone to help. grrr. Michael: Essay: Don't Sweat the Ad Blocker Drama A story: my project this weekend, unify my over 20 domains to one host Joke: Honest LinkedIn
12/5/202339 minutes, 1 second
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#362 You can deprecate a global variable?

Topics covered in this episode: Habits of great software engineers Flask 3.0 Build Conway's Game of Life With Python polars business Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Scout APM Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Habits of great software engineers As we wind up the year, many people are thinking about goals for the new year. Here’s a decent list to think about Focusing beyond the code Efficiency / Antifragility Joy of tinkering Knowing the why Thinking in systems Tech detox The art of approximation Transferring Knowledge to Other Problems Making Hard Things Easy Playing the Long Game Developing a Code Nose Strong Opinions loosely held Michael #2: Flask 3.0 Deprecate the __version__ attribute. Use feature detection, or importlib.metadata.version("flask"), instead. #5230 How do you even do that? This is news to me: [build-system] requires = ["setuptools", "wheel"] build-backend = "setuptools.build_meta" [metadata] name = "your-package-name" version = "0.1.0" Remove previously deprecated code. #5223 Brian #3: Build Conway's Game of Life With Python Leodanis Pozo Ramos CLI curses version Nice walk through of breaking the problem into parts. Michael #4: polars business It's a plugin for Polars, which allows you to do business day arithmetic. The big advantage of using this directly (as opposed to converting to pandas/numpy, using their business day tools, and then converting back) is that polars-business fits right in with the Polars lazy API. This means you'll still be able to get the gains from the Polars query optimiser without having to step into eager execution. All you need to use is it is pip install polars-business Written in Rust, but end-users doesn't need Rust to run it, Python is all you need. Extras Brian: BLACKFRIDAY code still works for 50% off The Complete pytest Course, Full Course + Community Access, through Nov 30 Also Debugging chapter is up, and it includes a small TDD example. Michael: Dear Python Community by Kenneth Reitz Python 3.13a2 out and Major new features of the 3.13 series, compared to 3.12 Thank you Black Friday supporters. Joke: ai vs dev
11/28/202328 minutes, 10 seconds
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#361 Proper way to comment your code!

Topics covered in this episode: The many shapes and sizes of keyboards appeal - a CLI framework from Larry Hastings Graphinate: Data to Graphs A Disorganized List of Maintainer Tasks Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Scout APM Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: The many shapes and sizes of keyboards Many keyboards discussed Focus on health and safety (as it should!) I swear by Microsoft Sculpt Ergonomic (which wasn’t mentioned) More options still over at Wire Cutter Brian #2: appeal - a CLI framework from Larry Hastings “Give your program APPEAL!” Appeal is a command-line argument processing library for Python, like argparse, optparse, getopt, docopt, Typer, and click. But Appeal takes a refreshing new approach. Hello World example: import appeal app = appeal.Appeal() @app.command() def hello(name): print(f"Hello, {name}!") app.main() looks fun, no idea how to test with it “yet”. But I plan on looking into that. Michael #3: Graphinate: Data to Graphs via Eran Rivlis Graphinate is a python library that aims to simplify the generation of Graph Data Structures from Data Sources. Write a function to definite the edges as a generator, call materialize Based on NetworkX See the github page for visual examples Brian #4: A Disorganized List of Maintainer Tasks David Lord Plus, David Lord, lead maintainer of Flask, Jinja, Click, … on Pallets, also PSF Fellow, has a blog. Neat. TLDR; Next time you want to ask "When's the next release?", instead look at the project and see where you can start getting involved. The more help maintainers have, the more they can get done. Long list of stuff David thinks about when maintaining a project. My list is shorter, but it’s still long, and my projects are tiny in comparison to his Extras Brian: Do you do enough testing? pytest to the Rescue! webinar from this morning The Complete pytest Course will be 16 chapters, 11 are released, the 12th is recorded and almost released, and the 13th should be next week, … I should be done with all 16 by the end of the year. Testing argparse Applications Python Test Podcast episode 109: Testing argparse Applications Blog post on pythontest.com: Testing argparse Applications Black Friday sale on The Complete pytest Course Use code BLACKFRIDAY for 50% off of The Complete pytest Course, Full Course + Full Access Michael: It’s Black Friday at Talk Python Python 3.13.0 alpha 1 is now available Python Developers Survey 2023 Joke: The proper way to comment your code!
11/21/202329 minutes, 39 seconds
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#360 Happy Birthday!

Topics covered in this episode: exclude_also with coverage.py Writeside Extra, extra, extra Chrome not proceeding with Web Integrity API deemed by many to be DRM Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Scout APM Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Note: No episode next week. Michael will be at Microsoft Ignite in Seattle. Happy Birthday to us (7 years old today)! Brian #1: exclude_also with coverage.py Interesting exchange between Pamela Fox, Hugo van Kemenade, and myself where we all discover exclude_also, even though it’s been there since February This is cool because you can exclude common “should I cover this? It’s just for debugging.” kinda stuff, and other “I don’t wanna test that” places. To exclude code blocks, we can use *# pragma: no cover* in the code. Or we can list lines in coverage setting with exclude_lines, but you have to also list # pragma: no cover, which is weird. exclude_also just just right. It leaves all the inline excludes alone, and adds some regexes, and you can even just have one if that’s all you need, like if __name__ == .__main__.: See coverage docs Michael #2: Writeside An IDE for writing the docs Write, test, build, and publish docs Docs-as-code out of the box Doc quality automation: Ensure documentation quality and integrity with 100+ on-the-fly inspections in the editor as well as tests in Live Preview and during build. Comes as a separate IDE as well as a plugin for PyCharm, etc. Pricing will be free + paid premium version (like PyCharm), fully free for now Brian #3: Extra, extra, extra Welcome Marie Nordin as the new PSF Community Communications Manager Woohoo! Pablo Galindo and Łukasz Langa started a podcast, called core.py Inside look into Python 3.13 Two episodes so far The first core sprint for 3.13 Details on removing the GIL regexcrossword Suggested by Kim van Wyk actually really great for practicing regex rules Michael #4: Chrome not proceeding with Web Integrity API deemed by many to be DRM Google’s premise for the internet: The Internet should be constructed so that users can be identified, tracked, retargeted (and hence resold). — Google And privacy is important. So how do we make both of these work. FLOCs? Privacy Sandboxes? Web Integrity? No, just no. How about you sell us ads the same way you surface search results (by what is on the page, not who is visiting it) Good riddance to this idea you corrupted organization. What was wrong with Web Integrity? Some comments Issue #134 calls the idea "absolutely unethical and against the open web." Issue #113 say they "can't believe this is even proposed." Issue #127 adds: "Have you ever stopped to consider that you're the bad guys?” Extras Brian: Mock chapter of pytest: working with projects, the 2nd course in The Complete pytest Course series, is recorded and hopefully releasing today. At the very least some time this week. PyCharm has sent me a bunch of coupon codes for students of The Complete pytest Course. Sign up for the course and ask me for the code, and I’ll send it to you. Nov 21 webinar with yours truly: Do You Do Enough Testing? pytest to the Rescue! Michael: We Just Gave $500,000 to Open Source Maintainers - Sentry (thank you) ruff format + pycharm follow up JetBrains AI is getting very good a commit messages Add exception handling in background_service.py: Introduced try-except blocks to handle potential exceptions in the 'pending_jobs', 'start_job_processing', and 'run_pending_job' methods in background_service.py. This change enhances error handling and makes the service more robust by preventing crashes if a job or episode cannot be fetched or if an unknown job action is encountered. Add assemblyai to requirements and update ruff version: This commit includes the addition of assemblyai package as part of the requirements.txt file, required to introduce new speech-to-text feature in our application. Ruff version is also updated from 0.1.3 to 0.1.4 due to bug fixes and stability improvements in the new version. Assemblyai also includes dependencies like pydantic and websockets. GPT4All follow up Got some nice feedback on my statement on PyCon 2024’s health and safety policy More I think about it, the more out of touch it seems Comparisons, no mask requirements for any of: GitHub Universe - N,NNN? attendees CES - 180,000 attendees SXSW - 152,000 attendees KubeCon - 12,000 attendees Adobe Summit - 10,000 attendees Mobile World Conference - 109,500 attendees DeveloperWeek - 2,000 attendees Microsoft Ignite - 4,000 attendees WWDC - unkown Joke: The plural of regex is regrets.
11/7/202335 minutes, 44 seconds
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#359 gil--;

Topics covered in this episode: PyCon 2024 is up? Ruff formatter is production ready gil--; Why is the Django Admin “Ugly”? Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Scout APM Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: PyCon 2024 is up? May 15 - May 23, 2024 - Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Conference breakdown: Tutorials: May 15 - 16, 2024 Main Conference and Online: May 17 - 19, 2024 Job Fair: May 19, 2024 Sprints: May 20 - May 23, 2024 Tickets aren’t on sale yet Unfortunately, I’m not going (see health and safety guidelines) Attendance numbers over time on Wikipedia Brian #2: Ruff formatter is production ready We reported the alpha release in September It’s fast, 30x faster than Black Provides >99.9% compatibility with Black, with a list of known deviations More configurable Bundled with ruff, ruff format Still in Beta, but considered production-ready Integration extensions for VSCode and PyCharm Michael #3: gil--; The Python Steering Council has now formally accepted PEP 703 ("Making the Global Interpreter Lock Optional in CPython") The global interpreter lock will remain the default for CPython builds and python.org downloads. A new build configuration flag, --disable-gil will be added to the configure script that will build CPython with support for running without the global interpreter lock. "In short, the SC accepts PEP 703, but with clear provisio: that the rollout be gradual and break as little as possible, that we can roll back any changes that turn out to be too disruptive – which includes potentially rolling back all of PEP 703 entirely if necessary (however unlikely or undesirable we expect that to be)." Removing the global interpreter lock requires substantial changes to CPython internals, but relatively few changes to the public Python and C APIs. The implementation changes can be grouped into the following four categories: Reference counting Memory management Container thread-safety Locking and atomic APIs Brian #4: Why is the Django Admin “Ugly”? Vince Salvino Some great quotes from the article: "The Django admin is not ugly, rather, no effort was made to make it a beautiful end-user tool.” - Ken Whitesell “The admin’s recommended use is limited to an organization’s internal management tool. It’s not intended for building your entire front end around.” - Django docs “The Django admin was built for Phil.” - Jacob Kaplan-Moss “Even in the 0.9x days we used to have a image that said “Admin: it’s not your app”.” - Curtis Maloney As Curtis put it, “encouraging people to build their own management interface, and treat admin as a DB admin tool, has saved a lot of people pain... the effort to customise it grows far faster than the payoffs.” Extras Brian: Local Conferences: Big Potential Michael: Data Science Jumpstart with 10 Projects course is out! PSF is X-ed out (or are they?) GPT4All is pretty excellent Fosstodon invites from us (expires Nov 7 2023) Joke: Searching YouTube for bug fixes
11/2/202343 minutes, 4 seconds
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#358 Collecting Shells

Topics covered in this episode: Django 5.0 beta 1 released git bash, terminals, and Windows Mastering Integration Testing with FastAPI Reuven Learner has been banned for trading in rare animals (Pythons and Pandas) Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Django 5.0 beta 1 released Django 5.0 release notes supports Python 3.10, 3.11, 3.12 Facet filters in the admin Simplified templates for form field rendering Database-computed default values Database generated model field More options for declaring field choices More Django news Djangonaut Space now accepting applications for our next contributor mentorship cohort Take the Django Developers Survey 2023 Michael #2: git bash, terminals, and Windows See the screenshot Requires Windows 10 Install the Windows Terminal from the Microsoft Store Brian #3: Mastering Integration Testing with FastAPI Alex Jacobs Some great integration testing techniques Focused on FastAPI, but relevant to many frameworks. Mocking authentication Mocking external APIs Fun use of parametrize and indirect fixtures for mocking responses. Mocking MongoDB Mocking AWS S3 Michael #4: Reuven Learner has been banned for trading in rare animals (Pythons and Pandas) via Pat Decker Reuven, like us, teaches Python and Data Sci Tried to advertise his courses (Python and Pandas courses) on Meta Got permanently (life-time) banned for selling rare and endangered animals. Sometimes I really hate these big tech companies My recent beefs have been with app store reviewers and surveillance-based capitalism Extras Brian: Where did everyone go? - Ned Batchelder I do feel like we’re more fragmented than before, but I am feeling like we have a community on Mastodon. reminder that Mastodon has text search now On Sunday, I released Ch9, Coverage, as part of The Complete pytest course, specifically part of pytest Working with Projects. It was super fun. I’ve used coverage a lot since writing the book, for example, I demonstrate branch coverage. It’s so much more effective to teach in video than in printed screenshots. Michael: Autin shell enhancer by Ellie Huxtable recommended by recommended by Nik JupyterCon 2023 videos are out More shells follow up from Teemu Hukkanen for “editor like” features Zsh and Bash ruff format and strings, aka format.quote-style = "single" Glyph’s programming your computer talk is up. Joke: this is what the experts do
10/24/202335 minutes, 28 seconds
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#357 Python 3.7 EOLed, We Hadn't Noticed

Topics covered in this episode: QuickMacHotKey Things I’ve learned about building CLI tools in Python Warp Terminal (referral code) Python 3.7 EOLed, but I hadn’t noticed Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: QuickMacHotKey This is a set of minimal Python bindings for the undocumented macOS framework APIs that even the most modern, sandboxing-friendly shortcut-binding frameworks use under the hood for actually binding global hotkeys. Thinking of updating my urlify menubar app. Brian #2: Things I’ve learned about building CLI tools in Python Simon Willison A cool Cookiecutter starter project, if you like Click. Conventions and consistency in commands, arguments, options, and flags. The importance of versioning. Your CLI is an API. Include examples in --help Include --help in documentation. Aside, Typer is also cool, and is built on Click. Michael #3: Warp Terminal (referral code) Really nice reimagining of the terminal Currently macOS only but will be Linux, then Windows New command section & output section mode Blocks can be navigated and searched as a single thing (even if it’s 1,000 lines of output) CTRL+R gives a nice history like McFly I’ve discussed before Completions into popular CLIs (i.e. git) Edit like an editor (even you VIM people 🙂 ) Has AI built in too Free for individuals If you’re going to give it a try, use my referral I guess? Brian #4: Python 3.7 EOLed, but I hadn’t noticed EOL was June 27 I’m still supporting 3.7, as are most projects I work with. But I’m not sure when that will change. VS Code is deprecating 3.7 support Why I’m ok with supporting 3.7 for some projects dataclasses came in with 3.7 from __ future__ import annotations allows the use of union types with X|Y. example I’ll probably drop 3.7 as my dependent projects drop it. Extras Brian: pytest-param-scope is an in progress hack to workaround this missing scope. Runs setup before any param test cases, and teardown after the last one. Stop defining people by what they’re not: on “non-code contributors” - Josh Simmons Michael: OpenAI has unveiled the Beta version of its Python SDK (via Mark Little) StackOverflow lays off 28% of its staff Weird follow up of their “what to do if you’re laid off” post from 6 months ago? Is AI eating into their traffic? ArsTechnica has thoughts too Joke: Define hot New Zoo exhibit
10/17/202329 minutes, 6 seconds
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#356 Ripping from PyPY

Topics covered in this episode: Psycopg 3 dacite RIP: Fast, barebones pip implementation in Rust Flaky Tests follow up Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Psycopg 3 Psycopg folks recommend starting with 3 for new projects 2 is still actively maintained, but no new features are planned recommend staying with 2 for legacy projects Psycopg 3 project 2 vs 3 feature comparison A few Psycopg 3 highlights native asyncio support native support for more Python types (such as Enums) and PostgreSQL types (such as multirange) Default server-side parameters binding Allows binary parameters and query results (and text, of course) Pipeline/batch mode support Static typing support Michael #2: dacite via Raymond Peck Simple creation of data classes from dictionaries Dacite supports following features: nested structures (basic) types checking optional fields (i.e. typing.Optional) unions forward references collections custom type hooks It's important to mention that dacite is not a data validation library. Type hooks are interesting too. Brian #3: RIP: Fast, barebones pip implementation in Rust list of current and planned features of RIP, the biggest are listed below: Downloading and aggressive caching of PyPI metadata. (done) Resolving of PyPI packages using Resolvo. (done) Installation of wheel files (planned) Support sdist files (planned) new project, just a couple weeks old. … “We would love to have you contribute!” Michael #4: Flaky Tests follow up by Marwan Sarieddine I was inspired by the Talk Python podcast on "Taming flaky tests" with Gregory Kapfhammer and Owain Parry so I wrote up an article on my blog titled "How not to footgun yourself when writing tests - a showcase of flaky tests” Extras Brian: Just wrapping up some personal projects, which means… Python People episodes soon Python Test episodes soon (but later) More course chapters coming Michael: PyBay 2023 was fun Switched to Spark Mail, recommended Dust (what science fiction story telling should be), try: FTL Oceanus Joke: There are more hydrogen atoms in a single molecule of water than there are stars in the entire Solar System. - mas.to/@SmudgeTheInsultCat/111174610011921264 The Big Rewrite
10/10/202324 minutes, 13 seconds
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#355 Python 3.12 is Out!

Topics covered in this episode: 3.12 is out! Trouble with virtualenv caching, a tale of 3.12 update Python Developers Survey 2022 Results Scientific Python Library Development Guide Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Complete pytest Course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: 3.12 is out! What’s new PEP 695, type parameter syntax and the type statement PEP 692, using TypedDict to annotate **kwargs PEP 698, typing.override() decorator PEP 701, f-strings in the grammar PEP 684, a unique per-interpreter GIL PEP 669, low impact monitoring Improved ‘Did you mean …’ suggestions for NameError, ImportError, and SyntaxError exceptions PEP 688, using the buffer protocol from Python The pathlib.Path class now supports subclassing The os module received several improvements for Windows support A command-line interface has been added to the sqlite3 module isinstance() checks against runtime-checkable protocols enjoy a speed up of between two and 20 times The asyncio package has had a number of performance improvements, with some benchmarks showing a 75% speed up. A command-line interface has been added to the uuid module Due to the changes in PEP 701, producing tokens via the tokenize module is up to up to 64% faster. PEP 683, immortal objects PEP 709, comprehension inlining Brian #2: Trouble with virtualenv caching, a tale of 3.12 update Michael #3: Python Developers Survey 2022 Results I did a “first reactions” video too Brian #4:Scientific Python Library Development Guide Announcement and Overview by Henry Schreiner Extras Brian: The Complete pytest Course is now at courses.pythontest.com Still on Teachable, just with a custom domain Also, just released Chapter 8 today. Michael: Moving to Mona App (was using Ivory) for Mastodon Making bank on .ai Vivaldi on iOS Joke: Thought it would be easy
10/3/202335 minutes, 15 seconds
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#354 Python 3.12 is Coming!

Topics covered in this episode: logmerger The third and final Python 3.12 RC is out now The Python dictionary dispatch pattern Visualizing the CPython Release Process Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: logmerger Paul McGuire logmerger is a TUI for viewing a merged display of multiple log files, merged by timestamp. Built on textual Awesome flags: --output - to send the merged logs to stdout --start START and --end END start and end time to select time window for merging logs Caveats: new. no pip install yet. so clone the code or download perhaps I jumped the gun on covering this, but it’s cool Michael #2: The third and final Python 3.12 RC is out now Get your final bugs fixed before the full release Call to action: We strongly encourage maintainers of third-party Python projects to prepare their projects for 3.12 compatibilities during this phase How to test. Discussion on the issue. Count down until October 2nd, 2023. Brian #3: The Python dictionary dispatch pattern I kinda love (and hate) jump tables in C We don’t talk about dictionary dispatch much in Python, so this is nice, if not dangerous. Short story: you can store lambdas or functions in dictionaries, then look them up and call them at the same time. Also, I gotta shout out to the first blogroll I’ve seen in a very long time. Should we bring back blogrolls? Michael #4: Visualizing the CPython Release Process by Seth Larson Here’s the deal (you should see the image in the article 😉 ) Freeze the python/cpython release branch. This is done using GitHub Branch Protections. Update the Release Manager's fork of python/cpython. Run Python release tools (release-tool, blurb, sphinx, etc). Push diffs and signed tag to Release Manager's fork. Git tag is made available to experts for Windows and macOS binary installers. Source tarballs, Windows, and macOS binary installers built and tested concurrently. 6a: Release manager builds the tgz and tar.xz source files for the Python release. This includes building the updates documentation. 6b: Windows expert starts the Azure Pipelines configured to build Python. 6c: macOS Expert builds the macOS installers. All artifacts (source and binary) are tested on their platforms. Release manager signs all artifacts using Sigstore and GPG. All artifacts are made available on python.org. After artifacts are published to python.org, the git commit and tag from the Release Manager's fork is pushed to the release branch. Extras Brian: The Complete pytest Course, part 2, Ch 7 Testing Strategy went up this weekend. Only 9 more chapters to go “Test & Code” → “Python Test” Full version: “The Python Test Podcast” → “Test & Code” → “Python Test” Also: “Python (Bytes | People | Test)” Michael: If you’re at PyBay, come say “hi” EuroPython 2023 Videos up Django + HTMX has a few days of early-bird discount left Joke: Are you sleeping?
9/26/202321 minutes, 26 seconds
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#353 Hatching Another Episode

Topics covered in this episode: OverflowAI Switching to Hatch Alpha release of the Ruff formatter What is wrong with TOML? Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python Testing with pytest, full course Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: OverflowAI Integration of generative AI into our public platform, Stack Overflow for Teams, and brand new product areas, like an IDE integration. Have a conversation about the search results and proposed answer with GenAI Coming with IDE integration too. Check out the video on their page for some more detail than the article. Brian #2: Switching to Hatch Oliver Andrich Hatch has some interesting features Template built from hatch new myproject includes isolating dev, test, lint virtual environments. Each env can have scripts Test matrix ala tox, but possibly easier to express complex matrices. May not even need tox then, but then now you have hatch. A way to specify which optional dependencies needed for default environment. Notes from Brian One premise is that lots of projects are now using hatch. I don’t know if that’s true. A quick spot check of a few projects include projects that use hatchling. While hatchling is the back end to hatch, they are not the same. I use hatchling a lot now, but haven’t picked up using hatch. But I do want to try it more after reading this article. Michael #3: Alpha release of the Ruff formatter vis Sky Kasko Charlie Marsh announced that an alpha version of a Ruff formatter has been released in Ruff v0.0.289. The formatter is designed to be a drop-in replacement for Black, but with an excessive focus on performance and direct integration with Ruff. Sky says: I can't find any benchmarks that have been released yet, but I did some extremely unscientific testing and found the Ruff formatter to be around 5 to 10 times faster than Black when running on already-formatted code or in a small codebase, and 75 times faster when running on a large codebase of unformatted code. (The second outcome probably isn't very important since most people would not often be formatting thousands of lines of completely unformatted code.) For more info, see the README: https://github.com/astral-sh/ruff/blob/main/crates/ruff_python_formatter/README.md Brian #4: What is wrong with TOML? Colm O'Connor Suggested by Will McGugan This is a comparison of TOML vs StrictYAML under the use case of “readable story tests”. TLDR; For smallish things like pyproject.toml, toml is fine. For huge files, something like StrictYAML may be less horrible. from Brian: Short answer: Nothing, unless you’re doing crazy things with it. Re “readable story tests”: WTF? Neither of these are something I’d like to maintain. Extras Brian: Python Testing with pytest, the course New intro video to explain what the course is about Using Teachable video like notes, mini-viewer, and speed controls Chapter on “Testing Strategy” is next Michael: HTMX + Django: Modern Python Web Apps, Hold the JavaScript Course Coding in Rust? Here's a New IDE by JetBrains Delightful Machine Learning Apps with Gradio out on Talk Python Joke: The 5 stages of debugging
9/19/202329 minutes, 27 seconds
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#352 Helicopter Time Comes to Python

Topics covered in this episode: Heliclockter - Like datetime, but more timezone-aware Wagtail 5 Git log customization MiniJinja template engine Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Heliclockter - Like datetime, but more timezone-aware Suggested by Peter Nilsson The library exposes 3 classes: datetime_tz, a datetime ensured to be timezone-aware. datetime_local, a datetime ensured to be timezone-aware in the local timezone. datetime_utc, a datetime ensured to be timezone-aware in the UTC+0 timezone. Michael #2: Wagtail 5 Wagtail is the leading open-source Python CMS, based on Django. Anything you can do in Python or Django, you can do in Wagtail. Wagtail 5.0 provides even more options for your content creation experience Dark mode has arrived SVG support Enhanced accessibility checker Delete more safely Some breaking changes in it because this release removes some of the old code paths that were maintained to give people more time to adapt their code to the new upgrades Add custom validation logic to your Wagtail projects. You can now attach errors to specific child blocks in StreamField. Brian #3: Git log customization Justin Joyce Just a simple git log --oneline makes the log so much more readable, but don’t stop there. --graph helps to show different branches -10 shows the last 10 commits. And this beauty in .gitconfig makes git lg mostly do what you want most of the time: [alias] lg = log --graph -10 --format='%C(yellow)%h%Creset %s %Cgreen(%cr) %C(bold blue)[HTML_REMOVED]%Creset' Michael #4: MiniJinja template engine MiniJinja is a powerful but minimal dependency template engine for Rust compatible with Jinja/Jinja2 Comes with integration back into Python via minijinja-py package. MiniJinja has a stronger sandbox than Jinja2 and might perform ever so slightly better in some situations. However you should be aware that due to the marshalling that needs to happen in either direction there is a certain amount of loss of information. Compiles to WebAssembly Extras Brian: The pytest Primary Power course is ready. To celebrate wrapping up the first course, pytest Primary Power is $49, the bundle is $99. Bundle: This + next 2 courses + access to repo, discussion forum, Slack, and Discord Michael: New HTMX, language course, and data science course coming at Talk Python. Add your name here to get notified. I’ll be at PyBay 2023 on Oct 8, 2023 Use "friendofspeaker" with for a 20% discount on the regular tickets. Follow up from docstrings: From Rhet John Hagen: You can certainly omit the type information from the docstring when you are using typehints. This is the way I've seen almost all modern usages of Google style docstrings nowadays. They still have some examples that include the type information because the original standard pre-dated Python 3 type annotations. Here is a simple example: https://github.com/johnthagen/python-blueprint/blob/main/src/fact/lib.py#L5 This also shows off the next point that you brought up: can I document all of the exceptions that a function could raise. Google docstrings have the "Raises:" block for this, and I find it pretty nice and concise for when this is needed. Also, PyCharm can be configured to autocomplete and render Google style docstrings https://www.jetbrains.com/help/pycharm/settings-tools-python-integrated-tools.html Tools | Python Integrated Tools | Docstrings | Docstring Format: Google What's nice about this, is that then PyCharm will render the google style docstrings in the Quick Doc function (Ctrl+Q), making the headers bold and larger and lists look nice so it's easy to read. Joke: Fully optimized my algorithm
9/12/202322 minutes, 20 seconds
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#351 A Python Empire (or MPIRE?)

Topics covered in this episode: mpire mopup - the macOS Python.org Updater Immortal Objects for Python Common Docstring Formats in Python Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Sentry: pythonbytes.fm/sentry Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: mpire A Python package for easy multiprocessing, but faster than multiprocessing MPIRE is faster in most scenarios, packs more features, and is generally more user-friendly than the default multiprocessing package. Tons of features. Nice intro article with benchmarks. Brian #2: mopup - the macOS Python.org Updater Glyph Lefkowitz On a mac, install Python with the standard Python.org installer. Then, periodically, update with python3 -m mopup I just did it and went from Python 3.11.4 to 3.11.5 See also Get Your Mac Python From Python.org for reasons to use python.org over other ways, also from Glyph. Michael #3: Immortal Objects for Python Instagram has introduced Immortal Objects – PEP-683 – to Python. Brian #4: Common Docstring Formats in Python Scott Robinson I don’t mean to disrespect Scott, but I’m honestly curious if this is really common. I like docstrings for the “why” of a function. And prefer type hints for types. Let me know what you use, at @[email protected] Extras Brian: In search for a working retro Lunar Lander in Python Michael: Releases follow up North Korean hackers behind malicious VMConnect PyPI campaign Joke: It’s Bingo Time!
9/6/202335 minutes, 23 seconds
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#350 You've Got The Stamina For This Episode

Topics covered in this episode: Make Each Line Count, Keeping Things Simple in Python Parsel A Comprehensive Guide to Python Logging with Structlog Stamina Extras Joke Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Sentry: pythonbytes.fm/sentry Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Make Each Line Count, Keeping Things Simple in Python Bob Belderbos Some great tips to help you simplify your Python code to make it more understandable and maintainable. Michael #2: Parsel Parsel is a BSD-licensed Python library to extract data from HTML, JSON, and XML documents. Parsel lets you extract data from XML/HTML documents using XPath or CSS selectors. It supports: CSS and XPath expressions for HTML and XML documents JMESPath expressions for JSON documents Regular expressions # Want a RSS feed detail from a website standard HTML? selector = parsel.Selector(text=html_text) for link in selector.css('head > link'): rel = link.xpath('.//@rel').get() rel_type = link.xpath('.//@type').get() href = link.xpath('.//@href').get() Brian #3: A Comprehensive Guide to Python Logging with Structlog Stanley Ulili structlog is an awesome logging tool, and already has great documentation. However, this article is a great starting point, highlighting: how easy it is to get started using structlog configuring the default log level changing the formatting customizing the time stamp adding custom fields adding contextual data filtering async … Michael #4: Stamina via Matthias Bach, by Hynek Production-grade Retries Made Easy stamina is an opinionated wrapper around the great-but-unopinionated Tenacity package. Its goal is to be as ergonomic as possible, while doing the right thing by default, while minimizing potential for misuse. General additions on top of Tenacity Retry only on certain exceptions. Exponential backoff with jitter between retries. Limit the number of retries and total time. Automatic async support. Preserve type hints of the decorated callable. Count (Prometheus) and log (structlog) retries with basic metadata, if they’re installed. Easy global deactivation for testing. Extras Brian: The “pytest fixtures” chapter of the pytest course is available now. Also, the PYTHONBYTES 20% discount still active for bundle through the end of August. Michael: Python 3.12.0 release candidate 1 released PyCon UK: The conference takes place from the 22nd to the 25th of September in Cardiff, Wales. The schedule is available at 2023.pyconuk.org/schedule/ and tickets are available at 2023.pyconuk.org/tickets/. PyData Eindhoven 2023, Nov 30 CFP open PyData Seattle Language Creators Charity Fundraiser: Adele Goldberg - Smalltalk, Guido Van Rossum, Anders Hejlsberg, C#, and James Gosling - Java. September 19, 2023: 12:00 - 4:00 PM, in person only. Joke: Librarian chatgpt-failures
8/29/202330 minutes, 55 seconds
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#349 Djangonauts: Ready for Takeoff!

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Omnivore app Omnivore is the free, open source, read-it-later app for serious readers. Distraction free. Privacy focused. Open source. Designed for knowledge workers and lifelong learners. Save articles, newsletters, and documents and read them later — focused and distraction free. Add notes and highlights. Organize your reading list the way you want and sync it across all your devices. Syncs with popular Personal Knowledge Management systems including Logseq and Obsidian Wait, what’s Logseq? :) A privacy-first, open-source platform for knowledge management and collaboration. Kinda like Notion? Brian #2: Djangonaut.space “Where contributors launch” This is a group mentoring program where individuals will work self-paced in a semi-structured learning environment over the course of three months. Djangonauts are members of the community who wish to level up their current Django code contributions and potentially take on leadership roles in Django in the future. Michael #3: Server-side hot reload Thanks to Alex Riviere for some improvements Bill Mill suggests websockets and Adam Johnson points he built something like this for Django (sorta) with django-browser-reload To make it work just: Include this script in your web projects for dev-time auto reloading of web browser when any change is detected in content. Works across all web technologies, built out on a FastAPI / Tailwind project. General workflow looks like: Edit the source CSS file Tailwind watcher generates a built CSS file Built CSS file is included the Python web HTML template Template appends a hash ID for the state of the CSS file Changes to the source CSS thus trigger a change in the final ID New ID means the page contents change and the script does a reload Even works for static resources if you put a “version” indicator on them: [HTML_REMOVED] [HTML_REMOVED] Brian #4: Python in Excel Anaconda working with Microsoft to have Python built in to Excel. “Python in Excel is currently in preview and is subject to change based on feedback. To use this feature, join the Microsoft 365 Insider Program and choose the Beta Channel Insider level.” from Microsoft Support article: Getting started with Python in Excel Extras Brian: Working on videos for “Ch3 : pytest Fixtures” for the Python Testing with pytest Course Bundle Adding some drawings and some more bonus videos. Thanks to everyone who’s signed up already. I’ve pushed the 20% discount out till the end of August. I also finally listed it on pythontest.com/courses Also lots of new interviews for pythonpeople.fm, and I’m expecting at least one new episode of testandcode.com this week. It’s going to be a busy week. Michael: PyCon Sweden CFP is open Be on Talk Python around Mobile Apps? Joke: The Password Game KennyLog-in.com - secure password generator
8/22/202331 minutes, 6 seconds
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#348 JavaScript in Your Python

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Differentiating between writing down dependencies to use packages and for packages themselves Brett Cannon Why can’t we just use pyproject.toml and stop using requirements.txt? Nope. At least not yet. They’re currently for different things. pyproject.toml There’s project.dependencies and project.optional-dependencies.tests that kinda would work for listing dependencies for an app. But you can’t say pip install -r pyproject.toml. It doesn’t work. And that’s weird. project is intended for packaged projects. requirements.txt for applications and other non-packaged projects It has specific versions works great with pip What then? Either we stick with requirements.txt Or we invent some other file, maybe requirements.toml? Or maybe (Brian’s comment), add something like [application] and application.dependencies and application.optional-dependencies.tests to pyproject.toml Michael #2: PythonMonkey PythonMonkey is a Mozilla SpiderMonkey JavaScript engine embedded into the Python VM, using the Python engine to provide the JS host environment. This product is in an early stage, approximately 80% to MVP as of July 2023. It is under active development by Distributive. External contributions and feedback are welcome and encouraged. It will enable JavaScript libraries to be used seamlessly in Python code and vice versa — without any significant performance penalties. Call Python packages like NumPy from within a JavaScript library, or use NPM packages like [crypto-js](https://www.npmjs.com/package/crypto-js) directly from Python. Executing WebAssembly modules in Python becomes trivial using the WebAssembly API and engine from SpiderMonkey. More details in Will Pringle’s article. Brian #3: Quirks of Python package versioning Seth Larson Yes, we have SemVer, 1.2.3, and CalVer, 2023.6.1, and suffixes for pre-release, 1.2.3pre1. But it gets way more fun than that, if you get creative Here’s a few v is an optional prefix, like v.1.0 You can include an “Epoch” and separate it from the version with a !, like 20!1.2.3 Local versions with alphanumerics, periods, dashes, underscores, like 1.0.0+ubuntu-1. PyPI rejects those. That’s probably good. Long versions. There’s no max length for a version number. How about 1.2.3.4000000000000000001? Pre, post, dev aren’t mutually exclusive: 1.0.0-pre0-post0-dev0 More craziness in article - Michael #4: bear-type Beartype is an open-source PEP-compliant near-real-time pure-Python runtime type-checker emphasizing efficiency, usability, and thrilling puns. Annotate @beartype-decorated classes and callables with type hints. Call those callables with valid parameters: Transparent Call those callables with invalid parameters: Boom Traceback: raise exception_cls( beartype.roar.BeartypeCallHintParamViolation: @beartyped quote_wiggum() parameter lines=[b'Oh, my God! A horrible plane crash!', b'Hey, everybody! Get a load of thi...'] violates type hint list[str], as list item 0 value b'Oh, my God! A horrible plane crash!' not str. Extras Brian: Python Testing with Pytest Course Bundle: Limited Pre-Release Beta Use code PYTHONBYTES now through Aug 17 for 20% discount What’s a pre-release beta? There’s a video. Check out the link. Error-tolerant pytest discovery in VSCode Finally! But you gotta turn it on. Also, I gotta talk to them about the proper non-capitalization of pytest. We’re at RC1 for Python 3.12.0 Hard to believe it’s that time of year again Michael: PyPI hires a Safety & Security Engineer, welcome Mike Fiedler PackagingCon October 26-28 Cloud Builders: Python Conf (born in Ukraine): September 6, 2023 | online Joke: Learning JavaScript
8/15/202333 minutes, 14 seconds
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#347 The One About Context Mangers

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: async-timeout An asyncio-compatible timeout context manager. The context manager is useful in cases when you want to apply timeout logic around block of code or in cases when asyncio.wait_for() is not suitable. Not finished yet timeout can be rescheduled by shift_by() or shift_to() methods Brian #2: PyPI Project URLs Cheatsheet Daniel Roy Greenfield There’s some cool icons available under “Project Links” on pypi.org project pages. How do you get those? And which ones are available. Daniel has found out where to look, and built us a cheat sheet. Nice. Michael #3: httpx-sse Consume Server-Sent Event (SSE) messages with HTTPX. SSE are super lightweight, server → client only subscriptions. Like websockets but less overhead (especially for iot and mobile devices) httpx-sse provides the connect_sse and aconnect_sse helpers for connecting to an SSE endpoint. The resulting EventSource object exposes the .iter_sse() and .aiter_sse() methods to iterate over the server-sent events. Brian #4: Creating a context manager in Python Trey Hunner Context managers are those things you use in a with block. There’s a bunch of cool built in ones. Building your own is a handy skill to have to clean up your code, and they’re pretty easy, with Trey’s tutorial. Shown is a great example of temporarily modifying an environmental variable. Then he gets into what you need to know about as, __enter__, and __exit__. Extras Brian: I think I’ll nix the intro music to Python People. I didn’t know what music to use, so I re-used the music from Test & Code. And I got some very honest feedback that it just doesn’t fit and was better without it. So I’ll rip it out soon. BTW, next episode to be released is with Bob Belderbos from PyBites. Should be later this week. Michael: Facebook and Instagram start blocking news in Canada Joke: day 1 and I hate it
8/8/202336 minutes, 1 second
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#346 Have you lost your GIL?

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: A Steering Council notice about PEP 703 (Making the Global Interpreter Lock Optional in CPython) Thomas Wouters Suggested by John Hagen “We intend to accept PEP 703, although we’re still working on the acceptance details.” Moving forward in 3 stages short-term, no-GIL experimental build in 3.13 or 3.14 mid-term, declare support for no-GIL version long-term, no-GIL becomes default and remove any vestiges of the GIL No commitment and timeframe is nebuous long-term means 5+ years Need community support “We want to be able to change our mind if it turns out, any time before we make no-GIL the default, that it’s just going to be too disruptive for too little gain.” Michael #2: Google's post-cookie world could turn into DRM for the internet A new authentication system could let websites block extensions or jailbroken devices. Google has been trying to implement plans to move beyond cookies for years without denying its partners the means to sell targeted ads. One recent proposal to guarantee user privacy and security could come at the cost of freedom of functionality. Comments are somewhat interesting. More info in a second article. Vivaldi has a response here. Brave won’t ship with it. Brian #3: How ruff changed my Python programming habits Matthias Kestenholz “…there’s always a trade off between development speed (waiting on git commit is very boring) and strictness. “ “ruff is so fast that enabling additional rules is practically free in terms of speed...” ruff has way more rules since last I checked. They are just mostly turned off by default. The article suggests a bunch to try turning on. See also ruff config settings turn on flake8-bugbear while leaving on defaults with select = ["E", "F", "B"] lots of rules to choose from ruff-pre-commit to run these with pre-commit Michael #4: pathlib api extended to use fsspec backends via Justin Flannery Expanding on the capabilities of fsspec, the same GitHub organization also supports another powerful library called universal_pathlib. universal_pathlib is a python library that aims to extend Python's built-in pathlib.Path api to use a variety of backend filesystems using fsspec. This seamless replacement allows developers to leverage the familiar and powerful pathlib API on any type of filesystem. upath.Path is a drop-in replacement for pathlib.Path and is an excellent addition to your toolkit. Joke: Understanding pointers
8/2/202328 minutes, 9 seconds
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#345 Some Big Time Releases

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training The Python People Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Cython 3.0 Long in development, the new major release of the Python-to-C compiler sheds legacy Python support and readies Cython developers for big changes in Python. Cython 3 cleans up and modernizes Cython. Pure Python mode allows Python developers to use their existing Python linting and code analysis tools on Cython. Brian #2: Reading code : An important but seldom-discussed skill Eric Matthes A cool walk through of several techniques to read code Strategies Ignore function definitions And in the example, also ignore comments Simplify repetitive blocks Examples shows mentally lumping a bunch of print statements into “print message” Utilize IDE tools, like folding to hide functions your not looking at Also includes a note about writing readable code. Notes: People believe your function and variable names, they should be descriptive, and they should not be deceptive. Michael #3: Major new version of MicroPython: v1.20.0 via Matt Trentini >10 months, >1000 mainline commits from >100 contributors This release of MicroPython introduces a new lightweight package manager called mip. In the MicroPython runtime, core/built-in types have been compressed by only including in the C-level type struct as many slots for C function pointers as is needed for a given type → Any third-party C extensions will need to be updated to work with this change. Massive list of detailed changes. Brian #4: Advanced Python Tips for Development Scofield Idehen There’s 15 in the article, here’s a few 1 & 2. Use List Comprehensions and Generator Expressions. It’s cool to see them side by side enumerate() is fun Embrace zip(). It’s weird, but very useful. Utilize slots to Reduce Memory Usage Extras Brian: Hear the story behind the quote “I came for the language, but I stayed for the community.” and learn about fountain pens, tea, and a Murderbot, on this week‘s Python People. Michael: Search (LLM like) Talk Python: explore-talk-python-to-me.streamlit.app by Aguss Joke: You’re full stack now Seriously, take the HTMX course :)
7/26/202335 minutes, 52 seconds
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#344 AMA: Ask Us Anything

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Main topic: AMA questions from the audience. Use the transcript search to find timestamps if you want to locate a particular one. Extras Michael: Deputy CPython Developer in Residence position accepting applications. My Make Your Python Web App Fly Around the World with CDNs talk at PWC 2023 is online. “Joke”: Ode to Python recommended by FelixTheCat
7/18/202348 minutes, 2 seconds
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#343 So Much Pydantic!

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Pydantic v2 released Pydantic V2 is compatible with Python 3.7 and above. There is a migration guide. Check out the bump-pydantic tool to auto upgrade your classes Brian #2: Two Ways to Turbo-Charge tox Hynek Not just tox run-parallel or tox -p or tox --``parallel , but you should know about that also. The 2 ways Build one wheel instead of N sdists Run pytest in parallel tox builds source distributions, sdists, for each environment before running tests. that’s not really what we want, especially if we have a test matrix. It’d be better to build a wheel once, and use that for all the environments. Add this to your tox.ini and now we get one wheel build [testenv] package = wheel wheel_build_env = .pkg It will save time. And a lot if you have a lengthy build. Run pytest in parallel, instead of tox in parallel, with pytest -n auto Requires the pytest-xdist plugin. Can slow down tests if your tests are pretty fast anyway. If you’re using hypothesis, you probably want to try this. There are some gotchas and workarounds (like getting coverage to work) in the article. Michael #3: Awesome Pydantic A curated list of awesome things related to Pydantic! 🌪️ Notable items for me: ML: spaCy 🌟(26575) - spaCy is a free open-source library for Natural Language Processing in Python. It features NER, POS tagging, dependency parsing, word vectors and more. ray 🌟(26496) - Ray provides a simple, universal API for building distributed applications. jina 🌟(18734) - Jina is geared towards building search systems for any kind of data, including text, images, audio, video and many more. With the modular design & multi-layer abstraction, you can leverage the efficient patterns to build the system by parts, or chaining them into a Flow for an end-to-end experience. Data Beanie 🌟(1287) - Beanie - is an Asynchronous Python object-document mapper (ODM) for MongoDB, based on Motor and Pydantic. Utilities datamodel-code-generator 🌟(1694) - Pydantic model generator for easy conversion of JSON, OpenAPI, JSON Schema, and YAML data sources. Goodconf 🌟(99) - A thin wrapper over Pydantic's settings management. Allows you to define configuration variables and load them from environment or JSON/YAML file. Also generates initial configuration files and documentation for your defined configuration. Brian #4: CLI tools hidden in the Python standard library Simon Willison (and hat tip to Seth Larson) Simon looked for all of the command line goodies in the standard library. I knew about python -m http.server to run a server at port 8000 from the local directory, but there’s so much more. Here are a few python -m gzip --decompress pypi.db.gz as a gzip utility. Especially handy on Windows as it doesn’t come with gzip by default python -m base64 with -d decode, -e encode, and -t encode and decode python -m asyncio for an asyncio REPL Tokenize a Python file with python -m tokenize somefile.py View the AST with python -m ast somefile.py Pretty print JSON with python -m json.tool Extras Brian: Congrats to Seth Larson, PSFs first Security Developer-in-Residence Announcing Our New Security Developer in Residence! - PSF announcement I am the first PSF Security Developer-in-Residence - Seth’s announcement PythonPeople.fm is live "The NEW podcast about the people who make the Python community awesome.” I’m focusing more on the people, and less on the tech. First episode is with Michael Kennedy Upcoming episodes in the works with Paul Everitt, Paul McGuire, and Steve Holden. More people scheduled, many asked, and many more to be asked. Michael: MongoDB with Async Python course is out! (talkpython.fm/async-mongodb) Meta commits to dedicate three engineer-years to implement the removal of the GIL from Python PyPI has a blog Joke: Containers, that’ll fix it Bonus dad joke: 5 ants rent an apartment. Invite 5 other ants to share the rent. Now there are tenants.
7/11/202335 minutes, 51 seconds
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#342 Don't Believe Those Old Blogging Myths

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Plumbum: Shell Combinators and More Suggested by Henry Schreiner last week. (Also, thanks Michael for the awesome search tool on PythonBytes.fm that includes transcripts, so I can find stuff discussed and not just stuff listed in the show notes.) Plumbum is “ a small yet feature-rich library for shell script-like programs in Python. The motto of the library is “Never write shell scripts again”, and thus it attempts to mimic the shell syntax (shell combinators) where it makes sense, while keeping it all Pythonic and cross-platform.” Supports local commands piping redirection working directory changes in a with block. So cool. lots more fun features Michael #2: Our plan for Python 3.13 The big difference is that we have now finished the foundational work that we need: Low impact monitoring (PEP 669) is implemented. The bytecode compiler is a much better state. The interpreter generator is working. Experiments on the register machine are complete. We have a viable approach to create a low-overhead maintainable machine code generator, based on copy-and-patch. We plan three parallelizable pieces of work for 3.13: The tier 2 optimizer Enabling subinterpreters from Python code (PEP 554). Memory management Details on superblocks Brian #3: Some blogging myths Julia Evans <from Brian: I’m not sure if I’m including this to convince all of you to blog more, or to convince myself. Hopefully both happens.> myths (more info of each in the blog post): you need to be original you need to be an expert posts need to be 100% correct writing boring posts is bad you need to explain every concept page views matter more material is always better everyone should blog I’d add Write posts to help yourself remember something. Write posts to help future prospective employers know what topics you care about. You know when you find a post that is outdated and now wrong, and the code doesn’t work, but the topic is interesting to you. Go ahead and try to write a better post with code that works. Michael #4: Jupyter AI A generative AI extension for JupyterLab An %%ai magic that turns the Jupyter notebook into a reproducible generative AI playground. This works anywhere the IPython kernel runs (JupyterLab, Jupyter Notebook, Google Colab, VSCode, etc.). A native chat UI in JupyterLab that enables you to work with generative AI as a conversational assistant. Support for a wide range of generative model providers and models (AI21, Anthropic, Cohere, Hugging Face, OpenAI, SageMaker, etc.). Official project from Jupyter Provides code insights Debug failing code Provides a general interface for interaction and experimentation with currently available LLMs Lets you collaborate with peers and an Al in JupyterLab Lets you ask questions about local files Video presentation: David Qiu - Jupyter AI — Bringing Generative AI to Jupyter | PyData Seattle 2023 Extras Brian: Textual has some fun releases recently Textualize youtube channel with 3 tutorials so far trogon to turn Click based command line apps into TUIs video example of it working with sqlite-utils. Python in VSCode June Release includes revamped test discovery and execution. You have to turn it on though, as the changes are experimental: "python.experiments.optInto": [ "pythonTestAdapter", ] I just turned it on, so I haven’t formed an opinion yet. Michael: Michael’s take on the MacBook Air 15” (black one) Joke: Phishing
6/26/202341 minutes, 47 seconds
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#341 Shhh - For Secrets and Shells

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Pydantic roadmap via Mario Munoz Back in February [Samuel] [announced](https://pydantic.dev/announcement/) Pydantic Inc., but I didn't explain what services we were building. The problem is that even with Pydantic in your corner, working with data when it leaves Python often still sucks. We want to build a data platform to make working with data quick, easy, and enjoyable — where developer experience is our north star. There are five key components to the Pydantic Data Platform that we're thinking of building. Python Analytics/Observability — a logging and metrics platform with tight Python and Pydantic integration, designed to make the data flowing through your application more readily usable for both engineering and business analytics. More info... Data Gateway for object stores — Add validation, transformation and cataloguing in front of object stores like S3, with a schema defined in Pydantic models then validated by our Rust service. More info... Data Gateway for data warehouses — the same service as above, but integrated with your existing data warehouse. More info... Schema Catalog — for many, Pydantic already holds the highest fidelity representation of their data schemas. Our Schema Catalog will take this to the next level, serving as an organization-wide single source of truth for those schemas, tracking their changes, and integrating with our other tools and your wider platform. More info... Dashboards and UI powered by Pydantic models — a managed platform to deploy and control dashboards, auxiliary apps and internal tools where everything from UI components (like forms and tables) to database schema would be defined in Python using Pydantic models. More info... Tell them what you think with their survey Brian #2: The Right Way to Run Shell Commands From Python Martin Heinz Should have a tagline of “especially if you’re on Mac or Linux”. Includes discussion of Python native tools - recommended a few os module functions - but otherwise avoid relying too much on os. subprocess.run() - stick with run() if you can. sh third party package - should be second choice if on Linux or Mac Michael #3: US: Yep, We're Buying Your Data, Including Your Embarrassing Secrets Digital information can be purchased from commercial data brokers and 'deanonymized' to ID the person it's tied to, including US citizens, the Office of the Director of National Intelligence says. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) on Friday declassified(Opens in a new window) a report from January 2022 that outlines the US government’s approach to using Commercially Available Information (CAI), which can come from data brokers working in the internet ad and analytics industries. The purchased information includes details from users' smartphones and social media accounts. To all the “please disable your ad blockers” companies out there 1) It’s not just about supporting your website 2) Ad blockers are not just avoiding ads. 3) It’s not even necessary (our ads are not blocked on the podcast or the website) Consider browser != Chrome and/or nextdns.io for your whole network Brian #4: Pro-Tip – pytest fixtures are magic! Frank Wiles “The magic of pytest fixtures is how they are injected into your tests for you to use and their composability. When done well, writing tests is considerably easier and actually fun.” Setup code is often the biggest headache of test writing. pytest fixtures help solve the setup problem. Fixtures are used by just including them in a tests parameter list can build on top of each other can be used in any test in the project, if you put it in a central conftest.py can return all kinds of things: static data, instantiated objects, callables to make other things, Frank includes an interesting way to organize fixtures such that they are defined in local test directories but usable across a project, under “Organizing Your Fixtures”. Plugins with fixtures: A shoutout to pytest-django and a Revsys plugin called django-test-plus. Built-in fixtures. See also tmp_path. autouse One bit of incorrect info: autouse doesn’t work like that. The value of global_thing cannot be grabbed unless you list it in the parameter list. It will run before every function (since it’s scope=``"``function``" by default), but you gotta list it to get the value. To be fair, it’s really hard to come up with good autouse examples. Partly because there are so few good reasons to use autouse. Extras Brian: Porting Python projects to Rust International Obfuscated Python Code Competition Michael: Remember the AMA (submit your question). “Scheduled” on July 11th at 11am. Joke: Marked as duplicate
6/20/202335 minutes, 8 seconds
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#340 Snorkel not included

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by InfluxDB from Influxdata. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Ask me anything episode: Submit your question(s) for our upcoming AMA episode: form here. Thank you! Brian #1: PythonGUIS Martin Fitzpatrick A site with a collection of resources, guides, books, comparisons, etc, around GUIs in Python. Martin recommends starting with PyQT6 However, there are tutorials covering PyQT6 PySide6 PyQT5 TkInter PySide even Kivy Michael #2: JupyterLab 4.0 is Here The next major release of our full-featured development environment You can upgrade by running pip install --upgrade jupyterlab or conda install -c conda-forge jupyterlab. JupyterLab is now faster, thanks to improvements such as CSS rules optimization, CodeMirror 6, MathJax 3, and notebook windowing. JupyterLab 3 was when working with large notebooks. There are additional performance improvements available via opt-in settings: Faster tab-switching on Chromium browsers: “Settings” → “JupyterLab Shell” → switch “Hidden mode” to “contentVisibility” Better performance with long notebooks: “Settings” → “Notebook” → switch “Windowing mode” to “full” An upgraded text editor. Better real time collaboration. Bug fixes. More than 100 bugs have been addressed and resolved, enhancing JupyterLab’s stability and performance. Brian #3: Proposing a struct syntax for Python Brett Cannon This would be a cool syntax for a data only type: struct Point(x: int, y: int) No positional only parameters No inheritance No methods Instances would be immutable, so p = Point(1, 2) would create an object that could be used as a key. A data only focused set of types. Michael #4: Python 3.13 Removes 20 Stdlib Modules via PyCoders From PEP 594 – Removing dead batteries from the standard library we’re saying goodbye to aifc, audioop, cgi, cgitb, chunk, crypt, imghdr, mailcap, msilib, nis, nntplib, ossaudiodev, pipes, sndhdr, spwd, sunau, telnetlib, uu, xdrlib As well as the 2to3 program and lib2to3 module in Python. Python 3.12 final release is scheduled in 4 months (October 2023) and Python 3.13 final release is scheduled in 1 year and 4 months (October 2024). Extras Brian: Affirming your PSF Membership voting status You have until June 15 to affirm your voting rights in the upcoming Board Election, if you care about such things. Michael: 5 Career Tips for Budding Python Developers video PyCon US 2023 videos are up Python 3.11.4, 3.10.12, 3.9.17, 3.8.17, 3.7.17, and 3.12.0 beta 2 are now available Joke: Snorkel not included
6/13/202331 minutes, 9 seconds
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#339 Actual Technical People

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by InfluxDB from Influxdata. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: pystack PyStack is a tool that uses forbidden magic to let you inspect the stack frames of a running Python process or a Python core dump, helping you quickly and easily learn what it's doing. PyStack has the following amazing features: 💻 Works with both running processes and core dump files. 🧵 Shows if each thread currently holds the Python GIL, is waiting to acquire it, or is currently dropping it. 🗑️ Shows if a thread is running a garbage collection cycle. 🐍 Optionally shows native function calls, as well as Python ones. In this mode, PyStack prints the native stack trace (C/C++/Rust function calls), except that the calls to Python callables are replaced with frames showing the Python code being executed, instead of showing the internal C code the interpreter used to make the call. 🔍 Automatically demangles symbols shown in the native stack. 📈 Includes calls to inlined functions in the native stack whenever enough debug information is available. 🔍 Optionally shows the values of local variables and function arguments in Python stack frames. 🔒 Safe to use on running processes. PyStack does not modify any memory or execute any code in a process that is running. It simply attaches just long enough to read some of the process's memory. ⚡ Optionally, it can perform a Python stack analysis without pausing the process at all. This minimizes impact to the debugged process, at the cost of potentially failing due to data races. 🚀 Super fast! It can analyze core files 10x faster than general-purpose tools like GDB. 🎯 Even works with aggressively optimized Python interpreter binaries. 🔍 Even works with Python interpreters' binaries that do not have symbols or debug information (Python stack only). 💥 Tolerates memory corruption well. Even if the process crashed due to memory corruption, PyStack can usually reconstruct the stack. 💼 Self-contained: it does not depend on external tools or programs other than the Python interpreter used to run PyStack itself. Brian #2: Securing PyPI accounts via Two-Factor Authentication Donald Stufft “… every account that maintains any project or organization on PyPI will be required to enable 2FA on their account by the end of 2023.” “One of the key security promises that PyPI makes is that when you're downloading something, that only the people associated with that project are going to be able to upload, delete, or otherwise modify a project. That when you look at that project and see that it is owned by someone that you trust, that you can be assured that nobody else is making changes to that package on PyPI.” If you maintain a package on PyPI to a point where you are uploading to PyPI or plan to soon, enable 2FA on you account. May as well do it sooner than later. But officially, you have the rest of the year. This has already been a requirement for “critical projects” since last summer. (top 1% of downloads, about 3,500 projects.) See episode 293. Now it’s going to be for everyone. Michael #3: Propan - a declarative Python MQ framework Propan is a powerful and easy-to-use Python framework for building asynchronous web services that interact with any MQ Broker. It's following by fastapi, simplify Message Brokers around code writing and provides a helpful development toolkit, which existed only in HTTP-frameworks world until now. It is a modern, high-level framework on top of popular specific Python brokers libraries, based on pydantic and fastapi, pytest concepts. The key features are Simple: Designed to be easy to use and learn. Intuitive: Great editor support. Autocompletion everywhere. Dependencies management: Minimization of code duplication. Access to dependencies at any level of the call stack. Integrations: Propan is fully compatible with any HTTP framework you want MQ independent: Single interface to popular MQ: Redis (based on redis-py) RabbitMQ (based on aio-pika) Kafka (based on aiokafka) SQS (based on aiobotocore) Nats (based on nats-py) RPC: The framework supports RPC requests over MQ, which will allow performing long operations on remote services asynchronously. Great to develop: CLI tool provides great development experience: framework-independent way to manage the project environment application code hot reload robust application templates Testability: Propan allows you to test your app without external dependencies: you do not have to set up a Message Broker, you can use a virtual one! Brian #4: Makefile tricks for Python projects Ricardo Ander-Egg A pretty short basic starter template Makefile for Python projects with some cool snippets. Some default settings to have make behave sanely exit on error, warn about undefined variables, disable built-in rules set up working directory correctly if called from a different dir A $(py) definition that picks up the virtual environment if it’s there. Also $(pip) from the virtual env. Default goal and help message cool trick so that make with no arguments just prints the help And also picks up target comments as help text for the target. Neat. Injecting paths into PYTHONPATH, and an example on how that works if you need it. A .venv target create a virtual environment, update setuptools, wheel, build, and install requirments Extras Michael: PyCon Portugal CFP DjangoCon 2024 Apple Vision Pro Duet App Joke: Actual technical people
6/7/202330 minutes, 43 seconds
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#338 Scripting iOS with Python

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Special guest: GUEST_PROFILE Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: The Basics of Python Packaging in Early 2023 Jay Qi Good description of a minimal-ish pyproject.toml file, which includes a build backend and project metadata. That’s all you need for a Python-only project. Discussion of how to choose a build backend. Mostly it’s baed on extra features you might want, like hatchling’s include/exclude features for source distributions. Some discussion of frontend choices. Nice discussion of non-Python-only builds. Specifically, if you need to compile C or C++ extensions, you can use scikit-build-core, or meson-python, or setuptools. Related: "Sharing is Caring - Sharing pytest Fixtures" by Brian Okken (PyCascades 2023) My PyCascades 2023 on packaging pytest plugins is up on YouTube Michael #2: vecs via Oli Python collection-like interface to storing and searching vectors in postgres. Vector search is a key component in building AI chatbots, and semantic document search. If you're familiar with the space, it's effectively Pinecone built on free OSS It's under the Supabase github org but it's fully open source, and compatible with any pgvector vendor, e.g. RDS, or locally in docker If you’re on macOS and need Postgres, Postgres App is a good option. Brian #3: Introducing Grasshopper - An Open Source Python Library for Load Testing Jacob Fiola “Grasshopper is a library for automated load testing, written in Python.” Open source project from Alteryx, On GitHub and PyPI under the name locust-grasshopper Built on Locust. Adds Tag-based suites for trend analysis and evaluating changes. Custom trends. Useful for actions that span multiple http calls, and you want to see timing trends for the whole action. Checks. Checks validate boolean conditions in the test. Custom tagging for all metrics Send data to time series db & dashboards. Thresholds. Reporting results to other locations. Some reusable base classes that take care of the majority of the boilerplate that tests often contain Readme has a very thorough introduction including configuration and samples. Michael #4: memocast by Daniel Engvall A small iOS app for e.g. iPhone that allow you to add links heard in podcasts into reminders. Good example of how to use Pythonista to build python scripts for iOS Pythonista just made an update (2 weeks ago) so that'd use Python 3.10 on the iOS which makes it even more interesting. Extras Brian: Help test Python 3.12 beta! Python Language Summit write-ups available PyPI was subpoenaed Michael: You Can Ignore This Post Joke: Careful or you might end up summoning a demon.
5/30/202330 minutes, 20 seconds
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#337 Backtracking For a Package

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Special guest: GUEST_PROFILE Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Ruff PyCharm plugin via John Hagen Ruff PyCharm plugin has great integration, it will highlight Ruff lint errors in the IDE as you type and you can even apply Alt+Enter (⌥⏎ on Mac) quick fixes through the IDE. Ruff will automatically fix the fixable issues. John also added additional PyCharm-specific instructions for black/Ruff Brian #2: Writing Python like it's Rust Kobzol Rust lessons guiding use of types and type hints in Python Add type hints tun function signatures Use dataclasses instead of tuples or dictionaries to increase clarity and type safety Union types to clarify | typing Michael #3: Pip 23.1 Released - Massive improvement to backtracking Pip 23.1 was released last month Highlight the significant improvement in backtracking that is part of the requirement resolver process in Pip. This process involves Pip finding a set of packages that meet your requirements and whose requirements themselves don't conflict. Prior to Pip 20.3, the default process for Pip would allow conflicting requirements to install if they were transitive dependencies where the last one specified would be the one installed. Once the new resolver was turned on by default it immediately hit problems where backtracking would get stuck for a long time. Pip separates out the resolution logic into a library called resolvelib. It had been discovered that there was a logical error under certain circumstances, and also there was a known better backtracking technique it could employ called backjumping. Both of these were recently fixed and implemented in resolvelib, which were then vendored in to Pip 23.1. Brian #4: Markdown Code Runner markdown-code-runner is a Python package that automatically executes code blocks within a Markdown file, including hidden code blocks, and updates the output in-place. Works with Python & Bash see also cog Extras Brian: Use code SPRING2023 to get 50% off “Python Testing with pytest, 2nd edition” before June 1. Michael: Python 3.12.0a7 is out python3 -m venv --upgrade-deps venv (via John Hagen) Talk submissions are now open for both remote and in-person talks at the 2023 PyConZA? The conference will be held on 5 and 6 October 2023 in Durban, South Africa. South Africa is GMT+2, so the times are convenient for Africa, Europe and much of Asia, although probably less so for the rest of the world. All details are on za.pycon.org - via Kim van Wik Trail discovery/riding apps onX offroad Gaia Picture of Michael on one of these trails Joke: User Inyerface
5/23/202332 minutes, 18 seconds
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#336 We found one of your batteries

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by InfluxDB from Influxdata. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Python's Missing Batteries: Essential Libraries You're Missing Out On Martin Heinz Fun collection of a bunch of libraries you may not know about (or forgot about), with code examples. Utilities boltons : iterate through json and dates, quickly grab data out of nested structures, and convert nested data with jsonutils, timeutils, and iterutils sh : conveniently call shell funcitons Data Validation validators : validate email addresses, credit cars, IP addresses, and more. the fuzz : fuzzy string comparisons Debugging stackprinter : nice stack traces with exception messages higlighted Testing freezegun : stop time, change dates, … dirty_equals : comparing things that are kinda equal CLI tqdm : add a progress bar to command line apps Michael #2: awesome-polars A curated list of Polars talks, tools, examples & articles. Mostly articles and tutorials however. Brian #3: Running Headless Selenium in Python (2023) Siddiqi First off, if you are doing automated testing with Selenium, I hope you already know about headless. It’s awesome and speeds up testing. Next, there’s changes to how you code headless, as of Selenium 4.8.0 (Jan. 2023). Old: options.headless` `**=**` `True New: options.add_argument('--headless=new') for Chrome options.add_argument('--headless') for Firefox Reasons: Read Headless is Going Away! post on Selenium blog. Subtitle: “Now that we got your attention, headless is not actually going away, just the convenience method to set it in Selenium” Michael #4: Gracy Gracy helps you handle failures, logging, retries, throttling, and tracking for all your HTTP interactions. Has support for Parsing per status code Throttling Retries Custom validation Record/replay for testing A bit non-pythonic but perhaps inspriation for some out there Extras Michael: Mobile apps are finally out Take the git course for free for a limited time. Michael's blog post announcing the apps Joke: It’s practice
5/16/202328 minutes, 28 seconds
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#335 Should you get your mojo on?

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by InfluxDB from Influxdata. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Introducing 'Trusted Publishers’ PyPI package maintainers can adopt a new, more secure publishing method that does not require long-lived passwords or API tokens to be shared with external systems. Our term for using the OpenID Connect (OIDC) standard to exchange short-lived identity tokens between a trusted third-party service and PyPI. Instead, PyPI maintainers can configure PyPI to trust an identity provided by a given OpenID Connect Identity Provider (IdP). These API tokens never need to be stored or shared rotate automatically by expiring quickly provide a verifiable link between a published package and its source Additional security hardening is available Brian #2: Mojo : a new programming language for all AI developers. Mojo may be the biggest programming language advance in decades - fast.ai blog Suggested by many listeners “Mojo combines the usability of Python with the performance of C, unlocking unparalleled programmability of AI hardware and extensibility of AI models.” A programming language compatible with Python, with performance similar to C++/Rust. “Mojo is designed to become a superset of Python over time by preserving Python’s dynamic features while adding new primitives for systems programming.” - emphasis from Brian It’s not there yet, but still super cool Built on a MLIR, not LLVM “How compatible is Mojo with Python really? Mojo already supports many core features of Python including async/await, error handling, variadics, etc, but… it is still very early and missing many features - so today it isn’t very compatible. Mojo doesn’t even support classes yet!” Michael #3: django-prose Wonderful rich-text editing for your Django project. Rendering rich-text in templates Small rich-text content (as model fields) Django Prose is using Bleach to only allow certain tags and attributes See the website for a screenshot of it in action Brian #4: pylyzer is a static code analyzer / language server for Python, written in Rust. Shunsuke Shibayama Suggested by Owen Features fast detailed analysis type checking plus things like out-of-bounds accesses to lists, and non-existent key references to dicts more readable reports and a VS Code extension pylyzer vs ruff “Ruff, like pylyzer, is a static code analysis tool for Python written in Rust, but Ruff is a linter and pylyzer is a type checker & language server. pylyzer does not perform linting, and Ruff does not perform type checking.” Some limitations and incomplete “todo list”. See README for more details. Joke: Escape Room
5/11/202325 minutes, 37 seconds
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#334 Packaging Organizations

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: rye - Python workflow tool Armin Ronacher Rust built tool, currently only for Linux and MacOS Project workflow commands, like init - new project add - add a dependency (including optional) remove - remove a dependency build - build wheel lock - update lock file virtualenv commands add —dev - install in environment sync - install/update dependencies in env based on pyprojec.toml run - run command within environment Install Python fetch - Fetches a Python interpreter for the local machine Register existing Python toolchain Helper utility to manage Python toolchains Kinda like pipx install - Installs a package as global tool uninstall - Uninstalls a global tool I didn’t see that it added anything to my PATH, so this addition made it work: Bonus Everything lives under ~/.rye So it’s easy to stop using, and doesn’t muck up see also Simon Willison’s A few notes on Rye Python Bytes #332, where we talked about huak Michael #2: PyPI Organizations The first step in our plan to build financial support and long-term sustainability of the Python Packaging Index (PyPI) Small fee for organizations rather than individual users Like Github orgs Brian #3: 5 tips to learn any new Python library faster Bob Belderbos The tiips RTFM - at lest the getting started docs Install it Explore the library - play. Bob recommends Jupyter notebook for this. Apply it to a real world problem - deliberate practice Build something with it (bonus) Teach it - blog, TIL, video tutorial, etc. Michael #4: Python gets down to (the) Metal Extras Brian: frogmouth - Markdown viewer / browser for your terminal, built with Textual. Michael: Was going to talk about Serenade, but seems to have gone silent. Packaging follow up discussion. Joke: It’s the progress that counts
5/5/202332 minutes, 22 seconds
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#333 Live From PyCon

Watch on YouTube Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Introducing Microsoft Security Copilot Security Copilot combines this advanced large language model (LLM) with a security-specific model from Microsoft. When Security Copilot receives a prompt from a security professional, it uses the full power of the security-specific model to deploy skills and queries that maximize the value of the latest large language model capabilities. Your data and stays within your control. It is not used to train the foundation AI models, and in fact, it is protected by the most comprehensive enterprise compliance and security controls. Brian #2: PEP 695 – Type Parameter Syntax “This PEP specifies an improved syntax for specifying type parameters within a generic class, function, or type alias. It also introduces a new statement for declaring type aliases.” To get a feel for this, jump to the examples One example Here is an example of a generic function today. from typing import TypeVar _T = TypeVar("_T") def func(a: _T, b: _T) -> _T: ... - And the new syntax. def func[T](a: T, b: T) -> T: ... Michael #3: Auto-GPT An experimental open-source attempt to make GPT-4 fully autonomous. This program, driven by GPT-4, chains together LLM "thoughts", to autonomously achieve whatever goal you set. Features 🌐 Internet access for searches and information gathering 💾 Long-term and short-term memory management 🧠 GPT-4 instances for text generation 🔗 Access to popular websites and platforms 🗃️ File storage and summarization with GPT-3.5 Brian #4: Astral : Ruff is now a company Charlie Marsh announces Astral, starting off with a healthy $4m in seed money. Not a bad start Astral will continue building high-performance developer tools for the Python ecosystem — to keep building Ruff, and to build more Ruff-like things. “to make the Python ecosystem more productive by building high-performance developer tools.” Undoubtedly Rust-ifying more of the Python tool chain. Related: In a discussion at PyCon, someone asked me if Ruff was a replacement for Black. My answer, “not really, more of a flake8 replacement and a few other tools, but a partial overlap with Black. Real answer is at the FAQ Is Ruff compatible with Black? Yes. Ruff is compatible with Black out-of-the-box, as long as the line-length setting is consistent between the two. As a project, Ruff is designed to be used alongside Black and, as such, will defer implementing stylistic lint rules that are obviated by autoformatting.” Extras Brian: Registration open for SciPy 2023 Michael: Android Mobile App is out. Please give us feedback Joke: Releasing to prod
4/22/202322 minutes, 38 seconds
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#332 A Python, a Slurpee, and Some Chaos

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by InfluxDB from Influxdata. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: huak - A Python package manager written in Rust. Inspired by Cargo Suggested by Owen Tons of workflows activate - activate a virtual environment add add a dependency to a project pip install it into your virtual environment, and add it to the dependency list in pyproject.toml test - run pytest update update dependencies lint - run ruff, installing it first if necessary fix - autofix fixable lint conflicts build - build wheel in isolated virtual environment using hatchling Honestly I was considering building my own workflow tool, but this is darned close to what I want. Even though it’s still “in an experimental state”. There are rough edges (ruff edges, get it), but still, way cool. I just don’t know how to pronounce it. Is it like “walk”, or more like “whack”? Michael #2: PSF expresses concerns about a proposed EU law that may make it impossible to continue providing Python and PyPI to the European public After reviewing the proposed Cyber Resilience Act and Product Liability Act, the PSF has found issues that put the mission of our organization and the health of the open-source software community at risk. As currently written, the authors of open-source components might bear legal and financial responsibility for the way their components are applied in someone else’s commercial product. The risk of huge potential costs would make it impossible in practice for us to continue to provide Python and PyPI to the European public. Brian #3: ChaosToolkit Suggested by the maintainer, Sylvain Hellegouarch Declare and store your Chaos Engineering experiments as JSON/YAML files so you can collaborate and orchestrate them as any other piece of code. Extensible through an Open API Can be automated in CI/CD pipeline Michael #4: PEP 711 – PyBI: a standard format for distributing Python Binaries “Like wheels, but instead of a pre-built python package, it’s a pre-built python interpreter” Joke: It’s the effort that counts
4/18/202336 minutes, 56 seconds
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#331 Python From the Future

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by InfluxDB from Influxdata. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: makeapp via Felix Ingram Simplifies Python application rollout and publishing. Link to its mention on Talk Python. Simplifies Python application rollout and publishing: Make a skeleton for your new application with one console command Automatically create a VCS repository for your application. Automatically check whether the chosen application name is not already in use. Customize new application layouts with skeleton templates. Put some skeleton default settings into a configuration file not to mess with command line switches anymore. Easily add entries to your changelog. Publish your application to remotes (VCS, PyPI) with single command. Brian #2: Looking forward to Python 3.12 We’re on 3.12.0a7 now, the last alpha, final is scheduled for October schedule So far, in 3.12.0a7 What’s new in Python 3.12 page has some examples of the Improved Error Messages Recent addition, PEP 684 - A Per-Interpreter GIL was approved recently “… sufficient isolation would facilitate true multi-core parallelism …” seems like a good thing. But also, “… this is an advanced feature meant for a narrow set of users of the C-API. “, so not really sure how this will affect us. Still, seems cool. Michael #3: Python 3.11.3 is out Fixes a HIGH level CVE in OpenSSL (so patch it) Lots of changes in Core and Builtins Brian #4: How to Make a Great Conference Talk Sebastian Witowski Lots of great advice for tech conf talks. Don’t skip the last half of this, getting your talk accepted is really when the work starts. Good sections to make sure you don’t miss Live demos “First of all - do you really need a demo? …” Rehearsing Don’t skip this. Do this. A lot. Out loud. With a timer. While standing. Memorize the first few minutes, and the last few. Know how you’re going to open and close. Night before get enough sleep Day of eat well. Don’t drink too much liquids. Be comfortable. Sebastian was honest in saying this stuff works for him, but do what works for you. From Brian: I deviate from Sebastian in quite a few places, but still don’t disagree with his advice. I can’t give a talk without slides, as I use them for prompts to know what I’m talking about next. My talks usually have a lot of code snippets. Obviously, that would be difficult without slides. I write my talk and my slides in Markdown. Sebastian writes in something else, then builds slides as visual aids. That’s cool. Do what works for you. Bonus tool from the article: demo-magic - If I’m ever tempted to live code again, I think I’ll try this instead. Extras Michael: NOW the CDN course is out. Django 4.2 released. Joke: Using A.I. for Efficiency
4/12/202335 minutes, 57 seconds
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#330 Your data, validated 5x-50x faster, coming soon

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Influxdb Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Pydantic V2 Pre Release Terrence Dorsey & Samuel Colvin Alpha release available to everyone: pip install --pre -U "pydantic>=2.0a1" Headlines: pydantic-core - all validation logic rewritten in Rust and moved to separate package, pytest-core 5-50x faster separation will aid safety and maintainability Lots ready for experimentation BaseModel, Dataclasses, Serialization, … Much still under construction Docs, BaseSettings→ pydantic-settings, … Michael #2: microdot The impossibly small web framework for Python and MicroPython Microdot is a minimalistic Python web framework inspired by Flask, and designed to run on systems with limited resources such as microcontrollers. It runs on standard Python and on MicroPython. Support for async, websockets, tls, even ASGI servers. Less mem usage by a big margin. Brian #3: GitHub Actions Tools: watchgha, build and inspect, and pytest annotate failures watchgha Ned Batchelder Watch GH Actions progress on the command line build-and-inspect-python-package Hynek Test the build of wheels, check contents, lint README print sdist contents, wheel contents, and metadata pytest-github-actions-annotate-failures utgwkk Nice traceback annotations for pytest Michael #4: PEP 709 – Inlined comprehensions by Carl Meyer Comprehensions are currently compiled as nested functions, which provides isolation of the comprehension’s iteration variable, but is inefficient at runtime. This PEP proposes to inline list, dictionary, and set comprehensions into the code where they are defined, and provide the expected isolation by pushing/popping clashing locals on the stack. This change makes comprehensions much faster: up to 2x faster for a microbenchmark of a comprehension alone. Extras Michael: Python Web Apps that Fly with CDNs Course Joke: Can’t watch movies
4/6/202334 minutes, 25 seconds
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#329 Creating very old Python code

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Michael #1: Prefix-cache via Brendan Hannigan You can set an environment variable or use it as a command line argument and then instead of creating tons of __pycache__ folders to store your *.pyc files right next to the source code, it puts them in some specified folder. Introduced in python 3.8. Brian #2: NiceGUI Suggested by several listeners Browser based GUI “NiceGUI is an easy-to-use, Python-based UI framework, which shows up in your web browser. You can create buttons, dialogs, Markdown, 3D scenes, plots and much more. It is great for micro web apps, dashboards, robotics projects, smart home solutions and similar use cases. You can also use it in development, for example when tweaking/configuring a machine learning algorithm or tuning motor controllers.” - from the README Michael #3: flask-ngrok A simple way to demo Flask apps from your machine. Makes your Flask apps running on localhost available over the internet via ngrok. Great for testing API consumers too. app = Flask(__name__) run_with_ngrok(app) # Start ngrok when app is run # Endpoints ... if __name__ == '__main__': app.run() Brian #4: No-async async with Python Will McGugan Allowing async while not requiring async Await me (maybe) borrowed from Simon Willison’s The “await me maybe” pattern for Python asyncio Optionally awaitable Providing API methods that can be called by both async and non-async code. The called method really is async, but if a caller doesn’t want to know when the code is done, it can ignore the return value and not await. MK: I had to solve a similar problem in fastapi-chameleon MK: Syncify async functions. Extras: Brian: PyPI has a blog Docker no longer sunsetting free team plan Jokes: Long-lived software Mysteries make life more interesting last paragraph, discussing the cov fixture of pytest-cov
3/30/202328 minutes, 52 seconds
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#328 We are going to need some context here

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: zipapp Part of standard library since 3.5 Yet another thing I learned recently from Brett Cannon “This module provides tools to manage the creation of zip files containing Python code, which can be executed directly by the Python interpreter. The module provides both a Command-Line Interface and a Python API.” Including: Creating Standalone Applications with zipapp Michael #2: Reverse engineering the Apple News app with #python and #nerd power As we navigate the digital world, we often come across articles we don't have time to read but still want to save for later. One way to accomplish this is by using the Read Later feature in Apple News. But what if you want to access those articles outside the Apple News app, such as on a different device or with someone who doesn't use Apple News? Or what if you want to automatically post links to those articles on your blog? That's where the nerd powers come in. The linked article shows how to use Python to solve your own problem Leading to Rhet Turnbull’s CLI: apple-news-to-sqlite Brian #3: What is a context manager? Trey Hunner Also look at all the cool goodies in contextlib from standard library @contextmanager closing suppress redirect_stdout, redirect_stderr chdir Michael #4: nox-poetry: Use Poetry inside Nox sessions via 2 people: John Hagen and Marc Prewitt This package provides a drop-in replacement for the nox.session decorator, and for the nox.Session object passed to user-defined session functions. Comes from Claudio Jolowicz's hypermodern python cookiecutter Covered this on Talk Python: talkpython.fm/episodes/show/362/hypermodern-python-projects This session performs the following steps: Build a wheel from the local package. Install the wheel as well as the pytest package. Invoke pytest to run the test suite against the installation. Consider what would happen in this session if we had imported @session from nox instead of nox_poetry: Package dependencies would only be constrained by the wheel metadata, not by the lock file. In other words, their versions would not be pinned. The pytest dependency would not be constrained at all. Poetry would be installed as a build backend every time. Extras Brian: Sharing is Caring: Sharing pytest fixtures talk availabe at about 2:40:58 on Day 2 video of PyCascades 2023. Also full Day 1 and Day 2 Michael: Wired connection to remote mesh router == wow! Using the Linksys Atlas Max 6E Joke: UnsafeWarnings
3/21/202324 minutes, 48 seconds
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#327 Untangling XML with Pydantic

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Compiler Podcast from Red Hat. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: pydantic-xml extension via Ilan Recall untangle. How about some pydantic in the mix? pydantic-xml is a pydantic extension providing model fields xml binding and xml serialization / deserialization. It is closely integrated with pydantic which means it supports most of its features. Brian #2: How virtual environments work Brett Cannon This should be required reading for anyone learning Python. Maybe right after “Hello World” and right before “My first pytest test”, approximately. Some history of environments Back in the day, there was global and your directory. How environments work structure: bin, include, and lib pyvenv.cfg configuration file How Python uses virtual environments What activation does, and that it’s optional. Yes, activation is optional. A new project called microvenv that helps VS Code. Mostly to fix the “Debian doesn’t ship python3 with venv” problem. It doesn’t include script activation stuff It’s super small, less than 100 lines of code, in one file. Michael #3: DbDeclare Declarative layer for your database. https://raaidarshad.github.io/dbdeclare/guide/controller/#example Sent in by creator raaid DbDeclare is a Python package that helps you create and manage entities in your database cluster, like databases, roles, access control, and (eventually) more. It aims to fill the gap between SQLAlchemy (SQLA) and infrastructure as code (IaC). You can: Declare desired state in Python Avoid maintaining raw SQL Tightly integrate your databases, roles, access control, and more with your tables Migrations like alembic coming too. Brian #4: Testing multiple Python versions with nox and pyenv Seth Michael Larson This is a cool “what to do first” with nox. Specifically, how to use it to run pytest against your project on multiple versions of Python. Example noxfile.py is super small import nox @nox.session(python=["3.8", "3.9", "3.10", "3.11", "3.12", "pypy3"]) def test(session): session.install(".") session.install("-rdev-requirements.txt") session.run("pytest", "tests/") How to run everything, nox or nox -s test. How to run single sessions, nox -s test-311 for just Python 3.11 Also how to get this to work with pyenv. pyenv global 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12-dev This reminds me that I keep meaning to write a workflow comparison post about nox and tox. Extras Michael: GitHub makes 2FA mandatory next week for active developers New adventure bike [image 1, image 2]. Who’s got good ideas for where to ride in the PNW? Wondering why I got it, here’s a fun video. Joke: Case of the Mondays
3/13/202331 minutes, 37 seconds
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#326 Let's Go for a PyGWalk

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Data Classification : Does Python still have a need for class without @dataclass? Glyph dataclasses have been in the the language since 3.7 That’s pretty much all modern Python, right? “…, is there any point to having non-@dataclass classes any more? Is there any remaining justification for writing them in new code?” Options: class just becomes a dataclass if you have typehinted members in it. data instead of class, to avoid decorators Michael #2: PyGWalker Turn your pandas dataframe into a Tableau-style User Interface for visual analysis. Works with pandas and polars Open-source alternative to Tableau It allows data scientists to analyze data and visualize patterns with simple drag-and-drop operations. Brian #3: An opinionated Python boilerplate Duarte O.Carmo Tools and processes for new projects pip-tools - Pip-tools strikes the right balance between simplicity, effectiveness, and speed. especially for generating pinned requirements.txt files, if necessary pyproject.toml - for configuration. packaging, but also any tool that supports it. ruff black, isort no pre-commit hooks, just run it in CI Michael #4: Front Matter VS Code via Mark Little If you have content that supports frontmatter and is markdown-based, check this out. Stay in your editor and easily create, manage, and publish content. Don’t make front matter mistakes When was it published? What is the timezone text formatting again? Learn new features of your existing static site (e.g. article image) Manage images and more. Extras Brian: VSCode improves IntelliSense support for pytest in Feb release Michael: AI search wars get weird Proton Drive is Out of Beta, Available for Everyone Joke: Is your computer on? Is it on fire?
3/8/202333 minutes, 26 seconds
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#325 It's called a merge conflict

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: Python Parquet and Arrow: Using PyArrow With Pandas Parquet is an efficient, compressed, column-oriented storage format for arrays and tables of data. Less wrangle-able than Pandas, but way faster and lower memory Questions answered Can we use Pandas DataFrames and Arrow tables together, and if so, how is this done? (It turns out the answer is yes, and it’s quite simple, as we’ll see). In what ways are Arrow tables “better” than Pandas DataFrames? In other words, for which tasks are Arrow tables better suited? Conversely, what tasks are possible or easy in Pandas that are difficult or impossible in Arrow? As an on-disk format, how does Parquet compare to popular alternatives such as feather, orc, CSV, etc.? Brian #2: FastAPI-Filter Arthur Rio Add query string filters to your api endpoints and show them in the swagger UI. The supported backends are SQLAlchemy and MongoEngine. FastAPI-Filter documentation The philosophy of fastapi_filter is to be very declarative. You define the fields you want to be able to filter on as well as the type of operator, then tie your filter to a specific model. default filters: neq, gt, gte, in, isnull, lt, lte, not/ne, not_in, nin, like/ilike The swagger support is actually quite cool. Michael #3: 12 Python Decorators to Take Your Code to the Next Level Decorators are awesome This is mostly home-grown decorators, but some standard ones too Notable ones: @warps @lru_cache @repeat @timeit @retry ← no please use tenacity @countcall @rate_limited @dataclass @register @property @singledispatch Brian #4: PyHamcrest Contributed by Txels PyHamcrest is a framework for writing matcher objects, allowing you to declaratively define “match” rules. PyHamcrest tutorial Having a tool that allows you to pick out precisely the aspect under test and describe the values it should have, to a controlled level of precision, helps greatly in writing tests that are “just right.” From Brian: I’ve been reluctant to try matcher style assertion helper libraries, as, with pytest, assert works just fine. However, I can see cases where PyHamcrest assertions could help test readability, and that’s always a win. Examples: equality: assert_that(theBiscuit, equal_to(myBiscuit)) exceptions: assert_that(calling(parse, bad_data), raises(ValueError)) async: assert_that(``**await** resolved(future), future_raising(ValueError)) boolean: assert_that(theBiscuit.isCooked()) There’s predefined matchers for objects, numbers, text, logical checks, dequences, dictionaries Extras Brian: pytest tips and tricks - recent post, and discussion on upcoming Talk Python episode sharing pytest fixtures - placeholder page where I’ll share slides and code after my talk. Michael: Python runtime updates Django 4.2 beta 1 released Joke: A group of developers is called …
2/28/202339 minutes, 32 seconds
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#324 JSON in My DB?

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Compiler Podcast from Red Hat. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Special guest, Erin Mullaney: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Use TOML for .env files? Brett Cannon .env files are used to store default settings that can be overridden by environmental variables. Possibly brought on by twelve-factor app design. Supported by python-dotenv, which is also used by pydantic, pipenv, and others. One issue is that it’s not a defined standard. from python-dotenv docs “The format is not formally specified and still improves over time. That being said, .env files should mostly look like Bash files.” Adafruit decided that an upcoming CircuitPython will use TOML as the format for settings.toml files, which are to be used mostly how .env files are being used. Brett notices this may fix things for Python for VS Code, and other people as well. So… Is this a good idea? I think so. Michael #2: Pydantic gets serious funding via Mark Little (was on episode 285) Sequoia backs open source data-validation framework Pydantic to commercialize with cloud services. Pydantic Services Inc. emerges from stealth today with $4.7 million in seed funding. Pydantic’s new commercial entity will incorporate a swath of new tools and services that are both “powered-by and inspired-by the Pydantic library” Pydantic will start with an initial team of six, with the first three engineers based in Montana, Chicago and Berlin. “With $4.7 million in the bank, Colvin said that they’re continuing to rewrite parts of Pydantic in Rust, with a view toward making it more efficient via a ten-fold performance improvement.” Erin #3: JSON Fields for performance (Denormalization) David Stokes Using JSON fields when you design your databases is a good way to improve database query performance. Brian #4: f-strings with pandas and Jupyter keyboard shortcuts Kevin Markham After a couple year break from blogging, friend of the show Kevin Markham has a couple great, short, useful posts. How to use Python's f-strings with pandas My favorite bit is the part about using f-strings for dictionary keys Fly through Jupyter with keyboard shortcuts 🚀 I’m a sucker for a rocket emoji Not an overwhelming list. Just the essentials for even the casual Jupyter user. Examples Esc and Enter for command mode/edit mode a and b for creating a new cell above or below current cell. m and y for changing the cell type to Markdown or code. Shift+m to merge cells so many more - Michael #5: BioGPT “GPT” for biomedical text generation and mining As motivation, let’s see what ChatGPT can do with arrow anti-patterns in Python. Smaller models and “Large” models Used via an API rather than chat style. BioGPT has also been integrated into the Hugging Face transformers library too Play with it here. Erin #6: Code Mentorship and Communicating with Newer Devs Sheena O’Connell Sheena O’Connell gave a talk at DjangoCon about her work at Umuzi, training unemployed young people in underserved communities in Africa and also was on Django Chat Podcast. Dmitriy Chukhin Caktus Group is trying a new mentorship program for folks who don’t have the necessary training. Extras: Michael: News is, these are no loner news: Security Researchers Uncover 700+ Malicious Open-Source Packages in npm and PyPI Git security vulnerabilities announced, again git ignores https://github.com/github/gitignore https://gitignore.io Erin: DjangoCon is in October in Durham, NC this year (Oct 15-20) Joke: Remember your pointers?
2/21/202344 minutes, 53 seconds
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#323 AI search wars have begun

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] - may be a minute or two late. Show: @[email protected] Special guest: Pamela Fox - @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: camply A tool to find campsites at sold out campgrounds through sites like recreation.gov and Yellowstone Finding reservations at sold out campgrounds can be tough. Searches the APIs of booking services like recreation.gov (which indexes thousands of campgrounds across the USA) to continuously check for cancellations and availabilities to pop up. Once a campsite becomes available, camply sends you a notification to book your spot! Want to camp in a tower in California? camply campgrounds --search "Fire Lookout Towers" --state CA Brian #2: hatch-fancy-pypi-readme Your ✨Fancy✨ Project Deserves a ✨Fancy✨ PyPI Readme! 🧐 Hynek Schlawack Include lots of extras in a README.md text fragments files, like AUTHORS.md or Changelog.md, with custom start, stop, pattern includes, etc. regular expression substitutions Several projects with examples, including black. Pamela #3: Pyodide dev branch now supports 3.11 Python 3.11 PR Benchmark Py3.11 and Py3.10 pyodide console TODO list for 0.23.0 alpha release Dis-this: specializing adaptive interpreter Recursion visualizer Michael #4: EU hates open source? via Pamphile Roy The Cyber Resilience Act (CRA) is an interesting and important proposal for a European law that aims to drive the safety and integrity of software The proposal includes a requirement for self-certification by suppliers of software to attest conformity with the requirements of the CRA including security, privacy and the absence of Critical Vulnerability Events (CVEs). We recognize that the European Commission has framed an exception in recital 10 attempting to ensure these provisions do not accidentally impact Open Source software. However, drawing on more than two decades of experience, we at the Open Source Initiative can clearly see that the current text will cause extensive problems for Open Source software. Since the goal is to avoid harming Open Source software this goal should be stated at the start of the paragraph as the rationale, replacing the introductory wording about avoiding harm to "research and innovation" to avoid over-narrowing the exception. The reference to "non-commercial" as a qualifier should be substituted. The term “commercial” has always led to legal uncertainty for software and is a term which should not be applied in the context of open source OSI recommends further work on the Open Source exception to the requirements within the body of the Act to exclude all activities prior to commercial deployment of the software and to clearly ensure that responsibility for CE marks does not rest with any actor who is not a direct commercial beneficiary of deployment. Brian #5: So, Single (‘) or Double (“) Quotes in Python? Marcin Kozak PEP8 doesn’t recommend anything. REPL uses single quotes. >>> x = "one" >>> x 'one' Black sides with “double quotes”, due to the apostrophe in the string problem. 'Don\'t be so sad.' vs “Don’t be sad.” You get to pick, and don’t be bullied by black-fanatics. There’s always blue, which is just like black, but defaults to single-quotes line length defaults to 79, not black’s 88. preserves whitespace before hash marks for right hanging comments (so multiple lines can line up). Pamela #6: Frozen-Flask Pamela’s PR for moving to Frozen Flask Stepping down as a maintainer Extras Brian: What does everyone think of GitHub pricing? Michael: Much much better transcripts, for example, this episode. Means our search works way better too The AI search wars have begun - Google Panics Over ChatGPT [The AI Wars Have Begun] video Microsoft Bing rockets to the top of the App Store after announcing ChatGPT integration Google shares lose $100 billion after company's AI chatbot makes an error during demo Free PyCharm for all the Talk Python customers Thanks for the help with finding a good Flutter dev. Important Talk Python episode: Fusion Ignition Breakthrough and Python Pamela: Github pyproject.toml support. Python Package Template Jokes: $McTitle Worst input fields
2/14/202350 minutes, 5 seconds
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#322 Python Packages, Let Me Count The Ways

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Special guest: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/stream/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: Packaging Python Projects Tutorial from PyPA This is a really good starting point to understand how to share Python code through packaging. Includes discussion of directory layout creating package files, LICENSE, pyproject.toml, README.md, tests and src dir how to fill out build-system section of pyproject.toml using either hatchling, setuptools, flit, or pdm as backends metadata using build to generate wheels and tarballs uploading with twine However For small-ish pure Python projects, I still prefer flit flit init creates pyproject.toml and LICENSE will probably still need to hand tweak pyproject.toml flit build replaces build flit publish replaces twine The process can be confusing, even for seasoned professionals. Further discussion later in the show Michael #2: untangle xml Convert XML to Python objects Children can be accessed with parent.child, attributes with element['attribute']. Call the parse() method with a filename, an URL or an XML string. Given this XML: [HTML_REMOVED] [HTML_REMOVED] [HTML_REMOVED] [HTML_REMOVED] Access the document: obj.root.child['name'] # u'child1' A little cleaner that ElementTree perhaps. Calvin #3: Mypy 1.0 Released Mypy is a static type checker for Python, basically a Python linter on steroids Started in 2012 and developed by a team at Dropbox lead by https://github.com/JukkaL What’s New? New Release Numbering Scheme not using symver Significant backward incompatible changes will be announced in the blog post for the previous feature release feature flags will allow users to upgrade and turn on the new behavior Mypy 1.0 is 40% faster than 0.991 against the Dropbox internal codebase 20 optimizations included in this release Mypy now warns about errors used before definition or possibly undefined variables for example if a variable is used outside of a block of code that may not execute Mypy now supports the new Self type introduced in PEP 673 and Python 3.11 Support ParamSpec in Type Aliases Also, ParamSpec and Generic Self types are no loner experimental Lots of Miscellaneous New Features Fixes to crashes Support for compiling Python match statements introduced in Python 3.10 Brian #4: Thoughts on the Python packaging ecosystem Pradyun Gedam Some great background on the internal tension around packaging. Brian’s note: in the meantime people are struggling to share Python code the “best practice” answer seems to shift regularly this might be healthy to arrive at better tooling in the long term, but in the short term, it’s hurting us. From the article: The Python packaging ecosystem unintentionally became the type of competitive space that it is today. The community needs to make an explicit decision if it should continue operating under the model that led to status quo. Pick from N different tools that do N different things is a good model. Pick from N ~equivalent choices is a really bad user experience. Picking a default doesn’t make other approaches illegal. Communication about the Python packaging ecosystem is fragmented, and we should improve that. Pradyun: “Many of the users who write Python code are not primarily full-time software engineers or “developers”.” from Thea: “The reason there are so many tools for managing Python dependencies is because Python is not a monoculture and different folks need different things.” opening up the build backend through pyproject.toml-based builds was good but the fracturing of multiple “workflow” tools seems bad. “I am certain that it is not possible to create a single “workflow” tool for Python software. What we have today, an ecosystem of tooling where each makes different design choices and technical trade-offs, is a part of why Python is as widespread as it is today. This flexibility and availability of choice is, however, both a blessing and a curse.” On building a default workflow tool around pip interesting idea There’s tension between “we need a default workflow tool” and “unix philosophy: many focused tools that can work together”. Michael #5: Top PyPI Packages A monthly dump of the 5,000 most-downloaded packages from PyPI. Also, a full copy of PyPI info too: github.com/orf/pypi-data Calvin #6: SQLAlchemy 2.0 Released #57 on the Top PyPI Packages 😸 Will be giving a SQLAlchemy tutorial at Python Web Conf What’s New? Significant API change from 1.4 You’ll want to follow the migration guide and see also the what’s new in 2.0 guide Fully takes advantage of Python 3 features such as dataclasses, enums and inline annotations Typing support in Core and ORM, but still should be considered beta all SQLAlchemy stubs packages must be uninstalled all SQLAlchemy stubs packages must be uninstalled for typing to work Mypy Plugin is considered deprecated now Major speed increase in the all new fully ORM-integrated bulk INSERTs sorry if you are on MySQL, they don’t support INSERT RETURNING yet but MariaDB does support this All new bulk optimized schema reflection architecture Currently enabled for PostgreSQL and Oracle 250% perf increase for Postgres 900% per increase for Oracle Native extensions ported to Cython C extensions have been replaced by Cython Benchmarks as fast or sometimes faster than the previous C extensions Removes some risk of memory or stability issues introduced by C SQLAlchemy is now pep-517 enabled and has a pyproject.toml at the root means that local source building with pip can auto install the Cython dependancy Extras Brian: Nothing to share yet, but I’m building a new alternative Python build backend. which if course will be followed with a new workflow tool that follows “my workflow”. Michael: “Create shortcut: New window” tip: In the dock/task bar Running as an app Speaking of Proton, started using simplelogin.io What’s all this banning chips about? Great documentary Talk Python is hiring! Calvin: 5th Annual Python Web Conf 2023
2/7/202346 minutes, 40 seconds
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#321 A Memorial To Apps Past

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by Microsoft for Startups Founders Hub. Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/stream/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Michael #1: git-sim Visually simulate Git operations in your own repos with a single terminal command. Generates an image (default) or video visualization depicting the Git command's behavior. Features Run a one-liner git-sim command in the terminal to generate a custom Git command visualization (.jpg) from your repo Supported commands: log, status, add, restore, commit, stash, branch, tag, reset, revert, merge, rebase, cherry-pick Generate an animated video (.mp4) instead of a static image using the --animate flag (note: significant performance slowdown, it is recommended to use --low-quality to speed up testing and remove when ready to generate presentation-quality video) Choose between dark mode (default) and light mode Animation only: Add custom branded intro/outro sequences if desired Animation only: Speed up or slow down animation speed as desired See images and animations on the github readme. Brian #2: Why I Like Nox Hynek Schlawack I like tox and have wanted to try nox but couldn’t think of good reasons for a switch. Hynek is a fan of both, so it’s nice to read his perspective. The article starts with comparing doing the same thing in both testing with Python 3.10 and 3.11 and adding the ability to pass in pytest arguments. even with this example, I do admit that the nox example is easier to read, but a bit more verbose. A second example of running a specific example combination of library and Python is quite a bit longer in nox, but there’s an interesting commentary: “… this is longer than the tox equivalent. But that’s because it’s more explicit and anyone with a passing understanding of Python can deduce what’s happening here – including myself, looking at it in a year. Explicit can be good, actually.” Other benefits: It’s a Python file with Python functions, you have the all of Python at your disposal when developing sessions to run. It’s not “ini format”. Complex ini files get out of hand quickly. nox has Python versions as fist class selectors. Final note: “Again, this article is not a call to abandon tox and move all your projects to Nox – I haven’t done that myself and I don’t plan to. But if my issues resonate with you, there’s an option!” Michael #3: I scanned every package on PyPi and found 57 live AWS keys Scanning every release published to PyPi found 57 valid access keys. Detecting AWS keys is actually fairly simple. A keypair consists of two components: the key ID and the key secret. The key ID can be detected with the regular expression ((?:ASIA|AKIA|AROA|AIDA)([A-Z0-7]{16})) The secret key can be detected with a much more general [a-zA-Z0-9+/]{40}. Static PyPI data: github.com/orf/pypi-data Brian #4: Getting Started With Property-Based Testing in Python With Hypothesis and pytest Rodrigo Girão Serrão Hypothesis and property based testing can be overwhelming at first. So focused intro posts are quite helpful. This post focuses on a couple of examples, gcd(), greatest common divisor, and my_sort(), a custom list sorter. Good discussion of how property based testing is different and how to do it successfully, especially the order of development: focus on developing properties of correct answers develop a test that checks those properties use hypothesis strategies to come up with input pick @examples if necessary narrow the range of input if necessary caveat: I would have preferred hypothesis.assume() to limiting input in the first example. assume(not (n == m == 0)) see https://hypothesis.readthedocs.io/en/latest/details.html#hypothesis.assume add more testing outside of hypothesis In my experience it’s often easier for me to develop code with non-hypothesis test cases, then follow up with hypothesis. But after works also. The mental gymnastics of thinking of properties for algorithmic code is worthwhile. Extras Michael: First stream from the sweet new mac mini. Ivory released for Mastodon, but others too. Nice memorial https://tapbots.com/tweetbot/ We’ll be doing a live in-person event at PyCon, become a friend of the show to get notified. Joke: Didn't come here to be called out
1/30/202336 minutes, 30 seconds
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#320 The Bug Is In The JavaScript

Watch on YouTube About the show Sponsored by us! Support our work through: Our courses at Talk Python Training Test & Code Podcast Patreon Supporters Connect with the hosts Michael: @[email protected] Brian: @[email protected] Show: @[email protected] Join us on YouTube at pythonbytes.fm/stream/live to be part of the audience. Usually Tuesdays at 11am PT. Older video versions available there too. Brian #1: markdown-it-py Yes. another markdown parser. Rich recently switched markdown parsers, from commonmark to markdown-it-py. Let’s look at those a bit. Michael #2: Sketch via Jake Firman Sketch is an AI code-writing assistant for pandas users that understands the context of your data A Natural Language interface that successfully navigates many tasks in the data stack landscape. Data Cataloging: General tagging (eg. PII identification) Metadata generation (names and descriptions) Data Engineering: Data cleaning and masking (compliance) Derived feature creation and extraction Data Analysis: Data questions Data visualization Watch the video on the GitHub page for a quick intro Brian #3: Fixing Circular Imports in Python with Protocol Built on Subclassing in Python Redux from Hynek We covered this in the summer of 2021, episode 240 However, I re-read it recently due to a typing problem Problem is when an object passes itself to another module to be called later. This is common in many design patterns, including just normal callback functions. Normally not a problem with Python, due to duck typing. But with type hints, suddenly it seems like both modules need types from the other. So how do you have two modules use types from each other without a circular import. Hynek produces two options Abstract Data Types, aka Interfaces, using the abc module Requires a third interface class Structural subtyping with Protocol This is what I think I’ll use more often and I’m kinda in love with it now that I understand it. Still has a third type, but one of the modules doesn’t have to know about it. "Structural Subtyping : Structural subtyping is duck typing for types: if your class fulfills the constraints of a [Protocol](https://docs.python.org/3/library/typing.html#typing.Protocol), it’s automatically considered a subtype of it. Therefore, a class can implement many Protocols from all kinds of packages without knowing about them!” The Fixing Circular Imports in Python with Protocol article walks through one example of two classes talking with each other, typing, circular imports, and fixing them with Protocol Michael #4: unrepl via/by Ruud van der Ham We’ve seen the code samples: >>> board = [] >>> for i in range(3): ... row = ['_'] * 3 ... board.append(row) ... >>> board [['_', '_', '_'], ['_', '_', '_'], ['_', '_', '_']] >>> board\[2\][0] = 'X' >>> board [['_', '_', '_'], ['_', '_', '_'], ['X', '_', '_']] But you cannot really run this code. You can’t paste it into a REPL yourself nor can you put it into a .py file. So you unrepl it: Copying the above code to the clipboard and run unrepl. Paste the result and now you can. Unrepl can be used as a command line tool but also as a module. The REPL functionality of underscore (_) to get access to the last value is also supported. Extras Michael: You'll want to update your git ASAP. Get course releases at Talk Python via RSS Gist for using Turnstile with Python + Pydantic Joke: there's a bug in the js You’ve checked all your database indexes, You’ve tuned all your API hooks, You’re starting to think That you might need a drink, Because there’s only one place left to look: … There must be a bug in the javascript Because everything else was built properly But the frontend’s a pile of crap ;)
1/24/202328 minutes, 26 seconds
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#319 CSS-Style Queries for... JSON?

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1/18/202332 minutes, 44 seconds
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#318 GIL, How We Will Miss You

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1/10/202339 minutes, 38 seconds
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#317 Most loved and most dreaded dev tools of 2022

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1/3/202348 minutes, 31 seconds
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#316 Python 3.11 is here and it's fast (crossover)

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12/30/20221 hour, 4 minutes, 12 seconds
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#315 Some Stickers!

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12/20/202229 minutes, 56 seconds
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#314 What are you, a wise guy? Sort it out!

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12/13/202237 minutes, 24 seconds
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#313 Programming Robots With a Marker

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12/6/202246 minutes
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#312 AI Goes on Trial For Writing Code

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11/29/202235 minutes, 26 seconds
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#311 Catching Memory Leaks with ... pytest?

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11/24/202249 minutes, 50 seconds
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#310 Calling All Tools for Readmes

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11/15/202253 minutes, 44 seconds
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#309 When Malware PoC's are Themselves Malware

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11/9/202235 minutes, 1 second
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#308 Conference season is heating up

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11/1/202234 minutes, 37 seconds
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#307 Your Python just got faster (3.11 is out!)

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10/26/202244 minutes, 54 seconds
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#306 Some Fun pytesting Tools

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10/19/202246 minutes, 22 seconds
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#305 Decorators need love too

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10/13/202232 minutes, 58 seconds
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#304 Build your own text adventure language in Python

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10/5/202238 minutes, 24 seconds
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#303 This title is required or is it optional?

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9/29/202237 minutes, 56 seconds
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#302 The Blue Shirt Episode

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9/20/202233 minutes, 2 seconds
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#301 PyTorch Grows Up and Moves Out

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9/15/202231 minutes, 10 seconds
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#300 A Jupyter merge driver for git

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9/6/202255 minutes, 21 seconds
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#299 Will McGugan drops by

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9/3/202246 minutes, 7 seconds
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#298 "Unstoppable" Python

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8/24/202232 minutes, 22 seconds
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#297 I AM the documentation

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8/16/202222 minutes, 36 seconds
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#296 pip: Constrain your excitement

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8/9/202232 minutes, 31 seconds
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#295 Flutter + Python GUI Apps?

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8/4/202236 minutes, 16 seconds
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#294 Specializing Adaptive Interpreters in Full Color

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7/26/202235 minutes, 26 seconds
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#293 And if I pull this open source Jenga block...

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7/20/202247 minutes, 34 seconds
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#292 Thursday, it's always a Thursday

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7/11/202228 minutes, 36 seconds
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#291 Wait, you have how many licenses?!?

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7/6/202232 minutes, 27 seconds
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#290 Sentient AI? If so, then what?

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6/28/202249 minutes, 34 seconds
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#289 Textinator is coming for your text, wherever it is

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6/21/202246 minutes, 14 seconds
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#288 Performance benchmarks for Python 3.11 are amazing

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6/14/202233 minutes, 5 seconds
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#287 Surprising ways to use Jupyter Notebooks

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6/7/202227 minutes, 22 seconds
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#286 Unreasonable f-strings

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6/3/202226 minutes, 22 seconds
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#285 Where we talk about UIs and Python

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5/25/202250 minutes, 54 seconds
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#284 Spicy git for Engineers

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5/18/202241 minutes, 12 seconds
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#283 The sports episode

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5/12/202232 minutes, 58 seconds
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#282 Don't Embarrass Me in Front of The Wizards

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5/3/202228 minutes, 32 seconds
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#281 ohmyzsh + ohmyposh + mcfly + pls + nerdfonts = wow

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4/28/202246 minutes, 34 seconds
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#280 Easy terminal scripts by sourcing your Py

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4/21/202237 minutes, 36 seconds
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#279 Autocorrect and other Git Tricks

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4/15/202241 minutes, 52 seconds
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#278 Multi-tenant Python applications

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4/8/202233 minutes, 34 seconds
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#277 It's a Python package showdown!

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4/2/202245 minutes, 1 second
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#276 Tracking cyber intruders with Jupyter and Python

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3/23/202245 minutes, 4 seconds
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#275 Airspeed velocity of an unladen astropy

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3/16/202242 minutes, 43 seconds
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#274 12 Questions You Should Be Asking of Your Dependencies

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3/9/202239 minutes, 54 seconds
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#273 Getting dirty with __eq__(self, other)

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3/4/202237 minutes, 5 seconds
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#272 The tools episode

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2/24/202248 minutes, 9 seconds
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#271 CPython: Async Task Groups in Python 3.11

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2/16/202257 minutes, 21 seconds
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#270 Can errors really be beautiful?

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2/10/202247 minutes, 25 seconds
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#269 Get Rich and replace your cat

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2/3/202240 minutes, 35 seconds
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#268 Wait, you can Google that?

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1/27/202245 minutes, 9 seconds
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#267 Python on the beach

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1/21/202232 minutes, 50 seconds
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#266 Python has a glossary?

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1/13/202226 minutes, 46 seconds
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#265 Get asizeof pympler and muppy

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1/5/202247 minutes, 46 seconds
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#264 We're just playing games with Jupyter at this point

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12/22/202153 minutes, 2 seconds
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#263 It’s time to stop using Python 3.6

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12/15/202150 minutes, 7 seconds
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#262 So many bots up in your documentation

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12/9/202143 minutes, 6 seconds
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#261 Please re-enable spacebar heating

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12/3/202142 minutes, 21 seconds
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#260 It's brutally simple: made just from pickle and zip

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11/23/202148 minutes, 49 seconds
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#259 That argument is a little late-bound

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11/17/202147 minutes, 24 seconds
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#258 Python built us an anime dog!

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11/11/202143 minutes, 9 seconds
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#257 Python Launcher - Launching Python Everywhere

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11/4/202140 minutes, 25 seconds
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#256 And the best open source project prize goes to ...

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10/29/202159 minutes, 36 seconds
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#255 Closember eve, the cure for Hacktoberfest?

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10/20/202146 minutes, 49 seconds
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#254 Do Excel things, get notebook Python code with Mito

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10/13/202131 minutes, 2 seconds
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#253 A new Python for you, and for everyone!

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10/7/202144 minutes, 57 seconds
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#252 Jupyter is now a desktop app!

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9/29/202144 minutes, 25 seconds
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#251 A 95% complete episode (wait for it)

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9/22/202155 minutes, 33 seconds
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#250 skorch your scikit-learn together with PyTorch

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9/15/202141 minutes, 52 seconds
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#249 All of Linux as a Python API

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9/9/202137 minutes, 12 seconds
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#248 while True: stand up, sit down

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9/2/202152 minutes, 9 seconds
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#247 Do you dare to press "."?

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8/26/202146 minutes, 12 seconds
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#246 Love your crashes, use Rich to beautify tracebacks

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8/11/202146 minutes, 19 seconds
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#245 Fire up your Python time machine (and test some code)

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8/4/202141 minutes, 56 seconds
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#244 vendorizing your Python podcast

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7/30/202134 minutes, 43 seconds
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#243 Django unicorns and multi-region PostgreSQL

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7/21/202142 minutes, 19 seconds
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#242 from lib import * but less

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7/15/202139 minutes, 18 seconds
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#241 f-yes we want some f-string tricks!

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7/7/202139 minutes, 53 seconds
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#240 This is GitHub, your pilot speaking...

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7/2/202151 minutes, 58 seconds
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#239 No module named pythonbytes

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6/23/202143 minutes, 9 seconds
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#238 A cloud-based file system for Python and a new GUI!

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6/15/202147 minutes, 7 seconds
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#237 Separate your SQL and Python, asynchronously with aiosql

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6/9/202139 minutes, 41 seconds
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#236 Fuzzy wuzzy wazzy fuzzy was faster

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6/2/202137 minutes, 24 seconds
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#235 Flask 2.0 Articles and Reactions

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5/26/202146 minutes, 5 seconds
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#234 The Astronomy-filled edition with Dr. Becky

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5/19/202149 minutes, 36 seconds
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#233 RaaS: Readme as a Service

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5/12/202150 minutes, 58 seconds
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#232 PyPI in a box and a revolutionary keyboard

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5/5/202138 minutes, 16 seconds
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#231 Go Python, Go!

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4/28/202144 minutes, 13 seconds
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#230 PyMars? Yes! FLoC? No!

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4/21/202145 minutes, 30 seconds
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#229 Has one of your dependencies died?

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4/15/202142 minutes, 55 seconds
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#228 Supreme Court decides API copyright battle

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4/7/202143 minutes, 34 seconds
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#227 No more awaiting, async comes to SQLAlchemy

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3/31/202133 minutes, 8 seconds
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#226 Teaching Python podcast on the podcast!

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3/25/202146 minutes, 3 seconds
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#225 SELECT Pydantic FROM MongoDB

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3/17/202139 minutes, 18 seconds
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#224 Join us on a Python adventure back to 1977

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3/10/202137 minutes, 58 seconds
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#223 Beware: A ninja is shadowing Sebastian from FastAPI

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3/3/202150 minutes, 48 seconds
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#222 Autocomplete with type annotations for AWS and boto3

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2/24/202138 minutes, 21 seconds
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#221 Pattern matching and accepting change in Python with Brett Cannon

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2/19/202159 minutes, 5 seconds
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#220 What, why, and where of friendly errors in Python

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2/11/202147 minutes, 27 seconds
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#219 HTMX: Dynamic and live HTML without JavaScript

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2/3/202139 minutes, 12 seconds
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#218 Keyboards for developers, Python, and some history

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1/27/202143 minutes, 34 seconds
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#217 Use your cloud SSD for fast, cross-process caching

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1/19/202138 minutes, 38 seconds
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#216 Container: Sort thyself!

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1/13/202135 minutes, 33 seconds
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#215 A Visual Introduction to NumPy

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1/6/202143 minutes, 25 seconds
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#214 Python year in review (2020 edition)

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12/28/20201 hour, 10 minutes, 28 seconds
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#213 Uh oh, Vulcans have infiltrated Flask

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12/23/202045 minutes
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#212 SQLite as a file format (like docx)

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12/16/202036 minutes, 16 seconds
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#211 Will a black hole devour this episode?

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12/7/202044 minutes, 32 seconds
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#210 Analyzing Kickstarter Campaigns with Python

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12/3/202031 minutes, 8 seconds
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#209 JITing Python with .NET, no irons in sight

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11/27/202033 minutes, 13 seconds
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#208 Dependencies out of control? Just pip chill.

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11/19/202030 minutes, 6 seconds
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#207 FastAPI as a web platform (not just APIs)

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11/13/202033 minutes, 27 seconds
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#206 Python dropping old operating systems is normal!

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11/8/202042 minutes, 56 seconds
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#205 This is going to be a little bit awkward

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10/31/202034 minutes, 18 seconds
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#204 Take the PSF survey and Will & Carlton drop by

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10/23/202040 minutes, 2 seconds
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#203 Scripting a masterpiece for Python web automation

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10/16/202040 minutes, 45 seconds
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#202 Jupyter is back in black!

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10/9/202033 minutes, 24 seconds
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#201 Understand git by rebuilding it in Python

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10/2/202040 minutes, 26 seconds
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#200 No dog-piling please (it's episode 200!)

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9/25/202032 minutes, 19 seconds
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#199 Big news for a very small Python runtime

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9/17/202029 minutes, 28 seconds
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#198 There's a beaver in your database and Anna-Lena drops by

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9/11/202034 minutes, 42 seconds
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#197 Structured concurrency in Python

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9/5/202036 minutes, 8 seconds
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#196 Version your SQL schemas with git + automatically migrate them

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8/27/202031 minutes, 5 seconds
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#195 Runtime type checking for Python type hints

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8/18/202033 minutes, 7 seconds
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#194 Events and callbacks in the Python language!

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8/10/202028 minutes, 30 seconds
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#193 Break out the Django testing toolbox

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8/6/202034 minutes, 10 seconds
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#192 Calculations by hand, but in the compter, with Handcalcs

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8/2/202030 minutes, 29 seconds
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#191 Live from the Manning Python Conference

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7/22/202052 minutes, 33 seconds
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#190 You will now be notified if the Python zipper is broken

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7/16/202043 minutes, 34 seconds
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#189 What does str.strip() do? Are you sure?

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7/9/202031 minutes, 57 seconds
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#188 Will there be a "switch" in Python the language?

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7/3/202031 minutes, 30 seconds
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#187 Ready to find out if you're git famous?

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6/26/202029 minutes, 25 seconds
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#186 The treebeard will guard your notebook

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6/18/202024 minutes, 51 seconds
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#185 This code is snooping on you (a good thing!)

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6/12/202024 minutes, 39 seconds
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#184 Too many ways to wait with await?

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6/5/202036 minutes, 2 seconds
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#183 Need a beautiful database editor? Look to the Bees!

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5/29/202031 minutes, 51 seconds
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#182 PSF Survey is out!

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5/19/202025 minutes, 52 seconds
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#181 It's time to interrogate your Python code

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5/14/202031 minutes, 2 seconds
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#180 Transactional file IO with Python and safer

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5/8/202032 minutes, 58 seconds
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#179 Guido van Rossum drops in on Python Bytes

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4/30/202044 minutes, 54 seconds
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#178 Build a PyPI package from a Jupyter notebook

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4/22/202038 minutes, 18 seconds
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#177 Coding is 90% Google searching or is it?

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4/16/202041 minutes, 43 seconds
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#176 How python implements super long integers

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4/7/202029 minutes, 32 seconds
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#175 Python string theory with superstring.py

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4/1/202032 minutes, 43 seconds
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#174 Happy developers use Python 3

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3/26/202047 minutes, 44 seconds
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#173 Your test deserves a fluent flavor

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3/19/202028 minutes, 38 seconds
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#172 Floating high above the web with Helium

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3/13/202032 minutes, 54 seconds
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#171 Chilled out Python decorators with PEP 614

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3/5/202034 minutes, 34 seconds
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#170 Visualize this: Visualizing Python's visualization ecosystem

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2/25/202029 minutes, 5 seconds
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#169 Jupyter Notebooks natively on your iPad

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2/19/202025 minutes, 44 seconds
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#168 Race your donkey car with Python

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2/11/202033 minutes, 34 seconds
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#167 Cheating at Kaggle and uWSGI in prod

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2/3/202028 minutes, 30 seconds
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#166 Misunderstanding software clocks and time

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1/27/202028 minutes, 21 seconds
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#165 Ranges as dictionary keys - oh my!

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1/21/202028 minutes, 45 seconds
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#164 Use type hints to build your next CLI app

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1/16/202029 minutes, 2 seconds
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#163 Meditations on the Zen of Python

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1/9/202023 minutes, 49 seconds
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#162 Retrofitting async and await into Django

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1/3/202023 minutes, 9 seconds
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#161 Sloppy Python can mean fast answers!

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12/18/201930 minutes, 15 seconds
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#160 Your JSON shall be streamed

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12/12/201928 minutes, 43 seconds
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#159 Brian's PR is merged, the src will flow

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12/3/201933 minutes, 18 seconds
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#158 There's a bounty on your open-source bugs!

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11/27/201926 minutes, 5 seconds
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#157 Oh hai Pandas, hold my hand?

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11/20/201923 minutes, 32 seconds
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#156 All the programming LOLs

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11/15/201928 minutes, 27 seconds
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#155 Guido van Rossum retires

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11/6/201932 minutes, 6 seconds
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#154 Code, frozen in carbon, on display for all

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10/29/201932 minutes, 19 seconds
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#153 Auto format my Python please!

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10/23/201926 minutes, 57 seconds
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#152 You have 35 million lines of Python 2, now what?

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10/15/201926 minutes, 1 second
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#151 Certified! It works on my machine

See the full show notes for this episode on the website at pythonbytes.fm/151
10/10/201925 minutes, 47 seconds
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#150 Winning the Python software interview

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10/5/201923 minutes, 57 seconds
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#149 Python's small object allocator and other memory features

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9/25/201937 minutes, 18 seconds
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#148 The ASGI revolution is upon us!

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9/18/201924 minutes, 3 seconds
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#147 Mocking out AWS APIs

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9/11/201925 minutes, 19 seconds
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#146 Slay the dragon, learn the Python

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9/8/201923 minutes, 35 seconds
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#145 The Python 3 “Y2K” problem

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8/31/201934 minutes, 24 seconds
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#144 Are you mocking me? It won't work!

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8/23/201925 minutes, 46 seconds
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#143 Spike the robot, powered by Python!

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8/14/201933 minutes, 19 seconds
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#142 There's a bandit in the Python space

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8/6/201930 minutes, 31 seconds
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#141 Debugging with f-strings coming in Python 3.8

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7/29/201930 minutes, 45 seconds
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#140 Becoming a 10x Developer (sorta)

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7/23/201924 minutes, 39 seconds
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#139 f"Yes!" for the f-strings

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7/18/201938 minutes, 42 seconds
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#138 Will PyOxidizer weld shut one of Python's major gaps?

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7/8/201929 minutes, 39 seconds
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#137 Advanced Python testing and big-time diffs

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7/2/201928 minutes, 5 seconds
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#136 A Python kernel rather than cleaning the batteries?

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6/25/201930 minutes, 27 seconds
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#135 macOS deprecates Python 2, will stop shipping it (eventually)

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6/20/201932 minutes, 24 seconds
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#134 Python proves Mercury is the closest planet to Earth

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6/12/201921 minutes, 10 seconds
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#133 Github sponsors - The model open source has been waiting for?

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6/5/201927 minutes, 29 seconds
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#132 Algorithms as objects

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5/30/201930 minutes, 19 seconds
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#131 Python 3 has issues (over on GitHub)

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5/21/201927 minutes, 15 seconds
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#130 Python.exe now shipping with Windows 10

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5/14/201924 minutes, 7 seconds
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#129 Maintaining a Python Project when it’s not your job

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5/6/201916 minutes, 40 seconds
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#128 Will the GIL be obsolete with PEP 554?

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5/2/201923 minutes, 1 second
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#127 That Python code is on fire!

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4/25/201924 minutes, 55 seconds
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#126 WebAssembly comes to Python

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4/19/201930 minutes, 10 seconds
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#125 Will you conquer the deadlock empire?

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4/13/201931 minutes, 46 seconds
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#124 This is not the None you're looking for

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4/5/201927 minutes, 41 seconds
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#123 Time to right the py-wrongs

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3/29/201925 minutes, 31 seconds
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#122 Give Me Back My Monolith

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3/22/201929 minutes, 6 seconds
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#121 python2 becomes self-aware, enters fifth stage of grief

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3/16/201923 minutes, 34 seconds
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#120 AWS, MongoDB, and the Economic Realities of Open Source and more

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3/5/201925 minutes, 25 seconds
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#119 Assorted files as Django ORM backends with Alkali

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2/26/201922 minutes, 13 seconds
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#118 Better Python executable management with pipx

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2/22/201925 minutes, 54 seconds
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#117 Is this the end of Python virtual environments?

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2/14/201928 minutes, 20 seconds
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#116 So you want Python in a 3D graphics engine?

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2/6/201917 minutes, 56 seconds
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#115 Dataclass CSV reader and Nina drops by

See the full show notes for this episode on the website at pythonbytes.fm/115
2/2/201928 minutes, 58 seconds
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#114 What should be in the Python standard library?

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1/26/201928 minutes, 33 seconds
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#113 Python Lands on the Windows 10 App Store

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1/18/201923 minutes, 22 seconds
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#112 Don't use the greater than sign in programming

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1/11/201928 minutes, 47 seconds
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#111 loguru: Python logging made simple

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1/5/201934 minutes, 16 seconds
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#110 Python Year in Review 2018 Edition

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12/26/201856 minutes, 54 seconds
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#109 CPython byte code explorer

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12/18/201820 minutes, 45 seconds
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#108 Spilled data? Call the PyJanitor

See the full show notes for this episode on the website at pythonbytes.fm/108
12/11/201821 minutes, 51 seconds
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#107 Restructuring and searching data, the Python way

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12/7/201822 minutes, 50 seconds
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#106 Fluent query APIs on Python collections

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12/1/201826 minutes, 21 seconds
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#105 Colorizing and Restoring Old Images with Deep Learning

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11/23/201824 minutes, 15 seconds
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#104 API Evolution the Right Way

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11/17/201830 minutes, 7 seconds
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#103 Getting to 10x (results for developers)

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11/8/201827 minutes, 6 seconds
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#102 Structure of a Flask Project

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10/31/201826 minutes, 52 seconds
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#101 Nobel Prize awarded to a Python convert

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10/24/201821 minutes, 34 seconds
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#100 The big 100 with special guests

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10/19/201842 minutes
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#99 parse - the regex antidote in Python

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10/16/201821 minutes, 18 seconds
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#98 Python-Electron as a Python GUI

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10/8/201826 minutes, 58 seconds
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#97 Java goes paid

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9/28/201824 minutes, 36 seconds
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#96 Python Language Summit 2018

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9/22/201826 minutes, 33 seconds
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#95 Unleash the py-spy!

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9/15/201823 minutes, 33 seconds
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#94 Why don't you like notebooks?

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9/6/201823 minutes, 49 seconds
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#93 Looking like there will be a PyBlazor!

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8/31/201824 minutes, 15 seconds
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#92 Will your Python be compiled?

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8/25/201826 minutes, 57 seconds
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#91 Will there be a PyBlazor?

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8/15/201820 minutes, 28 seconds
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#90 A Django Async Roadmap

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8/7/201825 minutes, 18 seconds
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#89 A tenacious episode that won't give up

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8/4/201828 minutes, 50 seconds
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#88 Python has brought computer programming to a vast new audience

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7/27/201823 minutes, 8 seconds
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#87 Guido van Rossum steps down

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7/17/201833 minutes, 20 seconds
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#86 Make your NoSQL async and await-able with uMongo

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7/13/201826 minutes, 4 seconds
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#85 Visually debugging your Jupyter notebook

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7/3/201824 minutes, 40 seconds
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#84 Vibora web framework: It's fast, async, and means viper

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6/28/201826 minutes, 29 seconds
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#83 from __future__ import braces

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6/22/201829 minutes, 22 seconds
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#82 Let's make a clear Python 3 statement

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6/15/201825 minutes, 55 seconds
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#81 Making your C library callable from Python by wrapping it with Cython

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6/5/201817 minutes
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#80 Dan Bader drops by and we found 30 new Python projects

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5/29/201830 minutes, 45 seconds
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#79 15 Tips to Enhance your Github Flow

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5/25/201827 minutes, 31 seconds
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#78 Setting Expectations for Open Source Participation

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5/18/201826 minutes, 7 seconds
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#77 You Don't Have To Be a Workaholic To Win

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5/12/201821 minutes, 4 seconds
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#76 Goodbye zero-versioning

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5/4/201830 minutes, 40 seconds
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#75 pypi.org officially launches

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4/28/201819 minutes, 51 seconds
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#74 Contributing to Open Source effectively

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4/19/201824 minutes, 51 seconds
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#73 This podcast comes in any color you want, as long as it's black

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4/12/201818 minutes, 35 seconds
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#72 New versioning: Episode 0.0.7.2 (with 72 releases)

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4/5/201822 minutes, 54 seconds
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#71 We can migrate to Python 3, careful please

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3/28/201824 minutes, 1 second
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#70 Have you seen my log? It's cute!

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3/23/201815 minutes, 51 seconds
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#69 Digging into StackOverflow's 2018 survey results

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3/18/201824 minutes
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#68 Python notebooks galore!

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3/6/201819 minutes, 9 seconds
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#67 Result of moving Python to Github

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3/1/201821 minutes, 56 seconds
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#66 Wait, NoSQL with ACID and transactions?

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2/23/201821 minutes, 43 seconds
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#65 Speed of your import statements affecting performance?

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2/14/201827 minutes, 7 seconds
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#64 The GUI phoenix rises with wxPython

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2/9/201821 minutes, 1 second
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#63 We're still on a desktop GUI kick

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2/1/201821 minutes, 12 seconds
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#62 Wooey and Gooey are simple Python GUIs

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1/26/201828 minutes, 41 seconds
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#61 On Being a Senior Engineer

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1/16/201822 minutes, 22 seconds
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#60 Don't dismiss SQLite as just a starter DB

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1/11/201826 minutes, 29 seconds
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#59 Instagram disregards Python's GC (again)

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1/5/201825 minutes, 39 seconds
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#58 Better cache decorators and another take on type hints

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12/26/201715 minutes, 27 seconds
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#57 Our take on Excel and Python

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12/21/201715 minutes, 48 seconds
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#56 The pendulum of time swings beautifully in PyPI

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12/14/201716 minutes, 29 seconds
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#55 Flask, Flask, Flask, 3x Flask

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12/7/201720 minutes, 18 seconds
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#54 PyAnnotate your way to the future

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11/29/201718 minutes, 51 seconds
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#53 Getting started with devpi and Git Virtual FS

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11/22/201722 minutes, 10 seconds
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#52 Call your APIs with uplink and test them in the tavern

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11/16/201721 minutes, 40 seconds
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#51 How to make your code 80 times faster

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11/9/201721 minutes, 33 seconds
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#50 Bundling , shipping, and protecting Python applications

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11/2/201719 minutes, 17 seconds
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#49 Your technical skills are obsolete: now what?

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10/25/201725 minutes, 57 seconds
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#48 Garbage collection and memory management in Python

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10/19/201717 minutes, 50 seconds
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#47 PyPy now works with way more C-extensions and parking your package safely

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10/12/201716 minutes, 44 seconds
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#46 Spicy lecture notes and unicorn console spinners

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10/5/201716 minutes, 51 seconds
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#45 A really small web API and OS-level machine learning

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9/29/201719 minutes, 33 seconds
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#44 pip install malicious-code

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9/20/201726 minutes, 35 seconds
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#43 Python string theory, v2

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9/14/201718 minutes, 48 seconds
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#42 Behold: The Python 2 death clock

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9/8/201723 minutes, 52 seconds
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#41 Python Concurrency From the Ground Up and Caring for our Community

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8/31/201723 minutes, 21 seconds
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#40 Packet Manipulation with Scapy

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8/24/201722 minutes, 59 seconds
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#39 The new PyPI

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8/17/201743 minutes, 6 seconds
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#38 Hacking Classic Nintendo Games with Python

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8/9/201724 minutes, 57 seconds
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#37 Rule over the shells with Sultan

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8/2/201718 minutes, 15 seconds
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#36 Craft Your Python Like Poetry and Other Musings

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7/28/201722 minutes, 34 seconds
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#35 How developers change programming languages over time

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7/19/201724 minutes, 44 seconds
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#34 The Real Threat of Artificial Intelligence

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7/13/201722 minutes, 57 seconds
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#33 You should build an Alexa skill

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7/6/201717 minutes, 49 seconds
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#32 8 ways to contribute to open source when you have no time

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7/1/201723 minutes, 10 seconds
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#31 You should have a change log

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6/21/201721 minutes, 50 seconds
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#30 You are not Google and other ruminations

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6/15/201724 minutes, 37 seconds
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#29 Responsive Bar Charts with Bokeh, Flask, and Python 3

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6/8/201723 minutes, 4 seconds
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#28 The meaning of _ in Python

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6/2/201720 minutes, 59 seconds
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#27 The PyCon 2017 recap and functional Python

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5/25/201719 minutes, 8 seconds
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#26 How have you automated your life, or CLI, with Python?

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