Winamp Logo
Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution Cover
Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution Profile

Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution

English, Education, 2 seasons, 306 episodes, 4 days, 18 hours, 49 minutes
About
Latin in Layman’s gives you the ability to understand and command language in a whole new respect. Join a typical grammarian and classicist as I expand your vocabulary, understanding of grammar, Etymology, terminology (i.e. legal, medical, botanical, etc.), and so much more. I also utilize this platform to expand on greater thoughts of mine, as well as discussing the importance of language and the promotion of "The Language Revival" (as I like to call it...) Thank you for your interested in knowledge, language acquisition, the command of one's own language, and the understanding of the world. Support this podcast: https://anchor.fm/liam-connerly/support
Episode Artwork

The Amazons | On the dangers of isolating one's mind and importance of the understanding between differing cultures

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: https://www.feelgoods.co/discount/LIAM64728
4/18/202427 minutes, 41 seconds
Episode Artwork

On the dangers of ignoring inconvenient truths | The myth of Cassandra and Apollo

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: https://www.feelgoods.co/discount/LIAM64728
4/16/202425 minutes, 10 seconds
Episode Artwork

The myth of Jupiter and the Bee

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/15/202416 minutes, 38 seconds
Episode Artwork

We always find a way | The Myth of Heracles

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/11/202418 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Myth of Scylla and Charybdis | Charting our course through the turbulent seas of life

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/11/202411 minutes, 44 seconds
Episode Artwork

Cognates & Derivatives from "METRON"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/10/20248 minutes, 53 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the Greek Root "TELE-"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/9/202410 minutes, 42 seconds
Episode Artwork

Exploring the intricacies of King Midas | On being a giver vs. a taker

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/9/202416 minutes, 26 seconds
Episode Artwork

Cognates, derivatives, and history on Greek's root word "TROPOS"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/7/202411 minutes, 38 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing he Latin verb "fero, ferre, tuli, latum" | A highly versatile and irregular verb that means "to bear" or "to carry"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 Inferior: Below or lower in position. In anatomy, it refers to structures situated toward the feet or tail. Etymology: From Latin "inferus," meaning low or below. Suffer: To endure or experience pain, injury, or distress. Etymology: From Latin "sufferre," composed of "sub-" (under) and "ferre" (to bear). Transfer: To move or convey from one place to another. Etymology: From Latin "transferre," composed of "trans-" (across) and "ferre" (to bear). Reference: Something that refers or relates to another thing. Etymology: From Latin "referre," composed of "re-" (back) and "ferre" (to bear). Confer: To compare or consult with others. Etymology: From Latin "conferre," composed of "cum" (with) and "ferre" (to bear). Deferent Duct: Part of the male reproductive system that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Etymology: "Deferent" comes from Latin "deferens," present participle of "deferre" (to carry away). Efferent: Carrying away from a central organ or structure. Etymology: From Latin "efferens," present participle of "efferre" (to carry out). Ferrous: Relating to iron, often used in the context of iron-containing compounds. Etymology: From Latin "ferrum," meaning iron. Translation: The process of converting genetic information from mRNA to a sequence of amino acids during protein synthesis. Etymology: From Latin "translatio," meaning carrying across. Proliferate: To multiply or increase rapidly. Etymology: From Latin "prolifer," combining "proles" (offspring) and "ferre" (to bear). Circumference: The boundary of a circular area. Etymology: From Latin "circumferentia," composed of "circum" (around) and "ferre" (to bear). Pestiferous: Carrying or bringing disease. Etymology: From Latin "pestifer," combining "pestis" (plague) and "ferre" (to bear). Luciferase: An enzyme that produces light, often used in bioluminescent assays. Etymology: From Latin "lucifer," combining "lux" (light) and "ferre" (to bear). Sulfuriferous: Carrying or containing sulfur. Etymology: From Latin "sulfur" (sulfur) and "ferre" (to bear). Fertile: Capable of bearing offspring or producing abundant crops. Etymology: From Latin "fertilis," derived from "ferre" (to bear).
4/6/202420 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Everything about Greek's "plasia/plassein" | "To shape, form, grow"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 Plasticity: The quality or condition of being pliable or moldable, often used to refer to brain plasticity. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plastic: Any synthetic material composed of polymers that can be molded into various shapes and forms. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasterer: A worker who applies plaster or plasterboard to interior walls and ceilings. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasmon: A collective oscillation of free electrons in a metal or other conductor. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasticize: To make a material more plastic or pliable. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plastid: An organelle found in eukaryotic cells that is responsible for the synthesis, storage, and/or metabolism of specific nutrients. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasmolysis: The shrinking of a cell when placed in a concentrated solution, resulting in dehydration. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasmodium: A genus of parasitic protists that can cause diseases in humans, such as malaria. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasmin: An enzyme that helps dissolve the clotting of blood during the healing process. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasmapheresis: A medical procedure involving the removal of plasma from the blood and its replacement with a plasma substitute. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plastron: The bony or armored ventral surface of the body in a turtle or tortoise. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Plasticizer: A substance added to a material to increase its flexibility, workability, and/or durability. Etymologically, from the Greek “plassein”, meaning “to shape or form”. Hyperplasia (Greek root: hyper, "over, above, excessive" + plassein, "to form, mold") Actual Definitions 1. Excessive or abnormal cell growth or multiplication of cells in an organ or tissue due to increased activity of the cells. 2. Enlargement of an organ due to increased cell proliferation. Etymological Definitions 1. Hyperplastic: Having cells which form abnormally or excessively. 2. Hyperplastically: Characterized by or caused by excessive or abnormal cell growth or multiplication.
4/6/202411 minutes, 32 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Greek's prefix "EPI-" | "Upon, above, after, over"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 Epiphany: Etymology: From Greek "epiphaneia," meaning manifestation or appearance. Significance: Represents a sudden, profound realization or insight. Epistemology: Etymology: Derived from Greek "epistēmē," meaning knowledge. Significance: Refers to the branch of philosophy that explores the nature and limits of human knowledge. Epilogue: Etymology: Comes from Greek "epilogos," meaning conclusion. Significance: The concluding section of a literary work, providing closure or reflection. Epitome: Etymology: Rooted in Greek "epitomē," meaning abridgment or summary. Significance: Represents a perfect example or embodiment of a particular quality. Epistolary: Etymology: Derived from Greek "epistolē," meaning letter. Significance: Relates to the form of communication through letters or literary works in the form of letters. Epiphysis: Etymology: From Greek "epiphysis," meaning growth upon. Significance: In anatomy, refers to the growth plate at the end of long bones in children. Epigenetics: Etymology: Combines Greek "epi-" (over, above) with genetics. Significance: Study of heritable changes in gene function that do not involve changes to the underlying DNA sequence. Epicenter: Etymology: From Greek "epi-" (upon) + "kentron" (center). Significance: The point on the Earth's surface directly above the earthquake's point of origin. Epistaxis: Etymology: Derived from Greek "epi-" (upon) + "stazein" (to drip). Significance: Medical term for nosebleed. Epithet: Etymology: Comes from Greek "epitheton," meaning attributed or added. Significance: A descriptive term or phrase expressing a quality characteristic of the person or thing mentioned.
4/5/202414 minutes, 23 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Abduction of Persephone | The reminders of duality in this life

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 In a time shrouded in the mists of myth, where mortals and gods walked hand in hand, bloomed Persephone, daughter of Demeter, the goddess of harvest. Her laughter echoed through sun-drenched fields, her smile brighter than the noonday sun. Amongst meadows bursting with life, she danced with nymphs, her beauty rivaling the blooming flora. One day, as Persephone wove a crown of wildflowers, the earth split open. From the abyss, emerged Hades, the somber god of the underworld. His chariot, drawn by ebony steeds, cast an unsettling shadow on the vibrant landscape. Before Persephone could scream, Hades, captivated by her beauty, swept her into his chariot and vanished into the depths of the earth. Demeter, sensing a terrible loss, searched high and low for her daughter. The once fertile fields withered under her grief, crops failing, and a chill settling upon the land. Helios, the sun god, witnessed the descent but dared not defy Hades. Days bled into weeks, then months, Demeter's cries unanswered. In her despair, she neglected her divine duty, plunging the world into a desolate winter. On Mount Olympus, the other gods trembled under Demeter's wrath. The world, deprived of life-giving harvests, teetered on the brink of chaos. Zeus, the king of gods, intervened. He dispatched Hermes, the swift messenger, to the underworld, demanding Persephone's return. Hades, however, presented a cunning challenge. Unknown to Persephone, he had tricked her into eating a pomegranate seed, the fruit of the underworld, binding her to his realm. A compromise was struck – Persephone would spend six months with Hades, the underworld blooming in her presence, and six months with Demeter, bringing life back to the earthly plane. And so, the cycle began. Spring bloomed with Persephone's return, summer thrived in her joyful presence. But as autumn painted the leaves, a melancholic yearning settled within her. With each descent, a single pomegranate seed lingered in her stomach, a bittersweet reminder of her dual life.
4/2/202427 minutes, 9 seconds
Episode Artwork

On the Myth of Sisyphus | Was his trickery hubris?

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
4/1/202423 minutes, 20 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the culinary world and all things related to Gastronomy

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 Cuisine: Etymology: "Cuisine" comes from the French word "cuisiner," meaning "to cook," ultimately from the Latin word "coquere," meaning "to cook" or "to prepare food." Definition: Cuisine refers to a style or method of cooking, especially characteristic of a particular region or culture. Culinary: Etymology: "Culinary" is derived from the Latin word "culinarius," meaning "of the kitchen" or "related to cooking," from "culina" (kitchen). Definition: Culinary describes anything related to cooking, food preparation, or the kitchen. Cookery: Etymology: "Cookery" is derived from the Old English word "cocery," from "coc" (cook), ultimately from the Latin word "coquere," meaning "to cook." Definition: Cookery refers to the art or practice of cooking and preparing food. Gastronomy: Etymology: "Gastronomy" comes from the Greek words "gastron," meaning "stomach," and "nomos," meaning "law" or "rule." Definition: Gastronomy is the study of the relationship between food and culture, including the art and science of cooking and eating well. Chef: Etymology: "Chef" is derived from the French word "chef," meaning "chief" or "head," ultimately from the Latin word "caput," meaning "head." Definition: A chef is a professional cook who is in charge of a kitchen or a particular section of a kitchen, typically skilled in culinary arts. Culinarian: Etymology: "Culinarian" combines "culinary" and the suffix "-ian," indicating "related to" or "pertaining to." Definition: A culinarian is someone who is skilled in cooking or involved in culinary arts, particularly as a profession. Pastry: Etymology: "Pastry" comes from the Old French word "paste," meaning "dough," ultimately from the Latin word "pasta," meaning "paste" or "dough." Definition: Pastry refers to a dough of flour, water, and shortening used as a base and covering in baked dishes such as pies, tarts, and pastries. Bake: Etymology: "Bake" is derived from the Old English word "bacan," meaning "to bake," possibly from the Proto-Germanic word "bakanan." Definition: To bake means to cook food by dry heat, typically in an oven. Casserole: Etymology: "Casserole" comes from the French word "casserole," meaning "saucepan" or "stewpan," from "casse" (pan) and the diminutive suffix "-ole." Definition: A casserole is a dish made by cooking ingredients, typically including meat, vegetables, and a starchy binder, slowly in an oven. Saute: Etymology: "Saute" is derived from the French word "sauter," meaning "to jump" or "to leap," possibly from the Latin word "saltare," meaning "to leap" or "to dance." Definition: To saute means to cook food quickly in a small amount of oil or fat over high heat, while stirring or tossing. Gourmet: Etymology: "Gourmet" comes from the French word "gourmet," meaning "a connoisseur of fine food and drink," possibly from the Old French word "gromet," meaning "servant" or "boy." Definition: A gourmet is someone who is knowledgeable and discriminating in matters of food and drink, particularly with regard to quality and taste. Mince: Etymology: "Mince" is derived from the Old French word "mincier," meaning "to make small" or "to cut into small pieces," possibly from the Latin word "minutia," meaning "smallness" or "trifle." Definition: To mince means to chop or cut food, especially meat, into very small pieces.
4/1/202417 minutes, 6 seconds
Episode Artwork

Easter, Religious, and Evangelical Etymology | Happy Easter Omnes!

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 Resurrection: Etymology: "Resurrection" is derived from the Latin word "resurrectio," which combines "re-" (again) and "surrectio" (rising), ultimately from the Latin verb "surgere" (to rise). Definition: Resurrection refers to the belief in the rising of Jesus Christ from the dead, or more broadly, the concept of coming back to life after death. Liturgy: Etymology: "Liturgy" is derived from the Greek word "leitourgia," meaning "public service" or "the work of the people," from "leitos" (public) and "ergon" (work). Definition: Liturgy refers to the prescribed form of public worship or religious service, especially in Christian traditions. Sacrament: Etymology: "Sacrament" comes from the Latin word "sacramentum," meaning "a solemn oath" or "a sacred rite," possibly derived from "sacrare" (to consecrate). Definition: A sacrament is a religious ceremony or ritual regarded as outward and visible signs of inward and spiritual grace, particularly in Christianity. Doctrine: Etymology: "Doctrine" is derived from the Latin word "doctrina," meaning "teaching" or "instruction," from "doctor" (teacher). Definition: Doctrine refers to a set of beliefs or principles taught and maintained by a religious, political, or philosophical group. Catechism: Etymology: "Catechism" is derived from the Greek word "katekhizein," meaning "to instruct orally," and the suffix "-ism," indicating a system, belief, or practice. Definition: A catechism is a summary of religious doctrine often in the form of questions and answers, used for instruction, especially in preparation for confirmation or baptism. Epiphany: Etymology: "Epiphany" is derived from the Greek word "epiphaneia," meaning "manifestation" or "appearance," from "epi" (upon) and "phainein" (to show). Definition: Epiphany refers to the Christian feast day commemorating the revelation of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, represented by the visit of the Magi, or more broadly, a sudden realization or insight. Redemption: Etymology: "Redemption" is derived from the Latin word "redemptio," meaning "a buying back" or "ransom," from "redimere" (to buy back). Definition: Redemption refers to the act of saving or delivering from sin, evil, or suffering, particularly in Christian theology through the atonement of Jesus Christ.
3/31/202421 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Echo and Narcissus | It's love, not vanity, that sustains us through the trials of life

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728
3/26/202413 minutes, 3 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing words associate with love, friendship, philos, and more! | Feat. Heated Ramble-Bamble in-lue of an intro

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 __________________________________________________ Romance Definition: A feeling of excitement and mystery associated with love. Etymology: From Old French "romans" meaning "verse narrative," from Vulgar Latin "romanice," literally "in the Roman language," hence "in the vernacular language," as opposed to "in Latin." Ultimately derived from Latin "Romanus," meaning "Roman." Amour Definition: French for love; a romantic attachment or love affair. Etymology: From Old French "amor," from Latin "amor," meaning "love." Eros Definition: In Greek mythology, Eros is the god of love, representing sexual desire and passion. Etymology: From Greek "Eros," meaning "sexual love." Agape Definition: Unconditional love, often associated with spiritual or selfless love. Etymology: From Greek "agape," meaning "love." Philos Definition: A type of love characterized by friendship and affection. Etymology: From Greek "philos," meaning "dear, beloved." Limerence Definition: The state of being infatuated or obsessed with another person, typically experienced as intense romantic attraction. Etymology: Coined by psychologist Dorothy Tennov in the 1970s, derived from the name of the Irish town Limerick. Yearning Definition: A feeling of intense longing or desire, especially for something unattainable or distant. Etymology: From Old English "gearnian," meaning "to long after," ultimately from Proto-Germanic "gernijaną." Saudade Definition: A Portuguese word describing a deep emotional state of longing or nostalgia, often accompanied by melancholy. Etymology: From Portuguese "saudade," of uncertain origin. Pining Definition: To suffer a lingering, often nostalgic, affection or longing. Etymology: From Middle English "pyne," meaning "pain, torment," ultimately from Old English "pīn." Inamorata Definition: A woman with whom one is in love or has an intimate romantic relationship. Etymology: From Italian "innamorata," the feminine form of "innamorato," meaning "enamored." Paramour Definition: A lover, especially one who is not married to the object of their affection. Etymology: From Old French "par amour," meaning "by love." Ephemeral Definition: Lasting for a very short time; transient. Etymology: From Greek "epi," meaning "upon" or "for" + "hemera," meaning "day," suggesting something lasting only for a day. Melancholy Definition: A feeling of pensive sadness, typically with no obvious cause. Etymology: From Middle English "melancolie," from Old French "melancolie," from Late Latin "melancholia," from Greek "melancholia," meaning "sadness." Cupid Definition: In Roman mythology, the god of love, often portrayed as a winged, chubby boy with a bow and arrows. Etymology: From Latin "cupido," meaning "desire" or "passion." Desire Definition: A strong feeling of wanting to have something or wishing for something to happen. Etymology: From Latin "desiderare," meaning "long for, wish for." Longing Definition: A strong feeling of wanting something or someone, often accompanied by sadness or dissatisfaction. Etymology: From Middle English "longen," meaning "to belong." Yearn Definition: To have an intense feeling of longing for something, typically something that one has lost or been separated from. Etymology: From Old English "gearnian," meaning "to desire, to long for."
3/26/202432 minutes, 47 seconds
Episode Artwork

Romulus and Remus - The heirs to both the mortal and divine | Etiologically explained

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Gut Guardian Discount Code: LIAM64728 In the cradle of time, amidst the whispers of ancient gods and the rustle of the Tiber's waters, there arose a tale both grand and eternal — the myth of Romulus and Remus. Listen, for within its folds lies the genesis of a mighty empire, woven with threads of destiny, betrayal, and the indomitable spirit of mankind. Once, in the heart of Italia, where hills kissed the sky and forests whispered secrets, there dwelled a vestal princess named Rhea Silvia. She, ordained by fate and bound by duty, tended the sacred flames of Vesta, her beauty radiant as the dawn, her spirit as untamed as the wind. But the gods, in their capricious dance, cast their gaze upon her, and Mars, the god of war, was ensnared by her allure. Beneath the moon's soft glow, amidst the silken whispers of night, their love blazed fierce and forbidden. And from this union, twin sons were born — Romulus and Remus, heirs to both mortal and divine. Yet, fate, ever a master weaver, ordained a cruel twist. For jealousy festered in the hearts of men, and Amulius, the usurper king, sought to quench the flame of their divine lineage. Thus, the babes were cast adrift upon the currents of the Tiber, cradled by the river's gentle embrace. But the river, in its wisdom, bore them to safety, where they were discovered by a she-wolf, fierce and noble, who suckled them as her own, her heart stirred by a primal bond that transcended blood. Raised in the wild, amidst the whispers of the forest and the ancient songs of the earth, Romulus and Remus grew strong, their spirits unyielding as the mountains, their destiny intertwined with the very fabric of Rome itself. Years passed, and the brothers, forged in the crucible of adversity, emerged as champions of their people, their names whispered in reverence, their deeds etched upon the annals of time. But destiny, like a river's course, is oft fraught with treacherous bends. Ambition stirred within their hearts, a tempestuous fire that threatened to consume them whole. For Romulus, emboldened by visions of grandeur, sought to raise a city, a beacon of civilization amidst the untamed wilderness. And so it was, upon the Palatine Hill, that the foundations of Rome were laid, the soil stained with sweat and sacrifice, the echoes of hammer and chisel ringing through the ages. But the bond of brotherhood, once unbreakable, now strained beneath the weight of ambition and pride. In a moment of madness, amidst the clash of swords and the cries of men, fratricide stained the earth, a crimson testament to the fragility of mortal bonds. Yet, from the ashes of tragedy, a phoenix rose, for Rome, like her founders, was forged in the crucible of strife. And so, Romulus, with a heavy heart and eyes cast skyward, ascended to the heavens, where he became a god, immortalized in the annals of legend.
3/3/202424 minutes, 57 seconds
Episode Artwork

Taking a few Latin words and etymologizing them in a sultry tone (ASMR-like)

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
1/26/202421 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Words Derived from "Phylax": A Journey into Guardianship

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 The Greek word "phylax" (φύλαξ), meaning "watcher, guard, sentinel, guardian, keeper, protector," has woven its way into the very fabric of the English language, offering us a rich tapestry of words relating to protection, observation, and defense. Let's delve into some of these fascinating linguistic gems: Direct Derivatives: Phylactic: (adjective) Protective, preserving, tending to guard against disease or harmful influences. (e.g., Phylactic measures implemented during a pandemic) Aphylaxis: (noun) The absence of natural defenses against disease or pathogens. (e.g., Immunodeficiency disorders cause aphaxia) Prophylaxis: (noun) Preventive measures taken to protect against disease or infection. (e.g., Vaccinations are a form of prophylaxis) Phylactocarp: (noun) A type of fruit with a tough outer covering that protects the seeds inside. (e.g., Walnuts are phylactocarps) Phylactolaematous: (adjective) Describing a group of aquatic mosses with protective capsules enclosing their reproductive organs. Extended Family: Protectorate: (noun) A country under the protection of another, usually more powerful, country. (e.g., The British Protectorate of North Borneo) Sheriff: (noun) A high-ranking law enforcement officer in a county or region. (Etymology: Old English "scirerefa," meaning "shire-reeve" - guardian of the shire) Philanthropy: (noun) The love of humanity, manifested in charitable acts. (Etymology: "philos" - loving, "anthropos" - human) Phylar: (noun) A leader of a tribe or clan, often associated with military duties. (e.g., In ancient Sparta, the Phylarchoi led the Moirai) Phylary: (noun) A tribe or clan, especially in ancient Greece. (e.g., The Athenians were divided into phylai) Fiancé(e): (noun) A person to whom one is engaged to be married. (Etymology: French "fié(e)," from Latin "fidare" - to trust) Spy: (noun) A person employed to secretly obtain information on an enemy or rival. (Etymology: Old French "espier," possibly from Latin "specere" - to look) Metaphorical Extensions: Safeguard: (verb) To protect or keep something safe from harm. (Metaphor: A guard standing before a safe) Shelter: (noun) A place providing protection from danger or bad weather. (Metaphor: A roof sheltering people from the rain) Vigilance: (noun) The state of keeping watchful and alert. (Metaphor: A sleepless guard vigilant against enemies) Defend: (verb) To protect someone or something from attack or harm. (Metaphor: A warrior defending a castle) Etymology in Action: Phylactic: The "k" at the end is a remnant of the Greek suffix "-ikos," meaning "of or relating to." Therefore, phylactic translates to "of or relating to a guard or protector." Philanthropy: The word combines "philos" (loving) and "anthropos" (human), literally meaning "love of humanity." This reflects the underlying principle of caring for and protecting one's fellow humans. Sheriff: The journey from "phylarch" to "sheriff" shows how language adapts over time. The Old English "scirerefa" directly translates to "shire-reeve," showcasing the historical role of a sheriff as the guardian of a shire (an administrative division).
1/21/20247 minutes, 54 seconds
Episode Artwork

Cunning Odysseus | The conclusion to a ten-year war

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
1/20/202422 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

With a New Year comes a new Q&A

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
1/6/202457 minutes, 49 seconds
Episode Artwork

It’s either one day, or it’s day one

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Artwork credit goes to one of my amazing supporters and individuals I tutor. One of my homie g’s! @godlover aka. Leo Hardt ❤️
12/30/202319 minutes, 16 seconds
Episode Artwork

A random episode etymologizing a list of random English words!

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 acrobat From the word akri (άκρη — “tip” or “edge”) and the verb vaino (βαίνω — “to walk”), an acrobat is someone who walks on the edge, often on tiptoe. cemetery A lot of Greek words used in English like to disguise themselves as Old French or Latin. Don’t let looks deceive you, though: This example actually comes from the Greek word koimame (κοιμάμαι — “to sleep”), which is also the root of another word, koimitirion (κοιμητήριο — “dormitory”). Is it creepy, then, that we call our final places of rest “dormitories for the dead”? Perhaps. cynicism The word "cynicism" comes from the Greek word "kynikos," which means "dog-like." This is because the Cynics, a school of ancient Greek philosophy, were known for their simple, ascetic lifestyle and their outspoken criticism of social conventions. They were often compared to dogs, who were seen as independent and untamed creatures. The Cynics were founded by Antisthenes, a student of Socrates. Antisthenes believed that the only true good was virtue, and that everything else was a distraction. He argued that people should live in accordance with nature, which meant rejecting material possessions, social status, and even family ties. The most famous Cynic was Diogenes of Sinope. Diogenes lived in a barrel and begged for food. He was known for his sharp wit and his willingness to challenge conventional wisdom. He once famously told Alexander the Great to "get out of my sun," when the king came to visit him. The Cynics were a minority movement, but they had a significant influence on later philosophers, such as the Stoics and the Epicureans. Their ideas about virtue, simplicity, and independence continue to be relevant today. democracy Ahh, good old democracy. Combining demos (δήμος — “people”) and kratos (κράτος — “power”), the meaning of this quintessential Greek word used in English is simply put: power to the people!
12/20/202325 minutes, 5 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Myth of Circe - On redemption and growth, even in the most enigmatic and formidable people

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 PREVIEW: In an era where the gods of Mount Olympus held dominion over the cosmos and mortal tales unfolded beneath the watchful gaze of divine entities, the myth of Circe emerged as a haunting saga of sorcery, transformation, and the intricacies of morality. This is the enchanting tale of a sorceress whose name resonates through the corridors of time—a name that evokes both fear and fascination: Circe. Born of the sun god Helios and the nymph Perse, Circe emerged into existence with an otherworldly charm that set her apart from her divine kin. The enchanting beauty that graced her countenance was matched only by her burgeoning mastery of magic—an art she explored with an insatiable curiosity that bordered on the reckless. Circe's abode was the mystical island of Aiaia, a place nestled far from the prying eyes of mortals. Here, she immersed herself in the arcane arts, honing her powers until they surpassed the wildest imaginations of gods and mortals alike. Aiaia became a realm of myth and mystery, where the air crackled with the energy of sorcery, and the lush landscapes hid secrets known only to its sorceress mistress. As Circe delved deeper into the secrets of magic, her powers grew exponentially, and her fame, or infamy, spread across the divine realms. She became known for her ability to transform those who trespassed upon her island, turning men into beasts and unraveling the very fabric of their existence. It was this reputation that garnered the attention of the hero Odysseus and his crew, whose ill-fated journey would become entwined with the destiny of Circe. Odysseus, a mortal hailed for his cunning and courage, sailed the wine-dark seas on his epic quest to return home after the fall of Troy. His fame reached the ears of Circe, and as the hero and his crew approached Aiaia, the sorceress's intrigue mingled with a sense of foreboding. Here, on the cusp of destiny, the threads of their fates intertwined. The sailors, unaware of the perils that awaited them, landed on Aiaia's shores, enticed by the allure of the island's mystique. Circe, weaving her spells with an ethereal grace, welcomed the strangers into her palace. Yet, beneath the veneer of hospitality, a darker purpose stirred within her. For Circe, whose powers had elevated her to a status transcending mortal and divine, harbored a deep-seated loneliness that yearned for connection. As the feasting and revelry unfolded within the opulent halls of Circe's abode, the sorceress subtly infused her potions into the drinks of Odysseus's crew. In an instant, the unsuspecting men underwent a grotesque transformation, their human forms contorting into bestial shapes. The once-proud sailors found themselves imprisoned in the bodies of swine. Odysseus, immune to Circe's enchantments through divine intervention, stood alone amid the bewildering scene. The hero, resolute and undeterred, confronted Circe in her palace, demanding the restoration of his men. Circe, unaccustomed to defiance, found herself both intrigued and challenged by the mortal's audacity..........
12/19/202325 minutes, 40 seconds
Episode Artwork

Evaluating Psyche's "Hubris" - Was it Hubris or was it human endeavor that rewarded her to dance amongst the cosmos!

It's explicit (this time around) because I say the word "ass" in it. Quite a Ramble-Bamble if I do say so myself. My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
12/18/202327 minutes, 48 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Greek root "OSMO-" | Etymologized!

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Osmosis Definition: The movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration. Etymology: Derived from the Greek "osmos" (push) and the suffix "-osis" (a process or condition). Osmolarity Definition: The concentration of solute particles in a solution, expressed in osmoles per liter. Etymology: Combined from "osmos" and the suffix "-ity" (condition or quality). Osmoregulation Definition: The control of water and solute balance in an organism, allowing it to adapt to different environments. Etymology: Derived from "osmos" and the Latin word "regulare" (to regulate). Osmometer Definition: A device used to measure the osmotic pressure of a solution. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "metron" (measure). Osmophile Definition: An organism that thrives in environments with high osmotic pressures, such as those with high sugar concentrations. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "philein" (to love). Osmophyte Definition: A plant adapted to environments with high osmotic pressure, often found in saline or arid conditions. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "phyton" (plant). Osmotherapy Definition: Medical treatment involving the adjustment of osmotic pressure in bodily fluids to manage conditions like edema. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "therapeia" (healing). Osmolality Definition: A measure of the concentration of osmotically active particles per kilogram of solvent in a solution. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the suffix "-lality" (state or condition). Osmundine Definition: A substance derived from the root of the cinnamon fern, used in traditional medicine. Etymology: Named after the fern genus "Osmunda," likely due to its use in osmotic regulation. Osmoclasis Definition: The breaking of cell walls due to changes in osmotic pressure. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "klasis" (breaking). Osmotaxis Definition: The directed movement of an organism in response to a gradient of osmotic pressure. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "taxis" (arrangement). Osmophoresis Definition: The movement of particles through a membrane driven by osmotic pressure. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "phoresis" (conveyance). Osmophagy Definition: The ingestion of substances by a cell or organism through osmosis. Etymology: Combines "osmos" with the Greek word "phagein" (to eat).
12/16/202320 minutes, 11 seconds
Episode Artwork

The myth of Eros and Psyche - A reading of my own writings and discussion thereafter on the many aspects embedded within the story of unparalleled love

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 PREVIEW: In the time when gods and goddesses walked the celestial realms, and mortals marveled at their divine presence, there existed a tale that transcended the boundaries between the ethereal and the earthly—a narrative woven with threads of love, envy, and the trials of the human soul. This is the myth of Eros and Psyche, an allegory that delves into the intricacies of love, the fragility of trust, and the enduring strength of the human spirit. In the opulent city of a mortal king, there lived a woman of unparalleled beauty named Psyche. Her radiance surpassed that of the goddess Aphrodite herself, stirring the envy and ire of the divine mistress of love and beauty. The citizens of the kingdom, captivated by Psyche's allure, began to neglect the worship of Aphrodite, whose temples stood abandoned as the people's adoration shifted toward the mortal maiden. Unable to tolerate this affront to her divine ego, Aphrodite concocted a plan to humble the mortal who dared eclipse her glory. She summoned her son, Eros, the mischievous god of love, and bade him to unleash an arrow of irresistible desire into Psyche's heart, causing her to fall in love with a creature so wretched and vile that her beauty would be squandered on an unworthy match. However, as Eros took aim with his enchanted arrow, he beheld Psyche's radiant countenance and was himself ensnared by the potent magic. Struck by his own creation, Eros found himself madly in love with the mortal beauty he was supposed to condemn. Succumbing to a forbidden passion, he concealed his true identity from Psyche, visiting her only in the shadowy veil of night. Psyche, blissfully unaware of her divine suitor, lamented her loneliness, longing for a true love that would fill her days with joy and companionship. Rumors of her unearthly beauty reached far and wide, and suitors from distant lands sought her hand, only to be turned away by the king, who feared offending the gods. As the years passed, Psyche's solitude grew, and her kingdom fell into despair. Desperate to appease the gods and secure a worthy match for his daughter, the king consulted an oracle, seeking guidance on how to appease the divine wrath that loomed over his kingdom. The oracle, attuned to the cosmic currents, revealed a dire prophecy: Psyche was destined to marry a monster so terrifying that even the bravest of men would cower at the sight. The king, burdened by the weight of destiny, resigned himself to the inevitable and made the somber announcement that Psyche would be wedded to a monstrous suitor.
12/15/202341 minutes, 10 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Myth of Orpheus and Eurydice - On love and the profound nature it has on us

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 In the hallowed annals of Grecian myth, a tale unfolds like a haunting melody, resonating through the corridors of time—an eternal aria that weaves the delicate strands of love, loss, and the ineffable power of music. At the heart of this narrative is the ethereal union of Orpheus, a virtuoso of the lyre whose strings bespoke divine harmony, and Eurydice, a nymph whose radiance rivaled the luminescence of the heavens. In the verdant meadows of Thessaly, where zephyrs whispered secrets through the rustling leaves, Orpheus and Eurydice, enraptured by the symphony of their affection, pledged vows that resonated like celestial notes in the grand opus of their existence. Their love was a garden of rare blossoms, each petal infused with the fragrance of immortal passion, and their days were an idyllic sonnet inscribed upon the parchment of time. Yet, as fate, that capricious muse, would have it, shadows cast their ephemeral gloom upon this idyll. Eurydice, frolicking in sylvan glades, became ensnared in the coils of an untimely demise—a serpent's venomous kiss stealing her from the terrestrial realm. Orpheus, bereft of the light that danced in her eyes, felt his world crumble like a lyre's string severed by an unseen hand. Yet, in the crucible of sorrow, a tempest of resolve stirred within the heart of Orpheus. Armed with the lyre bestowed upon him by Apollo, whose heavenly strains could charm the very cosmos, he embarked upon a pilgrimage to the somber realm of Hades—a journey where even the boldest mortals dared not tread. The Stygian waters whispered their ominous counsel, yet Orpheus pressed on, guided solely by the resolute melody of his undying devotion. As the Gates of Hades swung ajar, Orpheus, with lyre in hand, addressed the Lord and Lady of the Underworld. His music, a celestial lament that traversed the chasms of despair, moved even the hearts of the stoic gods. Hades, with a visage stern as granite, granted Orpheus an audience, moved by the pathos woven into the very fabric of his verses. With dulcet strains that plucked at the soul's most profound chords, Orpheus implored Hades and Persephone to release Eurydice from the shadowy abyss. His melody, a poignant plea that reverberated through the vaults of Tartarus, touched the very essence of existence. Even the Furies, with their feral countenances, were momentarily stilled by the harmonic sorcery that encapsulated the chamber of judgment. And so, the gods relented, offering a celestial reprieve—but with a caveat cast in the solemnity of divine decree. Orpheus, granted the chance to reclaim his beloved, was admonished not to gaze upon her until they ascended to the luminous embrace of the upper world..........
12/10/202312 minutes, 54 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Myth and Moral Implications of Theseus and the Minotaur - Applied both classically and within modernity

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 The Story of Theseus and the Minotaur The story of Theseus and the Minotaur is one of the most famous myths in Greek mythology. It tells the tale of a young Athenian hero who slays a fearsome monster, freeing his people from a terrible curse. The story begins with King Minos of Crete, who was angered by the Athenians for the murder of his son, Androgeus. In revenge, Minos demanded that the Athenians send him a tribute of seven young men and seven young women every nine years. These youths were to be sacrificed to the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth, a vast and confusing maze built by the craftsman Daedalus. One year, Theseus, the son of King Aegeus of Athens, volunteered to be one of the tributes. He was determined to slay the Minotaur and free his people from the curse. When Theseus arrived in Crete, he was met by Ariadne, the daughter of King Minos. Ariadne had fallen in love with Theseus and she agreed to help him. She gave him a ball of thread, which he could use to find his way through the Labyrinth. Theseus entered the Labyrinth and followed the thread. He eventually found the Minotaur and fought the monster to the death. He killed the Minotaur with his sword and escaped from the Labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. Theseus and Ariadne fled Crete and sailed back to Athens. They were greeted as heroes and Theseus was crowned king. He married Ariadne and they ruled Athens together for many years. The Moral Implications of the Myth The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur has a number of moral implications. It teaches us that courage, strength, and determination can overcome even the greatest challenges. It also teaches us that love and friendship can be powerful forces for good. In classical antiquity, the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur was used to promote the idea of civic duty. Theseus was seen as a model citizen who was willing to sacrifice himself for the good of his people. The myth also served as a warning against the dangers of tyranny. King Minos was seen as a tyrannical ruler who imposed his will on others through violence and fear. The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur is still relevant today. It teaches us that we should never give up hope, even in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds. It also teaches us that we should always stand up to tyranny and injustice. How the Myth Applies to Modernity The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur can be applied to a number of modern-day issues. For example, it can be seen as a metaphor for the fight against terrorism. The Minotaur can be seen as a symbol of terrorism, while Theseus can be seen as a symbol of the people who fight against terrorism. The myth teaches us that we can overcome terrorism if we are brave, strong, and determined. The myth can also be applied to the fight against other forms of injustice, such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The Minotaur can be seen as a symbol of these forms of injustice, while Theseus can be seen as a symbol of the people who fight against them. The myth teaches us that we can overcome injustice if we are brave, strong, and determined. The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur is a powerful story that has been told for centuries. It is a story of courage, strength, determination, love, and friendship. It is a story that can inspire us to overcome any challenge, no matter how great.
12/9/202337 minutes, 34 seconds
Episode Artwork

Case Usage in Latin - Isolating a single word and translating in order to understand why we have cases and how it changes the structure of a singular noun in ten different ways

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Nominative (Subject) capr-a “The goat” (Comes at beginning of sentence) Genitive (Possessive Noun) Capr-ae (TAKE STEM FROM) “The goat’s” or “Of the goat” Dative (Indirect Object) caprae “to/for the goat” Accusative (Direct Object) capram “The goat” (comes after the verb) Ablative (Preposition-al Phrase) caprā “by, with, from, near, alongside the goat” Capra, -ae (f);  A - Nominative Singular Form Ae - Genitive Singular Form Identify the noun’s genitive singular form. (-ae) Remove the genitive singular ending to find the noun’s stem. (capr-) Add endings from the noun’s declension to decline it in a certain case and number.
12/7/202319 minutes, 45 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing the etymology, history, and definitions of - Dislocation, subluxation, and some medical terms associated with bodily injuries

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Dislocation: Etymology: The word "dislocation" comes from the Latin roots "dis-" meaning "apart" or "away," and "locare" meaning "to place." The combination implies a displacement or separation. Definition: According to Google, dislocation refers to the displacement of a bone from its normal position in a joint. Subluxation: Etymology: "Subluxation" originates from the Latin "sub-" meaning "under" or "below" and "luxatio" meaning "a dislocation." Together, it signifies a partial or incomplete dislocation. Definition: Google defines subluxation as a partial dislocation of a joint, where the articulating surfaces are still partially in contact. Luxation: Etymology: The term "luxation" comes from the Latin "luxatio," meaning "a dislocation" or "displacement." Definition: Luxation is a synonym for dislocation, referring to the complete displacement of a bone from its joint. Reduction: Etymology: The word "reduction" has Latin roots; "re-" means "back" or "again," and "ducere" means "to lead" or "to bring." In the context of dislocations, reduction means bringing the displaced bones back to their normal position. Definition: According to Google, reduction is the restoration of a dislocated or fractured body part to its normal position. Articulation: Etymology: "Articulation" comes from the Latin "articulatio," derived from "articulus" meaning "a joint" or "a small part." Definition: In the medical context, articulation refers to the connection between bones, especially at a joint. Capsule: Etymology: The term "capsule" has Latin origins, from "capsula," meaning "a small box" or "container." Definition: Google defines a capsule as a membranous structure enveloping a body part, such as a joint capsule surrounding a joint. Labrum: Etymology: "Labrum" comes from the Latin word for "lip." Definition: In the medical context, a labrum refers to a lip-like edge, often used to describe the cartilaginous rim around the edge of a joint socket. Meniscus: Etymology: The term "meniscus" has Greek roots; "meniskos" means "crescent" or "little moon." Definition: Google defines a meniscus as a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structure in certain joints, especially the knee. Sprain: Etymology: "Sprain" has uncertain origins but might be related to the Middle English word "spreyne," meaning to cause a sudden jerk or twist. Definition: According to Google, a sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments, often caused by a sudden twist or wrench.
12/3/202314 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 21 - The Perfect Passive System

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 ________________________________________________________ There are two rules which you should remember here:  (1) the present-tense passive second person singular in third conjugation has a short -ĕ-, producing the ending -ĕris, whereas the future has a long -ē-, producing an -ēris ending; (2) the present passive infinitive in third and third-io conjugations has no -r-. It ends in just -i, as in duci (“to be led”).  Disicupuli, here we reap the rewards of our hard work earlier. Back in Chapter 18, we covered the present passive system of third, third-io and fourth conjugations, so there's no new grammar to learn here.  There's a mandatory long mark in the future second-person singular of the passive system in third conjugation, where the long -ē- in the future form -ēris has a mandatory long mark in order to distinguish it from the present, -ĕris. So for example:  agĕris means “you are driven” as opposed to agēris, ”you will be driven.” But that's virtually the only complexity you'll face here.  And here's one last thing to remember about the passive system in these conjugations: the infinitive in third and third-io conjugations is signaled by an ending of just one letter, -i, producing forms like agi, “to be driven,” or iaci, “to be thrown.”  It's important to distinguish these from a very similar-looking form, the first singular perfect active, so that duxi (“I have led”) needs to be carefully distinguished from duci (“to be led”), grammatically very different forms.  Similarly, agi (“to be driven”) must be carefully distinguished from egi (“I have driven”) and in third-io, iaci (“to be thrown”) versus ieci (“I have thrown”).
12/3/20238 minutes, 24 seconds
Episode Artwork

Ramblin', touching on random thoughts, and diving into my Podcast "Wrapped"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
12/2/202340 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 19: Perfect Passive Verbs

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Send me a voice message!: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 There are two important rules to remember here:  (1) the fourth principal part of the verb ─ that is, the perfect passive participle ─ represents past action and is translated “having been whatevered,” for example, “having been praised”;  (2) the perfect passive participle plus a form of the verb “to be” is the formula for creating a perfect passive finite verb.  Compared to the present passive, the perfect passive is remarkably straightforward. It involves only two verb elements: the fourth principal part of the verb, plus a form of esse (“to be”). The fourth principal part, which finally comes into play after all the chapters you’ve been memorizing it, is actually the perfect passive participle: “perfect” meaning that the action has already been completed, and “passive” meaning it imports a sense of the passive voice.  When it stands alone, it’s translated as “having been (whatever-the-verb-is)” ─ “loved,” for instance: “having been loved.”  The other component of the perfect passive is a form of the verb “to be.” If that form is a finite verb like sum or es, it makes the perfect passive form a finite verb form. Thus, the form of the verb “to be” imports person and number ─ if it’s sum, it’s first person singular; if it’s es, it’s second person singular, and so on. Also, to a certain extent, it imports tense as well, because by changing the tense of the verb “to be” you can change the tense of a perfect passive verb within the perfect passive system ─ that is, make it perfect, pluperfect or future perfect, according to which tense of sum you use.  Therefore, forming a perfect passive verb is quite simple: See, you take the: (1) perfect passive participle and then...  (2) you add a form of the verb “to be”: sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt.  Because of this, every perfect passive verb form will always consist of two separate words. There’s that! Let’s do an example to get a better idea: How about we take the fourth principal part of the verb amo, amo, amare, amavi, amatus (This is how it would appear if you were to look up “amo” in a latin dictionary.) Now, let’s add a form of the verb “to be” (how about “sum”) and ta-da, you have the perfect passive of “love”: amatus sum, which translates literally as “I have been loved.”  As for the perfect passive participle, there are two elements to note when looking at its construction. First of all, its tense value. Because the participle represents an action that has occurred in the past, it translates “having been whatever-ed,” in the case of amatus, “having been loved.” So when a perfect passive participle like amatus is added to the present tense of the verb “to be” (sum), it means literally: sum (“I am”) amatus (“having been loved”). In other words, “I exist right now (sum) in a state in which I was once the object of someone’s affection (amatus).” Where Latin puts the past-tense value in the participle “having been loved,” English puts that same past value in the form of the verb “to be”: “I have been.” Thus, “I am having been loved” is the grammatical equivalent of “I have been loved.” An example of a Latin verb, amo, conjugated in the perfect passive:  amatus, -a, -um sum; “I have been loved,”  amatus, -a, -um es; “you have been loved”  amatus, -a, -um est; “he/she/it has been loved” amati, -ae, -a sumus; “we have been loved,”  amati, -ae, -a estis; “y’all have been loved”  amati, -ae, -a sunt; “they have been loved”
11/30/202317 minutes, 15 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 19 - The Fourth Declension

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Spotify Support: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 Lesson 20: Fourth Declension  There is one important rule to remember here:  (1) Fourth declension contains u-stem nouns which are almost all masculine in gender.   Fourth declension is Latin's u-stem declension in which almost all the nouns are masculine in gender. Ironically, the one major exception is probably the most commonly used fourth-declension noun, manus, manūs, f., meaning “hand.”  This declension is unique to Latin. Among Indo-European languages, there really isn't anything exactly like it. Seen from the long view linguistically, it was a short-lived attempt by the Romans to create a distinctive u-stem declension, and the experiment didn't turn out well. By historical standards, fourth declension didn't last long. As early as the fourth century CE, fourth-declension forms were beginning to be subsumed into second declension, and by the end of the classical age the declension had begun to disappear altogether.  Unfortunately, even though it wasn’t used all that much within the classical age, it was still a fully active form, so you have to know it (I know…)Here are the endings for fourth declension:  -us -ūs, -ūs -uum -ui -ibus -um -ūs  -u -ibus  Notice how you can’t escape the strong presence of -u-. It dominates eight of the ten forms, producing what has to be the most distinctive genitive plural ending in Latin: -uum.  But if you think of memorizing the fourth declension endings with the formula: the base ending in -u-, plus the third declension endings added on. Looking at it that way can save you some time memorizing endings.  Fourth declension also includes a few neuter nouns. Here are the endings: -u -ua -us -uum -u -ibus -u -ua -u -ibus.  And here's a fourth declension neuter noun fully declined:  cornu cornua cornūs cornuum cornu cornibus cornu cornua cornu cornibus  Note: there are no mandatory long marks here.  The Ablative of Separation The term “ablative” denotes “separation” in Latin: ab- means “from”; -lat- means “carry, go.” Thus, the original use of the ablative was to indicate where something came from. Other uses like means and objects of prepositions developed later. In other words, the ablative of separation shows the oldest, the original, use of the ablative. The ablative of separation naturally occurs with verbs that have a built-in sense of separation, like the verb careo which means “lack,” for example, pecuniā careo, “I lack money,” literally “I am separate from money.” Notice the lack of any preposition in this construction. So when a word in the ablative has no preposition and its meaning denotes that two things are apart from each other ─ for instance, “me” and “money” ─ then that use of the ablative is called “the ablative of separation.” 
11/22/202317 minutes, 48 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 18 - The Present Passive System

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Spotify Support: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 ________________________________________________________ There are three important rules to remember here:  (1) the subject is acted upon in a passive sentence;  (2) the letter ‘r’ is the most common indicator of the passive voice in the Latin present tense system;  (3) passive verbs expect agents.  Ok, let’s start with the basics. Passive is a voice. It’s the opposite of active. Simple. I could say it also complements the “yin” to active’s “yang,” but I don’t care much to do so. Anyways, in essence, what the passive voice does is move the action of the verb backwards toward the subject rather than forward toward a direct object. Conversely, active verbs move the action of the verb from the subject toward a direct object. Thus, in principle, passive verbs do not take direct objects. In English, passive verb forms typically involve some form of the verb “to be,” such as:   “I am praised,” which is passive, vs. “I praise,” which is active.  “ we were warned,” which is passive, as opposed to “we warned,” which is active.   “they will be held,” which is passive, as opposed to “they will hold,” which is active.  Note: It’s important in English to recognize that when “be” is added to a verb form, it doesn’t always make the verb passive. The addition of a form of the verb “to be” can also make the verb continual.  Here’s how to tell those forms apart: a “be” form, combined with a verb that has a participle ending “-ing,” is active, whereas a “be” form, combined with a verb that has a participle ending “-ed,” is passive.  For example: “I am praising” which is active, vs. “I am praised, being praised” which is passive; or the active form “we were warning” vs. the passive form “we were warned.” There’s a very easy way to be certain you’re dealing with a passive form and not a continual form: if it makes sense to add “by someone” after the verb form.  Now let’s look at how the passive voice works grammatically. We’ll start with an active sentence: “Students study Latin.” If we take the active verb “study” and we make it passive by adding the verb “to be” and adding “-ed” to the end of the verb with the result that “study” becomes “is studied,” then turn the direct object of the active sentence “Latin” into the subject of the passive sentence, we end up with the passive sentence “Latin is studied.” Notice it means the same thing: Latin is being studied. But it leaves one thing out: who is doing the studying? If you want to include that in the passive sentence, you must take the subject of the active form (“students”), put it after the passive verb (“is studied”), and append “by” to the front of “students.” The result is: “Latin is studied by students.” The grammatical term for “by students” is the agent. We’ll chat more about that later.  Notice that, while both sentences say the same thing, the action of the verb runs in exact opposite directions.  In the active sentence, it moves from left to right, from the subject to the direct object.  But when the verb is changed to passive, the action runs right to left, toward the subject and from the agent.  Verbs that don't take direct objects are called “intransitive.”  Just like English, Latin also has intransitive verbs, of which one major subset is linking verbs. Remember, linking verbs take predicates, not direct objects. Therefore, they can't be made passive. There's no direct object to be converted into the subject, a.k.a. you can't be “be-ed.” 
11/22/202326 minutes, 6 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part Three of the Ramble-Bambles | Addressing questions from Instagram followers

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Spotify Support: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
11/18/202324 minutes, 10 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part Two of the Ramble-Bambles | Addressing questions asked from Instagram followers

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Spotify Support: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
11/18/202322 minutes, 38 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part One of the Ramble-Bambles | Answering questions from Instagram followers

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 My Ko-fi: https://ko-fi.com/rhetoricrevolution Spotify Support: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
11/18/202336 minutes, 2 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the Greek root "hyper-" (ὑπέρ) = "over," "above," "beyond," or "excessive"

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 1. Hyperactive:    - Definition: Excessively or abnormally active.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (over, above) + "active" (from Latin "activus," meaning active). 2. Hyperbole:    - Definition: Exaggerated statements or claims not meant to be taken literally.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (beyond, over) + "bole" (throwing, casting) from the Greek word "bolḗ," originally related to throwing, hence exaggeration. 3. Hypercritical:    - Definition: Excessively or unreasonably critical.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "critical" (from Latin "criticus," meaning able to judge). 4. Hyperextend:    - Definition: To extend a joint or limb beyond its normal or healthy range of motion.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (beyond) + "extend" (from Latin "extendere," meaning to stretch out). 5. Hypermarket:    - Definition: A large retail store that offers a wide variety of products, typically including groceries and other goods.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (above, beyond) + "market" (from Latin "mercatus," meaning a place of trade). 6. Hyperplasia:    - Definition: An abnormal increase in the number of cells or tissues in an organ.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "plasia" (from Greek "plásis," meaning a molding or forming). 7. Hyperthermia:    - Definition: Abnormally high body temperature, often caused by illness or environmental factors.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (above, beyond) + "thermia" (from Greek "thermē," meaning heat). 8. Hyperlink:    - Definition: A reference or navigation element in an electronic document that links to another location.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (over, above) + "link" (referring to connecting one element to another). 9. Hyperrealism:    - Definition: A style of art or literature that depicts details with such precision that it appears more real than reality.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "realism" (from Latin "realis," meaning real). 10. Hyperopia:    - Definition: A vision condition, also known as farsightedness, where distant objects are seen more clearly than close ones.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (beyond) + "opia" (from Greek "ops," meaning eye). 11. Hyperglycemia:    - Definition: High levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood, often associated with diabetes.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "glycemia" (from Greek "glukus," meaning sweet or sugar). 12. Hyperbolic:    - Definition: Exaggerated or overemphasized in a way that goes beyond reality.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (beyond) + "bolic" (from Greek "ballein," meaning to throw). 13. Hyperdrive:    - Definition: A fictional propulsion system in science fiction that allows spacecraft to travel at faster-than-light speeds.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "drive" (referring to the mechanism that powers a vehicle). 14. Hypernationalism:    - Definition: An extreme form of nationalism characterized by an excessive devotion to one's own nation.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "nationalism" (from Latin "natio," meaning nation). 15. Hyperurbanization:    - Definition: The rapid and excessive growth of cities and urban areas.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "urbanization" (from Latin "urbanus," meaning relating to the city). 16. Hypercritical:    - Definition: Excessively or unreasonably critical.    - Etymology: "Hyper" (excessive) + "critical" (from Latin "criticus," meaning able to judge).
11/14/202327 minutes, 33 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin with Modernity | Legal Terminology - Translated and explained

My links: My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827 TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 1. Ab Initio - From the Beginning Translation: From the beginning Definition: Used to describe a situation that is valid and binding from the start, or that has always been in effect. Etymological Definition: Latin, "from the beginning". 2. Actus Reus - Guilty Act Translation: Guilty act Definition: A guilty act or omission that is the basis for criminal liability. Etymological Definition: Latin, "guilty act". 3. Ad Litem - For the Suit Translation: For the suit Definition: Used to refer to a person appointed to represent another in a legal action. Etymological Definition: Latin, "for the suit". 4. Ad Nauseam - To the Point of Nausea Translation: To the point of nausea Definition: Used to describe an action or argument that is repeated to the point of tedium or disgust. Etymological Definition: Latin, "to the point of nausea". 5. Amicus Curiae - Friend of the Court Translation: Friend of the court Definition: A person or organization that is not a party to a case, but is permitted to offer information to the court that may help in deciding the case. Etymological Definition: Latin, "friend of the court". 6. Caveat Emptor - Let the Buyer Beware Translation: Let the buyer beware Definition: A principle that the buyer, rather than the seller, is responsible for checking the quality and suitability of goods before purchase. Etymological Definition: Latin, "let the buyer beware". 7. Corpus Delicti - Body of the Crime Translation: Body of the crime Definition: The actual components of a crime that must be proven in order to establish guilt. Etymological Definition: Latin, "body of the crime". 8. De Facto - In Fact Translation: In fact Definition: Used to describe a situation that is true in practice even if it is not officially recognized. Etymological Definition: Latin, "in fact". 9. Ex Post Facto - After the Fact Translation: After the fact Definition: Used to describe laws or regulations that are applied retroactively. Etymological Definition: Latin, "after the fact". 10. Habeas Corpus - You Have the Body Translation: You have the body Definition: A legal action used to bring a person before a court to determine if they are being detained lawfully. Etymological Definition: Latin, "you have the body".
11/11/202311 minutes, 15 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 17 - Relative Pronouns and Clauses

My patreon: ⁠https://www.patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 There is one rule ─ one very important rule! ─ to remember in this lesson.  (1) A relative pronoun agrees with its antecedent in number and gender but not case; it derives its case from its use in its own clause. OK, kiddies! Vacation's over. Hope you enjoyed the rest that you had with Chapters 14-16. "Clause" refers to a dependent or subordinate thought or sentence which is embedded inside another thought or sentence. (nice…) When the clause is called subordinate or dependent, it means it can't stand alone grammatically. Therefore, if I said "When I'm in bed,…" ─ yeah, you kinda go like “Well, what?,” because it's not a full thought. “Although you tried,” …? While I think I know where you're going with that, just to be safe, you ought to try finishing the grammar … “as they say.” I think you get the point. The presence of subordinating conjunctions like "when, although, as" turn sentences like "I'm home," "You tried," "They say" into clauses which cannot stand alone.  Moving on to the term "relative." So, this term is used for the type of clause we're studying in this chapter, refers to a certain sort of subordinate clause, one which begins with what grammarians call a “relative pronoun.” English has a number of relative pronouns, primarily "who" and "which." But also "what" and "that" can sometimes function as relative pronouns and, as we'll soon discover, in English even the absence of a relative pronoun can indicate the beginning of a relative clause... (double that “nice”…) A relative pronoun is called “relative” because it relates a subordinate thought to a noun outside the relative clause. To put it in more layman's terms (see what I did there?), the entire clause functions as a sort of large, complex adjective modifying that noun, which is called its antecedent, and just like an adjective, the whole relative clause describes or defines that noun. Antecedents get their name from the fact that they tend to cede (“come”) ante ("before") the relative clause that modifies them. Before we take the next step and look at how relative pronouns and antecedents interact, and even how the Latin relative pronoun is formed, let's make certain that you understand the English side of the equation fully, that’s always my modus operandi. English uses its relative pronoun forms (who, which, what) both as relative pronouns and as interrogatives (question words). But while these forms are identical, their grammatical function couldn't be more different.  Interrogative pronouns are used in independent thoughts such as "What are you doing?," where "what" introduces a question that's a full thought, versus "what you are doing" which is not a full thought. It needs an independent sentence to attach to, such as "It is wrong," creating a full thought: "What you're doing is wrong.” There, "what" is functioning as a relative pronoun.  Therefore in English, it's important to ask yourself, whenever you run into "who, which, what," if that "w-" word is introducing a question, and thus part of the main sentence.  If so, it's interrogative, not relative. This is mostly true of Latin as well, and you'll learn very quickly how to tell whether a "w-" word is interrogative or relative from context. 
11/11/202335 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part Two of a HIGHLY Requested Q&A/Ramble-Bamble Episode

My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
10/29/202349 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part One of a HIGHLY Requested Q&A/Ramble-Bamble Episode

My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
10/29/202338 minutes, 26 seconds
Episode Artwork

Addressing a list of (24) Latin words, their meanings, and a few English derivatives associated with each

My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 aequus [L]; equal | equal, equation ago, acta [L]; do, things done | agent, enact, transact anthropos [G]; man, human | anthropology, misanthrope ars [L]; art | artist, artifact brevis [L]; short | brevity, abbreviate canto [L]; sing | chant, cantor caput [L]; head | captain, decapitate clino [L]; to lean, bend | incline, decline cognito [L]; know | cognizant, recognize copia [L]; plenty | copy, copious credo [L]; believe | credible, incredulous culpa [L]; blame | culpable, culprit dominus [L]; a lord, master | dominate, dominion duco [L]; lead | abduct, introduce fido [L]; to trust, believe | confide, infidel fundo, fusum [L];pour, thing poured                               effusive, transfusion genus [L];kind, origin | generic, congenital holos [G]; whole | holistic, catholic jungo [L]; join | junction, conjugal lego, lectum [L]; read, thing read                                      intellect, legible locus [L]; a place | local, dislocate loquor [L]; speak | eloquent, loquacious medius [L]; middle | mediate, mediocrity missio [L]; a sending | emissary, mission
10/24/202314 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Latin's irregular verb - "fero, ferre" | suffer, proliferate, transfer, Lucifer, and more!

Transfer: Definition: To move or convey from one place, person, or thing to another. Etymology: From the Latin "transferre," which combines "trans" (across) and "ferre" (to carry). Latin derived this term from the Greek "pherein." Infer: Definition: To deduce or conclude information from evidence or reasoning. Etymology: Derived from the Latin "inferre," which combines "in" (into) and "ferre" (to carry). The Latin term was influenced by the Greek "pherein." Suffer: Definition: To endure or experience pain, distress, or hardship. Etymology: Comes from the Latin "sufferre," which combines "sub" (under) and "ferre" (to carry). The idea is carrying a burden or enduring something. Conference: Definition: A meeting where people gather to discuss or exchange information. Etymology: From the Latin "conferentia," which combines "con" (together) and "ferre" (to carry). The idea is people coming together to carry or exchange ideas. Prefer: Definition: To choose or favor one thing over another. Etymology: Derived from the Latin "praeferre," which combines "prae" (before) and "ferre" (to carry). It implies carrying something before others. Reference: Definition: A mention or citation of a source or authority in support of an argument or statement. Etymology: From the Latin "referentia," which combines "re-" (back) and "ferre" (to carry). It means carrying something back, like information or a citation. Ferry: Definition: A boat or ship used to carry people and goods across a body of water. Etymology: Derived from the Old English "ferian," which means "to carry" or "to convey." It has Germanic roots related to the Greek "pherein." Lucifer: Definition: A poetic term for the morning star (Venus) or the Devil (Satan). Etymology: From Latin "lucifer," which combines "lux" (light) and "ferre" (to carry). It refers to the light-bringer or the morning star. Sufferance: Definition: The state of enduring pain, hardship, or inconvenience. Etymology: Derived from "suffer" with the suffix "-ance," indicating a state or condition. Proliferate: Definition: To reproduce or multiply rapidly. Etymology: From the Latin "proliferare," which combines "proles" (offspring) and "ferre" (to carry). It means to carry forth or produce offspring abundantly. Defer: Definition: To postpone or delay something. Etymology: Comes from the Latin "differre," which combines "dis" (away) and "ferre" (to carry). It implies carrying something away from the current moment. My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92
10/23/202311 minutes, 2 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 16 - Third-Declension Adjectives

My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/connerlyliam/ Podcast | Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=b871da6367d74d92 There are two important rules to remember here:  (1) Third-declension adjectives are i-stem. That means their ablative singulars will end –i, their genitive plurals will end -ium, and neuter nominative and accusative plurals will end -ia.  (2) Third-declension adjectives can be one-, two-, or three-termination.  Just like some Latin nouns, some Latin adjectives are third-declension. That is, they have third-declension endings: *, -is, -i, -em, -e, and so on. But unlike third-declension nouns, third-declension adjectives are all i-stem. They have a genitive plural ending -ium, a neuter nominative and accusative plural ending -ia, and an ablative singular ending in all genders, -i.  Here’s an example of a third-declension adjective: brevis, breve, meaning “short.”          M/F I-Stem               Neuter I-Stem brevis breves breve brevia brevis brevium    → brevis       brevium brevi brevibus brevi brevibus brevem breves/-is breve brevia breve brevibus brevi brevibus Some third declension adjectives have two nominative singular forms, for instance, fortis, forte. Fortis is the masculine and feminine form; forte is the neuter. This is called a two-termination adjective.   Other third-declension adjectives, especially those which have -r at the end of their base, have three nominative singular forms, such as acer, acris, acre. These are called three-termination adjectives.  For any adjectives which are two- or three-termination, all you do is drop the –is from the nominative singular feminine form and you have the base.  Take, for example, the two-termination adjective fortis, forte. Fortis is the nominative singular feminine form; drop the –is and you can see that the base is fort-.  For a three-termination adjective, do the same. So, for acer, acris, acre: the nominative singular feminine form is acris; drop the –is, and you can see that the base is acr-.  For one-termination adjectives, as we just noted, the genitive singular is required. So, for instance, the base of potens is potent-, which you get when you drop the –is ending from the genitive singular form.  Let’s do an exercise where you get to practice matching third-declension adjectives with first/second-declension nouns, or nouns of any declension as a matter of fact. First, we’ll determine the declension of the noun;  Secondly, its number, gender, and case;  Thirdly, what is the correct third-declension ending for that same number, gender, and case, then add that ending on to the base dulc- to create the proper form of dulcis that would agree with that particular noun.  Let’s start simple: puella.  What declension is it? First, of course!  And what is its case, number and gender? Nominative singular feminine.  So now let’s look on the chart. What’s the nominative singular feminine ending in third declension? It’s -is. So the proper form of dulcis that agrees with puella is dulcis. Dulcis puella, or puella dulcis ─ in either case, “sweet girl.”  Next word: corpus.  What declension and gender is it? Be careful! Not all -us forms are second declension masculine nominative singular. In case you missed it, that was a hint. It’s third declension neuter. So what does that make its case and number? It’s nominative singular, and because it’s neuter, it’s also accusative singular.  So what is the nominative or accusative singular ending in third-declension? Look on the chart. Hello, it’s right there! Yes! It’s -e. So what would be the proper form of dulcis? That’s right, dulce. Corpus dulce, “sweet body.” 
10/21/202320 minutes, 43 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing a ton of words in the English dictionary associated with the Greek root "PATHOS" - Referring to "feeling, emotion, suffering"

"Pathos" is a Greek word that means "suffering" or "experience." Here are some words that are derived from it: Empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. Etymologically, "empathy" comes from the Greek "empatheia," which means "passion" or "state of emotion." Pathetic: evoking feelings of pity, sadness, or sorrow. Etymologically, "pathetic" comes from the Greek "pathetikos," which means "capable of feeling." Pathology: the study of diseases and their effects. Etymologically, "pathology" comes from the Greek "pathologia," which means "study of suffering." Apathy: lack of interest, enthusiasm, or emotion. Etymologically, "apathy" comes from the Greek "apatheia," which means "freedom from suffering." Sympathy: feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else's misfortune. Etymologically, "sympathy" comes from the Greek "sympatheia," which means "feeling with someone else." Antipathy: a strong feeling of dislike or aversion towards someone or something. Comes from the Greek roots "anti" (against) and "pathos." Pathetic fallacy: a literary device in which inanimate objects are given human emotions or characteristics to reflect the mood of a scene. Comes from the Greek roots "pathos" and "phallos" (deception). Empathetic: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. Comes from the Greek roots "em" (in) and "pathos." Pathogen: a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease. Comes from the Greek roots "pathos" and "gen" (to produce). Pathognomonic: a symptom or sign that is characteristic of a particular disease. Comes from the Greek roots "pathos" and "gnomon" (indicator). Sympathetic: showing or feeling concern for someone else's suffering. Comes from the Greek roots "syn" (together) and "pathos." Apathetic: showing or feeling no interest, enthusiasm, or concern. Comes from the Greek roots "a" (not) and "pathos."
10/13/202319 minutes, 20 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 15 - The Imperfect Tense and the Ablative (Point in time)

There are three important rules to remember in this chapter: (1) the imperfect tense shows incomplete ─ that is, unfinished, repeated, or habitual ─ action in the past; (2) the sign for the imperfect tense in Latin is -ba-; (3) the ablative of time shows a point in time and uses no preposition. This is the shortest chapter and, assuming you’ve done your work in the past, the easiest lesson we’ll cover in all of beginning Latin. Since we’ve already incorporated the imperfect tense in earlier chapters, there’s nothing new to learn here. Here are the imperfect-tense endings in Latin. I’m sure ─ or at least I hope ─ you remember them. Adding these endings to a verb base creates a sense of “was doing, used to do, kept on doing.” Remember, please do not use “did” to translate the imperfect yet. Here is a chart showing one verb belonging to each of the four-and-a half conjugations in the imperfect tense. The ablative of point in time. Latin uses the ablative case without a preposition to express the specific point in time at which an event occurred, for instance, tempore illo, “at that time,” or horis paucis, “in a few hours.” To indicate the same, English uses “in, within, on, at.” We’ll later learn that the accusative case is used also without a preposition to express duration of time, for example, tempus illud, “for ─ meaning ‘for the duration of’ ─ that time.” The relationship between the ablative and the accusative here is comparable to the relationship in verbs between the perfect and the imperfect tense: a completed action (a point in time) versus an ongoing action(duration of time). Expressed geometrically, it is the same relationship between a point and an open-ended line segment. And that’s it. That’s the end of the grammar for this chapter. How beautiful is life!  My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]
10/12/202312 minutes, 39 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 14 - I-Stem Nouns

There are three important rules to remember in this chapter:  (1) There are three types of third declension i-stem nouns.  The first is parisyllabic in which the nominative singular (ending in - is/-es) and genitive singular have the same number of syllables.  The second is monosyllabic in which the nominative singular has one syllable and two consonants at the end of its base. And the third type of i-stem includes neuter nouns with nominative singular forms ending in -e, -al, or -ar.  (2) All i-stem nouns have an extra -i- in the genitive plural producing an ending -ium. Neuters also have -i in the ablative singular and -ia in the nominative and accusative plural.  (3) English “with” corresponds with three uses of the ablative: the ablative of means which requires no preposition in Latin, the ablative of manner which can use cum or no preposition, and the ablative of accompaniment which uses cum always.  I-stem nouns are a sub-category of third-declension nouns. The differences between regular third-declension and i-stem third-declension nouns are relatively minor, as in most cases, they just an additional -i-. Only in one form does the -i- displace the original third-declension ending -e and replace it with an -i. Here is the regular formation of third declension masculine and feminine nouns.       M/F    I-Stem --- - es --- --- -is - um    →           ---        - ium -i - ibus --- ----em -es --- --- -e -ibus --- --- Neuter nouns exhibit a few more differences. Here is a chart reminding you about the regular formation of neuter third-declension nouns, and here are the changes that are effected when a third-declension neuter noun is i-stem.     Neuter         Neuter I-Stem --- - a --- - ia - is - um --- - ium - i - ibus → --- --- --- - a --- - ia - e - ibus - i --- You can see that not only is the genitive plural changed to -ium, but there is an -i replacing the -e in the ablative singular, and the nominative and accusative plurals are -ia. But, identifying third-declension i-stem neuter nouns is much easier than masculine and feminine ones.  There are three nominative singular endings which identify whether a third-declension noun is i-stem or not. If the nominative singular ends in... -e  -al   -ar  Then the neuter noun is i-stem. It’s that simple.  Now with that being done, let’s turn our attention to ablatives. The first of them is the ablative of means which uses no preposition and shows the tool or instrument used to perform some action, for instance, “with a sword, with a rake, with his hands.” Here are some examples in Latin:  labore, “by means of work” or “with labor”;  armis, literally “by means of arms,” meaning “with weapons”;  viā “by means of the road,” that is, “by using the path.”  The second use of the ablative is the ablative of manner which most often uses the preposition cum. It shows how something happened ─ with honor, with speed, with humor ─ the prepositional phrase being equivalent to an adverb. So, for example:  cum ratione means “with reason,” that is, “reasonably”;  cum sapientiā means “with wisdom,” that is, “wisely”;  cum animis means “with courage,” that is, “courageously/bravely.”  The third use of the ablative is the ablative of accompaniment which must always have cum. It shows who also participated in some activity. Thus it is best translated in English as “along or together with.” Here are three Latin examples of the ablative of accompaniment:  cum puellis, meaning “together with the girls”;  cum Cicerone, “with Cicero”;  cum isto malo, “with that bad man.”  Besides their formation it’s often easy to tell the difference among these three uses of the ablative by looking at the type of noun used as the object of cum (if there is a cum).  My links: My patreon: ⁠patreon.com/user?u=103280827⁠ TikTok: ⁠https://www.tiktok.com/@mrconnerly?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc⁠ Email: ⁠[email protected]
10/11/202322 minutes, 59 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 13 - Reflexive and Intensive Pronouns

Email: [email protected] There are four important rules to remember in this chapter:  (1) reflexives reflect the subject;  (2) reflexive forms must match the subject in person and number;  (3) English -self or -selves forms can refer to action which either affects oneself, in which case they’re reflexive, or is done in person in which case they’re intensive;  (4) English intensives tend to follow directly what they refer to; English reflexives, as a rule, never do.  Reflexive Pronouns.  Reflexive pronouns are pronouns that refer back to the subject… Let's just say English overmarks these forms. For instance, we say “I praise myself.” Think about it for a second. You don’t have to say “-self.” You can just say “I praise me,” and it means the same thing. So we overmark the reflexive by saying “myself,” when we could just say “me.” In the same way we say “You praise yourself,” you could simply say “You praise you,” and it would mean the same thing…………….. Only in the third person is the “-self” form actually required! When you think about it, in any sentence and context it is clear who “I” or “you” is, but it is not always clear who “he” is. That’s because there can be two different “he’s” being referred to, but you and I always know who we are when we’re speaking with each other.  So unlike “me” and “myself” or “you” and “yourself,” “him” and “himself” have to be differentiated, for instance, “He praises him,” meaning “The poet praises the king.” Here the “him” is non-reflexive because it is not the poet praising himself. To make the sentence reflexive, you change “him” to “himself” and you change the thought of the sentence entirely. “He praises himself” means the poet is praising the poet, not the king. The same is true of the third person plural, for example, “They praise them,” meaning “The poets are praising the kings.” There “them” is non-reflexive, but “They praise themselves” (“The poets are praising the poets”), there “themselves” is reflexive. Where English overmarks reflexives, Latin does not. There’s my long-winded explanation to further my cause in eradicating  Therefore, if reflexive pronouns reflect the subject, they can be in any of the following cases:   the genitive: “He longed for praise of himself.”   the dative: “We gave a gift to ourselves.”   the accusative: "You love yourself too much.”   and the ablative: “They can see good in themselves.”  The intensive pronoun is more complicated, and unnecessarily so, than Latin. (Ha!) English intensive pronouns use the same form as their reflexive counterparts ─ “himself,” “herself,” “itself” and so on ─ which means in English you can’t look at a pronoun that’s intensive or reflexive and tell which one it is, based only on the appearance of its form.  Consider the following: “He himself went to the forum.” What does “himself” mean here? Think about it. It means he went there in person. He didn’t send one of his slaves or one of his friends. He went there and did his business on his own. As opposed to “He went to the forum and bought food for himself.” Here “himself” is reflexive because it refers back to “he,” the subject. In other words, he did it in his own behalf.  Now consider this sentence: “You yourself praised yourself.”  The first “yourself” is intensive. “You yourself” means you did it in person.  The second “yourself” is reflexive.  “Praised yourself” means the action of praising was brought back on “you,” the subject. Note: that in English the intensive and reflexive pronoun forms are the same. They’re both “yourself.”  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/30/202349 minutes, 35 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part Two of a Q&A celebrating over 10,000 TikTok followers and the exponential growth of the Rhetoric Revolution in general!

Email: [email protected] 1. That’s so absolutely not fair! You touched on this in your video but maybe you could go into depth as what all you had to deal with at that other school that shelled out reprimands like candy? Also, what do you mean that you only have a roughly 20 min lunch? Gracielin 2. Have you considered starting a youtube channel so you can post longer videos instead of the 10 min ones on tiktok? More than 14 people inquired about this 3. After that vid going over music, we need more! Jared 4. What are your PR's for the big three lifts? Caleb 5. You said in a TikTok that you were a stem major in college so what got you into teaching Latin specifically? khalia  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/23/202328 minutes, 45 seconds
Episode Artwork

Part One of a Q&A celebrating over 10,000 TikTok followers and the exponential growth of the Rhetoric Revolution in general!

Email: [email protected] 1. What role did Latin play in the development of modern Romance languages, and how has it influenced contemporary vocabulary and terminology? Ayla Edger 2. You mentioned living in CO and WA, what states have you lived in and what’s your favorite? Lottiie 3. Fav greek mythology story? Azalea  4. Can you discuss Dante's inferno with an emphasis more so on concerning the development of language within the text? Gg --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/23/202353 minutes, 48 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing a gamut of words derived from the Greek suffixes - "-EMIA" (ἐμός) and "-LYSIS" (λύσις)

Emails: [email protected] [email protected] Anemia: Etymology: Greek "an-" (without) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: A condition characterized by a deficiency of red blood cells or hemoglobin, leading to reduced oxygen-carrying capacity. Leukemia: Etymology: Greek "leukos" (white) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: A group of blood cancers characterized by the abnormal production of white blood cells. Hypoglycemia: Etymology: Greek "hypo-" (under) + "glykys" (sweet) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: A condition marked by abnormally low levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Hyperglycemia: Etymology: Greek "hyper-" (over) + "glykys" (sweet) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: A condition characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Uremia: Etymology: Greek "ouron" (urine) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: A toxic condition resulting from the accumulation of waste products in the blood, typically due to kidney dysfunction. Polycythemia: Etymology: Greek "polys" (many) + "-kutos" (cell) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: An increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood, often leading to thicker blood. Bacteremia: Etymology: Greek "bakterion" (small rod or staff, referring to bacteria) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream, often indicating infection. Septicemia: Etymology: Greek "septikos" (putrefying) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: A serious bloodstream infection usually caused by bacteria and their toxins. Hematemia: Etymology: Greek "hematos" (bloody) + "-haima" (blood) Origin: Greek Definition: The presence of blood in vomit. Hydrolysis: Etymology: Greek "hydro" (water) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: A chemical reaction in which water is used to break down a compound into its constituent parts. Electrolysis: Etymology: Greek "electro" (electricity) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The process of using an electric current to drive a chemical reaction, often used for hair removal and metal purification. Autolysis: Etymology: Greek "auto" (self) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The self-digestion or breakdown of cells by their own enzymes after death. Proteolysis: Etymology: Greek "proteo" (protein) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The enzymatic breakdown of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids. Thrombolysis: Etymology: Greek "thrombos" (clot) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The process of dissolving a blood clot using medication or enzymes. Photolysis: Etymology: Greek "photo" (light) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The breakdown of chemical compounds through the action of light. Osmolysis: Etymology: Greek "osmo" (push) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The rupture or dissolution of cells due to changes in osmotic pressure. Cytolysis: Etymology: Greek "cyto" (cell) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The destruction or bursting of cells, often due to osmotic imbalances. Fibrinolysis: Etymology: Greek "fibrin" (a protein involved in blood clotting) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The process of breaking down fibrin clots in the bloodstream. Necrolysis: Etymology: Greek "nekros" (dead) + "-lysis" (decomposition) Origin: Greek Definition: The decomposition or disintegration of dead tissue. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/16/202334 minutes, 3 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | The Perfect Tense

There are three important rules to remember: (1) The perfect tense represents action completed in the past;  (2) Latin perfect tense forms are often marked by changing the present verb base in any of the following ways: adding -v- or -s- to the end of the present verb base, lengthening the vowel of the base, and/or reduplicating the first consonant of the base;  (3) Perfect-tense verb forms in Latin have only two parts: a base and an ending.  In Latin grammar, “perfect” means literally “completed in the past.” This is the counterpart, in many ways the opposite, of the imperfect, the tense we’ve already studied which shows unfinished or incomplete action in the past. Perfect action is action that happened once and was finished, such as, “I was taking a shower” -- that’s imperfect -- “when the phone rang.” It rang once. I got out of the shower. I picked up the phone. It stopped ringing. So the action was completed in the past. That’s perfect.  The perfect tense also has another important connotation. It often represents past action that has immediate bearing on the present. For instance, “But I have done my homework, sir,” which is crypto-student code for “Stop asking me for it. Here it is,” vs. “Uh, well, I was doing my homework when umm… aliens invaded and probed my brain which is why I didn’t get it done.” “Was doing” represents action that was unfinished in the past and a perfect example of an imperfect excuse.  The prefect system in Latin includes three tenses:  the perfect The pluperfect The future perfect The perfect is best represented by the English modal, or tense marker, “has” or “have,” also “did;” the pluperfect, meaning literally “more perfect,” represents an action that is past in relation to the past -- don’t panic. We’ll get to that in a second -- is the counterpart of the English tense marker “had;” and the future perfect represented by English “will have.”  PERFECT Amavi: “I have loved” Amavimus:“we have loved” Amavisti: “you have loved”  Amavistis: “y’all have loved”  Amavit: “he/she/it has loved” Amaverunt: “they have loved” Please note that all perfect tense verbs in Latin, no matter what conjugation they belong to, form the same way: take the perfect base, add these endings, and you have any perfect-tense, finite verb in Latin. These forms can also be translated as “did” as in “I did love,” a form that is used very often in English when the speaker wants to negate the verb, as in, “I did not love.” Or another possible translation is the simple past: “I loved,” “you loved,” and so on. For right now, please don’t use that translation for the perfect tense. It can be confused with the imperfect. When translating the perfect tense, use only “have/has” or “did.” To form a pluperfect verb, the equivalent in English of “had,” Latin uses these endings:  -eram, -eras, -erat… Recognize these? I hope. This is the imperfect of the verb “to be” here used as an ending in the perfect system creating a finite pluperfect verb: Amaveram: “I had loved” Amaveramus: “we had loved” Amaveras: “you had loved” Amaveratis: “y’all had loved” Amaverat: “he/she/it had loved” Amaverant: “they had loved” Finally the third of the perfect tenses, the future perfect, is formed by taking the perfect base and adding the endings -ero, -eris, -erit, -erimus, -eritis, -erint. It looks a lot like the future of the verb “to be” but there’s one big change: it’s not -erunt in the third-person plural but -erint.  To form a full finite verb in the future-perfect tense, take the base and add the future perfect endings we just recited so the future-perfect of the verb amo would be: Amavero: “I will have loved” Amaverimus: “we will have loved” Amaveris: “you will have loved” Amaveritis: “y’all will have loved” Amaverit: “he/she/it will have loved” Amaverint: “they will have loved” emails: [email protected] [email protected] --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/10/202326 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the beauty behind the word "Nostalgia" and words associated with its deeper meaning and feeling

I. Nostalgia: Definition: Nostalgia refers to a sentimental longing or affectionate yearning for the past, often accompanied by a sense of sadness or wistfulness. It's a complex emotional state triggered by memories and experiences from one's earlier life. Etymology: The word "nostalgia" has its roots in Greek. It combines "nostos," meaning "return home," and "algos," meaning "pain" or "ache." It was originally coined in the late 17th century by a Swiss physician named Johannes Hofer to describe a condition observed in Swiss mercenaries who became homesick while stationed abroad. At the time, it was considered a medical disorder related to homesickness. II. Reminisce: Definition: To reminisce is to recall or talk about past experiences, often in a fond or nostalgic manner. It involves the act of remembering and sharing memories. Etymology: "Reminisce" comes from the Latin word "reminiscere," which means "remember" or "think over again." This word emphasizes the act of revisiting past memories. III. Vintage: Definition: Vintage refers to something of high quality or lasting popularity from the past. It is often associated with items or products from a specific era, typically 20 to 100 years old, which have retained their appeal. Etymology: The word "vintage" has its roots in the Latin word "vindemia," which means "grape harvest" or "wine." Over time, it came to be associated with the age and quality of wine, and eventually, it was extended to describe other valuable and old items. IV. Retro: Definition: Retro refers to a style, fashion, or design that imitates or is reminiscent of the past, often with a sense of nostalgia. It involves adopting elements from earlier eras and incorporating them into contemporary contexts. Etymology: "Retro" is a shortened form of "retrospective," which comes from the Latin word "retrospectus," meaning "look back" or "backward view." It reflects the idea of looking back in time and revisiting past styles or trends. V. Memories: Definition: Memories are the recollections of past events, experiences, or information stored in one's mind. They can evoke feelings of nostalgia when revisited. Etymology: The word "memory" comes from the Latin "memoria," which means "faculty of memory" or "remembrance." VI. Antique: Definition: An antique is a collectible or valuable item that is typically over 100 years old. Antiques are often sought after for their historical and nostalgic significance. Etymology: "Antique" is derived from the Latin word "antiquus," meaning "ancient" or "old." It emphasizes the age and historical value of the item. VII. Melancholy: Definition: Melancholy refers to a deep, pensive, and sometimes sorrowful feeling, often associated with nostalgia and a sense of loss. Etymology: The word "melancholy" has its roots in ancient Greek, where "melas" means "black" and "kholē" means "bile." In ancient medicine, it was believed that an imbalance in the body's humors, including black bile, could lead to a melancholic disposition. VIII. Sentimental: Definition: Sentimental describes a strong emotional attachment or affection for something due to personal or nostalgic reasons. It often involves a heightened emotional response. Etymology: "Sentimental" is derived from the French word "sentiment" and the Latin word "sentire," both of which relate to feelings and emotions. IX. Flashback: Definition: A flashback is a sudden and vivid memory or recollection of a past event, often triggered by a sensory experience or association. It can evoke a strong sense of nostalgia. Etymology: "Flashback" combines "flash" and "back," indicating a sudden return or recollection of a past moment. The term originated in the world of literature and film to describe a narrative device where the story temporarily shifts to an earlier time. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/9/202335 minutes, 1 second
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 11 - Pronouns

“Personal” in grammar means “relating to person,” that is, first, second, or third person. In English, those persons are represented by pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, ya’ll, they. These MUST look familiar as they are forms we’ve already studied in relation to verbs. Now we’ll look at them independently as pronouns. So, how does Latin treat these forms, not as verb endings but as nouns? There is a caveat: they decline through cases as nouns do in Latin, so you have more to memorize.  Remember how we studied that “boy” in Latin goes puer, nominative singular (subject); pueri, genitive singular, “of the boy;” puero, dative singular, “to/for the boy.” Of course you remember that!  Now we’re going to study the Latin equivalent of the pronoun “I” and its comrades do the same ─ in other words, the way Latin says: nominative “I,” genitive “of me,” dative “to me,” and so on; and its second-person counterpart: “you,” “of you,” “to you;” and the third person: “he,” “she,” “it,” “his,” “hers,” “its,” and so on, along with their plural counterparts.  But why would Latin have a nominative singular for “I” and “you” at all. Aren’t those pronouns embedded in the verb? Why would you need to say ego, when amo and video by their very nature indicate first person singular?  These pronoun forms like ego and tu are emphatic. In other words, they’re used to emphasize the subject, not explain what the subject is the way nominative personal pronouns function in English.  In English we have to say “we” if we want to indicate that “we” is the subject, right? But that same information is embedded in every Latin finite verb, that why, in a sentence, if there is no clear Nominative subject, we look to the verb to supply our subject (i.e. “I”, “you”, etc.). So the Romans didn’t use their nominative personal pronouns to explain what the subject is; rather, they used them to emphasize it. For instance, if we said in Latin tune amas? “Are you in love?” In this case, the Latin speaker would be emphasizing the subject, “you,” by including the Latin nominative personal pronoun tu. I can’t leave ego and tu without talking a little linguistics. If linguistics bores you, stick your fingers in your ears for the next two minutes. Because personal pronouns are commonly used forms in Indo-European languages, they reveal some interesting features of the evolution of those daughter languages which developed out of the mother tongue that Latin and English share: Proto-Indo-European. Originally, the Latin word ego and the English word “I” were the same word. Both evolved from a form that looked like ego ─ so Latin actually changed the form of this pronoun very little ─ but in English the inherited -g- transformed at some point into a /kh/ sound. This ended up as a form that sounded like /ik/ which is still the Dutch word for “I,” cf. German ich. English eventually dropped the -k-, lengthened the i-, and we ended up with our first-person singular personal pronoun. The same interchange between -c- and -g- can be seen in our word “cold” and the Latin word gelidus, both from an Indo-European base that means “frozen.” Also, English “kin” and Latin gens come from a single Indo-European word that meant “family.” A comparable pattern of change explains tu in Latin and “thou,” the archaic English form of “you.” Indo-European t- remained as t- in Latin, but in English it evolved into th- ─ thus, tu and “thou.” They were once the same word. You can see the same pattern in the word for “mother:” Latin has mater, English has “mother.” Likewise, the word for “tooth,” where Latin has dentes, English has “teeth.”  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/2/202341 minutes, 10 seconds
Episode Artwork

Mr. Brown's Science Terms, Etymologized! (Unus ex pluribus venire!)

Acceleration – the change in velocity over time Acceleration: The term "acceleration" comes from the Latin word "acceleratio," which means "a hastening." The concept of acceleration as the rate of change of velocity over time was formulated in the context of classical mechanics by Isaac Newton. Newton's second law of motion relates force to acceleration and mass, providing a foundational understanding of how objects change their motion when subjected to forces. Average speed – the total distance traveled by an object, divided by the total time it took the object to travel that distance Average Speed: "Speed" itself originates from the Old English word "spēd," meaning "success, prosperity, good fortune." The concept of average speed has been used for centuries, but its formalization as a mathematical concept likely emerged as a part of the development of classical mechanics during the Renaissance, building on the works of scientists like Galileo and Kepler. Bias – a leaning in one direction or another away from the truth due to an error in design, measurement, or analysis Bias: "Bias" has its origins in the Old French word "biais," meaning "slant, slope." It evolved to connote a particular inclination or prejudice. In a scientific context, the term likely gained prominence with the rise of experimental methodologies and the recognition of errors or influences that could skew results. Centripetal acceleration – anything moving in circular motion Centripetal Acceleration: "Centripetal" comes from the Latin words "centrum" (center) and "petere" (to seek or strive for). The concept of centripetal acceleration was developed as part of the study of circular motion and orbits. It was formalized in the works of Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, who showed that a force directed toward the center of a circle (centripetal force) is required to keep an object in uniform circular motion. Distance – how far something has traveled Distance: "Distance" originates from the Latin word "distantia," meaning "a standing apart." The concept of measuring distance has ancient roots, going back to human's need to navigate and understand their surroundings. Early civilizations developed various units of measurement for distance, which eventually contributed to the modern metric and imperial systems. Motion – when an object changes position over time relative to a reference point, or a reference direction Motion: "Motion" traces its roots to the Latin word "motio," meaning "a moving." The study of motion dates back to ancient Greece, with philosophers like Aristotle pondering the nature of motion. However, it was Galileo and later Isaac Newton who laid the groundwork for a systematic understanding of motion and its relationship to forces. Procedure – a step-by-step description of how to conduct an experiment Procedure: "Procedure" comes from the Latin word "procedere," meaning "to go forward." In the context of scientific experimentation, the term gained prominence with the development of formalized scientific methodologies, particularly during the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Time – how long something takes Time: "Time" is a concept deeply ingrained in human culture and language. Its measurement and understanding have evolved across civilizations, with advancements in timekeeping devices and the development of precise methods for measuring time intervals, culminating in the modern concept of time as a fundamental dimension. Unit – describes what is being measured (e.g. meter, second, gram) Unit: The concept of measurement units has evolved over millennia, with various cultures developing their own systems. Modern scientific measurement units, such as the metric system, have their roots in the Renaissance and Enlightenment periods when efforts to standardize measurements gained traction. Vector – a measurement that includes a magnitude (a number) and a direction Vector: "Vector" comes from the Latin word "vehere," meaning "to carry." --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/26/202332 minutes, 48 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Astronomic terms and disciplines associated along with their scientific and etymological definitions

Physics: Scientific Definition: The study of matter, energy, and the fundamental forces that govern their interactions. Etymology: From Greek "physis" (nature) and "ikos" (related to), meaning related to nature. Chemistry: Scientific Definition: The study of the properties, composition, and behavior of matter. Etymology: From Arabic "al-kīmiyā" and Greek "khemeia" (transmutation), referring to the ancient practice of transmuting base metals into gold. Biology: Scientific Definition: The study of living organisms and their interactions with each other and their environment. Etymology: From Greek "bios" (life) and "logia" (study), meaning the study of life. Geology: Scientific Definition: The study of the Earth's physical structure, composition, and history. Etymology: From Greek "ge" (earth) and "logia" (study), meaning the study of the Earth. Astronomy: Scientific Definition: The study of celestial objects, space, and the universe as a whole. Etymology: From Greek "astron" (star) and "nomos" (law), meaning the laws of the stars. Astrophysics: Scientific Definition: The branch of astronomy that deals with the physical properties and interactions of celestial objects and phenomena. Etymology: "Astro" from Greek "astron" (star) + "physics" from Latin "physica" (natural things),  meaning natural things related to stars. Cosmology: Scientific Definition: The study of the origin, evolution, and large-scale structure of the universe. Etymology: From Greek "kosmos" (world, universe) and "logia" (study), meaning the study of the universe. Quantum Mechanics: Scientific Definition: The branch of physics that deals with the behavior of very small particles and the interactions of matter and energy at the quantum level. Etymology: "Quantum" from Latin "quantus" (how much) + "mechanics" from Greek "mekhanē" (machine), meaning how much machine-like behavior. Relativity: Scientific Definition: Einstein's theory that describes the relationships between space, time, and gravity, including special and general relativity. Etymology: From Latin "relativus" (having relation or reference) and "relatus" (carried back), indicating a sense of comparison. Astrolabe: Scientific Definition: An ancient instrument used to measure the position of celestial objects and determine latitude. Etymology: From Greek "astron" (star) and "lambanein" (to take), meaning to take the stars. Celestial Sphere: Scientific Definition: An imaginary sphere with Earth at its center, used to model the apparent positions of celestial objects. Etymology: "Celestial" from Latin "caelum" (sky) + "sphere" from Greek "sphaira" (ball), meaning sky ball. Equinox: Scientific Definition: The two points in the year when the day and night are approximately equal in length. Etymology: From Latin "aequus" (equal) + "nox" (night), meaning equal night. Solstice: Scientific Definition: The two points in the year when the sun reaches its highest or lowest point in the sky at noon, marking the longest and shortest days. Etymology: From Latin "solstitium" (sun-stopping), referring to the sun appearing to stop and change direction during these points. Eclipse: Scientific Definition: The obscuring of one celestial body by another, such as a solar or lunar eclipse. Etymology: From Greek "ekleipsis" (abandonment) and "ekleipein" (to leave out), referring to the temporary disappearance of a celestial body. Gravity: Scientific Definition: The force of attraction between objects with mass, responsible for the motion of planets and other celestial bodies. Etymology: From Latin "gravitas" (weight) and "gravis" (heavy), referring to the weightiness of objects. Planet: Scientific Definition: A celestial body that orbits a star, is spherical in shape, and has cleared its orbit of other debris. Etymology: From Greek "planētēs" (wanderer), as planets were observed to move against the fixed backdrop of stars. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/20/202327 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing "Bro-Science," while entertaining Exercise, Physiology and Kinesiology NOMENclature

Anatomy: Scientific Definition: The study of the structure and organization of living organisms. Etymology: From Greek "anatome" (ana - up, tome - cutting), referring to the dissection or cutting up of organisms for study. Physiology: Scientific Definition: The study of how living organisms function and the mechanisms that drive their bodily processes. Etymology: From Greek "physis" (nature) and "logia" (study), meaning the study of nature. Kinesiology: Scientific Definition: The study of human movement, including the mechanics, muscular function, and coordination involved in movement. Etymology: From Greek "kinesis" (movement) and "logia" (study), meaning the study of movement. Biomechanics: Scientific Definition: The study of mechanical principles applied to living organisms and their movement. Etymology: From Greek "bios" (life) and "mēkhanē" (machine), meaning the study of the mechanical aspects of life. Muscle Contraction: Scientific Definition: The process by which muscle fibers generate force and shorten in length. Etymology: "Muscle" comes from Latin "musculus" (little mouse) due to the visual similarity of muscles under the skin to moving mice. Isometric Exercise: Scientific Definition: Muscle contraction without a change in muscle length or joint angle. Etymology: "Iso" from Greek (equal) + "metric" from Greek "metron" (measure), meaning equal measurement. Isotonic Exercise: Scientific Definition: Muscle contraction with a change in muscle length and constant tension. Etymology: "Iso" (equal) + "tonic" from Greek "tonos" (tension), meaning equal tension. Hypertrophy: Scientific Definition: The enlargement of muscle fibers due to increased protein synthesis. Etymology: From Greek "hyper" (over) + "trophia" (nourishment), meaning excessive nourishment. Atrophy: Scientific Definition: The wasting away or reduction in size of muscle tissue due to disuse or disease. Etymology: From Greek "a" (without) + "trophe" (nourishment), meaning without nourishment. Aerobic Exercise: Scientific Definition: Physical activity that requires oxygen for energy production over an extended period. Etymology: "Aero" from Greek "aēr" (air) + "bios" (life), meaning life with air. Anaerobic Exercise: Scientific Definition: Physical activity that does not heavily rely on oxygen for energy production. Etymology: "Ana" from Greek "an" (without) + "aēr" (air), meaning without air. Cardiovascular System: Scientific Definition: The system responsible for circulating blood throughout the body, including the heart and blood vessels. Etymology: "Cardio" from Greek "kardia" (heart) + "vascular" from Latin "vasculum" (small vessel), meaning heart and vessels. Skeletal Muscle: Scientific Definition: Muscles attached to bones that allow for movement through contraction. Etymology: "Skeletal" from Latin "sceletus" (skeleton) + "muscle" as mentioned earlier. Flexion: Scientific Definition: Decreasing the angle between two body parts. Etymology: From Latin "flectere" (to bend). Extension: Scientific Definition: Increasing the angle between two body parts. Etymology: From Latin "extendere" (to stretch out). Agonist: Scientific Definition: The muscle primarily responsible for a specific movement. Etymology: From Greek "agonistes" (combatant), referring to someone competing in a contest. Antagonist: Scientific Definition: The muscle that opposes the action of the agonist. Etymology: From Greek "antagonistes" (opponent), referring to someone opposing in a contest. Proprioception: Scientific Definition: The sense of the position and movement of the body. Etymology: "Proprio" from Latin "proprius" (one's own) + "ception" from Latin "capere" (to take), meaning taking hold of one's own. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/19/202339 minutes, 39 seconds
Episode Artwork

Extrapolating Latin and Greek roots in our modern vernacular

1) Facio, Facere, Feci, Factum 2) Opus, Operis 3) Ops, Opis 4) Ergon 5) Labor --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/13/202319 minutes, 14 seconds
Episode Artwork

Mathematics in Language - From Euclidean to Fractals to Calculus

1. Abelian Group: Actual Definition: An Abelian group, named after Niels Henrik Abel, is a group in which the binary operation is commutative, meaning that for all elements a and b in the group, a * b = b * a. Etymological Definition and Derivation: The term "Abelian" pays homage to the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel, who made significant contributions to the theory of equations and group theory. The word "Abelian" is derived from the Latin word "Abelius," signifying Abel's enduring legacy. 2. Euclidean Geometry: Actual Definition: Euclidean geometry, introduced by the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid, is a branch of mathematics that deals with properties, relationships, and measurements of points, lines, angles, and surfaces in the plane and space, based on Euclid's five postulates. Etymological Definition and Derivation: "Euclidean" honors the legendary Greek mathematician Euclid, a beacon of geometrical elucidation. Rooted in the Greek term "Euclides," it resonates with the man's enduring dedication to the exploration of space. 3. Calculus: Actual Definition: Calculus is a branch of mathematics that explores the concepts of limits, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series, enabling the analysis of change and accumulation in various contexts. Etymological Definition and Derivation: "Calculus" emerges from the Latin "calculus," a diminutive of "calx," meaning a small stone used in counting and calculations. It was birthed by minds like Newton and Leibniz, who sculpted this art of calculation to harness the elusive infinitesimal. 4. Topology: Actual Definition: Topology is a field of mathematics that examines the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, including concepts like continuity, convergence, compactness, and connectedness. Etymological Definition and Derivation: "Topology" emerges from the Greek roots "topos" (place) and "logos" (study), a testament to the exploration of spatial relations. Its true essence resides in the intimate scrutiny of shapes' essence beyond rigid measurements. 5. Eigenvalue: Actual Definition: In linear algebra, an eigenvalue of a matrix represents a scalar value that characterizes how a matrix transforms a vector, with the vector only scaling by the eigenvalue during the transformation. Etymological Definition and Derivation: "Eigenvalue" springs from the German "eigen," meaning inherent or characteristic, and "value." It encapsulates the distinct nature of values that a matrix uniquely possesses, much like a signature of its intrinsic behavior. 6. Homomorphism: Actual Definition: A homomorphism is a structure-preserving map between two algebraic structures, such as groups, rings, or vector spaces, that preserves the operations and relationships between elements. Etymological Definition and Derivation: "Homomorphism" finds its roots in the Greek "homos" (same) and "morphē" (form). This term embodies the lofty concept of maintaining similarity, preserving the integrity of structures across mathematical realms. 7. Fractal: Actual Definition: A fractal is a complex geometric shape or pattern that displays self-similarity at various scales, exhibiting intricate detail regardless of the level of magnification. Etymological Definition and Derivation: "Fractal" derives from the Latin "fractus," meaning broken or fractured. Coined by Benoît B. Mandelbrot, this term encapsulates the enigmatic beauty of structures that break free from the linear constraints of Euclidean space. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/12/202316 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 10 - Third-io and Fourth Conjugation Verbs

There are three important rules to remember:  (1) the// thematic vowel in fourth conjugation is -i-; (2) the future tense sign in fourth conjugation is -e- and;  (3) the third-io conjugation resembles fourth conjugation more than third.  The formation of the present tense in fourth conjugation follows the same pattern as the other conjugations: a fourth-conjugation verb base is added a thematic vowel, in this case -i-, and onto that are appended personal endings. Those personal endings are the same we’ve seen in the other conjugations. Though the thematic vowel in fourth conjugation often shows up as a long -ī, nowhere is the long mark mandatory because it does not distinguish one form from another.  The translation of the present tense in fourth conjugation should pose no challenges. It follows the same pattern as the other conjugations: “I come”  “I do come”  “I am coming,” etc.  The imperfect tense in fourth conjugation presents few surprises, too. It uses the tense marker - ba- just like the other conjugations, and to that adds personal endings. The only irregularity of any sort is that fourth conjugation uses a double thematic vowel, -ie-, in the imperfect, but that hardly counts as a surprise given how strong the presence of -i- is at the end of the base in fourth conjugation. Thus, the imperfect in fourth conjugation follows along the lines of  Veniebam (“I was coming,” “I used to come,” “I kept on coming”) Veniebas (“You were coming”) Veniebat (He, She, It was coming), etc. The translation of the imperfect tense in fourth conjugation is also exactly what you would expect from the other conjugations, as you can see.  As for the future, it uses the same tense sign as third conjugation (-e-) and even has the same irregularity in the first person singular where the -e- is replaced with an -a-. However, unlike in third conjugation, the thematic vowel is never lost, resulting in forms like:  Veniam Venies Veniet The other forms in fourth conjugation follow predictable patterns, too.  The imperative mood uses the verb base to which it adds the thematic vowel -i- and no ending to form the singular. The plural uses the ending -te, rendering forms like veni and venite, meaning “come!,” singular and plural.  The fifth and final conjugation in Latin looks on the surface like it’s a blend of third- and fourth conjugation forms. Therefore, it’s called “third-io”. That’s because the first principal part ends -io, as if it were fourth-conjugation, but doesn’t have an -ire infinitive the way fourth-conjugation verbs do, but an -ere infinitive the way third-conjugation verbs do.  So it’s third because of its infinitive, and -io because of its first principal part. Here are three examples of third-conjugation -io verbs:  facio, facere fugio, fugere capio, capere.  But in the third-io conjugation, the balance between third- and fourth-conjugation forms is nowhere near to even. There are far more forms that appear to be fourth-conjugation than third. Let’s look at “fugio”. You can see that it follows the same general pattern as the other conjugations: base plus thematic vowel plus personal endings:  Fugio Fugis Fugit, etc.  The dominance of the -i- thematic vowel makes this conjugation look a lot like fourth, especially since the -i- rarely contracts into other forms. The translation of third-io conjugation verbs in the present tense follows exactly the same pattern as the other conjugations, for example: “I flee,” “I do flee,” “I am fleeing.”  The imperfect tense, where the -ba- tense sign, -ie- double thematic vowel like fourth conjugation, translates “was,” “used to,” “kept on.” Now, the future. Maybe this will be exciting! Look at it: -e- future tense marker, -a- in the first person singular, no thematic vowel -i- lost, translates “will,” “will be.” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/19/202313 minutes, 42 seconds
Episode Artwork

240th Episode Q&A - Only personal questions this time...!

If you want a question featured in the next Q&A, send them here to: [email protected] What is one thing you would never change about yourself? Curly What's something you wish you could erase from your memory forever? thememeden What's your formula for healing up from challenging situations? billy Do you love your future or past more? 065 If you could change one thing in the world, what would that be? jedimasterminman What's your life motto? laymandude What is your definition of success? dudemanbroski What is your purpose in life? livinginthenowthenfuture --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/12/202343 minutes, 16 seconds
Episode Artwork

All about the Gastrointestinal System - Understanding and etymologizing conditions, pathologies, diseases, and afflictions associated with

Acid reflux; Backflow of stomach acid into the esophagus; Refluxus = a flowing back; Latin Appendicitis; Inflammation of the appendix; Appendix = a small, finger-shaped pouch; Latin Barrett's esophagus; A condition in which the lining of the esophagus changes from normal squamous cells to columnar cells; Barrett = named after Norman Barrett, the British doctor who first described the condition; English Celiac disease; An autoimmune disorder that damages the small intestine when gluten is eaten; Celiacus = of the abdomen; Latin Constipation; Difficulty passing stool; Constipatio = a stopping up; Latin Colitis; Inflammation of the colon; Colon = large intestine; Latin Crohn's disease; A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that can affect any part of the digestive tract; Crohn = named after Burrill Crohn, the American doctor who first described the condition; English Diarrhea; Frequent, loose, watery stools; Dia = through, throughly; Greek Diverticulosis; The presence of small pouches (diverticula) in the wall of the colon Diverticulum = a small sac or pouch; Latin Dyspepsia; Indigestion; Dys = bad, difficult; Greek Esophagitis; Inflammation of the esophagus; Oesophagus = gullet; Greek Gallstones; Hard deposits that form in the gallbladder; Gall = bile; Latin Gastritis; Inflammation of the stomach lining; Gaster = stomach; Greek Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); A condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus; Gastro = stomach; Greek Hemorrhoids; Enlarged veins in the rectum or anus; Haemorrhoida = a bursting forth of blood; Greek Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); A chronic disorder that affects the large intestine; Irritabilis = easily irritated; Latin Ulcerative colitis; A chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon; Ulcer = an open sore; Latin --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/11/202328 minutes, 16 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding and etymologizing the bones of the face and head

Frontal bone (Latin: os frontale) - This is the bone that forms the forehead and the roof of the orbits. The word "frontal" comes from the Latin word "frons," which means "forehead." Parietal bones (Latin: ossa parietalia) - These are the two bones that form the sides and top of the skull. The word "parietal" comes from the Latin word "paries," which means "wall." Temporal bones (Latin: ossa temporalia) - These are the bones that form the sides and base of the skull. They contain the middle ear and the temporalis muscle. The word "temporal" comes from the Latin word "tempus," which means "time." Occipital bone (Latin: os occipitale) - This is the bone that forms the back of the skull and the base of the foramen magnum, which is the opening through which the spinal cord passes. The word "occipital" comes from the Latin word "occeps," which means "back of the head." Sphenoid bone (Greek: σφηνοειδές, sphēnoeidēs) - This is a complex bone that forms the middle of the skull. It contains the sella turcica, which is the depression that houses the pituitary gland. The word "sphenoid" comes from the Greek word "σφηνός," sphênos, which means "wedge." Ethmoid bone (Greek: ἔθμον, ethmos) - This is a small bone that forms the roof of the nasal cavity and the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. The word "ethmoid" comes from the Greek word "ἔθμος," ethmos, which means "sieve." Zygomatic bones (Greek: ζυγοειδής, zygoeidēs) - These are the two bones that form the prominence of the cheeks. The word "zygomatic" comes from the Greek word "ζυγον," zygon, which means "yoke." Maxillae (Latin: maxillae) - These are the two bones that form the upper jaw and contain the upper teeth. The word "maxillae" comes from the Latin word "maxilla," which means "jaw." Mandible (Latin: mandibula) - This is the largest bone in the face. It forms the lower jaw and contains the lower teeth. The word "mandible" comes from the Latin word "mandere," which means "to chew." --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/11/202318 minutes, 41 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 9 - Understanding Demonstrative Pronouns and what they really are?

Demonstrative pronouns, like English words “this” and “that,” point at something. They’re often used as adjectives, as in, “this book” or “that tree.” In English, demonstrative pronouns take a different form in the plural: “this” becomes “these,” and  “that” becomes “those” ─ making them one of the few English adjective forms which are different in the singular and plural.  Though they are at heart adjectives, because they so often stand alone, it’s almost better to consider them pronouns. For those of us that need a refresher, a pronoun is a part of speech. It’s usually a small word which represents and stands in place of a noun, for instance, “We were looking for a new house to buy and we found it.” “It” represents and stands in place of the “new house.” Pronouns are some of the most useful forms in language. They allow us not to have to repeat a noun every time we want to mention it.  Demonstratives can function as pronouns as well as adjectives. So, for instance, you can say:  “Let’s move there. That’s a good idea.”  In the second sentence the demonstrative form “that” functions as a pronoun, because it represents and stands in place of the idea of moving “there.” So demonstratives can serve as either adjectives when they modify a noun, or pronouns when they stand alone. Here’s one idea expressed both ways: “I like that thing,” where “that” is an adjective modifying “thing” ─ or you can just say, “I like that,” in which case “that” is a pronoun representing and standing in place of “that thing.” If you haven’t seen this already for yourself, another way to look at this pronoun usage is that the demonstrative pronoun is serving as a substantive, as I’m sure you remember it being an adjective which functions as a noun. And do you remember where Latin substantives get their substance? That’s right, from their gender. English pronouns are the only place where there’s anything corresponding to that practice in our language.  Our pronouns are, in fact, archaic forms retaining grammatical information which our nouns and adjectives have long lost, for instance:  gender: “he,” “she,” “it”;  number: “I” vs. “we,” “you” vs. “y’all,” “he, she, or it” vs. “they”; and even …  case: “he” is nominative, “his” is genitive, “him” is accusative; “she” is nominative, “her” is genitive and accusative; “it” is nominative and accusative, “its” genitive. There’s a fascinating detail here. Notice that “he” has an accusative form “him,” “she” has an accusative form “her,” but “it” does not have a distinctive accusative form. “It” serves as both the nominative and accusative, and that’s because neuter nominatives and accusatives are always the same. Just like Latin, English is an Indo-European language, so it inherited the same tendencies Latin did. And that’s why English doesn’t have a special neuter accusative form! Singular Plural hic, haec, hoc; hi, hae, haec; huius, huius, huius; horum, harum, horum; huic, huic, huic; his, his, his;  hunc, hanc, hoc; hos, has, haec;  hōc, hac, hōc. his, his, his. Closely related to but meaning the opposite of hic is ille, illa, illud, meaning “that” or “those.” As a pronoun, it shares many features with hic.:  Singular Plural ille, illa, illud; illi, illae, illa;  illius, illius, illius; illorum, illarum, illorum illi, illi, illi; illis, illis, illis;   illum, illam, illud; illos, illas, illa;  illo, illā, illo illis, illis, illis. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/10/202320 minutes, 6 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 8 - Understanding the Third Conjugation and all of it's dumb irregularities

Here are two important rules for you to remember:  (1) the thematic vowel in third conjugation is a short vowel; it appears as -i- or -u- in the present and -e- in the imperfect  (2) The tense sign for the future in third conjugation is -e-; the future tense in third conjugation uses no thematic vowel Third conjugation has the most number of irregularities of the four conjugations in Latin. Here is an example of a third-conjugation verb, scribo, which means “write,” conjugated in the present tense:  1) Scribo Scribimus 2) Scribis Scribitis 3) Scribit Scribunt   Notice that the formation of the present tense in third conjugation follows a pattern similar to that seen in first and second conjugation.  Take a third-conjugation verb base add a thematic vowel (Which will be fairly irregular in this conjugation) and to that, append personal endings.  Note: the personal endings are the same as those in first and second conjugation. But unlike the -a- which dominates first conjugation or the strong -e- which dominates second, third uses a short vowel which readily changes form as it encounters different consonants. Here are somethings to consider and think about: So, like we see, it will appear as -i- in the second person and third person singular and the first and second person plural.  In the third person plural it appears as -u- and in the first person singular there is no thematic vowel, the same way the -a- in first conjugation disappears in forms like laudo or amo.  The translation of third-conjugation verbs differs in no way from verbs in first and second conjugation. So there’s no point in rehearsing what you already know. Scribo, for instance, would translate as “I write,” “I am writing,” “I do write;” the other persons and numbers would follow suite within the same paradigm.  Imperfect As for the imperfect tense in third conjugation poses even fewer problems than the present. Just like in first and second conjugation, it uses -ba- as the marker for the imperfect. Thus the imperfect of scribo goes: scribebam, scribebas, etc.  Note that unlike in the present the thematic vowel in the imperfect is -e-. The imperfect tense in third conjugation translates the same way it does in first and second; it denotes an incomplete or repeated action in the past. And therefore scribebam translates as “I was writing,” “I used to write,” “I kept on writing.”  Future Unlike the -bo, -bis, -bit business you are used to from first and second conjugation, third conjugation uses -e- as its future tense marker. This -e- which is easily confused with the second conjugation thematic vowel will present manifold challenges and only goes to demonstrate how important it is to distinguish between second- and third-conjugation verbs.  To make matters only worse, the -e- isn’t used universally. In the first person singular, the future tense marker is -a- rendering a conjugation that looks like:  scribam “I will write,”  scribes “you will write,”  scribet “he will write,” and so on...  And even worse yet, note that this tense marker eats up the thematic vowel. So there’s no thematic vowel at all in third-conjugation future.  But a thematic vowel returns in the imperative mood. The imperative singular in third conjugation uses -e-. So for instance, the imperative singular of scribo is scribe (with a short ĕ) meaning “Write!” But just to be perverse as far as I can tell, the plural uses -i- plus -te the ending you would expect from first and second conjugation, producing scribite, “Y’all write!” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/9/202317 minutes, 57 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing the scientific names of specific muscles in the human body, the etymology and Latin embedded within each, their origins and insertions, and their anatomical functions

Abductor pollicis brevis; Latin for "short abductor of the thumb", Lateral surface of the radius, Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb, Abducts the thumb Abductor pollicis longus, Latin for "long abductor of the thumb", Lateral surface of the ulna, Base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb, Abducts the thumb Adductor brevis; Latin for "short adductor", Pubis, Medial side of the first metacarpal bone, Adducts the thumb Adductor hallucis; Latin for "adductor of the big toe", Pubis, ischium, and femur, Base of the proximal phalanx of the big toe, Adducts the big toe Adductor longus; Latin for "long adductor" Pubis Medial side of the shaft of the femur Adducts the thigh Adductor magnus; Latin for "great adductor", Pubis, ischium, and femur, Medial side of the shaft of the femur, Adducts the thigh Biceps brachii; Latin for "two-headed muscle of the arm", Coracoid process of the scapula and supraglenoid tubercle of the humerus, Radius and bicipital aponeurosis, Flexes the forearm and supinates the forearm Brachialis; Latin for "muscle of the arm", Anterior surface of the humerus, Coronoid process of the ulna, Flexes the forearm Bregmaticus; Latin for "pertaining to the bregma", Frontal bone Skin of the forehead, Elevates the eyebrows and wrinkles the forehead Frontalis Carpometacarpales; Latin for "carpal and metacarpal", Several muscles, Carpal bones and metacarpal bones, Flex, extend, abduct, and adduct the fingers Deltoid; Greek for "triangular", Lateral third of the clavicle, acromion process of the scapula, and spine of the scapula, Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus Abducts the arm Erector spinae; Latin for "erector of the spine", Several muscles, Vertebral column Extends and rotates the spine Flexor carpi radialis; Latin for "flexor of the wrist", Medial epicondyle of the humerus, Base of the second metacarpal bone, Flexes the wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris; Latin for "flexor of the wrist", Ulna, Pisiform bone, Flexes the wrist and ulnar deviates the hand, Flexor digitorum profundus; Latin for "deep flexor of the fingers", Ulna and radius, Base of the distal phalanges of the fingers, Flexes the fingers Flexor digitorum superficialis; Latin for "superficial flexor of the fingers", Middle phalanges of the fingers, Base of the middle phalanges of the fingers, Flexes the fingers Flexor hallucis longus; Latin for "long flexor of the big toe", Tibia and fibula, Base of the distal phalanx of the big toe, Flexes the big toe --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/8/202338 minutes, 45 seconds
Episode Artwork

(A shorter) Q&A - Addressing questions regarding Glyphosate, optimized health, my tattoos, and our state of the world (financially)

Questions Addressed: What is glyphosate? stepsonsteps What is the best diet in order to optimize your health? I know you seem to still be on your journey, but do you have any tips? Thanks in advance! bubadub Why do you cover your tattoos so often when teaching? Are you not allowed to show? Do you not like your tattoos? qwertyuiop How is hyperpalatable food affecting our modern and younger generations? Email me if you have a question that could be addressed in a future Q&A! [email protected] OR [email protected] --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/6/202346 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 7 - Understanding and "fleshing-out" the Third Declension in Latin

Third declension is Latin’s “catch-all” category for nouns. Into it have been put all nouns whose bases end with consonants -- yep, any consonant! That makes third declension very different from first and second declension. First declension, as you’ll remember, is dominated by a-stem nouns like femina and cura. Second declension is dominated by o- or u-stem nouns like amicus or oculus. Because of those vowels, we are given a bit of consistency within those declensions… The same is not true of third declension where one form, the nominative singular, is affected by the fact that its ending -s runs into the wide variety of consonants found at the ends of the bases of third-declension nouns, and the collision of those consonants causes irregular forms to appear in the nominative singular.  That’s the (malus) bad news.  The (bonus) good news is that only one case and number is affected by this, the nominative singular.  All the other case endings begin with vowels, and consonants-running-into-vowels does not create the same kind of problem that consonants-running-into-consonants does.  Thus, after the nominative singular, third-declension forms are regular and predictable.(Yay!) Let’s look at some patterns that are useful in helping you memorize irregular third declension nominative singular forms. If a base ends in -g- or -c-, when it’s combined with a nominative singular ending -s, normally the nominative singular ending will appear as -x, such as rex, regis, meaning “king” or lex, legis, meaning “law,” pax, pacis, meaning “peace,” vox, vocis, meaning “voice,” dux, ducis, meaning “leader,” and lux, lucis, meaning “light.”  If the base ends in -t-, -nt-, or -d- and runs into the -s, most often what will happen is the nominative singular will end in -s, sometimes -ns, such as virtus, virtutis, meaning “courage,” civitas, civitatis, meaning “state,” salus, salutis, meaning “health,” and laus, laudis, meaning “praise.”  If the base ends in -on- or -in- and runs into the -s, it will contract down all the way to the letter -o such as: homo, hominis, meaning “human,” virgo, virginis, meaning “girl,” or the name Cicero, Ciceronis, meaning “Cicero,” the great Roman orator.  If the base ends in -r-, when -s is added, the nominative singular will be -er, as in pater, patris, meaning “father,” mater, matris, meaning “mother,” and frater, fratris, meaning “brother.” 4  If the base ends in -ar- with -s added, it will remain as -ar, as in Caesar, Caesaris, meaning “Caesar” the Roman general, or exemplar, exemplaris, meaning “example.”  If the base ends -or and is a masculine or feminine noun, with -s added it stays as -or, as in labor, laboris, meaning “work,” amor, amoris, meaning “love,” and soror, sororis, meaning "sister.” • If the word is -or or -er and is neuter, with -s added it will change to -us ─ remember there’s no ending being added here so it’s actually a different contraction from amor or labor ─ such as tempus, temporis, meaning “time,” corpus, corporis, meaning “body,” opus, operis, meaning “work,” and genus, generis, meaning “sort” or “kind.”  If the base ends in -it- and -s- is added, the result will be either -es or -ut, as in miles, militis, meaning “soldier,” or caput, capitis, meaning “head.”  If the base ends -ul or -ol and -s is added, the result is either -ul or -ol in the nominative singular, such as sol, solis, meaning “sun,” or consul, consulis, meaning “consul,” a high executive officer in Roman government. This should drive home the point that third declension is a “catch-all” category and, if all these irregularities make third declension seem overly complicated, remember that these irregularities involve only the nominative singular. If these patterns do not help you in memorizing, please feel free to ignore them.  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/5/202325 minutes, 11 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 6 - Sum ("I am") and Possum ("I am able") in the Present, Imperfect, Future

First Person Sum: “I am” Sumus: “We are” Second Person  Es: “You (s) are” Estis: “Y’all are/You (p) are/ You all are” Third Person Est: “He, She, It is” Sunt: “They are” Now let’s look at the imperfect tense of sum. As with the present, the imperfect-tense forms of esse are irregular. They are: Singular Plural First Person Eram: “I was” Eramus: “We were” Second Person  Eras: “You (s) were” Eratis: “Y’all were/You (p) were/ You all were” Third Person Erat: “He, She, It was” Erant: “They were” Notice that all these forms have as a characteristic vowel the letter a. This is the same a that shows up in the -ba- endings of other imperfect verbs. And as with other imperfect verb forms in Latin, the imperfect of the verb “to be” carries the sense of unfinished, repeated, or habitual action in the past, producing the following translations: “I was,” “I used to be,” “I kept on being”; “you were,” “you used to be,” “you kept on being”, “he, she or it was,” … Pretty obvious.  Now let’s look at the future tense of sum which is also irregular. Its forms are:  First Person Ero: “I will be” Erimus: “We will be” Second Person  Eris: “You (s) will be” Eritis: “Y’all will be/You (p) will be/ You all will be” Third Person Erit: “He/She/It will be” Erunt: “They will be” Notice that these forms share a characteristic letter i which is also seen in the -bi- of other future-tense forms. And notice that they also share the same irregularities. The characterizing i disappears in both -bo and ero, and it changes to u in the third person plural -bunt and erunt. Also, just like other future tense forms, the future of the verb “to be” carries the sense of action subsequent to the present: “I will be,” “you will be,” “he will be…” … crazy if we recite all of these forms. First Person Possum: I am able Possumus: We are able Second Person  Potes: You are able Potestis: Ya’ll are able Third Person Potest: He/She/It is able Possunt:They are able … and the infinitive: posse  There’s one minor irregularity here which is really not an irregularity. When “t” runs into “s” in Latin, very often the t will change to an “s” and produce the geminate consonant cluster “ss.” So *pot-sum will turn into possum, *pot-sumus will turn into possumus, *pot-sunt will turn into possunt, and *pot-esse will contract down to posse.  Here is the imperfect tense of possum. Let’s say these forms together: First Person Poteram: I was able Poteramus: We were able Second Person  Poteras: You were able Poteratis: Y'all were able Third Person Poterat: He/She/It was able Poterant: They were able As you can see, it’s a simple compound of the prefix pot- which means “able” attached onto the imperfect tense forms of the verb “to be.” This tense translates the same way all imperfect tenses translate in Latin: “I was able,” “I could”; “you were able,” “you could”; … and so on.  Possum also has a future tense which is, as you can see, the expected combination of pot- + ero. Let’s recite this one together also: First Person Potero: I will be able Poterimus: We will be able Second Person  Poteris: You will be able Poteritis: Ya’ll will be able Third Person Poterit: He/She/It will be able Poterunt:They will be able Let know know if y'all have any questions, comments, concerns, et cetera! Email: ⁠⁠⁠⁠⁠[email protected]⁠⁠⁠⁠⁠ - ⁠⁠⁠⁠⁠[email protected] ⁠⁠⁠⁠⁠ Website: ⁠⁠⁠⁠⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/⁠⁠⁠⁠ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/4/202321 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing interesting words (that you see everyday) and discussing their linguistic history, etymology, and actual definitions

Avocado. The word avocado comes from the Nahuatl word ahuacatl, which means "testicle." This is because the avocado fruit is shaped like a testicle. The Nahuatl word was borrowed into Spanish as aguacate, and then into English as avocado. The word "avocado" is also interesting because it is a false cognate. A false cognate is a word that looks like it has the same meaning in two different languages, but actually has a different meaning. In this case, the Spanish word "aguacate" looks like it has the same meaning as the English word "avocado," but actually means "testicle." Cappuccino. The word cappuccino comes from the Italian word cappuccio, which means "hood." This is because the foam on top of a cappuccino is said to resemble a monk's hood. The word cappuccino was first used in the early 1900s to describe a type of coffee drink that was made with espresso and steamed milk. The word "cappuccino" is also interesting because it is a loanword. A loanword is a word that is borrowed from another language. In this case, the word "cappuccino" was borrowed from Italian into English. Disaster. The word disaster comes from the Italian word disastro, which means "ill star." The word disaster is a compound word, consisting of the Latin words dis (bad) and astrum (star). This is because a disaster was originally thought to be an event that was caused by an unfavorable alignment of the stars. The word disaster was first used in English in the early 1600s. The word "disaster" is also interesting because it has changed in meaning over time. Originally, a disaster was an event that was caused by an unfavorable alignment of the stars. However, the meaning of the word has changed over time, and now it refers to any event that causes great harm or destruction. Handicap. The word handicap comes from the Old English word “handceaft”, which means "hand-craft." The word handicap is a compound word, consisting of the words hand (hand) and cap (to cover). This is because a handicap was originally a physical disability that prevented someone from doing something. The word handicap was first used in English in the 14th century. Jeans. The word jeans comes from the Italian word genova, which means "Genoa." This is because jeans were originally made in Genoa, Italy. The word jeans was first used in English in the 16th century. Salary. The word salary comes from the Latin word salarium, which means "salt money." This is because Roman soldiers were paid in salt. The word salary was first used in English in the 13th century. Trivial. The word trivial comes from the Latin word trivium, which means "three roads." This is because a trivium was a place where three roads met, and it was often associated with unimportant things. The word trivial was first used in English in the 15th century. Whiskey. The word whiskey comes from the Gaelic word uisce beatha, which means "water of life." This is because whiskey was originally thought to have medicinal properties. The word whiskey was first used in English in the 17th century. Smorgasbord (from the Swedish word "smörgåsbord" meaning "bread and butter table"): This word refers to a buffet-style meal that typically features a variety of cold dishes, such as meats, cheeses, and salads. The word "smorgasbord" was first used in English in the early 1900s, and it quickly became popular as a way to describe a lavish feast. Serf (from the Latin word "servus" meaning "slave"): This word refers to a person who is bound to the land and is not free to move about. Serfs were common in medieval Europe, and they were often treated as property by their landlords. The word "serf" is still used today, but it is typically used in a historical context. Malaise (from the French word "malaise" meaning "illness"): This word refers to a general feeling of discomfort or unease. Malaise can be caused by a physical illness, but it can also be caused by emotional or psychological factors. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/3/202330 minutes, 59 seconds
Episode Artwork

Q&A - Addressing personal, embarrassing, and (somewhat) problematic questions within my life, the field of education, and health medicine

For those interested in the beats I made back in high school, here's my SoundCloud (lol!): https://soundcloud.com/theconnman/tracks Let know know if y'all have any questions, comments, concerns, et cetera! Email: ⁠⁠⁠⁠[email protected]⁠⁠⁠⁠ - ⁠⁠⁠⁠[email protected] ⁠⁠⁠⁠ Website: ⁠⁠⁠⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/⁠⁠⁠ Questions addressed: What is the one thing you would change about yourself if you could? loverofwords What are your thoughts on the role of medication in managing obesity now? I forget the name of the drug, but I believe it’s Ozempic?  retrollyiconic What is your most embarrassing moment? panic22 What are your thoughts on the current issue of gender and non-binary situations in public and charter schools? Should we be doing all that we are doing right now such as hormone replacement therapy, gender reassignment surgery, and such other invasive methods to treat these issues when they arise with our kids? What do you think? proudmommiprouddaddi What are your favorite healthy recipes? iceicebby What is your favorite movie? cheznotcheez What type of music do you jive with, brotha?  villiansalwaysbechillin What is your favorite quote? nonamenoname --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/2/20231 hour, 41 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 5 - Understanding the Imperfect & Future Tense in the First and Second Conjugations

There are three important rules to remember:  (1) the tense sign for the future tense is -bi- meaning “will”;  (2) the tense sign for the imperfect tense is -ba- meaning “was” or “were,” “used to,” “kept on,” or “did”;  (3) adjective endings are directional.  The future tense indicates that the action of the verb will take place at some point after the present. The English future tense sign is “will.” “Shall” is no longer used. English inserts the future tense sign, “will,” between the personal pronoun, “I,” “you,” “he,” and the verb base.  For example, “they will love,” “we will warn,” “I will be mistaken.”  Latin does the same except that the verb base plus the thematic vowel precedes the personal ending: -am- meaning “love” -a- the thematic vowel -s the personal ending denoting “you.” The future tense sign, -bi- goes between the base and thematic vowel and the ending, am-a-bi-s, “love will you” literally in that order, meaning “you will love.”  Here are some examples of the future tense in Latin:  vocabimus: “we will call”;  monebit: “he will warn.”  Remember that the elements of a Latin verb come in the reverse order from English verbs.  Latin starts with a base which conveys the meaning, then the tense sign, then the personal ending.  English starts with a pronoun -- the equivalent of the personal ending in Latin -- then the tense sign, then the verb base which conveys the meaning.  The Imperfect Tense The Imperfect Tense in Latin signifies action that was not completed in the past or was repeated or habitual. As such, it best corresponds to English past tense forms like “was doing,” “used to do,” “kept on doing.”  The simple past, “did,” is another translation but don’t use it for now. We’ll talk about that later.  The imperfect tense sign in Latin is -ba- which is placed between the base/thematic vowel and the ending. Note that’s exactly the same position as the future tense sign, isn’t it? Here’s an example of an imperfect verb in Latin:  vocabamus, “we were calling,” or “we used to call,” or “we kept on calling,” or the simple past, “we called,” but I’ve already warned you not to use that. Don’t do it!  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/1/202322 minutes, 39 seconds
Episode Artwork

Q&A Episode - Addressing questions regarding podcasting, favorite books, dealing with autoimmune flare-ups, greatest fears, and social media's dichotomy

Be sure to check out my brother's awesome Sci-Fi fiction novel! Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Ryo-Broken-World-Cycle/dp/B0B4BSMV3F Ryo in the Broken World - by Jacob Connerly About: A dark elf named Ryo and her father journey through an eerie wasteland after the mysterious demise of their world. Ryo and her father search for two things: Food, and for their lost people. Ryo must learn how to survive without magic in a world that has collapsed after "The Break," an enigmatic post-war disaster that scarred reality and led to the disappearance of all but two of the elves. Ryo must traverse a land somewhere between dreams and reality, dodging the dangers left behind by the reckless society that came before her. Throughout it all, a strange and seemingly all-powerful figure creates chaos and torments Ryo and her father. Ryo races to find a way to defeat it before it claims the "Broken World" for itself. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/30/20231 hour, 3 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 4.2 - Understanding the verb "to be" in Latin and the expectations of an intransitive vs. transitive verb

Like many verbs that are very commonly used, the verb “to be” in Latin is irregular. Its forms are:  The infinitive is esse which translates as “To be” Singular               1st) sum →  “I am” 2nd) sumus → “we are” 3rd) es → “you are” Plural 1st) estis → “y’all are/you (p) are/you all are” 2nd) est → “he, she, it is” or “there is”* 3rd) sunt → “they are” *Example: “There is a book you should read,”  If you look at this verb linguistically, the base of sum is es-. You can see this base in the forms es, est, estis and esse.  However, there is a rule in Latin that(!!)  If -s- is followed by a nasal sound -- that is -m or -n -- it becomes su-; thus, sum, sumus, and sunt. The verb “to be” is not only unusual in its formation but also in what grammarians call its “expectation,” in other words, the forms that accompany it or that it predicates. The verb “to be” does not expect a direct object because direct objects receive action and there’s no action in the verb “to be.”  An etymological lesson: The technical term for a verb that does not expect a direct object is “intransitive,” meaning in- “not,” trans- “across,” it- “go”;thus, the verb does not carry action across from a subject to a direct object.  Instead, with the verb “to be” two things are equated. For instance, when you say, “The man is a teacher,” you’re essentially saying “Man equals teacher.” So in place of an accusative direct object the Latin sum expects a nominative predicate. In this case the predicate is nominative because it is being equated with the subject which is nominative. So to go back to our example, “The man is a teacher,” “man” is the subject and “teacher” is the predicate. In Latin this sentence would be vir est magister, where vir is the nominative subject and magister is the nominative predicate. Predicates can be adjectives as well as nouns but in either instance the predicate is nominative.  So one can say, puer est parvus “the boy is small,” or otium est malum, “leisure is evil,” or estis boni “y’all are good,” or if you translate the predicate as a substantive, what we studied before, an adjective functioning as a noun, you could translate it as, “y’all are good men,” or “good people” since masculine gender functions as common gender in Latin. Please note that predicate adjectives agree with the subject in number and gender as well as case whereas predicate nouns agree with the subject only in case because nouns have to maintain their own number and gender. Conversely, adjectives must agree with the noun they go with in number, gender and case. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/29/202316 minutes, 26 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson 4.2 - Understanding Neuter and Substantive nouns in the Second Declension

There are three important rules to remember here:  Neuter nominative and accusative forms are always the same;  An adjective agrees with the noun it modifies in number, gender and case;  A substantive derives its substance from its gender.  Neuter gender Along with masculine and feminine, Latin also has a neuter gender meaning “neither,” referring to how it is neither masculine nor feminine. Thus neuter gender is often applied to things which don’t have a natural gender, words like: “war” bellum, “iron” ferrum, or “danger” periculum. But it’s not as simple as that. There are many exceptions to this rule and thus in Latin things which are masculine in gender are not necessarily always male in nature. The same holds true for the other two genders.  So in Latin it’s not as straightforward as it is in English where “he,” the masculine pronoun, almost always refers to something male or “she,” the feminine pronoun, something female, or “it,” the neuter pronoun, something without gender. In Latin there are many things which we English speakers see as not having natural gender and so we refer to any of these things in the singular as “it,” but in Latin these same things are masculine or feminine. For instance, “penalty” poena is a feminine word, “agricola” farmer is also feminine, as is “memory” memoria; “book” liber is masculine, and “year” annus is too, as is “grief” dolor. Therefore, at the end of the day, gender in Latin is arbitrary and must be memorized for each noun.  Patterns do exist, however, that can aid in memorizing a word’s gender. For instance, first-declension nouns which have -a in their nominative singular are almost always feminine. In the same way, second declension nouns ending in -us in their nominative singular are almost always masculine. As we study other declensions and see patterns which can help in memorizing gender, we’ll point them out. Second-declension neuter nouns. Here are the endings for second declension neuter. Note: the nominative singular ending, -um. In second declension singular, that’s the only difference between masculine and neuter forms. In the plural, there are only two differences: the -a ending found in the nominative and accusative of the neuter. And there is one thing to be very careful of here: the neuter nominative and accusative plural -a ending looks a lot like the nominative singular feminine ending in first declension. Confusing these two endings is an easy mistake to make, but because no Latin noun is both first and second declension, these endings do not actually overlap in any way which just underscores the importance of knowing which declension a Latin noun belongs to. Here’s an example of a second-declension neuter noun: bellum, a word which means “war.” Let’s decline it together:  Bellum, Belli, Bello, Bellum, Bello, Bella, Bellorum, Bellis, Bella, Bellis 2. Substantives are words that are fundamentally adjectives but they function as nouns. Such as the adjective “good.” It can serve as a substantive, that is, as a noun. So, for instance, if you talk about the “goods” in the store, “goods” is a noun meaning “the good things” in the store. The adjective is serving as a noun and that’s a substantive. Similarly, you can talk about a “swift,” a fast-flying bird. Birds are nouns but the word “swift” is at heart an adjective. In English we often show that an adjective is functioning as a substantive by pluralizing it or putting an article in front of it, such as, “electronics,” or “the young and the restless.” So this is how substantives work: you’re reading along in a Latin sentence and you come to an adjective. It doesn’t have a noun to modify. You look at its gender. If the gender is masculine you add “man” or “men” to the translation of the adjective. If the adjective is feminine, you add “woman” or “women,” and if it’s neuter, “thing” or “things.” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/28/202323 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson Three - Understanding, delineating, and forming nouns of the First and Second Declension (Masc. & Fem.)

Where the first declension includes mostly feminine nouns with -a- at the end of their base, second declension includes mostly masculine and neuter nouns with -o- at the end of their base. The second declension has different forms from the first declension but the uses of the cases are the same.  However, there’s another important distinction between first and second declension: the -o- at the end of the base in second declension is weak and it doesn’t show up as -o- as often as the -a- shows up in first declension.  The second-declension -o- can appear as -u-, as in the nominative singular (-us) or the accusative singular (-um) or it can appear as -i- as in the genitive singular and nominative plural (-i) and the dative and ablative plural (-is).  Here are the endings for second declension masculine, beginning with the singular.  The nominative singular: -us or in some cases -er. We’ll discuss that in a second.  The genitive singular: -i  Dative: -o  Accusative: -um  Ablative: -o and an irregular vocative: -ě  In the plural the endings are:  -i  -orum  -is -os -is.  The vocative is regular here in the plural. It’s identical to the nominative -i.  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/27/202327 minutes, 24 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson Two - Understanding the First Conjugation & Why we have Conjugations in Latin

There are five essential grammatical terms that are used in reference to verbs. They are  Mood  tense  Voice  Person Number. You should become familiar with these terms as soon as you can.  The mood of the verb indicates how the speaker feels about the action. Does the speaker feel that what’s being said is a fact, a command, or is there something uncertain about it in the speaker’s mind? Mood can also show that the verb is inside complicated grammar.  Tense is the grammatical term used to indicate when the action of the verb is happening.  Voice is the term used to indicate whether the subject of the verb is acting or being acted upon.  Person is the grammatical term which indicates the nature of the subject. Is it I, you, he/she/it, we, you plural, or where I grew up, y’all, or they?  And finally, number says whether the subject is singular or plural, that is, one person or many.  Another important grammatical term concerning Latin verbs is conjugation. Conjugation has two meanings in Latin.  It’s the process of joining a personal ending onto the base of a verb to form a full Latin verb form,  And it’s the term used to refer to one of the five categories of Latin verbs which are distinguished from each other by the vowels found at the end of their base (/a/, /ē/, /ě/, /ī/, /ĭ/).  Now let’s look at how to form a Latin verb. Latin verbs in the present tense consist of three elements:  the verb base the thematic vowel and a personal ending.  The verb base conveys the verb’s meaning. For instance, am- conveys the sense of “love”; laud-, “praise”; duc-, “lead.”  The thematic vowel signals which conjugation or category the verb belongs to. -a- is the thematic vowel for first conjugation; -ē- is the thematic vowel for second conjugation. Later we’ll learn that -ě- signals third conjugation and -i- signals fourth and third-io. A verb belongs to one conjugation and that’s all. Which conjugation has to be memorized with each verb.  Finally, the personal ending indicates the person and number of the verb, that is, who’s doing the action of the verb. Person signals whether it is first, second or third person, and number signals whether it is singular or plural. The person and number of the subject and verb must agree, in other words, must be the same. Personal endings are attached only to finite verbs.  These are verbs with personal endings, as opposed to “infinitives,” which are verbs that have no endings. Finally, finite verbs serve as the main verbs of sentences and clauses.  Latin verb endings carry important grammatical information.  First, they show person: first, second or third.  First person signifies “me” or “my group.” In English first person is represented by the pronouns “I” or “we.”  Second person represents the person to whom the speaker is talking. “You” is used in standard English to indicate both the singular and plural, but where I come from there’s a very useful second-person plural form of “you,” “y’all.” So, we’re gonna use “y’all” in this class when we mean second person plural, ‘cause that’s a good thing to know. Like how many of you all there are out there? And if y’all don’t like it, y’all can just learn to live with it.  And finally, third person, the person or persons over there, represented in English by “he,” “she,” or “it,” and in the plural, “they.”  Latin verb endings also show number, that is singular or plural. The singular pronouns are “I,” “you,” “he,” “she” and “it,” and the plural pronouns are “we,” “y’all,” and “they.” The Latin personal endings which are used at the end of Latin verbs to indicate person and number are as follows: -o (sometimes -m) meaning “I,” -s meaning “you,” -t meaning “he, she, it,” -mus meaning “we,” -tis meaning “you” or “y’all,” and -nt meaning “they.”  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/24/202325 minutes, 3 seconds
Episode Artwork

Hurtful Words - Having important awareness of the origin of certain words

It is important to be aware of the etymological origins of these words. The roots of many hurtful words are in violence, anger, and contempt. This suggests that these words have been used for centuries to inflict pain and to dehumanize others. We can all do our part to create a more empathetic and compassionate world by choosing our words carefully and avoiding hurtful and non-empathic language. Abrasive Tending to irritate or wear away From Latin abradere, "to scrape away" Callous Unfeeling, insensitive, or hardened From Latin callosus, "hardened, callous" Cynical Distrustful of human nature or institutions From Greek kynikos, "doglike" Demeaning Degrading, humiliating, or causing loss of self-respect From Old English dēman, "to judge" Derogatory Disparaging or belittling From Latin derogare, "to take away" Disdainful Feeling or showing contempt or scorn From Old French desdain, "contempt" Insensitive Lacking the ability to feel or understand the feelings of others From Latin insensatus, "unfeeling" Mean Ill-natured, spiteful, or unkind From Old English mægen, "might, strength" Malicious Having or showing a desire to do evil to others From Latin malus, "bad" Nasty Offensive, unpleasant, or disagreeable From Old English nǣstig, "filthy" Obnoxious Highly offensive or disagreeable From Latin obnoxius, "exposed to danger" Pitiless Having or showing no pity or compassion From Latin impius, "unholy" Rude Discourteous, impolite, or ill-mannered From Old English rūþ, "rough, harsh" Spiteful Feeling or showing malice or ill will From Old English spiþig, "sharp, piercing" Stigmatize To mark or brand as disgraceful or taboo From Greek stigma, "mark, brand" Vicious Aggressively violent or harmful From Latin vix, "force" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/23/202336 minutes, 18 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar Mini-Series | Lesson One - Understanding the First Declension & Cases

The nominative case - Its primary function is to indicate which noun or nouns serves or serve as the subject of the sentence. The subject of the sentence is the noun or nouns which perform the action of the verb. A sentence can have more than one subject, for instance, “Caesar and his army attacked Gaul.” In that case, “Caesar” and the “army” are both the subject of the sentence. The genitive case - The primary function of the genitive case is to show possession, basically, that one noun is owned or in the possession of another noun, for instance, “the man’s house.” The possessive “man’s” would be in the genitive case in Latin. This can also be expressed as “the house of the man.” Note: English has two ways of expressing possession: “of,” or -s’/-’s. ’S is used to express the singular possessive in English, as in “the student’s assignment.” S’ is used to express the plural possessive, as in “the students’ assignments.” Though pronounced the same way, s’ refers to more than one student.  The dative case - The primary function of the dative case is to indicate which noun is or nouns are the indirect object of the sentence, that is, who or what benefits from the action of the verb. To have the dative case at all in a sentence requires a special type of verb, one whose meaning includes the possibility of benefit, such as, “buy,” “build,” “tell,” “lend,” “sell,” “show,” “give.” As in: “Buy me a diamond,” “Build me a castle,” “Tell me you love me,” “Lend me your fortune,” and “Sell me the space to show you the love I can give you.” English has two ways of indicating an indirect object. It can use the prepositions “to” or “for,” as in, “I gave this to you,” “I did a favor for you.” Or a word can be put in a special place in the sentence, between the verb and the direct object, such as, “I gave you this,” “I did you a favor.” The accusative case - The primary function of the accusative case is to indicate which noun serves or nouns serve as the direct object of the sentence. The direct object receives the action of the verb. The accusative case is also used to indicate the object of certain prepositions like ad or inter. We’ll learn more about these prepositions later.  Note: There can be two or more direct objects in a sentence, often when that sentence contains multiple verbs, such as “You will have no problem with English grammar if you study Latin.” There are two direct objects in this sentence. The first is “problem,” the object of “you will have.” The second is “Latin,” the direct object of “study,” the second verb in this sentence, the one inside the if-clause.  The ablative case - The primary function of the ablative case, at least for now, is to indicate which noun or nouns serve as the object of certain prepositions. By prepositions we mean words like “by, with, from,” but the use of the ablative in Latin is far more pervasive than that. It is in many ways the catch-all case. It can show: means, the instrument with which something was done; manner, the way in which something was done; time, the time at which something was done; separation, that two things are apart from each other; all these and many other uses besides. Wheelock is right to call the ablative case adverbial inasmuch as it usually specifies how something happens, for instance, “with speed” or “in good time” or “by you.” We’ll spend several lessons later in the term learning different uses for the ablative but until then we’ll use the ablative only to serve as the objects of certain prepositions. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/22/202317 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymology of a cyclist

Barnstormer A cyclist who travels from town to town competing in races From the 19th century term "barnstorming", which referred to traveling performers who would put on shows in barns and other rural venues. Bib A sleeveless, collarless garment that is worn over a cycling jersey From the French word "biberon", which means "feeding bottle". The bib was originally designed to keep the jersey from flapping in the wind, and it was named after the bib on a feeding bottle, which keeps the milk from spilling. Cadence The rate at which a cyclist pedals (in revolutions per minute) From the Latin word "cadere", which means "to fall". Cadence is the rate at which the pedals fall, or cycle, around. Derailleurs The mechanisms on a bicycle that change the gears From the French word "dérailleur", which means "to derail". Derailleurs work by derailing the chain from one gear to another. Fixie A bicycle with a fixed gear, meaning that the pedals are always turning, even when the bike is coasting From the Latin word "fixus", which means "fixed". A fixie is a fixed-gear bicycle, meaning that the gears are fixed and cannot be changed. Peloton The main group of riders in a road race From the French word "peloton", which means "bunch" or "cluster". The peloton is the main group of riders in a road race, and it is typically led by the race favorites. Sprint A short, fast race From the Old English word "springan", which means "to leap". A sprint is a short, fast race, and it typically involves riders sprinting for the finish line. Trek A long journey by bicycle From the Dutch word "trek", which means "pull" or "drag". A trek is a long journey by bicycle, and it typically involves riding over long distances and through challenging terrain. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/21/20237 minutes, 56 seconds
Episode Artwork

In Lue of Father's Day - Etymologizing words associated with moral and ethical behavior

Altruism: The principle or practice of unselfish concern for the welfare of others. (Etymology: from Latin alter, “other,” + -ism.) Charity: Generosity and kindness in giving to those in need. (Etymology: from Latin caritas, “love, affection, benevolence.”) Conscience: The sense of right and wrong that guides one's thoughts and actions. (Etymology: from Latin conscientia, “knowledge with oneself.”) Courage: The ability to do something that frightens one, or to face danger, pain, or difficulty. (Etymology: from Latin cor, “heart.”) Fairness: The quality of being just and impartial. (Etymology: from Old English fægere, “beautiful, pleasing.”) Honesty: The quality of being truthful and sincere. (Etymology: from Old French honesté, “honor, dignity.”) Integrity: The quality of being honest and having strong moral principles. (Etymology: from Latin integritas, “wholeness, completeness.”) Justice: The quality of being fair and impartial. (Etymology: from Latin iustitia, “uprightness, fairness.”) Kindness: The quality of being friendly, generous, and considerate. (Etymology: from Old English cynd, “nature, disposition.”) Loyalty: The quality of being faithful to one's obligations, promises, or allegiances. (Etymology: from Old French loialté, “faithfulness.”) Morality: The principles concerning the distinction between right and wrong or good and bad behavior. (Etymology: from Latin moralis, “pertaining to custom, manners, or character.”) Perseverance: The ability to continue in a course of action in spite of difficulty or opposition.  (Etymology: from Latin perseverantia, “steadfastness, constancy.”) Respect: A feeling of admiration for someone or something that one considers to be excellent, virtuous, or admirable. (Etymology: from Latin respectus, “a looking back, regard.”) Responsibility: The state of being accountable or liable for something. (Etymology: from Latin respondere, “to answer back.”) Self-control: The ability to control one's emotions, desires, and behavior. (Etymology: from Old French seul, “self,” + controuloir, “to restrain.”) Trustworthiness: The quality of being reliable and dependable. (Etymology: from Old French truste, “confidence, reliance.”) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/19/202312 minutes, 58 seconds
Episode Artwork

Call it... unrequited love - Another reading

Putting myself out there! Be nice! Another reading from a letter I had written a long time ago. Remember, I love love. I have a love affair with it... Maybe this will give you an idea. Reach out, if your soul is moved to do so! Email: ⁠⁠⁠[email protected]⁠⁠⁠ - ⁠⁠⁠[email protected] ⁠⁠⁠ Website: ⁠⁠⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/⁠⁠ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/17/202327 minutes, 18 seconds
Episode Artwork

Linguistic similarities between "credence", "credit", "incredulous", and so much more!

Credence (noun): Belief, confidence, or trust. Etymology: From Latin "credentia", meaning "trustworthiness". Credential (noun): A document or token that attests to a person's identity, qualifications, or authority. Etymology: The word "credential" comes from the Latin word "credentus," which means "believing." It was first used in English in the 1670s to refer to letters of authorization given to an ambassador by a government. In the 1750s, the word began to be used more generally to refer to any document that provides evidence of a person's qualifications or authority. Credible (adjective): Believable or trustworthy. Etymology: From Latin "credere", meaning "to believe". Credit (noun): Belief in the ability of someone or something to fulfill a financial obligation. Etymology: From Latin "creditum", meaning "something entrusted/ having been entrusted". Credo (noun): A statement of belief, especially a religious one. Etymology: From Latin "credo", meaning "I believe". Credulous (adjective): Easily persuaded to believe something, especially something that is false or improbable. Etymology: From Latin "credulus", meaning "trusting". Creed (noun): A system of religious beliefs. Etymology: From Latin "credere", meaning "to believe". Incredible (adjective): So extraordinary as to be unbelievable. Etymology: From Latin "incredibilis", meaning "not to be believed". Novel (noun): A long, fictional prose narrative that tells the story of imaginary people and events. Etymology: From Latin "novus", meaning "new". Novice (noun): A beginner or learner, especially in a religious order. Etymology: From Latin "novus", meaning "new". Innovation (noun): The introduction of something new, especially with the introduction of new methods, ideas, or products. Etymology: From Latin "novus", meaning "new" and "facere", meaning "to make". Nova (noun): A star that suddenly increases in brightness, then fades away over a period of weeks or months. Etymology: Latin, meaning "new". Supernova (noun): A star that suddenly explodes and becomes extremely bright. Etymology: Latin, meaning "super new". Renovate (verb): To make something new or like new again, especially by repairing or restoring it. Etymology: From Latin "novus", meaning "new" and "re", meaning "again". Novation (noun): The substitution of a new obligation for an old one. Etymology: From Latin "novus", meaning "new" and "facere", meaning "to make". --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/16/202311 minutes, 26 seconds
Episode Artwork

Dear Middle School Me & You & Everyone Else - A rant plus a letter

Dear Middle School Me, I know things are tough right now. You're feeling lost, alone, and like you don't belong. You're struggling with your weight, your grades, and your social life. You feel like you're not good enough, and you're starting to wonder if you'll ever amount to anything. I'm writing to you from the future, and I want you to know that it gets better. You're going to go through a lot of ups and downs, but you're going to come out stronger on the other side. You're going to learn that your weight doesn't define you. You're going to find a group of friends who love and accept you for who you are. You're going to find your passion in life, and you're going to achieve your goals. But most importantly, you're going to learn what it means to be a man. You're going to learn that strength isn't about being big or tough. It's about being kind, compassionate, and empathetic. It's about standing up for what you believe in, even when it's hard. You're going to make mistakes, and you're going to hurt people. But you're also going to learn from your mistakes, and you're going to grow as a person. I know it's hard to see it right now, but you're going to be okay. You're going to live a full and happy life. I love you, Your Future Self P.S. Here are a few poems I wrote for you: The Strength of a Man A man is not defined by his size, Or by his strength or his might. A man is defined by his heart, And by the things he does right. A man is kind and compassionate, He stands up for what he believes. He is a protector and a provider, He is a friend to all he meets. So if you ever feel like you're not enough, Just remember the strength of a man. It is not found in size or strength, But in the heart of a good man. Empathy Empathy is the ability to understand and share the feelings of another. It is the ability to put yourself in someone else's shoes, And to see the world from their perspective. Empathy is a powerful force, It can bring people together, And it can make the world a better place. So if you want to make a difference in the world, Start by developing your empathy. Learn to understand and share the feelings of others, And you will be well on your way to making the world a better place. Strength in the Face of Adversity Life is full of challenges, But it is also full of opportunities. The key to success is to never give up, No matter how tough things get. When you face adversity, Don't let it defeat you. Use it as an opportunity to grow, And to become a stronger person. Remember, you are not alone. We all face challenges in life, But we can overcome them together. So never give up, Keep fighting, And never lose sight of your dreams. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/14/202318 minutes, 53 seconds
Episode Artwork

Zack Rick's "Heart On My Sleeve" - A Candid Conversation with Liam Connerly

Check out Zack's other channels and creative projects! YouTube: https://youtube.com/@PaddyCapDice TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@zacheryricks?is_from_webapp=1&sender_device=pc And here are all my links! Email: ⁠⁠⁠[email protected]⁠⁠⁠ - ⁠⁠⁠[email protected] ⁠⁠⁠ Website: ⁠⁠⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/⁠ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/14/20232 hours, 5 minutes, 44 seconds
Episode Artwork

Dwelling Among Untrodden Ways - A reading a reflection

She Dwelt among the Untrodden Ways BY WILLIAM WORDSWORTH She dwelt among the untrodden waysBeside the springs of Dove,A Maid whom there were none to praiseAnd very few to love: A violet by a mossy stoneHalf hidden from the eye!—Fair as a star, when only oneIs shining in the sky. She lived unknown, and few could knowWhen Lucy ceased to be;But she is in her grave, and, oh,The difference to me! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/12/202317 minutes, 44 seconds
Episode Artwork

If - by Rudyard Kipling (To love love)

To love love. This is one of my very favorite poems. Remember to tell someone you love them today, they made need it more than you think. Reach out, if your soul is moved to do so! Email: ⁠⁠[email protected]⁠⁠ - ⁠⁠[email protected] ⁠⁠ Website: ⁠⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/⁠ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/11/202311 minutes, 22 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Wrath of Achilles towards Cygnus, the son of Poseidon - The Etiology of a Swan

The myth of Cygnus and Achilles is a story of war, violence, and revenge. It is also a story of love, loss, and redemption. The moral and ethical implications of the story are complex and can be interpreted in many ways. In the story, Cygnus is a Trojan prince who is invulnerable to harm. He is the son of Poseidon, the god of the sea. Achilles is a Greek warrior who is also invulnerable to harm. He is the son of Peleus, the king of the Myrmidons, and Thetis, a sea nymph. The two men meet in battle and fight to the death. Achilles is unable to kill Cygnus with his weapons, so he strangles him with his helmet strap. Poseidon, who is watching the battle, is furious. He transforms Cygnus into a swan and carries him away to the sea. The myth of Cygnus and Achilles can be interpreted in many ways. Some see it as a story of the futility of war. Others see it as a story of the power of love and the importance of forgiveness. Still others see it as a story about the dangers of revenge. The myth of Cygnus and Achilles can be applied to both classical antiquity and our modern world. In classical antiquity, the story was used to teach lessons about the dangers of war and the importance of forgiveness. In our modern world, the story can be used to teach lessons about the importance of peace and non-violence. The myth of Cygnus and Achilles is a powerful story that has been told and retold for centuries. It is a story that can teach us about the human condition and the importance of love, forgiveness, and peace. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/10/202319 minutes, 7 seconds
Episode Artwork

Atalanta, Mulan, Confidence, and Gumption - Courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the ability to act in spite of it

The Story of Atalanta Atalanta was a young woman who was renowned for her speed and skill in hunting. She was so fast that she could outrun any man, and she was so skilled in hunting that she could bring down any animal. One day, a group of young men came to Atalanta's father, King Schoeneus, and challenged her to a race. They said that if she lost, she would have to marry one of them. Atalanta agreed to the race, but she only agreed on one condition: that the winner would be allowed to kill her. The young men were shocked by Atalanta's condition, but they agreed to it nonetheless. The race began, and Atalanta quickly took the lead. The young men tried their best to catch up, but they were no match for her speed. As Atalanta neared the finish line, she could see that she was going to win. She could also see the fear in the eyes of the young men. She knew that they were about to kill her, and she was filled with fear. But then, Atalanta remembered her father's words. He had told her that she was the fastest woman in the world, and that she could do anything she set her mind to. Atalanta took a deep breath and summoned her courage. She ran even faster, and she crossed the finish line first. The young men were furious. They had lost the race, and they were now going to have to kill Atalanta. But Atalanta was not afraid. She stood her ground and faced them down. "You may kill me," she said, "but I will not be afraid. I am Atalanta, the fastest woman in the world, and I can do anything I set my mind to." The young men were so impressed by Atalanta's courage that they decided to spare her life. They instead offered to marry her, and Atalanta agreed. Atalanta and her husband lived happily ever after. She continued to hunt and to race, and she became a legendary figure for her strength, her speed, and her courage. Moral and Character Implications The story of Atalanta is a powerful reminder that confidence and faith in oneself are essential qualities for success. Atalanta was able to achieve great things because she believed in herself and her abilities. She was not afraid to challenge herself, and she was not afraid to fail. The story of Atalanta also teaches us that courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the ability to act in spite of fear. Atalanta was afraid when she faced the young men who had challenged her to a race, but she was not paralyzed by fear. She summoned her courage and faced them down. Atalanta is a role model for all of us. She shows us that we can achieve anything we set our minds to, as long as we have confidence in ourselves and our abilities. She also shows us that courage is not the absence of fear, but rather the ability to act in spite of fear. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/9/202342 minutes, 47 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing 21 common words utilized in today's world - From acrobat to cynicism to melancholy to music

acrobat From the word akri (άκρη — “tip” or “edge”) and the verb vaino (βαίνω — “to walk”), an acrobat is someone who walks on the edge, often on tiptoe. cemetery This example actually comes from the Greek word koimame (κοιμάμαι — “to sleep”), which is also the root of another word, koimitirion (κοιμητήριο — “dormitory”). cynicism The word "cynicism" comes from the Greek word "kynikos," which means "dog-like." This is because the Cynics, a school of ancient Greek philosophy, were known for their simple, ascetic lifestyle and their outspoken criticism of social conventions. democracy Ahh, good old democracy. Combining demos (δήμος — “people”) and kratos (κράτος — “power”), the meaning of this quintessential Greek word used in English is simply put: power to the people! dinosaur How would you describe a dinosaur? If you came up with something similar to “fear-inspiring reptile,” congratulations. The name we use to call these magnificent, ancient creatures comes from the Greek words deinos (δεινός — “terrible”) and savra (σαύρα — “lizard”). Europe According to Ancient Greek mythology, Europe was a mythological princess with big, beautiful eyes, a trait reflected in the very origins of her name: evrys (ευρύς — “broad”) and ops (ωψ — “eye”). galaxy Now that we’re on the subject, many Greek words used in English have mythological origins. Galaxy, a.k.a. the Milky Way, comes from the Greek word for milk, gala (γάλα). hermaphrodite Speaking of gods, Hermaphrodite was the son of Hermes and Aphrodite, who apparently couldn’t be bothered with finding a new name for their child. marathon Thousands of long-distance footraces take place every year around the world. Officially, a marathon is 42.1 km (or 26.1 miles) long, in a nod to the actual distance between two Greek cities. marmalade Although English took this word from Portuguese, you can trace it further back to the Greek words meli (μέλι — “honey”) and milo (μήλο — “apple”). Some sources say that the Ancient Greeks liked cooking quinces (marmelos in Portuguese) with honey. melancholy This common Greek word used in English has a somewhat bizarre etymology. Coming from the Greek words melas (μέλας — “black”) and khole (χολή — bile), it was once thought that when your spleen produces an excess of black bile, you feel gloomy. music Music literally means art of the Muses, the nine Greek goddesses who presided over the arts and sciences. The concept of a museum was originally intended to be a shrine for the Muses. narcissism Narcissism comes from the Ancient Greek mythological figure of Narcissus, a young man who fell in love with himself when he saw his reflection in a lake. One nymph who fell passionately in love with him withered away into nothingness when he ignored her, leaving no trace behind but her voice. Her name was Echo. panic The word panic comes from the name of the Ancient Greek goat-god Pan, who spread terror among nymphs like Echo. phobia Coming from another word for terror, a phobia is an irrational fear — and there are many strange phobias with names also derived from Greek. planet Another word for the heavens, planet comes from the Greek verb planomai (πλανώμαι), which means “to wander.” sarcasm From the Greek word for flesh, sarx (σάρξ), sarcasm describes the (metaphorical) act of stripping someone’s flesh off with a sneering comment. schizophrenia Combining the words schizein (σχίζειν — “to split”) and phren (φρην — “mind”), the meaning of this particular Greek word used in English is pretty self-explanatory. sycophant Unfortunately, the origin of this example is a bit obscure, as no one knows for sure where it comes from. One story ties it to the word syko (σύκο — “fig”) and the verb phainein (φαίνειν — “to show”), back when stealing and exporting figs was considered a crime. tele + word thespian --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/8/202325 minutes, 23 seconds
Episode Artwork

Echo and Narcissus - Then and Now

The myth of Echo and Narcissus is a classic tale of love, obsession, and self-absorption. In the story, Echo is a nymph who is cursed by the goddess Hera to only be able to repeat the last words spoken to her. One day, Echo meets Narcissus, a young man who is so beautiful that he is vain and self-absorbed. Echo falls in love with Narcissus, but he rejects her. Echo is heartbroken and eventually dies of grief. Narcissus, meanwhile, is so obsessed with his own beauty that he falls in love with his own reflection in a pool. He eventually stares at his reflection so long that he turns into a flower. The moral implications of the myth of Echo and Narcissus are manifold. In the classical sense, the story can be seen as a warning about the dangers of love, obsession, and self-absorption. Love can be a powerful emotion that can lead us to do foolish things. Obsession can lead us to neglect our relationships and our responsibilities. And self-absorption can lead us to become isolated and unhappy. The moral implications of the myth of Echo and Narcissus also apply to modernity. In today's world, we are constantly bombarded with images of beauty and perfection. This can lead to unrealistic expectations about ourselves and our relationships. It can also lead to feelings of inadequacy and self-loathing. The myth of Echo and Narcissus is a reminder that we should all be careful about the way we view ourselves and others. We should not let our love of beauty or our desire for perfection lead us to become obsessed with ourselves or to neglect our relationships. We should also be careful about the way we treat others, as we never know how our words or actions might affect them. Here are some additional moral implications of the myth of Echo and Narcissus: The importance of love and compassion. Echo and Narcissus were both capable of love, but they were unable to express it in a healthy way. We should all strive to be loving and compassionate towards others. The importance of self-awareness. Narcissus was so self-absorbed that he was unable to see the world outside of himself. We should all strive to be self-aware and to understand our own limitations. The importance of moderation. Echo and Narcissus were both consumed by their emotions. We should all strive to be moderate in our emotions and to avoid letting them control us. The myth of Echo and Narcissus is a powerful reminder that love, obsession, and self-absorption can be destructive forces. We should all strive to be loving, compassionate, and self-aware in order to avoid the pitfalls that befell Echo and Narcissus. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/7/202338 minutes, 19 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Myth and Moral Implications of Theseus and the Minotaur - Applied both classically and within modernity

The Story of Theseus and the Minotaur The story of Theseus and the Minotaur is one of the most famous myths in Greek mythology. It tells the tale of a young Athenian hero who slays a fearsome monster, freeing his people from a terrible curse. The story begins with King Minos of Crete, who was angered by the Athenians for the murder of his son, Androgeus. In revenge, Minos demanded that the Athenians send him a tribute of seven young men and seven young women every nine years. These youths were to be sacrificed to the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth, a vast and confusing maze built by the craftsman Daedalus. One year, Theseus, the son of King Aegeus of Athens, volunteered to be one of the tributes. He was determined to slay the Minotaur and free his people from the curse. When Theseus arrived in Crete, he was met by Ariadne, the daughter of King Minos. Ariadne had fallen in love with Theseus and she agreed to help him. She gave him a ball of thread, which he could use to find his way through the Labyrinth. Theseus entered the Labyrinth and followed the thread. He eventually found the Minotaur and fought the monster to the death. He killed the Minotaur with his sword and escaped from the Labyrinth with the help of Ariadne. Theseus and Ariadne fled Crete and sailed back to Athens. They were greeted as heroes and Theseus was crowned king. He married Ariadne and they ruled Athens together for many years. The Moral Implications of the Myth The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur has a number of moral implications. It teaches us that courage, strength, and determination can overcome even the greatest challenges. It also teaches us that love and friendship can be powerful forces for good. In classical antiquity, the myth of Theseus and the Minotaur was used to promote the idea of civic duty. Theseus was seen as a model citizen who was willing to sacrifice himself for the good of his people. The myth also served as a warning against the dangers of tyranny. King Minos was seen as a tyrannical ruler who imposed his will on others through violence and fear. The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur is still relevant today. It teaches us that we should never give up hope, even in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds. It also teaches us that we should always stand up to tyranny and injustice. How the Myth Applies to Modernity The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur can be applied to a number of modern-day issues. For example, it can be seen as a metaphor for the fight against terrorism. The Minotaur can be seen as a symbol of terrorism, while Theseus can be seen as a symbol of the people who fight against terrorism. The myth teaches us that we can overcome terrorism if we are brave, strong, and determined. The myth can also be applied to the fight against other forms of injustice, such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The Minotaur can be seen as a symbol of these forms of injustice, while Theseus can be seen as a symbol of the people who fight against them. The myth teaches us that we can overcome injustice if we are brave, strong, and determined. The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur is a powerful story that has been told for centuries. It is a story of courage, strength, determination, love, and friendship. It is a story that can inspire us to overcome any challenge, no matter how great. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/6/202338 minutes, 5 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Myth of Icarus and Daedalus - Moral implications, etiological significance, and a rant on faith, love, and remembering to thank one's self

Be warned, the latter half of this episode gets a bit controversial as I discuss faith, love, and thanking yourself when we forget to. I cuss once. I wasn't anticipating the latter half to be as much of a rant as it was, but as they say... c’est la vie! The story of Icarus and Daedalus is a classic tale of hubris and the dangers of overreaching one's limits. Daedalus, a skilled craftsman, was imprisoned on the island of Crete by King Minos. To escape, he crafted wings of feathers and wax for himself and his son, Icarus. The two flew away from Crete, but Icarus grew too close to the sun, and the wax melted, causing him to fall to his death. The moral of the story is that humans should not try to reach too high, lest they be brought down by their own hubris. This warning is still relevant today, as we live in a world where technology is constantly expanding our capabilities. We must be careful not to become so reliant on technology that we forget our own limitations. In the classical sense, the story of Icarus and Daedalus can be seen as a cautionary tale about the dangers of hubris. Hubris is a form of arrogance or pride that leads people to believe they are above the laws of nature or morality. In the story, Icarus's hubris leads him to fly too close to the sun, which ultimately leads to his downfall. In modernity, the story of Icarus and Daedalus can be seen as a warning about the dangers of overreliance on technology. Technology has the power to do great things, but it can also be dangerous if it is not used responsibly. We must be careful not to let technology control us, or we may find ourselves falling like Icarus. Here are some additional moral implications of the story of Icarus and Daedalus: The importance of listening to advice. Daedalus warned Icarus not to fly too close to the sun, but Icarus did not listen. This led to his downfall. The importance of humility. Icarus's hubris led to his downfall. We should all be humble and aware of our limitations. The importance of moderation. Icarus was too eager to fly too high. We should all be moderate in our endeavors. The story of Icarus and Daedalus is a powerful reminder that we should all be careful not to overreach our limits. We should listen to advice, be humble, and be moderate in our endeavors. Email: ⁠⁠[email protected]⁠⁠ - ⁠⁠[email protected] ⁠⁠ Website: ⁠⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/5/202344 minutes, 59 seconds
Episode Artwork

From Anxiety to Paranoia to Substance Abuse - Discussion of mental disorders/diseases and their etymology and history

Anxiety disorders: These disorders are characterized by excessive fear, worry, and anxiety. They can interfere with a person's daily life and cause significant distress. Some common anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder. Anxiety: The word "anxiety" comes from the Latin word "anxietas," which means "to choke." Depression: This is a mood disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Depression can also lead to changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, and concentration. Depression: The word "depression" comes from the Latin word "deprimere," which means "to press down." Bipolar disorder: This is a mood disorder that causes extreme swings in mood, from mania (a period of high energy and activity) to depression (a period of low energy and sadness). Bipolar disorder: The word "bipolar" comes from the Greek words "bi," meaning "two," and "polus," meaning "pole." Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): This is a mental health problem that some people develop after experiencing or witnessing a life-threatening event, like combat, a natural disaster, a car accident, or sexual assault. Symptoms of PTSD can include flashbacks, nightmares, anxiety, and avoidance of reminders of the event. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): The word "trauma" comes from the Greek word "trauma," which means "wound." Schizophrenia: This is a chronic mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. People with schizophrenia may experience hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs), and disorganized thinking and speech. Schizophrenia: The word "schizophrenia" comes from the Greek words "schizo," meaning "to split," and "phren," meaning "mind." Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): This is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. ADHD can interfere with a person's ability to learn, work, and socialize. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): The word "attention" comes from the Latin word "attentus," which means "to pay attention." The word "hyperactivity" comes from the Greek words "hyper," meaning "above," and "actos," meaning "to do." Learning disabilities: These are neurological disorders that can affect a person's ability to learn certain skills, such as reading, writing, or math. Learning disabilities are not caused by a lack of intelligence or motivation. Learning disabilities: The word "learning" comes from the Old English word "leornian," which means "to learn." The word "disability" comes from the Latin word "dis," meaning "not," and "habilitas," meaning "ability." Intellectual disability: This is a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Intellectual disability can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, brain injuries, and infections. Intellectual disability: The word "intellectual" comes from the Latin word "intellectus," which means "understanding." The word "disability" comes from the Latin word "dis," meaning "not," and "habilitas," meaning "ability." Paranoia is the irrational and persistent feeling that people are ‘out to get you’. Paranoia may be a symptom of conditions including paranoid personality disorder, delusional (paranoid) disorder and schizophrenia. The word "paranoia" comes from the Greek words "para," meaning "beside," and "noia," meaning "mind." It was first used in the 18th century to describe a mental disorder characterized by delusions of persecution. The term was later broadened to include other types of delusions, such as delusions of grandeur. The word "substance" comes from the Latin word "substantia," which means "essence," "being," or "that which stands under." It was first used in English in the 14th century. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/3/202322 minutes, 14 seconds
Episode Artwork

How Fire Was Given to Men/Women - The Myth of Prometheus and its Etiological implications

I do not own any right to the story read... This myth adaptation comes form James Baldwin's "Old Greek Stories" - How Fire Was Given to Men. Let me know what you think! Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ - ⁠[email protected] ⁠ Website: ⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
6/2/202322 minutes, 14 seconds
Episode Artwork

Once upon a time... The Tragic Story of Phaethon (Storytime and discussion of moral implications associated with his hubris)

In ancient Greek mythology, Phaethon was the son of the sun god Helios. One day, he begged his father to let him drive the chariot of the sun across the sky. Despite Helios' warnings, Phaethon insisted, and Helios reluctantly gave in. However, Phaethon was unable to control the fiery horses, and the sun chariot veered dangerously close to the earth, causing chaos and destruction. To prevent further disaster, Zeus struck Phaethon with a lightning bolt, sending him crashing to his death. The myth of Phaethon and the sun chariot serves as a cautionary tale about the dangers of hubris and the importance of respecting authority. Phaethon's reckless desire for power and glory ultimately led to his downfall, and his death serves as a warning to those who would seek to defy the natural order of things. In the modern world, this myth is particularly relevant in the context of environmentalism. Just as Phaethon's actions threatened the stability of the universe, humanity's reckless exploitation of the earth's resources threatens the delicate balance of our ecosystem. The myth of Phaethon reminds us of the importance of humility and respect for the natural world, and the consequences of our actions if we fail to heed these lessons. In conclusion, the myth of Phaethon and the sun chariot is a timeless tale that continues to resonate with audiences today. Its moral implications serve as a warning against the dangers of pride and arrogance, and its associations with the modern world remind us of the importance of environmental responsibility. As we continue to face new challenges and struggles, the myth of Phaethon provides us with a powerful reminder of the potential consequences of our actions and the importance of humility and respect. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/31/202326 minutes, 47 seconds
Episode Artwork

Deriving words from the Latin "dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dictum" - "I say, to say, I said, having been said"

Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ - ⁠[email protected] ⁠ Website: ⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/29/202310 minutes, 53 seconds
Episode Artwork

Know your worth (pardon the cliché)

Serious ramblin' episode if you want to just know more about me and my current state of affairs, the wrapping-up of school, and all things good and beautiful in you, me, and this world. Thanks for you time and please subscribe and rate my podcast... If your soul is moved to do so, that is. Email: [email protected] - [email protected] Website: https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/29/202348 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing all the Neurohormones with both their actual functions and etymological definitions

Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays a role in the body's "fight or flight" response.  Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter (“brain” +” across” + “to send”) that helps transmit signals in the brain and body. Its name comes from its chemical structure, an acetate group and a choline molecule.  Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a role in motivation, reward, and movement. Its name comes from its chemical structure, a combination of two molecules called dihydroxyphenylalanine and dopamine. Adrenaline (epinephrine) is a hormone and neurotransmitter that helps the body respond to stress. Its name comes from its source, the adrenal glands.  Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that is involved in mood, appetite, and sleep. Its name comes from its chemical structure, a combination of sero- (meaning "serum") and -tonin (meaning "tonic" or "substance that modifies").  Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a hormone that stimulates the release of cortisol, a stress hormone. The name comes from its function of stimulating the release of corticotropin, a hormone that stimulates the adrenal glands. Also, it gets its name from its role in stimulating the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland, which in turn stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland. Vasopressin is a hormone that regulates water balance in the body. Its name comes from its ability to constrict blood vessels (vasoconstriction) and increase blood pressure. Vasopressin, also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is so named because it regulates water balance by causing the kidneys to reabsorb water. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a hormone that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which regulates the thyroid gland. Its name comes from its function of stimulating the release of thyrotropin.  Oxytocin is a hormone that is involved in social bonding, childbirth, and lactation. Its name comes from its ability to stimulate uterine contractions (oxytocic) and milk ejection (lactogenic).  Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hormone that stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), which regulate the reproductive system. Its name comes from its function of stimulating the release of gonadotropins.  Growth hormone–releasing hormone (GHRH) is a hormone that stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH), which regulates growth and metabolism. Its name comes from its function of stimulating the release of growth hormone.  Catecholamines are a group of hormones and neurotransmitters that includes adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine. Their name comes from their chemical structure, which includes a catechol group and an amine group.  Histamine is a neurotransmitter and hormone that is involved in inflammation, allergies, and gastric acid secretion. ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) is a hormone that stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands.  Orexin (hypocretin) is a neurotransmitter that is involved in wakefulness and appetite. Its name comes from its discovery in the hypothalamus and its ability to stimulate food intake (orexigenic).  Glutamic acid (glutamate) is a neurotransmitter that is involved in learning, memory, and neural plasticity. Its name comes from its chemical structure, a combination of glutamine and an acid group.  Galanin is a neuropeptide that is involved in pain perception, mood, and appetite. Its name comes from its discovery in the galanin-containing neurons of the hypothalamus.  Neurotensin comes from the words "neuro," meaning related to nerves, and "tensin," which refers to its ability to cause contraction in smooth muscle. Neurotensin is a neuropeptide that is found in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/27/202337 minutes, 32 seconds
Episode Artwork

Anonymity - Discussing "nomen" and all words related, derived, and associated with

Anonymity - the state of being anonymous or unknown. It comes from the Greek word "anonymos" which means "without a name". Pseudonym - a fictitious name used by an author to conceal their identity. It comes from the Greek words "pseudēs" meaning "false" and "onoma" meaning "name". Incognito - in a disguised or anonymous state. It comes from the Latin phrase "incognito" which means "unknown" or "unrecognized". Unidentified - not recognized or known. It comes from the Latin word "identificare" which means "to identify". Nameless - without a name or unknown. It comes from the Old English word "nama" which means "name". Faceless - without a recognizable face or identity. It comes from the Old English word "fǣhth" which means "face". Nominal - actual definition: existing in name only, not in reality; etymological definition: from Latin "nominalis," meaning "of or belonging to a name" Denomination - actual definition: a religious group or organization; etymological definition: from Latin "denominatio," meaning "a calling by name" Nomenclature - actual definition: a system of names used in a particular field or subject; etymological definition: from French "nomenclature," ultimately from Latin "nomenclatura," meaning "the assigning of names" Pronoun - actual definition: a word that replaces a noun in a sentence; etymological definition: from Latin "pronomen," meaning "a word that takes the place of a noun" Ignominy - actual definition: public shame or disgrace; etymological definition: from Latin "ignominia," meaning "a loss of one's good name" "Antonym" comes from the Greek words "anti," meaning "opposite," and "onyma," meaning "name." So, antonym literally means "opposite name." It refers to words that have opposite meanings, like hot and cold. "Synonym" comes from the Greek words "syn," meaning "together," and "onyma," meaning "name." So, synonym literally means "together name." It refers to words that have the same or similar meanings, like big and large. "Homonym" comes from the Greek words "homo," meaning "same," and "onyma," meaning "name." So, homonym literally means "same name." It refers to words that have the same spelling and pronunciation but different meanings, like "bat" (an animal) and "bat" (a sports equipment). --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/26/202314 minutes, 36 seconds
Episode Artwork

200th Episode Q&A: From the roles of genetics to addiction to bullying to hormones and all things in-between!

Questions Addressed: How does the body regulate its internal clock, and what happens when that clock is disrupted? mrconnerlysleftear Do you believe standardized tests accurately measure a student's intelligence and potential? nalgeneguy How can we address issues of bullying and harassment in schools? drdrizzy What is the role of genetics in determining a person's risk for addiction? dude How do the hormones estrogen and testosterone affect the body differently in men and women? Brendan What do you think is the biggest challenge facing education today? guitarshreder9000 How can we encourage more young men and boys to pursue careers in traditionally female-dominated fields? supman Can we really "hack" our own biology to live longer and healthier lives? Briana In your opinion, what qualities make for a great teacher? 1995 Serious ramblin' episode of all things good and beautiful in you, me, and this world. Thanks for you time and please subscribe and rate my podcast... If your soul is moved to do so, that is. Email: ⁠[email protected]⁠ - ⁠[email protected] ⁠ Website: ⁠https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/24/202358 minutes, 24 seconds
Episode Artwork

Comparing and contrasting the derived Greek prefixes "hyper-" and "hypo-"

Words derived from "hyper-" Hyperactive – "hyper-" comes from the Greek "huper," meaning "over, beyond." "Active" comes from the Latin "activus," meaning "doing, performing." So, "hyperactive" literally means "overly doing or performing." Hyperbole –"hyper-" means "over, beyond." "Bole" comes from the Greek "ballein," meaning "to throw." So, "hyperbole" literally means "overthrow," referring to an exaggeration or overstatement. Hypercritical: The word "hypercritical" combines the prefix "hyper-" meaning "excessive" or "over" and the word "critical" meaning "inclined to find fault." Together, "hypercritical" means excessively or overly critical. Hypertension: The word "hypertension" combines the prefix "hyper-" meaning "above" or "beyond" and the word "tension" meaning "pressure." Together, "hypertension" means high blood pressure. Hyperthermia: The word "hyperthermia" combines the prefix "hyper-" meaning "above" or "beyond" and the word "thermia" meaning "heat." Together, "hyperthermia" means abnormally high body temperature. Hyperglycemia: The word "hyperglycemia" combines the prefix "hyper-" meaning "above" or "beyond" and the word "glycemia" meaning "glucose (sugar) in the blood." Together, "hyperglycemia" means high blood sugar. Hyperventilation: The word "hyperventilation" combines the prefix "hyper-" meaning "excessive" or "over" and the word "ventilation" meaning "breathing." Together, "hyperventilation" means excessive or rapid breathing. Hypermarket – "hyper-" means "over, beyond." "Market" comes from the Latin "mercatus," meaning "buying, selling." So, "hypermarket" refers to a large, usually out-of-town retail complex offering a wide range of goods. Words derived from "hypo-" Hypodermic: "hypo-" means "under, below." "Dermic" comes from the Greek "derma," meaning "skin." So, "hypodermic" refers to something that is injected under the skin. Hypoglycemia – "hypo-" means "under, below." "Glycemia" comes from the Greek "glukus," meaning "sweet." So, "hypoglycemia" refers to a condition where the body has abnormally low levels of sugar in the blood. Hypothermia – "hypo-" again means "under, below." "Thermia" comes from the Greek "therme," meaning "heat." So, "hypothermia" means "underheating," referring to a condition where the body temperature drops below normal. Hypothesis – "hypo-" means "under, below." "Thesis" comes from the Greek "tithenai," meaning "to place, to put." So, "hypothesis" literally means "under a put thing," referring to a tentative explanation or assumption. Hypocrisy – "hypo-" means "under, below." "Crisis" comes from the Greek "krisis," meaning "decision, judgment." So, "hypocrisy" literally means "under judgment," referring to the act of pretending to have moral standards or beliefs that one does not actually possess. Hypothyroidism: The word "hypothyroidism" combines the prefix "hypo-" meaning "under" or "beneath" and the word "thyroid" meaning a gland in the neck that produces hormones. Together, "hypothyroidism" means an underactive thyroid gland. Hypotension: The word "hypotension" combines the prefix "hypo-" meaning "under" or "beneath" and the word "tension" meaning "pressure." Together, "hypotension" means low blood pressure. Hypogeal: The word "hypogeal" combines the prefix "hypo-" meaning "under" or "beneath" and the word "geal" meaning "of the earth." Together, "hypogeal" means growing or living under the ground. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/23/202318 minutes, 1 second
Episode Artwork

Common House-hold plant Nomenclature - Ficus Elastica to Pilea Peperomioides

Ficus elastica (Rubber Plant): The Ficus elastica, is a species of fig tree native to Southeast Asia. It derives its common name from its rubbery sap, which is harvested for various commercial purposes. The name Ficus is derived from the Latin word "ficus," meaning "fig," while elastica is derived from the Greek word "elastos," meaning "ductile" or "flexible." Sansevieria trifasciata (Snake Plant): The Sansevieria trifasciata, is a species of flowering plant native to West Africa. It is known for its long, upright leaves and its ability to thrive in low-light conditions. The name Sansevieria is derived from the Italian nobleman Raimondo di Sangro, who was a patron of botany and horticulture. Trifasciata is derived from the Latin words "tri," meaning "three," and "fascia," meaning "band" or "stripe." Epipremnum aureum (Golden Pothos): The Epipremnum aureum, also known as the Devil's Ivy or Golden Pothos, is a species of flowering plant native to Southeast Asia. It is a popular houseplant due to its ease of care and ability to thrive in low-light conditions. The name Epipremnum is derived from the Greek words "epi," meaning "upon," and "premnon," meaning "tree trunk." Aureum means "golden" in Latin. Dracaena fragrans (Corn Plant): The Dracaena fragrans, also known as the Corn Plant, is a species of flowering plant native to tropical Africa. It is known for its long, sword-shaped leaves and its ability to purify the air. The name Dracaena is derived from the Greek word "drakaina," meaning "female dragon." Fragrans means "fragrant" in Latin. Philodendron bipinnatifidum (Split-leaf Philodendron): The Philodendron bipinnatifidum, also known as the Split-leaf Philodendron or Tree Philodendron, is a species of flowering plant native to South America. It is known for its large, split leaves and its ability to grow into a tree-like shape. The name Philodendron is derived from the Greek words "philo," meaning "love," and "dendron," meaning "tree." Bipinnatifidum is derived from the Latin words "bis," meaning "twice," "pinnatus," meaning "feathered," and "fidus," meaning "cleft." Spathiphyllum wallisii (Peace Lily): The Spathiphyllum wallisii, also known as the Peace Lily, is a species of flowering plant native to tropical regions of the Americas and southeastern Asia. It is known for its white flowers and its ability to purify the air. The name Spathiphyllum is derived from the Greek words "spath," meaning "spathe," and "phyllon," meaning "leaf." Chlorophytum comosum (Spider Plant): The Chlorophytum comosum, also known as the Spider Plant, is a species of flowering plant native to tropical and southern Africa. It is known for its long, narrow leaves and its ability to produce "spiderettes," or small plantlets that grow from the main plant. The name Chlorophytum is derived from the Greek words "chloros," meaning "green," and "phyton," meaning "plant." Comosum means "tufted" or "combed" in Latin. Monstera deliciosa (Swiss Cheese Plant): The Monstera deliciosa, also known as the Swiss Cheese Plant or Split-leaf Philodendron, is a species of flowering plant native to tropical regions of Mexico and Central America. It is known for its large, perforated leaves and its ability to grow into a tree-like shape. The name Monstera is derived from the Latin word "monstrum," meaning "monster," due to its unusual appearance. Deliciosa means "delicious" in Latin, as the fruit of the plant is edible. Pilea peperomioides (Chinese Money Plant): The Pilea peperomioides, also known as the Chinese Money Plant or Pancake Plant, is a species of flowering plant native to southern China. It is known for its round, flat leaves and its ability to propagate easily. The name Pilea is derived from the Latin word "pilum," meaning "a pestle," due to the shape of its pistil. Peperomioides is derived from the Latin words "peperi," meaning "pepper," and "oides," meaning "like," due to its resemblance to plants in the genus Peperomia. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/22/202323 minutes, 8 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymology and Understanding "Pathos": A Greek word meaning "suffering" or "experience"

Be sure to follow me on Spotify: https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=5845a6619f0e4b90 Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/latin-in-laymans-a-rhetoric-revolution/id1570726046 Email: [email protected] _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. Etymologically, "empathy" comes from the Greek "empatheia," which means "passion" or "state of emotion." Pathetic: evoking feelings of pity, sadness, or sorrow. Etymologically, "pathetic" comes from the Greek "pathetikos," which means "capable of feeling." Pathology: the study of diseases and their effects. Etymologically, "pathology" comes from the Greek "pathologia," which means "study of suffering." Apathy: lack of interest, enthusiasm, or emotion. Etymologically, "apathy" comes from the Greek "apatheia," which means "freedom from suffering." Sympathy: feelings of pity and sorrow for someone else's misfortune. Etymologically, "sympathy" comes from the Greek "sympatheia," which means "feeling with someone else." Antipathy: a strong feeling of dislike or aversion towards someone or something. Comes from the Greek roots "anti" (against) and "pathos." Pathetic fallacy: a literary device in which inanimate objects are given human emotions or characteristics to reflect the mood of a scene. Comes from the Greek roots "pathos" and "phallos" (deception). Empathetic: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another person. Comes from the Greek roots "em" (in) and "pathos." Pathogen: a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease. Comes from the Greek roots "pathos" and "gen" (to produce). Pathognomonic: a symptom or sign that is characteristic of a particular disease. Comes from the Greek roots "pathos" and "gnomon" (indicator). Sympathetic: showing or feeling concern for someone else's suffering. Comes from the Greek roots "syn" (together) and "pathos." Apathetic: showing or feeling no interest, enthusiasm, or concern. Comes from the Greek roots "a" (not) and "pathos." --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/20/202321 minutes, 20 seconds
Episode Artwork

Q&A with my audience - From faith systems to max lifts to mental health to my love for instruction

Where did you start and develop your love for instruction and teaching? DaSnipa What would you say is your faith system? And further, what is your relationship/history with Christianity or religion? Adam With your passion for the meaning and creation of words, how do you feel about God tasking Adam with naming all the animals in Genesis? Adam What have you learned about yourself recently? What do you think about dating and relationships? Hayden What is your spirit animal? I see your lifting tiktoks on occasion… I’m a big lifter as well. What’s your bodyweight? Max Deadlift, Squat, and Bench? Samwisethegamgeeee Are you an introvert or an extrovert? snitchesgetstitches What qualities are important for you in a partner? How do you set healthy boundaries in a relationship? Robert What do you think about the phrase “you’re the sum of the five people you spend the most time with?” Jam What was your perspective on mental health growing up versus now? lionelmessi --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/14/202351 minutes, 5 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing energy flow in science/the human body and etymologizing as we go!

Metabolism  1878 in the physiology sense of "the sum of the chemical changes within the body by which the protoplasm is renewed, changed, or prepared for excretion,"  from Greek metabole "a change," from metaballein "to change," from meta "change" + ballein "to throw". Chemical  from chemic "of alchemy" (a worn-down derivative of Medieval Latin alchimicus) + -al (of or pertaining to). Catabolic   1876, katabolism, "destructive metabolism,"  from Greek from kata "down" + ballein "to throw". Anabolic "pertaining to the process of building up" (especially in metabolism), 1876, with -ic + Greek from ana "up, upward"  + ballein "to throw." Reactant  1640s, "to exert, as a thing acted upon, an opposite action upon the agent," from re- "back" + “act” from Latin actus, past participle of agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform," Product early 15c., "mathematical quantity obtained by multiplication," from Medieval Latin productum, in classical Latin "something produced," noun use of neuter past participle of producere "bring forth" Endothermic Endo- word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," from Greek endon "in, within."   from Greek therme "heat, feverish heat." Exothermic  from Greek exō (adv.) "outside," related to ex (prep.) "out of"  from Greek therme "heat, feverish heat."  Enzyme from Modern Greek enzymos "leavened," from en "in/within" + zymē "leaven"  En+zyme = “Leavened within/in” Hence, where we get leavened bread: substance, typically yeast, that is used in dough to make it rise. Catalyst 1650s, "dissolution,"  from Latinized form of Greek katalysis "dissolution, a dissolving"  from kata "down" (or "completely"), + lyein "to loosen" Denaturation from Latin de "down, down from, from, off; concerning" (see de), also used as a prefix in Latin, usually meaning "down, off, away, from among, down from," (defenestration; the action of throwing someone out of a window.)  Fenestra (latin noun); window from Latin natura "course of things; natural character, constitution, quality; the universe," literally "birth," from natus "born," past participle of nasci "to be born," Consumer  from Latin consumere "to use up, eat, waste," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix + sumere "to take,"  from sub- "under" + emere "to buy, take" Carnivore   from Latin carnivorus "flesh-eating"  Omnivore  formed from omnivorous on model of carnivore/carnivorous. French omnivore was noted as a neologism in that language in 1801 and might be the direct source of the English word. Aerobic  from Greek aero- "air" + bios "life"  Anaerobic  from Greek an- "without" + aēr "air" + bios "life" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/13/202315 minutes, 36 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding a Passive vs. Active sentence - Be able to delineate, manipulate, and turn an active sentence into a passive sentence (and vice versa) in both English and Latin

There are three important rules to remember here:  (1) the subject is acted upon in a passive sentence;  (2) the letter ‘r’ is the most common indicator of the passive voice in the Latin present tense system;  (3) passive verbs expect agents.  Ok, let’s start with the basics. Passive is a voice. It’s the opposite of active. Simple. I could say it also complements the “yin” to active’s “yang,” but I don’t care much to do so. Anyways, in essence, what the passive voice does is move the action of the verb backwards toward the subject rather than forward toward a direct object. Conversely, active verbs move the action of the verb from the subject toward a direct object. Thus, in principle, passive verbs do not take direct objects. In English, passive verb forms typically involve some form of the verb “to be,” such as:   “I am praised,” which is passive, vs. “I praise,” which is active.  “ we were warned,” which is passive, as opposed to “we warned,” which is active.   “they will be held,” which is passive, as opposed to “they will hold,” which is active.  Note: It’s important in English to recognize that when “be” is added to a verb form, it doesn’t always make the verb passive. The addition of a form of the verb “to be” can also make the verb continual.  Here’s how to tell those forms apart: a “be” form, combined with a verb that has a participle ending “-ing,” is active, whereas a “be” form, combined with a verb that has a participle ending “-ed,” is passive.  For example: “I am praising” which is active, vs. “I am praised, being praised” which is passive; or the active form “we were warning” vs. the passive form “we were warned.” There’s a very easy way to be certain you’re dealing with a passive form and not a continual form: if it makes sense to add “by someone” after the verb form.  Whenever you can, the verb form is passive. For example, it makes sense to say “We were warned by someone,” whereas it makes no sense to say “We were warning by someone.”  Now let’s look at how the passive voice works grammatically. We’ll start with an active sentence: “Students study Latin.” If we take the active verb “study” and we make it passive by adding the verb “to be” and adding “-ed” to the end of the verb with the result that “study” becomes “is studied,” then turn the direct object of the active sentence “Latin” into the subject of the passive sentence, we end up with the passive sentence “Latin is studied.” Notice it means the same thing: Latin is being studied. But it leaves one thing out: who is doing the studying? If you want to include that in the passive sentence, you must take the subject of the active form (“students”), put it after the passive verb (“is studied”), and append “by” to the front of “students.” The result is: “Latin is studied by students.” The grammatical term for “by students” is the agent. We’ll chat more about that later.  Notice that, while both sentences say the same thing, the action of the verb runs in exact opposite directions.  In the active sentence, it moves from left to right, from the subject to the direct object.  But when the verb is changed to passive, the action runs right to left, toward the subject and from the agent. Here’s the first sentence: “I explained the passive voice.” So, what’s the direct object (Accusative) here? The passive voice. Now, let’s make that the subject (Nominative), add a form of “to be” to the verb (in the right tense, that is) and make the subject the agent, or in layman's deal-io, put “by” in front of it. The result is: “The passive voice was explained by me.”  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/6/202334 minutes, 7 seconds
Episode Artwork

Physiology, Kinesiology, and Anatomy Etymology

Physiology:  • Anatomy: The study of the structure and organization of living things.  From the Greek anathomē, meaning “cutting up” or “dissection.”  • Biomechanics: The study of the mechanical properties of living tissue and how they interact with the environment. From the Greek bios, meaning “life”, and the Latin mecanicus, meaning “mechanics.”  • Cardiovascular: The study of the heart and its function in the body. From the Latin cardiovasculum, meaning “heart vessel”. • Endocrinology: The study of the endocrine system and hormones, and their effects on the body. From the Greek endon, meaning “within”, and krinein, meaning “to separate”. • Neurophysiology: The study of the nervous system and its functions. From the Greek neuron, meaning “nerve”, and physiologia, meaning “natural science”. • Physiological Adaptation: The process by which the body changes to accommodate new environmental conditions. From the Latin adaptare, meaning “to fit”. • Respiration: The process by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the body. From the Latin respirare, meaning “to breathe”.  • Skeletal System: The study of the bones, joints, and cartilage in the body. From the Latin skeletum, meaning “dried up” or “dry”.  • Thermoregulation: The study of the regulation of body temperature. From the Greek thermos, meaning “heat”, and the Latin regulare, meaning “to rule”.  Kinesiology:  • Biomechanics: The study of the mechanical properties of living tissue and how they interact with the environment. From the Greek bios, meaning “life”, and the Latin mecanicus, meaning “mechanics.”  • Exercise Physiology: The study of the physiological responses and adaptations to physical activity. From the Latin exercitare, meaning “to train”.  • Human Movement: The study of the body’s movements and the coordination and control of muscular activity. From the Latin humanus, meaning “human”, and the Greek movere, meaning “to move”.  • Kinetics: The study of motion and its effects on the body. From the Greek kinesis, meaning “motion”. • Motor Control: The study of the coordination, control, and organization of movement. From the Latin motus, meaning “motion”, and the Latin controlare, meaning “to control”.  • Motor Development: The study of the development of motor skills throughout the life cycle. From the Latin motus, meaning “motion”, and the Latin developere, meaning “to unfold”.  • Musculoskeletal System: The study of the muscles, bones, and joints of the body. From the Latin musculus, meaning “muscle”, and the Greek skelēton, meaning “skeleton”.  • Neuromuscular Physiology: The study of the nervous system and its effects on the muscles. From the Greek neuron, meaning “nerve”, and the Latin musculus, meaning “muscle”.  • Sports Medicine: The study of the prevention and treatment of sports-related injuries. From the Latin sporta, meaning “a game”, and the Latin mederi, meaning “to heal”.  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/5/202316 minutes, 9 seconds
Episode Artwork

Anesthesia and deriving words from the Greek Root "aisthēsis"

1. Anesthesia (noun): a loss of sensation or awareness, brought on by the administration of drugs or other agents. Etymological definition: derived from the Greek root “-thesia” meaning “sensation” or “feeling”. 2. Anesthetic (adjective): relating to a lack of sensation or awareness. Etymological definition: derived from the Greek root “-thesia” meaning “sensation” or “feeling”. 3. Paresthesia (noun): abnormal or altered sensation such as tingling, burning, or prickling. Etymological definition: derived from the Greek root “-thesia” meaning “sensation” or “feeling”. 4. Euthesia (noun): a healthy or normal sensation. Etymological definition: derived from the Greek root “-thesia” meaning “sensation” or “feeling”. 5. Hypoesthesia (noun): diminished sensation in an area of the body. Etymological definition: derived from the Greek root “-thesia” meaning “sensation” or “feeling”. 6. Hyperesthesia (noun): an abnormally increased sensitivity to an external stimulus. Etymological definition: derived from the Greek root “-thesia” meaning “sensation” or “feeling”. 7. Aisthesis (noun): a feeling or awareness of the environment through physical sensation, such as smell, taste, touch, and sight; Etymology: From the Greek root aisthēsis, “sensation, perception”. 8. Aisthetikos (adjective): relating to or characterized by sensory perception; Etymology: From the Greek root aisthēsis, “sensation, perception”. 9. Aisthetikē (adverb): in a way that relies on sensory perception; Etymology: From the Greek root aisthēsis, “sensation, perception”. 10. Aisthētikos (noun): a person who is sensitive to or has a keen sense of aesthetics; Etymology: From the Greek root aisthēsis, “sensation, perception”. 11. Aisthētic (adjective): relating to the appreciation of beauty; Etymology: From the Greek root aisthēsis, “sensation, perception”. 7. Aisthesiometer (noun): an instrument used to measure sensitivity to touch or other physical sensation; Etymology: From the Greek root aisthēsis, “sensation, perception”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
5/3/202315 minutes, 32 seconds
Episode Artwork

Once upon a time... Pandora, the "all-gifted"

Once upon a time, there was a woman named Pandora. Pandora was the first woman ever created and she was made by the Greek gods, who gave her many skills and talents. She was an incredibly curious woman who loved to explore the world, learn new things and discover secrets. One day, the gods presented Pandora with a mysterious box. They warned her that the box contained a deadly secret and instructed her to never open it. But Pandora was so temptingly curious that she soon found herself having to open the box and discover the secret hidden inside. When she opened the box a powerful gust of wind escaped and carried with it a myriad of sorrows and suffering, which were released into the world. These sorrows and suffering included jealousy, hatred, greed and despair. The only thing that remained in the box was Hope. Pandora quickly shut the box and tried her best to contain the sorrows and suffering, but it was too late - the damage had already been done. Although Pandora had caused immense harm to the world, Hope remained as a reminder that even the most difficult of times can be overcome through inner strength and resilience. Hope taught us to never give up, to never give in to despair and to always remember that things can change for the better. So, no matter how difficult life can be, let Hope be the guiding light that will lead you through even the darkest of times. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/30/202314 minutes, 59 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing and etymologizing the Hormones released by the Hypothalamus

The term hypothalamus originates from the Greek words "hypo" and "thalamus," which mean "below" and "chamber," respectively. This term was first coined by German anatomist Johann Christian Reil in 1809. The hypothalamus is a small region of the brain located at the base of the brain, just above the brain stem. It is responsible for regulating homeostasis and controlling many of the body’s automatic responses such as hunger, thirst, body temperature, and hormones. It also plays a role in emotion and behavior. The hypothalamus is responsible for releasing hormones that help to regulate other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and autonomic nervous systems. It is connected to the pituitary gland, which helps to control the release of hormones from the hypothalamus. 1. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH): A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. Etymologically, its name is derived from the Greek words ‘kortiko’, meaning ‘outer’ and ‘tropin’, which means ‘to turn’. 2. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH): A peptide hormone released by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the pituitary gland. Its name is derived from the Greek words ‘gonad’, meaning ‘ovaries’ and ‘tropin’, meaning ‘to turn’. 3. Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH): A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland. Its name is derived from the Greek words ‘thyro’, meaning ‘thyroid’ and ‘tropin’, meaning ‘to turn’. 4. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH): A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of growth hormone (GH) from the pituitary gland. Its name is derived from the Greek words ‘growth’ and ‘tropin’, meaning ‘to turn’. 5. Prolactin-Releasing Hormone (PRH): A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the release of prolactin (PRL) from the pituitary gland. Its name is derived from the Greek words ‘pro’, meaning ‘in front of’ and ‘lactin’, meaning ‘milk’. 6. Oxytocin: A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus that stimulates the contraction of the uterus and milk production. Its name is derived from the Greek words ‘oxys’, meaning ‘swift’ and ‘tocos’, meaning ‘birth’. 7. Vasopressin (ADH): A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus that regulates water balance in the body and increases blood pressure. Its name is derived from the Latin words ‘vas’, meaning ‘vessel’ and ‘press’, meaning ‘to press’. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/29/202319 minutes, 35 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing terms associated with bodybuilding, hypertrophy, physiology, and kinesiology (No bro science here, bub!)

Hypertrophy: Hypertrophy is the enlargement of an organ or tissue due to an increase in the size of its component cells. It generally occurs when the cells in the organ or tissue are exposed to increased levels of work or stress. The term is derived from the Greek words “hyper” meaning “over” and “trophe” meaning “nourishment.” Atrophy: Atrophy is the opposite of hypertrophy, and is the decrease in the size of an organ or tissue due to a decrease in the size of its component cells. It generally occurs when the cells in the organ or tissue are exposed to decreased levels of work or stress. The term is derived from the Greek words “a” meaning “without” and “trophe” meaning “nourishment.” Troph: Troph is the Greek root of the terms hypertrophy and atrophy, and is derived from the Greek word “trophe” meaning “nourishment.” Anabolic: An anabolic process is a type of metabolic process that involves the building of molecules from smaller components. It is the opposite of a catabolic process. The term comes from the Greek “anabole” meaning “to throw up” or “to build up.” Catabolic: Catabolic processes are metabolic processes that involve the breaking down of molecules into smaller components. It is the opposite of an anabolic process. The term comes from the Greek “katabole” meaning “to throw down” or “to break down.” Adduction: Adduction is the movement of a limb or body part towards the midline of the body. The term comes from the Latin “adducere” meaning “to lead to.” Hip Abduction: Hip abduction is the movement of the leg away from the midline of the body. The term comes from the Latin “abducere” meaning “to lead away.” Hip Adduction: Hip adduction is the movement of the leg towards the midline of the body. The term comes from the Latin “adducere” meaning “to lead to.” Extension: Extension is the movement of a limb or body part away from the midline of the body. The term comes from the Latin “extendere” meaning “to stretch out.” Flexion: Flexion is the movement of a limb or body part towards the midline of the body. The term comes from the Latin “flexus” meaning “bent.” Supination: Supination is the rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces up or forwards. The term comes from the Latin “supinatus” meaning “bent backwards.” Pronation: Pronation is the rotation of the forearm so that the palm faces down or backwards. The term comes from the Latin “pronatus” meaning “bent forwards.” Anatomical: Anatomical is an adjective relating to the scientific study of the structure of living organisms. The term comes from the Greek “anatome” meaning “cutting up.” Insulin: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate the body’s blood sugar levels. The term comes from the Latin “insula” meaning “island.” Hormone: A hormone is a chemical messenger released by the endocrine system to regulate bodily functions. The term comes from the Greek “hormon” meaning “to excite or stir up.” Testosterone: Testosterone is a hormone produced by the testes that is responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics. The term comes from the Latin “testis” meaning “testicle” and “sterol” meaning “solid.” Estrogen: Estrogen is a hormone produced by the ovaries that is responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics. The term comes from the Latin “oestrus” meaning “heat” and “genesis” meaning “origin.” Dorsiflexion: Dorsiflexion is the movement of the foot so that the toes are brought towards the shin. The term comes from the Latin “dorsum” meaning “back” and “flexus” meaning “bent.” Plantarflexion: Plantarflexion is the movement of the foot so that the toes are pointed away from the shin. The term comes from the Latin “planta” meaning “sole” and “flexus” meaning “bent.” Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is involved in the female menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The name progesterone is derived from the Latin pro- ("before") and gestare ("to carry, bear"), meaning "to carry before." --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/28/202319 minutes, 27 seconds
Episode Artwork

Sisyphus - Accepting the sufferings of life

The etymological significance of the Myth of Sisyphus is also important. The name Sisyphus itself is derived from the Greek word sisyphein, which translates to “to toil.” This serves as a reminder that life is often hard work and that we should not be discouraged by the challenges we face. Once upon a time, a long, long, long time ago. Far off, ina far away land, lived a man named Sisyphus. Sisyphus was a vain and arrogant king who believed himself to be above the laws of gods and men. He boasted of his power and bragged that he could outwit even the gods. His pride was eventually his downfall; Zeus, angered by his hubris, punished Sisyphus to an eternity of labor. The labor that Sisyphus was sentenced to was to roll a boulder up a hill. Every time he reached the top and thought he was finished, the boulder would roll back down and he would have to start again. This is a metaphor for the futility of life, and the impossibility of achieving lasting success. The moral implications of the Myth of Sisyphus are profound. It serves as a reminder that pride and arrogance are dangerous, and that our lives are fleeting and fragile. It also teaches us that our efforts, no matter how hard we try, may not always be rewarded. There is a lesson in the myth that life is often a series of struggles and setbacks, and that it is important to accept the limitations of our own power and strive for a balance between ambition and humility. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/26/202314 minutes, 55 seconds
Episode Artwork

Once upon a time, Narcissus... Discussing mythology, hubris, and where the term "narcissist" came from

Wordpress: https://latininlaymansarhetoricrevolution.wordpress.com/ Myth written by me and narrated by me and adapted by me! Once upon a time there lived a youth of extraordinary beauty named Narcissus. He was admired and adored by all who beheld him, and many sought to court him, only to be rejected. His haughty attitude and rejection of the affections of others only served to amplify his appeal, and so Narcissus became a symbol of the power of beauty and a cautionary tale of the dangers of hubris. One day, Narcissus was walking along the banks of a river when he was overcome by his own beauty and stopped to admire his reflection in the water. Though he had rejected the affections of so many, Narcissus was unable to resist his own charms, and he was consumed by an all-consuming love for himself. He became so enamored with his reflection that he stayed there, transfixed, until he eventually died of starvation, his body transforming into the flower that now bears his name. The myth of Narcissus serves as a warning of the dangers of vanity and pride, and a reminder that too much of anything, even of one's own beauty, can be detrimental. In modern times, this timeless lesson is as relevant as ever. The dangers of narcissism and its associated hubris can be seen in the way that people prioritize their own desires and needs over the well-being of others, leading to a breakdown of relationships and a lack of empathy. The story of Narcissus is a reminder that we should all strive to be mindful of the impact of our actions and to be mindful of our own vanity. It’s kind of a double-edged sword.. Narcissism in the modern world is an increasingly common trait, particularly among millennials and younger generations. It is seen in the way people talk about themselves, how they present themselves online, and the way they interact with others. Narcissism can manifest itself in a variety of ways, such as arrogance, entitlement, and a desire for constant validation and admiration from others. It can also lead to a lack of empathy and an inability to accept criticism. At the same time, narcissism can also be beneficial in certain aspects of life. It can give people the confidence and self-belief to achieve their goals, and it can also help them to stand out from the crowd. While it can be a positive trait, it is important to remember that it can be taken to extremes, leading to toxic behavior. It is important to be mindful of the impact that narcissism can have on relationships and try to strike a balance between self-confidence and respect for others. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/23/202335 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Q&A Episode! Discussing language manipulation in the modern world, why our world is so depressed and anxious, the weight of words used throughout history, an much more!

1. What inspired you to create a podcast that focuses on the intersection of language, linguistics, and etymology to the modern world? 12569mmmmmmhmmmmm 2. As an adolescent young man, what did you find to be the biggest struggles and what advice would you give to young adults seeking to navigate the tumultuous world of language, linguistics, and etymology? Why are young men becoming increasingly more depressed, anxious, sad, and angry in our modern world? Libraliberating 3. How has the etymology of words evolved to reflect, and even perpetuate, current problems in society?  gunsmas 4. What linguistic patterns are used to identify and address the most pressing societal issues? idontlikeleakygut 5. How has the development of language impacted our understanding of various social issues? watsupindaclub 6. How has the language of privilege and oppression evolved over time, and how does it continue to shape our world today? snoopysnoop 7. How has the etymology of certain words and terms evolved over the past few centuries to reflect societal change? transcheezits --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/22/202346 minutes, 53 seconds
Episode Artwork

Medical conditions associated with smooth muscles, providing their definitions, symptomatology, and etymology associated with each pathology

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): GERD is a condition in which stomach acid or other contents of the stomach flow back into the esophagus, causing pain and discomfort. Symptoms include heartburn, regurgitation, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and a sour taste in the mouth. The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek words “gastro” (stomach) and “esophagus” (throat). 2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): IBS is a disorder of the large intestine that causes abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. Symptoms may include cramping, diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain. The etymology of the term is derived from the Latin words “irritabilis” (irritable) and “colon” (large intestine). 3. Diverticulitis: Diverticulitis is a condition in which small bulging pouches, called diverticula, form in the wall of the large intestine. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, cramps, diarrhea, constipation, and fever. The etymology of the term is derived from the Latin words “diverticulum” (pouch) and “itis” (inflammation). The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek root “divertikulos” (small pouch) and “itis” (inflammation). 4. Uterine Fibroids: Uterine fibroids are noncancerous growths in the uterus that can cause heavy menstrual bleeding, pelvic pressure, and pain. The etymology of the term is derived from the Latin words “uterus” (womb) and “fibra” (fibrous tissue). 5. Abdominal Migraines: Abdominal migraines are recurrent episodes of abdominal pain that may be accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The etymology of the term is derived from the Latin words “abdomen” (stomach) and “migraine” (severe headache). 6. Gastroparesis: Gastroparesis is a condition in which the stomach muscles are weak and food empties slowly from the stomach. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, bloating, and abdominal pain. The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek words “gastro” (stomach) and “paresis” (weakness). ____________________________________________________________________________ I. Pyelitis: Pyelitis is a medical condition in which the pyelum (the area around the kidney) is inflamed. Symptoms include lower back pain, fever, and pain or discomfort when urinating. The cause is usually bacterial or viral. The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek root “pyel” (kidney) and “itis” (inflammation). II. Esophageal Spasm: Esophageal spasm occurs when normal muscle contractions in the esophagus become either too strong or too weak. Symptoms include chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and heartburn. It is typically caused by underlying health conditions such as GERD, scleroderma, or diabetes. The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek root “esophagos” (throat) and “spasm” (muscle contraction). III. Gastritis: Gastritis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the stomach lining. Symptoms may include stomach pains, nausea, vomiting, and/or loss of appetite. It is typically caused by bacterial infections, prolonged use of certain medications, or chronic alcohol use. The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek root “gaster” (stomach) and “itis” (inflammation). V. Urethritis: Urethritis is a medical condition that occurs when the urethra becomes inflamed, usually due to a bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms may include pain or burning while urinating, discomfort in the area around the urethra, and/or excess urinary frequency. The etymology of the term is derived from the Greek root “oura” (urine) and “itis” (inflammation). --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/15/202340 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing eating disorders as well as their etymological derivations and meanings associated with

Eating Disorders: 1. Anorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by extreme and dangerous weight loss through voluntary starvation. It is mainly caused by a distorted body image and a fear of becoming overweight. Derived from the Latin “anorexis nervosus”, meaning “nervous lack of appetite”. 2. Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed by purging, excessive exercising or fasting, to prevent from weight gain. The name is derived from the Greek “boulimia”, meaning “ravenous hunger”. 3. Binge Eating Disorder: An eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, usually accompanied by feelings of guilt, shame, disgust and/or lack of control. The term is derived from the Latin “bingidus”, meaning “excessive consumption”. 6. Orthorexia Nervosa: An eating disorder characterized by an obsessive focus on eating healthy foods and a fear of eating unhealthy foods, which can lead to a reduction in variety and an over-restriction in food intake. The term is derived from the Greek “ortho,” meaning “correct” or “corrective” and “rexis” meaning “appetite”. 7. Pica: An eating disorder characterized by the excessive ingestion of non-nutritive substances such as paint, plaster, grass, wax, paper, soap and clay. The term is derived from the Latin “pica,” meaning “to feed like a magpie”. 8. Rumination Syndrome: An eating disorder characterized by the repetitive physical act of regurgitating partially digested food, which is then re-chewed and re-swallowed. The term is derived from the Latin “ruminare,” meaning “to chew the cud”. 9. Compulsive Overeating: An eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of overeating, which can lead to feelings of guilt, shame and distress. The term derives from the Latin “compulsus”, meaning “urged or driven by impulse”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/12/202323 minutes, 14 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing generalized mental illnesses/disorders as well as their etymological derivations and meanings

Generalized Mental Disorders: 1. Anxiety: Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and physical changes like increased blood pressure. Anxiety disorders often involve intense, excessive, and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. The etymology of the word “anxiety” is derived from the Latin anxietas, meaning “anxiety, agitation, distress.” 2. Depression: Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest in activities. It affects how you feel, think, and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. The word “depression” is derived from the Latin word depressio, meaning “lowered.” 3. Bipolar Disorder: Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of elevated mood. It is also known as “manic-depressive disorder” and is one of the most common mental illnesses. The etymology of the word “bipolar” is derived from the Latin words biparus and bi-polaris, meaning “two poles.” 4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): PTSD is a mental health condition triggered by a traumatic event. It can cause intrusive thoughts, nightmares, flashbacks, and difficulty sleeping. The etymology of the word “post-traumatic” is derived from the Latin post, meaning “after,” and traumaticus, meaning “injury or wound.” 5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD): OCD is a mental disorder characterized by obsessions (recurrent and persistent thoughts, feelings, or urges) and compulsions (repetitive behaviors or mental acts). The etymology of the word “obsessive” is derived from the Latin obsessio, meaning “besiege.” The word “compulsive” comes from the Latin compulsio, meaning “compel.” 2. Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to recognize what is real. The etymology of the word “schizophrenia” comes from the Greek words schizein, meaning “to split,” and phren, meaning “mind.” 7. Addiction - Addiction is a mental health condition characterized by a compulsive engagement in substance use or other behaviors, despite associated risks and consequences. People with addiction may find it difficult to quit these behaviors, despite their awareness of negative outcomes. Etymologically speaking, the word addiction derives from the Latin verb addicere, which means to bind or surrender. 8. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - ADHD is a mental disorder characterized by a pattern of impaired attention control and hyperactive, impulsive behavior. People with ADHD may find it difficult to focus on tasks or remain productive, may become easily distracted or aroused, and may be prone to acting without thinking. Etymology: The term Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) dates back to 1902 when George Still described what has come to be known as the “Still’s disease” of childhood. ADHD was first formally recognized as a mental disorder in 1980 and has been a part of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) ever since. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/9/202326 minutes, 42 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing my issues with inflammation and the nuances of the prefix "in-/im-/il-"

The word “inflammation” is derived from the Latin verb “inflammare”, which means “to set on fire”. This provides insight into the actual definition of inflammation, which is a protective response of the body to injury or infection. It is characterized by redness, warmth, swelling, and pain, and is the body’s attempt to remove harmful stimuli, such as damaged cells, irritants, or pathogens, and to begin the healing process. 1. Inadequate: Not sufficient, lacking in quality. Etymologically, this word comes from the Latin in- and adaequare, meaning "not equal". 2. Inanimate: Not alive; without life or animation. Etymologically, this word comes from the Latin in- and anima, meaning "without spirit". 3. Inaudible: Not able to be heard. Etymologically, this word comes from the Latin in- and audire, meaning "not to hear". 4. Illogical: Not rational, not based on sound reasoning. Etymologically, this word comes from the Latin illogicus, meaning "not reasonable". 5. Immaterial: Not composed of physical matter; having no material form. Etymologically, this word comes from the Latin in- and materia, meaning "without matter". 6. Impossible: Not able to be done or accomplished. Etymologically, this word comes from the Latin in- and possibilis, meaning "not able to be done". 7. Inaction: not taking action; inactive. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “inactus”, meaning “not active”. 8. Inadaptable: not able to adjust. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “inadaptabilis”, meaning “not able to be adapted”. 9. Impertinent: not appropriate; rude. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “impertinens”, meaning “not pertinent”. 10. Illiterate: not able to read; ignorant. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “illiteratus”, meaning “not literate”. 11. Impenetrable: not penetrable; impossible to understand. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “impenetrabilis”, meaning “not able to be penetrated”. 12. Impolite: not polite; rude. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “impolitus”, meaning “not polished”. 13. Incompatible: not compatible; unable to coexist. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “incomparabilis”, meaning “not equal”. 14. Impractical: not practical; not useful. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin, “impracticus”, meaning “not able to be done”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/8/202319 minutes, 57 seconds
Episode Artwork

Question from an audience member: How to best deal with classroom management.

1. Set clear expectations: Clearly articulate your expectations for student behavior and performance in the classroom. Make sure that students understand the rules and consequences for not following them. 2. Establish a positive environment: Create an inviting and supportive learning environment by maintaining a positive attitude and view of students’ potential. 3. Use positive reinforcement: Whenever possible, recognize and reward good behavior. This could be verbal praise, stickers, or a small reward. 4. Address misbehavior quickly: Address misbehavior quickly and consistently, and use appropriate consequences. 5. Encourage student participation: Allow students to participate in the classroom by asking questions, sharing ideas, and collaborating with their peers. 6. Utilize technology: Technology can be a great tool for classroom management. Consider using a classroom management software to help manage student behavior and stay organized. 7. Communicate with parents: Communicate regularly with parents about their child’s behavior and performance in the classroom. This will help create a positive relationship between home and school. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/6/202323 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing and etymologizing 20 interesting words you can incorporate in your vocabulary today!

1. Abstruse (adj.): Difficult to understand; obscure; of etymology, derived from the Latin abstrusus, meaning “concealed.” 2. Ambrosial (adj.): Divinely fragrant; of etymology, derived from the Greek ambrotos, meaning “immortal.” 3. Auspicious (adj.): Of good omen; promising; of etymology, derived from the Latin auspicium, meaning “divination.” 4. Ballyhoo (n.): Exaggerated promotion or publicity; of etymology, derived from the Irish béal átha huí, meaning “mouth of the ford of the yew tree.” 5. Benighted (adj.): Unenlightened; ignorant; of etymology, derived from the Middle English benyhte, meaning “nightfall.” 6. Bifurcate (v.): To divide into two branches or parts; of etymology, derived from the Latin bifurcatio, meaning “to divide in two.” 7. Bloviate (v.): To speak pompously; of etymology, derived from the Latin bloviatus, meaning “to blow out.” 8. Brouhaha (n.): A confused noise, uproar, or hubbub; of etymology, derived from the French brouhaha, meaning “a confused noise.” 9. Cacophony (n.): A harsh, unpleasant sound; of etymology, derived from the Greek kakophōnía, meaning “ill-sounding.” 10. Conflagration (n.): A large, destructive fire; of etymology, derived from the Latin conflagratio, meaning “a burning together.” 11. Delirious (adj.): In a state of wild excitement; of etymology, derived from the Latin delirare, meaning “to be out of one’s mind.” 12. Disingenuous (adj.): Not straightforward or candid; of etymology, derived from the Latin disingenuus, meaning “unnatural.” 13. Effervescent (adj.): Bubbly; lively; of etymology, derived from the Latin effervescere, meaning “to boil up.” 14. Elucidate (v.): To make clear; explain; of etymology, derived from the Latin elucidare, meaning “to make light.” 15. Epiphany (n.): A sudden, intuitive revelation of a truth; of etymology, derived from the Greek epiphaneia, meaning “manifestation.” 16. Fatuous (adj.): Silly; foolish; of etymology, derived from the Latin fatuus, meaning “foolish.” 17. Fulminate (v.): To speak or act with vehement denunciation; of etymology, derived from the Latin fulminare, meaning “to hurl lightning.” 18. Grandiloquent (adj.): Pompous or bombastic in speech; of etymology, derived from the Latin grandiloquus, meaning “speaking grandly.” 19. Harangue (n.): A long, passionate, and vehement speech; of etymology, derived from the French haranguer, meaning “to address.” 20. Imbroglio (n.): A complicated and confused situation; of etymology, derived from the Italian imbrogliare, meaning “to confuse.” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/6/202322 minutes, 2 seconds
Episode Artwork

A meaningful Q&A with my audience - From failures to motivations to life's most important things and all things in-between

1. What has been the most meaningful experience of your life so far? steeeeAAzy 2. How do you define success? latininlaydudemanbro 3. What do you believe is the key to a fulfilling life? cstrevel 4. What has been the most difficult lesson you've learned in life? rich 5. What advice would you give to your younger self? bbest 6. What do you believe is the most important thing to prioritize in life? sunkissedbri 7. What has been your biggest mistake and what did you learn from it? allaboutemia 8. How do you handle failure? guy 9. What motivates you to keep going? yepyep546 10. What do you think is the most important thing in life? christopherwalken --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
4/2/202357 minutes, 39 seconds
Episode Artwork

From Cranium to Phalanges - Discussing the skeletal system through Etymology

1. Cranium: The skull, or the bone that houses and protects the brain. Etymologically, the word “cranium” comes from the Latin “cranium”, meaning “skull”. 2. Maxilla: The upper jawbone, which forms the upper part of the face and houses the upper teeth. The word “maxilla” comes from the Latin “maxilla”, meaning “jawbone”. 3. Mandible: The lower jawbone, which forms the lower part of the face and houses the lower teeth. The word “mandible” comes from the Latin “mandibula”, meaning “lower jaw”. 4. Clavicle: The collarbone, which connects the shoulder blade to the sternum. The word “clavicle” comes from the Latin “clavicula”, meaning “small key”. 5. Scapula: The shoulder blade, which connects the upper arm to the rib cage. The word “scapula” comes from the Latin “scapula”, meaning “shoulder blade”. 6. Ribs: The bones of the rib cage, which protect the chest organs. The word “ribs” comes from the Old English “ribban”, meaning “ribs”. 7. Sternum: The breastbone, which connects the ribs and provides support for the chest organs. The word “sternum” comes from the Latin “sternum”, meaning “chest”. 8. Vertebrae: The bones of the spine, which form the spinal column. The word “vertebrae” comes from the Latin “vertebra”, meaning “joint”. 9. Sacrum: The triangular bone at the base of the spine, which connects the spine to the hipbones. The word “sacrum” comes from the Latin “sacrum”, meaning “sacred”. 10. Coccyx: The tailbone, which is the remnant of the tail in humans. The word “coccyx” comes from the Greek “kokkyx”, meaning “cuckoo”. 11. Pelvis: The pelvic bone, which connects the legs to the spine. The word “pelvis” comes from the Latin “pelvis”, meaning “basin”. 12. Femur: The thigh bone, which is the longest bone in the body. The word “femur” comes from the Latin “femur”, meaning “thigh”. 13. Patella: The kneecap, which provides protection and stability to the knee joint. The word “patella” comes from the Latin “patella”, meaning “plate”. 14. Tarsals: The seven bones of the ankle, which form the ankle joint. The word “tarsals” comes from the Latin “tarsus”, meaning “ankle”. 15. Metatarsals: The five bones of the foot, which form the arch of the foot. The word “metatarsals” comes from the Greek “metatarsos”, meaning “longer bones”. 16. Phalanges: The bones of the fingers and toes, which form the joints of the hands and feet. The word “phalanges” comes from the Greek “phalanges”, meaning “fingers”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/30/20239 minutes, 56 seconds
Episode Artwork

The Musculature of the Body, broken down through Latin

1. Abdominis rectus – Latin for “straight abdomen”; a flat, broad muscle in the front of the abdomen, which, when contracted, flexes the trunk forward. 2. Adductor longus – Latin for “long adductor”; a muscle that adducts the thigh, joining it to the trunk. 3. Adductor magnus – Latin for “great adductor”; a large triangular muscle of the thigh which adducts, medially rotates and flexes the thigh at the hip joint. 4. Biceps brachii – Latin for “two headed muscle of the arm”; a muscle which flexes the elbow joint and supinates the forearm. 5. Brachialis – Latin for “arm”; a muscle that flexes the elbow joint and assists in the supination of the forearm. 6. Brachioradialis – Latin for “arm-radius”; a muscle that flexes the elbow joint. 7. Deltoideus – Latin for “triangular”; a muscle which covers the shoulder joint and abducts, flexes, and extends the arm. 8. Extensor carpi ulnaris – Latin for “extender of the arm ulna”; a muscle that extends and adducts the wrist. 9. Gluteus maximus – Latin for “greatest buttock”; a large muscle that extends and laterally rotates the thigh and supports the body. 10. Iliopsoas – Latin for “loin-hip”; a muscle consisting of the psoas major, psoas minor, and iliacus, which flexes the thigh at the hip joint. 11. Infraspinatus – Latin for “below the shoulder blade”; a muscle that abducts and laterally rotates the humerus. 12. Latissimus dorsi – Latin for “broadest back”; a large, flat, triangular muscle that adducts and medially rotates the humerus and extends the spine. 13. Levator scapulae – Latin for “shoulder blade lifter”; a muscle that elevates the scapula and rotates it downward. 14. Pectoralis major – Latin for “greater chest”; a large, fan-shaped muscle that originates on the sternum and clavicle, and inserts on the humerus. It flexes, adducts, and medially rotates the arm. 15. Pectoralis minor – Latin for “lesser chest”; a small muscle that originates on the ribs and inserts on the scapula. It depresses and protracts the scapula. 16. Pronator teres – Latin for “thumb turner”; a muscle that pronates the forearm. 17. Quadriceps femoris – Latin for “four headed muscle of the thigh”; a muscle group consisting of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis, which extend the knee joint. 18. Serratus anterior – Latin for “saw-toothed front”; a muscle that protracts and rotates the scapula. 19. Soleus – Latin for “sole”; a muscle of the calf that plantar flexes the foot. 20. Splenius capitis – Latin for “head band”; a muscle that extends and laterally flexes the head. 21. Sternocleidomastoid – Latin for “sternum-cleido-mastoid”; a muscle that flexes, laterally flexes, and rotates the head. 22. Trapezius – Latin for “trapezoid”; a muscle that extends and elevates the scapula. 23. Triceps brachii – Latin for “three headed muscle of the arm”; a muscle that extends the elbow joint. 24. Tensor fasciae latae – Latin for “taut band of the thigh”; a muscle that abducts, flexes, and medially rotates the thigh. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/29/202324 minutes, 24 seconds
Episode Artwork

Just some Legal Nomenclature glossed and Etymologized

1. Adjudication: Adjudication is the legal process of resolving disputes and determining rights and obligations of the parties. The term comes from the Latin word “adjudicare” which means “to decide or determine.” 2. Affidavit: An affidavit is a written statement of facts made under oath and signed by a person before a notary public or other authorized official. The term is derived from the Latin word “affidavit” which means “he has said.” 3. Bail: Bail is the release of a defendant from custody on the promise to appear in court at a later date. The term comes from the Old French word “bailler” which means “to deliver.” 4. Corpus: Corpus is the total body of law. The term comes from the Latin word “corpus” which means “body.” 5. Due Process: Due process is the legal principle that requires the state to respect all legal rights owed to a person, including the right to fair and impartial procedures in court. The term comes from the Latin phrase “due process of law” which means “the law should be applied properly and fairly.” 6. Evidence: Evidence is information presented in court to prove or disprove a fact in issue. The term is derived from the Latin word “evidentia” which means “that which is clearly seen.” 7. Habeas Corpus: Habeas corpus is a legal action that requires a court to determine whether a person is being held lawfully in custody. The phrase is derived from the Latin words “habere” which means “to have” and “corpus” which means “body.” 8. Libel: Libel is the publication of a false statement that is injurious to a person's reputation. The term is derived from the Latin word “libellus” which means “little book.” 9. Malpractice: Malpractice is the improper performance of professional duties by a health care provider. The term is derived from the Latin words “mal” which means “bad” and “practica” which means “practice.” 10. Precedent: Precedent is a court decision that is used as an example to resolve similar cases in the future. The term is derived from the Latin word “praecedere” which means “to go before.” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/28/20236 minutes, 2 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing and etymologizing common terms within the medical field

1. Anatomy: The branch of science concerned with the structure of living organisms and their parts. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek ἀνατομία, anatomia, meaning "dissection". 2. Physiology: The branch of science concerned with the normal functioning of living organisms and their parts. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek φυσιολογία, physis, meaning "nature" and logos, meaning "study of." 3. Pathology: The branch of medicine concerned with the causes, processes and effects of diseases. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek παθολογία, pathos, meaning "suffering" and logos, meaning "study of." 4. Diagnosis: The process of identifying a medical condition or disease from its symptoms. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek διαγνωστικός, diagignos, meaning "to distinguish." 5. Prognosis: The prediction of the course, outcome or treatment of a medical condition or disease. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek προγνωστικός, prognostikos, meaning "to foresee." 6. Pharmacology: The branch of science concerned with the study of drugs and their effects. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, meaning "drug" and logos, meaning "study of." 7. Surgery: The branch of medicine concerned with the treatment of disease, injury or deformity by manual or operative means. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek χειρουργία, cheirourgia, meaning "hand work." 8. Therapy: The treatment of a medical condition with drugs or other medical interventions. Etymologically, it is derived from the Greek θεραπεία, therapeia, meaning "treatment." of nature”.  7. Cytology: The study of the structure, function, and diseases of cells. Etymologically, cytology comes from the Greek word κυτολογία, meaning “study of cells”.  8. Immunology: The branch of medical science that deals with the body’s natural resistance to disease. Etymologically, immunology comes from the Greek word ἰμουνολογία, meaning “study of immunity”.  9. Endocrinology: The branch of medical science that deals with the study of the endocrine glands and their secretions. Etymologically, endocrinology comes from the Greek word ἔνδον, meaning “inside”, and κρεων, meaning “secretion”.  10. Radiology: The branch of medical science that deals with the use of x-rays and other forms of radiation to diagnose and treat diseases. Etymologically, radiology comes from the Latin word radius, meaning “ray”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/27/202312 minutes, 26 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Character Traits (Invest in yourself and what makes you, you!)

1. Ambitious: having a strong desire to achieve success or a particular goal; eager for advancement or success. (Etymology: from Latin ambitionem, “a desire for honor or fame”) 2. Inquisitive: having a strong desire or interest to learn or know more. (Etymology: from Latin inquisitivus, “seeking knowledge”) 3. Resilient: able to recover quickly from adversity, hardship, or change. (Etymology: from Latin resilire, “to rebound or spring back”) 4. Independent: not dependent on or controlled by another person or organization; self-directed. (Etymology: from Latin independens, “not dependent”) 5. Resourceful: having the ability to find quick and clever solutions to problems. (Etymology: from Latin resourcere, “to have recourse to”) 6. Innovative: introducing or using new ideas or methods. (Etymology: from Latin innovare, “to renew or change”) 7. Determined: having the intention or decision to do something, regardless of obstacles. (Etymology: from Latin determinare, “to settle or decide”) 8. Adaptable: able to adjust to new or different conditions. (Etymology: from Latin adaptare, “to fit or make suitable”) 9. Charismatic: having a natural charm or appeal that attracts people. (Etymology: from Greek charisma, “a divinely conferred gift or power”) 10. Conscientious: acting in accordance with principles of right and wrong; scrupulously honest and reliable. (Etymology: from Latin conscientia, “knowledge within oneself”) _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Assertive: Confidently aggressive or self-assured.  Assertive: From the Latin "assertus," meaning to affirm. 2. Compassionate: Showing sympathy and understanding for others. Compassionate: From the Latin "compati," meaning to suffer with. 3. Considerate: Thoughtful of the feelings and wishes of other people. Considerate: From the Latin "considerare," meaning to look at carefully. 4. Dependable: Someone who is reliable and trustworthy. Dependable: From the Old French "dependre," meaning to trust. 5. Driven: Determined and motivated to achieve a goal. Driven: From the Old English "drīfan," meaning to push forward. 6. Energetic: Having a lot of energy and enthusiasm. Energetic: From the Greek "energēs," meaning active. 7. Flexible: Willing to change or compromise.  Flexible: From the Latin "flexibilis," meaning able to bend. 8. Generous: Willing to give more of something than is necessary or expected. Generous: From the Latin "generosus," meaning noble. 9. Hardworking: Diligent and committed to completing tasks. Hardworking: From the Old English "hārdwyrcan," meaning to labor. 10. Honest: Truthful and sincere. Honest: From the Old English "hōnest," meaning honorable. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/26/202311 minutes, 16 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the longest words in the English Dictionary

1.Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis - The lungs disease caused by inhaling very fine ash and sand dust, etymologically derived from the Greek words pneuma, referring to breath and lungs, plus ultramicroscopics, meaning “beyond microscopy.” 2.Hippopotomonstrosesquippedaliophobia - The fear of long words, etymologically derived from the Greek root words hippopotamos (horse) and monstrum (monster) plus sesquippedalio, meaning “foot and a half.” 3.Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious - A made-up word used by Mary Poppins that has come to mean “excellent” or “extraordinary,” etymologically derived from the Latin words super, meaning “above,” calix, meaning “cup,” fragilis, meaning “brittle,” and docios, meaning “teaching.” 4.Pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism - A rare genetic disorder in which there is resistance to the parathyroid hormone, etymologically derived from the Greek pseudos (false) and hypo (under). 5.Floccinaucinihilipilification - The act of estimating something to be of little or no value, etymologically derived from the Latin words flocci (a little bit) plus nauci (nothing) plus nihil (nothing) plus pilus (a hair). 6. Honorificabilitudinitatibus is an old Latin word which means "the state of being able to achieve honor or distinction". It was originally coined by the Roman poet, Horace, in his Satires (Book I, Satire IX, line 860). The word is derived from the Latin honōre (‘honor’) + -ficābilis (‘making, giving’) + -itūdinis (‘state’) + -ātus (‘being’) + -ibus (‘plural’). 7. Thyroparathyroidectomized is a medical term that means “the removal of the thyroid and parathyroid glands”. The word is derived from the Greek thyreos (‘shield-shaped’), para (‘beside’), thyr(e)us (‘door-shaped’), and ektomé (‘cut out’). 8. Dichlorodifluoromethane (CCl2F2) is a man-made, colorless, odorless, non-toxic gas used as a refrigerant and aerosol propellant. Etymological Definition: Dichlorodifluoromethane is derived from the Greek words "di" (two), "chloros" (greenish yellow), "difluoro" (two fluorine atoms), and "methane" (a type of hydrocarbon). 9. Incomprehensibilities (Longest word in common usage) Definition: Something that cannot be understood or is beyond understanding. Etymology: The word "incomprehensibilities" is derived from the Late Latin word incomprehensibilitas, which combines the Latin words incomprehensibilis (not to be grasped) and -itas (quality or state). --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/26/202318 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the most interesting words to add to YOUR vocabulary today!

Anachronism: An anachronism is something (or someone) that is out of place in terms of time or chronology. This is most common with old-fashioned items in a modern setting, but can also occur with futuristic items in period pieces. Most anachronisms are there by mistake, especially within movies and television shows.An anachronism is derived from the Greek ἀνά (ana, "against") and χρόνος (chronos, "time"), and it refers to an object or event that is out of its proper or chronological order in relation to other events or objects. Accismus: A form of irony in which someone feigns indifference to something he or she desires. Accismus, on the other hand, is derived from the Greek ἀκησις (akēsis, "refusal"), and it refers to the feigned refusal of something that one actually desires. Cacophony: A cacophony is a harsh mixture of sounds. It descends from the Greek word phōnē which means sound or voice, and is joined with the Greek prefix kak-, meaning bad; creating the meaning bad sound. Cacophony comes from the Greek word kakophōnia, meaning "bad sound," from kakos, meaning "bad," and phōnē, meaning "sound." Draconian: An adjective to describe something that is excessively harsh and severe. Derives from Draco, a 7th-century Athenian law scribe under whom small offenses had heavy punishments; prescribing death for almost every offence. Draconian is derived from the Greek word Drakōn, referring to an Ancient Greek lawmaker who instituted harsh legal codes. Limerence: It can be defined as an involuntary state of mind resulting from a romantic attraction to another person combined with an overwhelming, obsessive need to have one’s feelings reciprocated. Limerence is derived from the French word limerance, which was coined by psychologist Dorothy Tennov in the 1970s. It is a combination of the words l'amour, meaning "love," and emerence, meaning "to yearn for" or "to desire." Limerence is a state of intense longing for a romantic partner, and is sometimes referred to as "obsessive love." Pareidolia: A psychological phenomenon in which the mind perceives a specific image or pattern where it does not actually exist, such as seeing a face in the clouds. Pareidolia can be used to explain a host of otherwise unexplained sightings.Pareidolia is derived from the Greek words para, meaning "beside, alongside, beyond," and eidōlon, meaning "image, form, shape." Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon in which the mind perceives a familiar pattern or image in a random or ambiguous stimulus. It is often associated with the perception of faces or other significant objects in clouds, tree bark, or other objects. Riposte: A quick or witty retaliatory reply. In the context of the sport of fencing, a riposte means a counterattack that is made after successfully fending off one’s opponent.Riposte comes from the French word riposter, which is a combination of the words re-, meaning "again," and poster, meaning "to answer." Riposte is a quick, witty, and often ironic response to an insult or criticism. Sanctimony: Pretend or hypocritical religious devotion or righteousness. Someone who is sanctimonious will preach about the evils of drug use whilst drinking a beer, for example. Sanctimony is derived from the Latin word sanctimonia, which is a combination of the words sanctus, meaning "holy," and -monia, meaning "disposition" or "state of mind." Sanctimony is an attitude of moral superiority or self-righteousness, often accompanied by excessive religious piety. Serendipity: The act of finding something valuable or interesting when you are not looking for it. Coined by English author Horace Walpole in the mid-1700s, crediting it to a fairy tale he read called The Three Princes of Serendip. Verisimilitude: Something that merely seems to be true or real. For example, including a great many details in a novel adds to its verisimilitude. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/25/202326 minutes, 2 seconds
Episode Artwork

Just do it. (Shia LaBeouf it!)

Yesterday, you said today. Just do it! It’s never too late, you are your own limiting factor. Remember that this is your video game, and it’s up to you whether you want to level up or not. Don’t be an NPC in your own video game, that’s just silly. Level up and continue to level up in your life; you’ll make yourself proud, you’ll make yourself fulfilled, and you’ll empower other people around you. Going by the best of your own drum has systemic effects on both yourself, and the people you surround yourself with… tell me who your friends are, and I’ll tel you who you are. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/21/202313 minutes, 11 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Saint Patrick's Day (Kiss me, I'm Irish!)

Saint Patrick's Day: A day celebrated in the Catholic Church and other parts of the world to honor the patron saint of Ireland, Saint Patrick. Shamrock: A three-leaf clover, a national symbol of Ireland that was used by Saint Patrick to explain the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity. Etymology: From the Irish word seamróg, meaning “little clover”. Leprechaun: A mischievous fairy of Irish folklore, believed to bring luck and wealth to those who catch them. Etymology: From the Irish word leipreachán, meaning “small body”. Pot of Gold: A symbol of great wealth and prosperity, often associated with leprechauns and Saint Patrick’s Day. Etymology: From the Irish phrase “pot of wealth”. Green: The color often associated with Saint Patrick’s Day, which is the color of the shamrock and a symbol of Irish pride. Etymology: From the Old English word grēne, meaning “growing or verdant”. Rainbow: A symbol of hope and promise, often associated with Saint Patrick’s Day. Etymology: From the Middle English word reynebowe, meaning “arc of light”. Parade: A colorful procession of people, often marching bands, and floats that takes place to celebrate St. Patrick’s Day. Etymology: From the French word parade, meaning “parade ground”. Lucky Charm: A talisman or charm believed to bring good fortune and protection, often associated with Saint Patrick’s Day. Etymology: From the Old English word luccian, meaning “to attract luck”. Kiss Me I’m Irish: A phrase often associated with Saint Patrick’s Day, and is used to identify oneself as being of Irish descent. Etymology: From the Irish phrase “cad é do dhia”, meaning “kiss me, I am Irish”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/19/202313 minutes, 41 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing (some) things about "Love"

Love: A strong feeling of affection, tenderness, and attachment to another person or thing. Etymology: From Middle English luf, from Old English lufu, from Proto-Germanic *lubō (“love”), from Proto-Indo-European *lewbʰ- (“to care, desire, love”). Affection: A fondness or tenderness towards someone or something. Etymology: From Middle English affection, from Old French affection, from Latin affectio, affectiōnem (“desire, inclination, emotion”), from affectus (“desire, inclination, emotion”). Fondness: A feeling of deep love or affection for someone or something. Etymology: From Middle English fondnes, from Old French fondnesse, from fond (“foolish, foolishly fond”), from Latin fundus (“bottom, foundation”). Tenderness: A feeling of gentleness, kindness, and sympathy. Etymology: From Middle English tendren, from Old French tendre, from Latin tener (“soft, delicate”). Attachment: A strong feeling of affection and care for someone or something. Etymology: From Middle English attechen, from Old French atacher (“to tie, bind, attach”), from Latin adtachō, adtacheō (“to fasten”). Devotion: Loyal and loving dedication to someone or something. Etymology: From Middle English devocioun, from Old French devocion, from Latin devotiō, devotiōnem (“offering, dedication”), from devōtus (“devoted”). Adoration: The feeling of deep love and admiration for someone or something. Etymology: From Middle English adoracioun, from Old French adoracion, from Latin adōrātiō (“adoration, worship”), from adōrāre (“to worship, adore”). Passion: A strong feeling of enthusiasm and excitement for something or someone. Etymology: From Middle English passioun, from Old French passion, from Latin passiō, passiōnem (“suffering, enduring”), from passus (“suffered, endured”). Compassion: A feeling of sympathy and sorrow for the suffering of another, often accompanied by a desire to help. Etymology: From Middle English compascioun, from Old French compassion, from Latin compassiō, compassiōnem (“feeling, emotion”), from compati (“to suffer with”). Affinity: A natural or instinctive feeling of connection or attraction to someone or something. Etymology: From Middle English affinite, from Old French affinite, from Latin affinitās (“relationship, connection”). --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/19/202317 minutes, 33 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing the nuances between the prefixes "un-" vs. "im-" while also deriving them and words associated with "de-"

1. Decompose (Latin de- + componere, "to put together") - To break down into smaller parts or elements. 2. Decontaminate (Latin de- + contaminate, "to contaminate") - To remove or reduce contaminants or pollutants from an environment or item. 3. Defame (Latin de- + fama, "a rumor") - To harm someone's reputation by making false or malicious statements. 4. Deflate (Latin de- + flate, "to blow") - To reduce the pressure or size of something by releasing air or gas. 5. Deflect (Latin de- + flectere, "to turn") - To cause to turn aside, especially by applying force; to divert. 6. Degrade (Latin de- + gradus, "a step") - To reduce in quality, value, or degree; to lower in rank or character. 7. Dehydrate (Latin de- + hydros, "water") - To remove water or moisture from something. 8. Demolish (Latin de- + moliri, "to build") - To tear down, destroy, or ruin completely. 9. Demoralize (Latin de- + morale, "morals") - To destroy or weaken the morale or spirits of someone or a group of people. 10. Denounce (Latin de- + nuntiare, "to declare") - To publicly condemn or criticize someone or something. 1. Imbibe (etymology: Latin, "to drink in") - to consume alcohol or any other liquid. 2. Imbroglio (etymology: Italian, "a confusing situation") - a complicated or confused situation. 3. Impassive (etymology: Latin, "without feeling") - without emotion or feeling. 4. Immaculate (etymology: Latin, "without spot") - free from dirt or stain; spotless; perfect. 5. Immaterial (etymology: Latin, "not of matter") - not consisting of physical matter; not relevant or important. 6. Immature (etymology: Latin, "not ripe") - not fully developed; not old or experienced enough. 7. Imminent (etymology: Latin, "about to happen") - about to happen; impending. 8. Immolate (etymology: Latin, "to sacrifice") - to kill or offer as a sacrifice. 9. Immutable (etymology: Latin, "not changeable") - not capable of being changed; unchangeable. 10. Immunize (etymology: Latin, "to make immune") - to make someone or something immune to a particular disease or condition. 1. Unbelievable: Etymology: Late Middle English (in the sense ‘not worthy of belief’): from Old French incroiable, from in- ‘not’ + croire ‘believe’. Definition: Too extraordinary or improbable to be believed. 2. Unacceptable: Etymology: Late 16th century: from un- (expressing reversal) + acceptable. Definition: Not satisfactory or not approved of. 3. Unconditional: Etymology: Late Middle English: from un- (expressing reversal) + conditional. Definition: Not subject to any restrictions; absolute. 4. Unconventional: Etymology: Early 19th century: from un- (expressing reversal) + conventional. Definition: Not based on or in agreement with what is generally done or believed. 5. Unforeseen: Etymology: Mid 17th century: from un- (expressing reversal) + foreseeable. Definition: Not anticipated; unexpected. 6. Unfortunate: Etymology: Late Middle English (in the sense ‘unlucky’): from Old French, literally ‘not fortunate’, from un- (expressing reversal) + fortune (noun). Definition: Unlucky or adverse; causing misery or suffering. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/11/202339 minutes, 45 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the Greek root "peri-" and applying it to disciplines within our world

Perihelion (noun) - A point in the orbit of a planet, comet, or other celestial body that is closest to the Sun. Etymological Definition: From the Greek peri hélion meaning “near the Sun”. Periastron (noun) - The point in the orbit of a binary star system that is closest to the other star. Etymological Definition: From the Greek peri astron meaning “near a star”. Perigon: Actual Definition- A plane figure with at least three straight sides and angles, and typically five or more. Etymological Definition- Derived from the Greek root “peri-” meaning “around”. Periodontal (adj.): "surrounding a tooth, pertaining to the lining membrane of the socket of a tooth," 1848, literally "around the tooth," from peri- "around" + Greek odon (genitive odontos) "tooth" (from PIE root *dent- "tooth"). periosteum (n.): "the enveloping membrane of the bones," 1590s, from Modern Latin periosteum, Late Latin periosteon, from Greek periosteon, neuter of periosteos "round the bones," from peri "around, about" (see peri-) + osteon "bone" (from PIE root *ost- "bone"). Related: Periosteal. Peripeteia: Actual Definition- A sudden and unexpected change of fortune or reversal of circumstances, especially in a literary work. Etymological Definition- Derived from the Greek root “peri-” meaning “around”. Peripatetic: Actual Definition- Moving or traveling from place to place, especially on foot. Etymological Definition- Derived from the Greek root “peri-” meaning “around”. Periphery: Actual Definition- The outer limit or edge of something, especially a geographical area. Etymological Definition- Derived from the Greek root “peri-” meaning “around”. Periphrasis: Actual Definition- The use of more words than necessary to express an idea, especially as a stylistic device. Etymological Definition- Derived from the Greek root “peri-” meaning “around”. [phrásis, “manner of expression.”] Perigee (noun): the point in the orbit of the moon or a satellite at which it is nearest to the earth; Etymological Definition: derived from the Greek word “perigē” which means “around the earth”. Periphrasis (noun): a roundabout or indirect manner of speaking or writing; Etymological Definition: derived from the Greek word “periphrasis” which means “circumlocution”. Peripeteia (noun): a sudden and unexpected reversal of fortune or situation; Etymological Definition: derived from the Greek word “peripeteia” which means “around the feet”. Periaktoi (noun): a triangular revolving stage device; Etymological Definition: derived from the Greek word “periaktos” which means “roundabout”. Peripateticism (noun): the philosophy or practice of engaging in philosophical dialogue while walking; Etymological Definition: derived from the Greek word “peripatetikos” which means “to walk about”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
3/4/202318 minutes, 57 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the Latin "omnes" and the Greek "narkōsis"

1. Omnibus (Latin): all, every; etymology: from the Latin ‘omnibus’, meaning ‘for all’. 2. Omnipotent (Latin): having unlimited power; etymology: from the Latin ‘omnipotens’, meaning ‘all-powerful’. 3. Omniscient (Latin): knowing all things; etymology: from the Latin ‘omniscientem’, meaning ‘all-knowing’. “Omni” + “scio” (“to know”) 4. Omnivore (Latin): an organism that eats both plants and animals; etymology: from the Latin ‘omnivorus’, meaning ‘all-eating’. 5. Omnipresent (Latin): present everywhere; etymology: from the Latin ‘omnipraesens’, meaning ‘all-present’. 6. Omnisexual (Latin): having the capability to be sexually attracted to all genders; etymology: from the Latin ‘omnisexualis’, meaning ‘all-sexual’. 7. Omnibenevolent (Latin): having unlimited kindness; etymology: from the Latin ‘omnibenevolentem’, meaning ‘all-benevolent’. 4. Omnipotent - Definition: All-powerful; etymology: From Latin omnes (all) and potens (having power). 5. Omnifarious - Definition: Of many different kinds; etymology: From Latin omnes (all) and ferire (to strike). 6. Omniparous - Definition: Bearing offspring of many kinds; etymology: From Latin omnes (all) and partus (birth). 7. Omnium-gatherum - Definition: A collection of many things; etymology: From Latin omnes (all) and congeries (collection). 8. Omnifaceted - Definition: Having many facets; etymology: From Latin omnes (all) and facies (face). 9. Omnifocal - Definition: Having multiple focal points; etymology: From Latin omnes (all) and focus (fire). 1. Narcotization (Definition: the process of administering a narcotic; Etymology: from the Greek root narkōsis, from narkoun ‘to benumb’) 2. Narcolepsy (Definition: a neurological disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable episodes of deep sleep; Etymology: from the Greek root narkōsis, from narkoun ‘to benumb’) 3. Narcosis (Definition: a state of stupor or unconsciousness caused by drugs or alcohol; Etymology: from the Greek root narkōsis, from narkoun ‘to benumb’) 4. Narcotize (Definition: to administer a narcotic; Etymology: from the Greek root narkōsis, from narkoun ‘to benumb’) 5. Narcotically (Definition: in a manner relating to or caused by a narcotic; Etymology: from the Greek root narkōsis, from narkoun ‘to benumb’) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/25/202314 minutes, 22 seconds
Episode Artwork

Q&A #3 - Discussing whether language is a form of cultural appropriation, its effects on our perception of reality, the optimal posture for human beings, and much more!

4. Is traditional gender role division still applicable in modern society? 2. Is language a form of cultural appropriation? 7. Is language a form of power? 8. Does language influence our perception of reality? 1. Does the human body have an optimal posture or are different postures beneficial for different people? 5. Is it possible to maintain a balanced diet while eating only fast food? 7. Is it possible to eat too much of a healthy food? --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/19/202329 minutes, 36 seconds
Episode Artwork

A large list of words within medical pathologies all associated with "-itis"

1. Arthritis: A chronic inflammatory disorder affecting the joints, often causing pain and stiffness; from the Greek ‘arthron’ meaning joint, and ‘itis’ meaning inflammation. 2. Gastritis: Inflammation of the lining of the stomach; from the Greek ‘gastēr’ meaning stomach, and ‘itis’ meaning inflammation. 3. Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses; from the Greek ‘sinus’ meaning a channel, and ‘itis’ meaning inflammation. 4. Peritonitis: Inflammation of the membranes lining the abdominal cavity; from the Greek ‘peritonaion’ meaning a membrane covering the intestines, and ‘itis’ meaning inflammation. 5. Appendicitis: Inflammation of the appendix; from the Greek ‘appendis’ meaning an appendage, and ‘itis’ meaning inflammation. 6. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the bronchi, the passages that carry air to and from the lungs; from the Greek ‘bronchus’ meaning a windpipe, and ‘itis’ meaning inflammation. 1. Allergitis: An allergic reaction, often characterized by inflammation of the skin or airways. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek roots “allos” (other) and “itis” (inflammation). 5. Colitis: Inflammation of the colon. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “colo” (large intestine) and “itis” (inflammation). 6. Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin, often caused by an allergic reaction or infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek roots “derm” (skin) and “itis” (inflammation). 7. Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek roots “endo” (inner) and “card” (heart) and “itis” (inflammation). 9. Glomerulitis: Inflammation of the glomeruli, which are the microscopic filters of the kidneys. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “glomerul” (small ball) and “itis” (inflammation). 10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, usually caused by a virus or other infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “hepat” (liver) and “itis” (inflammation). 11. Meningitis: Inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, usually caused by infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “mening” (membrane) and “itis” (inflammation). 12. Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle, usually caused by a virus. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek roots “myo” (muscle) and “card” (heart) and “itis” (inflammation). 13. Nephritis: Inflammation of the kidneys, usually caused by infection or irritation. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “nephro” (kidney) and “itis” (inflammation). 14. Pericarditis: Inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart, usually caused by infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek roots “peri” (around) and “card” (heart) and “itis” (inflammation). 15. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, usually caused by infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “prostata” (prostate) and “itis” (inflammation). 16. Sinusitis: Inflammation of the sinuses, usually caused by infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “sinus” (cavity) and “itis” (inflammation). 17. Tendonitis: Inflammation of the tendons, usually caused by overuse or injury. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “tendo” (tendon) and “itis” (inflammation). 18. Urethritis: Inflammation of the urethra, usually caused by infection. Etymologically, it comes from the Greek root “urethr” (urethra) and “itis” (inflammation). --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/18/20239 minutes, 41 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing More Legal Terminology

1. Actio: A legal action or suit in Roman law; from Latin actio, from agere “to do.” 2. Adjudicatio: A court decree or judgement; from Latin adjudico, from ad “to” and judicare “to judge”. 3. Actori incumbit probatio: The burden of proof lies on the plaintiff; from Latin actori incumbit probatio, from actor “plaintiff” and incumbere “to impose”. 4. Brevi manu: By order of the court; from Latin brevi manu, from brevis “short” and manus “hand”. 5. Caveat emptor: Let the buyer beware; from Latin caveat emptor, from cavere “to beware” and emptor “buyer”. 6. Damnum emergens: Loss arising from a breach of contract; from Latin damnum emergens, from damnum “loss” and emergere “to arise”. 7. Ex aequo et bono: According to equity and good conscience; from Latin ex aequo et bono, from ex “from” and aequus “equal” and bonus “good”. 8. Ex debito justitiae: Out of a sense of justice; from Latin ex debito justitiae, from ex “out of”, debito “debt” and justitiae “justice”. 9. In personam: Against a specific person; from Latin in personam, from in “into” and persona “person”. 10. In rem: Against a thing or property; from Latin in rem, from in “into” and rem “thing”. 11. Inter vivos: Between living persons; from Latin inter vivos, from inter “between” and vivos “living”. 12. Jus cogens: Compulsory law; from Latin jus cogens, from jus “law” and cogere “to compel”. 13. Pacta sunt servanda: Agreements must be kept; from Latin pacta sunt servanda, from pacta “agreements”, sunt “are” and servanda “to be kept”. 14. Qui facit per alium, facit per se: He who acts through another, acts himself; from Latin qui facit per alium, facit per se, from qui “who”, facit “makes”, per “through”, alium “other” and se “self”. 15. Res judicata: A matter already adjudicated; from Latin res judicata, from res “thing” and judicata “adjudicated”. 6. Fiat Lux – Let there be light. (Latin: fiat, let; lux, light). Etymologically, fiat lux literally means “let there be light” and is used to refer to the creation of light. 8. Mea Culpa – My mistake; my fault. (Latin: mea, my; culpa, fault). Etymologically, mea culpa literally means “my fault” and is used to refer to an admission of guilt or responsibility for a mistake. 9. Moot Point – A point or issue that is no longer relevant or applicable. (Latin: mūtāre, to change). Etymologically, moot point literally means “to change” and is used to refer to a point or issue that is no longer relevant or applicable. 10. Res Ipsa Loquitur – The thing speaks for itself; an inference that a person is responsible for an accident or injury because they were in control of the situation. (Latin: res, thing; ipsa, itself; loquitur, speaks). Etymologically, res ipsa loquitur literally means “the thing speaks for itself” and is used to refer to an inference that a person is responsible for an accident or injury because they were in control of the situation. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/16/202311 minutes, 5 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Legal NOMENclature broken down, translated and explained

1. Ab Initio - From the Beginning Translation: From the beginning Definition: Used to describe a situation that is valid and binding from the start, or that has always been in effect. Etymological Definition: Latin, "from the beginning". 2. Actus Reus - Guilty Act Translation: Guilty act Definition: A guilty act or omission that is the basis for criminal liability. Etymological Definition: Latin, "guilty act". 3. Ad Litem - For the Suit Translation: For the suit Definition: Used to refer to a person appointed to represent another in a legal action. Etymological Definition: Latin, "for the suit". 4. Ad Nauseam - To the Point of Nausea Translation: To the point of nausea Definition: Used to describe an action or argument that is repeated to the point of tedium or disgust. Etymological Definition: Latin, "to the point of nausea". 5. Amicus Curiae - Friend of the Court Translation: Friend of the court Definition: A person or organization that is not a party to a case, but is permitted to offer information to the court that may help in deciding the case. Etymological Definition: Latin, "friend of the court". 6. Caveat Emptor - Let the Buyer Beware Translation: Let the buyer beware Definition: A principle that the buyer, rather than the seller, is responsible for checking the quality and suitability of goods before purchase. Etymological Definition: Latin, "let the buyer beware". 7. Corpus Delicti - Body of the Crime Translation: Body of the crime Definition: The actual components of a crime that must be proven in order to establish guilt. Etymological Definition: Latin, "body of the crime". 8. De Facto - In Fact Translation: In fact Definition: Used to describe a situation that is true in practice even if it is not officially recognized. Etymological Definition: Latin, "in fact". 9. Ex Post Facto - After the Fact Translation: After the fact Definition: Used to describe laws or regulations that are applied retroactively. Etymological Definition: Latin, "after the fact". 10. Habeas Corpus - You Have the Body Translation: You have the body Definition: A legal action used to bring a person before a court to determine if they are being detained lawfully. Etymological Definition: Latin, "you have the body". --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/14/202310 minutes, 46 seconds
Episode Artwork

Deriving the Latin words: "sentio", "video", "scio"

Sentio (Latin): 1. Sentience (n.): The ability to perceive and feel things; the capacity to experience sensations. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 2. Sentient (adj.): Capable of perceiving and feeling things; having the capacity to experience sensations. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 3. Sensation (n.): A physical feeling or emotion caused by the stimulation of a sense organ. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 4. Sensory (adj.): Relating to the sense organs; providing or relating to sensation. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 5. Sentiment (n.): An attitude or emotion; a feeling or opinion. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 6. Sentimental (adj.): Relating to or influenced by the emotions; tending to be sentimental. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 7. Sentimentalize (v.): To give a sentimental or emotional character to; to reduce something to melodrama or sentimentality. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 8. Sensibility (n.): The capacity to experience and respond to sensations; keen sensitivity. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 9. Sensitive (adj.): Having a keen awareness of the feelings of others; responsive to the feelings of others. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. 10. Sensitize (v.): To make sensitive or responsive to a stimulus. Etymologically, it comes from the Latin root sentio, meaning “to feel”. Video (Latin): 1. Videography: The art or technique of making recordings with a video camera. Etymology: From Latin videō, meaning “I see”. 2. Videotape: Magnetic tape used to record television programs and for other video applications. Etymology: From Latin videō, meaning “I see”. 3. Videocassette: A cassette containing magnetic tape with recorded video images. Etymology: From Latin videō, meaning “I see”. 4. Videodisc: A disc with recorded video images. Etymology: From Latin videō, meaning “I see”. 5. Videophone: A telephone with a video screen. Etymology: From Latin videō, meaning “I see”. 6. Videoconferencing: The transmission of video and audio signals for a meeting between people in different locations. Etymology: From Latin videō, meaning “I see”. Scio (Latin): 1. Sciolism (noun): superficial knowledge of a subject or a narrow range of topics; a display of superficial knowledge; pretentious knowledge; knowing a few facts but not having a deep understanding. Etymologically, this word is derived from the Latin “scio” meaning “I know”. 2. Science (noun): a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Etymologically, this word is derived from the Latin “scio” meaning “I know”. 3. Sciography (noun): the technical description of an object or a process. Etymologically, this word is derived from the Latin “scio” meaning “I know”. 4. Scientism (noun): the belief that science provides the only valid method of understanding and knowledge. Etymologically, this word is derived from the Latin “scio” meaning “I know”. 5. Scientist (noun): a person who is engaged in scientific research. Etymologically, this word is derived from the Latin “scio” meaning “I know”. 6. Sciolist (noun): a person who has a superficial knowledge of a particular subject. Etymologically, this word is derived from the Latin “scio” meaning “I know”. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/14/202318 minutes, 23 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing 10 of the English vocabulary's most highfalutin words

1. Abecedarian: (Definition) relating to or denoting a beginner or someone who is learning the basics of a subject; (Etymology) derived from the Latin abecedarius (lit. ABC-teacher). 2. Circumlocution: (Definition) the use of many words where fewer would do, especially in a deliberate attempt to be vague or evasive; (Etymology) derived from the Latin circum (around) and loqui (speak). 3. Esoteric: (Definition) intended for or likely to be understood by only a small number of people with a specialized knowledge or interest; (Etymology) derived from the Greek esoterikos (inner). 4. Obfuscate: (Definition) make (something) obscure, unclear, or unintelligible; (Etymology) derived from the Latin obfuscare (darken). 5. Pedagogue: (Definition) a teacher, especially of young children; (Etymology) derived from the Greek paidagogos (boy-leader). 6. Quixotic: (Definition) extremely idealistic; unrealistic and impractical; (Etymology) derived from the Spanish quijote (Don Quixote). 7. Sesquipedalian: (Definition) using or containing a lot of long words; (Etymology) derived from the Latin sesquipedalis (one and a half feet long). 8. Utopian: (Definition) relating to or resembling a utopian society; (Etymology) derived from Thomas More's 1516 book Utopia. 9. Verbose: (Definition) using or expressed in more words than are needed; (Etymology) derived from the Latin verbosus (full of words). 10. Xenodochial: (Definition) friendly towards strangers; (Etymology) derived from the Greek xenos (stranger) and dochos (reception). --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/12/202311 minutes, 35 seconds
Episode Artwork

Taking interesting and funny words in the English dictionary and both deriving and etymologizing them

1. Quixotic (adjective): extremely idealistic; unrealistic and impractical. Etymology: derived from Don Quixote, the main character of the Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes. 2. Meander (verb): to move aimlessly without a particular direction or purpose. Etymology: derived from the Meander river in Asia Minor which had a winding, looping course. 3. Brouhaha (noun): a loud and confused noise, especially of people talking or shouting. Etymology: derived from the French phrase bru-haha meaning “uproar.” 4. Serendipity (noun): the occurrence of something fortunate or unexpected. Etymology: derived from the Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip, in which the three princes always make unexpected discoveries. 5. Ubiquitous (adjective): present or appearing everywhere. Etymology: derived from the Latin word ubique which means “everywhere.” 6. Macabre (adjective): gruesome or horrifying in nature. Etymology: derived from the medieval French phrase makaber meaning “death dance.” 7. Quandary (noun): a state of perplexity or uncertainty. Etymology: derived from the Latin word quando which means “when”. 8. Zenith (noun): the point in the sky that is directly above an observer. Etymology: derived from the Arabic phrase samt ar-raḥ which means “path of the noon sun.” 9. Quirk (noun): an unusual or odd behavior. Etymology: derived from the Middle English word querk which means “crooked.” 10. Maverick (noun): a person who takes an independent or unconventional stance. Etymology: derived from the name of a 19th-century cattle rancher, Samuel Maverick, who refused to brand his cattle. 2. Fandango (Noun): a lively Spanish or Latin-American dance for two people. Etymology: Spanish, from fandango ‘a free dance’. 3. Quagmire (Noun): a difficult or precarious situation; a bog or marsh. Etymology: Late 16th century: probably from Old English quaker ‘trembling’, + mire ‘marsh’. 4. Flabbergasted (Adjective): utterly astonished or bewildered. Etymology: Late 19th century: alteration of obsolete flag ‘astound’ + obsolete baste ‘beat’. 5. Quandary (Noun): a state of perplexity or doubt. Etymology: Late 16th century: from Latin quandārium ‘at which time’, from quandō ‘when’. 6. Bamboozle (Verb): deceive or get the better of (someone) by trickery or cunning. Etymology: Early 18th century: probably of imitative origin. 7. Cockamamie (Adjective): absurd; ridiculous. Etymology: Mid 20th century: of unknown origin. 8. Sillybilly (Noun): a foolish or silly person. Etymology: Early 20th century: of unknown origin. 9. Wabbit (Noun): an exhausted or worn-out person. Etymology: Early 20th century: alteration of rabbit, perhaps influenced by wabble ‘stagger’. 10. Balderdash (Noun): senseless, foolish, or exaggerated talk. Etymology: Mid 17th century: perhaps from bawd ‘trivial nonsense’ + dash. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/11/202327 minutes, 22 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding the difference and similarities between the Medical suffixes "-otomy", "-ectomy", and "-itis"

1. Lobotomy: A surgical procedure involving the cutting or scraping away of a part of the brain, usually the frontal lobes, in order to treat mental illness. Etymology: From the Greek roots “lobo” (meaning “lobe”) and “tomy” (meaning “to cut”). 1. Lobectomy: Surgical removal of a lobe of an organ, typically the lung. 2. Hysterectomy: A surgical procedure in which the uterus is removed, either partially or completely. Etymology: From the Greek roots “hystera” (meaning “uterus”) and “tomy” (meaning “to cut”). 3. Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the appendix. 5. Mastectomy: Surgical removal of the breast. “Mastos” (meaning “breast”) 6. Nephrectomy: Surgical removal of a kidney. (Nephrologist) 3. Phlebotomy: The practice of making an incision (or puncture) into a vein in order to draw out blood. Etymology: From the Greek roots “phlebos” (meaning “vein”) and “tomy” (meaning “to cut”). 4. Thoracotomy: A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the chest wall, usually to diagnose or treat a condition of the lungs or other organs in the chest. Etymology: From the Greek roots “thorax” (meaning “chest”) and “tomy” (meaning “to cut”). 10. Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of a part or all of the thyroid gland. 5. Uvulotomy: A surgical procedure in which a portion of the uvula, a small fleshy protuberance at the back of the throat, is removed. Etymology: From the Latin root “uvula” (meaning “little grape”) and “tomy” (meaning “to cut”). 6. Gastrotomy: A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the stomach in order to diagnose or treat an abdominal condition. Etymology: From the Greek roots “gaster” (meaning “stomach”) and “tomy” (meaning “to cut”). 7. Gastrectomy: Surgical removal of part or all of the stomach. 7. Amputation: The surgical removal of a limb, either partially or completely. Etymology: From the Latin root “amputare” (meaning “to cut off”). 1. Appendicitis: inflammation of the appendix, from the Greek word "itis" meaning inflammation. 2. Gastritis: inflammation of the stomach lining, from the Greek word "gaster" meaning stomach. 3. Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchial tubes, from the Greek word "bronchia" meaning windpipe. 4. Sinusitis: inflammation of the sinuses, from the Greek word "sinus" meaning curve. 5. Nephritis: inflammation of the kidneys, from the Greek word "nephros" meaning kidney. 6. Colitis: inflammation of the colon, from the Greek word "kolon" meaning large intestine. 7. Cystitis: inflammation of the urinary bladder, from the Greek word "kystis" meaning bladder. 8. Urethritis: inflammation of the urethra, from the Greek word "ouretheros" meaning urinary canal. 9. Peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneum, from the Greek word "peritoneon" meaning covering. 10. Otitis: inflammation of the ear, from the Greek word "otos" meaning ear. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
2/4/202329 minutes, 33 seconds
Episode Artwork

Q&A - Etymology of Syntax, how to hack your sleep, recommended types of therapy, how to navigate this world full of anger as a middle/high school kid, et cetera.

Lot's of amazing questions addressed here as well as an etymologized word! Stay tuned, syntax is found below in the show notes, but you have to listen throughout to hear the answers to amazing questions! 1. Syntax (noun): The study of the rules governing the way words are put together to form sentences. Etymology: From the Greek word “syntaxis”, from “syn-” meaning “together” and “tassein” meaning “to arrange”. Taxis (Greek): a noun meaning “an arrangement” or “an order”. It comes from the Greek root “taxis”, which is derived from the Indo-European “tas”, meaning “to arrange”. Taxonomy (Greek): a noun meaning “the science of classification”. It comes from the Greek root “taxis”, which is derived from the Indo-European “tas”, meaning “to arrange”. Syntax (Greek): a noun meaning “the arrangement of words in a sentence”. It comes from the Greek root “syntaxis”, which is derived from the Indo-European “tas”, meaning “to arrange”. Taxidermy (Greek): a noun meaning “the art of stuffing and preserving animals and birds”. It comes from the Greek root “taxis”, which is derived from the Indo-European “tas”, meaning “to arrange”. Synthesize (Greek): a verb meaning “to combine elements into one”. It comes from the Greek root “synthesis”, which is derived from the Indo-European “tas”, meaning “to arrange”. Other questions addressed but not listed in the description:  1. How can I navigate the trials of middle school and puberty as a young person? 2. How do I deal with the popularity and toxic nature of middle school? 3. What advice do you have for dealing with the anger and aggression that's so prevalent in our world today? 4. How can I find self-confidence and stay true to my values in the face of peer pressure and popular culture? 5. What strategies can I use to be kinder and more understanding of others, even when they're not being kind and understanding to me? 7. What are the best ways to manage my emotions and maintain a positive outlook? 8. How can I handle all the changes I'm going through during this time in my life? --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/29/202347 minutes, 38 seconds
Episode Artwork

Lemma, Lexicon, Morphology, Dichotomy, and so many more related words that you didn't know were related!

Latter half of the episode I get into the dilemmas in the world, what I see in my students in regards to these "dilemmas" and an existential discussion to wrap up the episode. This was fun... I also talk briefly about the "Crossing of the Rubicon" (Reminded from Lexicon), which both refers to a huge historical move made by Julius Caesar, as well as an idiom referring to "the point of no return." All words glossed in the show notes below! 1. Lemma (noun): A heading that indicates the topic of a particular section, subsection, or paragraph of a text. Etymology: From the Greek word “lemma” meaning “proposition”. Dilemma: A situation in which a difficult choice has to be made between two or more alternatives, especially ones that are equally undesirable. Etymology: Late 16th century: from Latin, literally ‘two premises’, from Greek di- ‘twice’ + lemma ‘premise’. Quandary: A state of perplexity or uncertainty over what to do in a difficult situation. Etymology: Mid 16th century: from Old French quanter ‘calculate, consider’, from Latin quaerere ‘seek, ask’. Dichotomy: The division of something into two parts, especially when these are seen as opposites. Etymology: Late 16th century: from Greek dikhotomia, from di- ‘twice’ + khotomia ‘a cutting in two’. Paradox: A statement or proposition that, despite sound reasoning from acceptable premises, leads to a conclusion that seems senseless, logically unacceptable, or self-contradictory. Etymology: Late Middle English: from Old 2. Lexicon (noun): A dictionary or encyclopedia of words or terms in a particular field of knowledge. Etymology: From the Greek word “lexikon”, from “lexis” meaning “word”. Lexical – Relating to the words or vocabulary of a language. Etymology: From the Latin lexicālis, from lexis “word,” from legere “to say, read.” Lexicographer – A person who compiles dictionaries; a student or collector of words. Etymology: From the Late Latin lexicographus, from lexis “word,” from legere “to say, read.” Lexicology – The study of the structure and history of words. Etymology: From the Greek lexikon “word,” from lexis “word,” from legere “to say, read.” Lexeme – A unit of language which has a distinct meaning. Etymology: From the Latin lexēma, from lexis “word,” from legere “to say, read.” 3. Morphology (noun): The study of the forms of words, including inflections, derivations, and the formation of compounds. Etymology: From the Greek word “morphē”, meaning “shape” or “form”. Morph: A form or shape, especially that of an organic being Etymology: From the Greek morphē “form” Metamorphosis: A transformation, as by magic or sorcery Etymology: From the Greek meta “change” and morphē “form” Morphine: A narcotic drug obtained from opium Etymology: From the Greek morphē “form”, probably in reference to the form of the opium poppy Morphogen: A substance that initiates and regulates the development of certain form-determining structures Etymology: From the Greek morphē “form” and -gen “producing” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/28/202329 minutes, 55 seconds
Episode Artwork

Rereading journal entries from my bike tour in Ireland - Part One

Doing something different. July 2017 is when this tour took place. I tried to journal and document my trip as thoroughly as possible.  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/22/202315 minutes, 25 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing derivatives from the Latin verb "ago, agere"

Ago, Agere: Latin root meaning “to do, act, drive, lead.” 1. Agitate: To cause unrest or disturbance; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to do.” 2. Agent: A person or thing that takes an active role in doing something; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to do.” 3. Agenda: A program of things to do or be accomplished; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to do.” 4. Aggregate: A total or collective amount; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to drive.” 5. Exaggerate: To magnify or increase beyond the natural proportions; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to drive.” 6. Prerogative: A special right or privilege; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to lead.” 7. Proactive: Taking initiative and acting in advance of a situation; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to lead.” 8. Prologue: An introduction to a play, book, etc.; from the Latin “agere,” meaning “to lead.”  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/21/202312 minutes, 15 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin Grammar - All about Second Declension Masculine nouns

Where first declension includes mostly feminine nouns with -a- at the end of their base, second declension includes mostly masculine and neuter nouns with -o- at the end of their base. The second declension has different forms from the first declension but the uses of the cases are the same. However, there’s another important distinction between first and second declension: the -o- at the end of the base in second declension is weak and it doesn’t show up as -o- as often as the -a- shows up in first declension. The second-declension -o- can appear as -u-, as in the nominative singular (-us) or the accusative singular (-um) or it can appear as -i- as in the genitive singular and nominative plural (-i) and the dative and ablative plural (-is). Here are the endings for second declension masculine, beginning with the singular. The nominative singular: -us or in some cases -er. We’ll discuss that in a second. The genitive singular: -i Dative: -o Accusative: -um Ablative: -o and an irregular vocative: -ě In the plural the endings are: -i -orum -is -os -is. The vocative is regular here in the plural. It’s identical to the nominative -i. In forming a second-declension masculine noun, do the same thing you did in first declension. Take a noun that belongs to that declension, remove the -ī genitive singular ending from the genitive singular form to get the base, and then add the endings on. Here’s an example of that process with the word filius meaning “son.” The base is fili-. To that you add the endings: filius, filii, filio, filium, filio -- we’ll talk about the vocative in a second -- filii, filiorum, filiis, filios, filiis. Note the vocative singular of this word: The Romans didn’t like taking a base that ended with -i and putting a short -e after it. That would have produced *filie and that sounded disagreeable to the Romans so they left the -e off the vocative ending if there was an -i- at the end of the base. Thus the vocative of filius is fili. Now let’s address a minor peculiarity involving second declension - I mentioned we’d touch on this later… This is that “later.”. The Romans for some reason did not like to end second-declension masculine nouns with -rus. So, if a base ended in -r, like the base puer- which means “boy,” the Romans, instead of going *puerus in the nominative singular, simply went puer. But you can see from the rest of the forms of this word the real base is puer- because the word declines puer, pueri, puero and so on. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/18/202328 minutes, 58 seconds
Episode Artwork

"haima" and "-emia": etymologizing all medical terms regarding blood

-emia: suffix derived from Greek ἐμός (emos) meaning “blood” It comes from the Greek root word, haima, which translates to “blood”. Anemia: a condition in which an individual has low levels of healthy red blood cells. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root word, haima, which translates to “blood”. Leukemia: a type of cancer that affects the body’s ability to produce healthy white blood cells. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root word, leukos, which means “white”. Thrombocytopenia: a condition in which the body produces fewer blood platelets than it should. Etymological Definition: From the Greek roots words, thrombos, which means “clot” and kytos, which means “hollow”. Stylemia: a condition in which the body has high levels of iron in the bloodstream. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root word, stylos, which translates to “an iron bar”. Hypervolemia: a condition in which the body has an excess of plasma in the blood. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root word, hyper, which means “over” and volêma, which means “volume”. Polycythemia: a condition in which the body produces too many red blood cells. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root words, poly, which means “many” and kytos, which means “cell”. Hyponatremia: a condition in which the body has a low sodium level in the blood. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root words, hypo, which means “under” and natrêm, which means “salt”. Dyskalemia: a type of electrolyte imbalance that affects the body’s sodium and potassium levels. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root words, dys, which means “abnormal” and kalêm, which means “potassium”. Eosinophilia: a condition in which the body produces more eosinophils (a type of white blood cells) than normal. Etymological Definition: From the Greek root words, eos, which means “dawn” and phulon, which means “light”. Hematemia: the presence of red blood cells in the blood Etymology: mid 19th century; from Greek haimat- ‘blood’ + -emia Neutropenia: a condition in which there is an abnormally low number of neutrophils in the blood Etymology: early 20th century; from Greek neuter ‘neutrophil’ + -penia ‘deficiency’ + -emia Leukocytosis: an increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood Etymology: late 19th century; from Greek leukos ‘white’ + kytos ‘cell’ + -osis ‘condition’ + -emia Erythrocytosis: an increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood Etymology: late 19th century; from Greek erythros ‘red’ + kytos ‘cell’ + -osis ‘condition’ + -emia Anoxemia: a lack of oxygen in the blood Etymology: early 20th century; from Greek an- ‘without’ + oxys ‘sharp’ + -emia Hypoxemia: a low amount of oxygen in the blood Etymology: early 20th century; from Greek hypo- ‘below’ + oxys ‘oxygen’ + -emia Hyperoxemia: a high amount of oxygen in the blood Etymology: early 20th century; from Greek hyper- ‘over’ + oxys ‘sharp’ + -emia Uremia: a condition in which the amount of waste products in the blood is abnormally high Etymology: early 20th century; from Greek ouros ‘urine’ + -emia --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/15/202318 minutes, 32 seconds
Episode Artwork

"Gastro-" and etymologizing all things regarding the stomach

All words covered today are provided below in the show notes! gastrointestinal esophageal reflux disease gastro- also gastero-, before vowels gastr-, scientific word-forming element meaning "stomach," from Greek gastro-, combining form of gaster (genitive gastros) "belly, paunch; womb" intestine (n.) "lower part of the alimentary canal," early 15c., from Old French intestin (14c.) or directly from Latin intestinum "a gut," in plural (intestina), "intestines, bowels," noun use of neuter of adjective intestinus "inward, internal," from intus "within, on the inside" esophagus (n.) from Greek oisophagos "gullet, passage for food," literally "what carries and eats.” reflux (n.) early 15c., "a flowing back" (of the sea, etc.), from Medieval Latin refluxus, from Latin re- "back, again" + fluxus "a flowing," from fluere "to flow" gastrocnemius (n.) = “stomach of the lower leg” Gastritis (n.) gastro- also gastero-, before vowels gastr-, scientific word-forming element meaning "stomach," from Greek gastro-, combining form of gaster (genitive gastros) "belly, paunch; womb.” -itis word-forming element in medicine denoting "diseases characterized by inflammation" (of the specified part), Modern Latin, from Greek -itis. Gastro-enteritis (n.) - Gastroenteritis is inflammation of the lining of the stomach and small and large intestines. Most cases are infectious, although gastroenteritis may occur after ingestion of drugs and chemical toxins (eg, metals, plant substances) enteritis (n.) "acute inflammation of the bowels," 1808, medical Latin, coined c. 1750 by French pathologist François-Boissier de la Croix de Sauvages (1706-1767), from enteron "intestine" + -itis "inflammation." Gastrectomy - surgical removal of a part or the whole of the stomach. -ectomy word-forming element meaning "surgical removal of," from Latinized form of Greek -ektomia "a cutting out of," from ektemnein "to cut out," from ek "out" + temnein "to cut." gastro-enterology (n.) - the study of the normal function and diseases of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon and rectum, pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts and liver. from enteron "intestine" and -ology referring to the “study of.” gastropod (n.) - The gastropods, commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca called Gastropoda 1826, gasteropod (spelling without -e- by 1854), from Modern Latin Gasteropoda, name of a class of mollusks, from Greek gaster (genitive gastros) "stomach" + pous (genitive podos) "foot" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/14/202323 minutes, 22 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the words "sentio", "simulo", and "servo"

resent (v.) c. 1600, "feel pain or distress" (a sense now obsolete); 1620s, "take (something) ill, consider as an injury or affront; be in some degree angry or provoked at," from French ressentir "feel pain, regret," from Old French resentir "feel again, feel in turn" (13c.) sentient (adj.) 1630s, "capable of feeling, having the power of or characterized by the exercise of sense-perception," from Latin sentientem (nominative sentiens) "feeling," present participle of sentire "to feel" 1. Sentience: the capacity to feel, perceive, or experience subjectively. 2. Sentiency: the state of being aware of one's surroundings and of having a conscious experience. 3. Sentimentalism: the tendency to rely too heavily on emotions when making decisions or forming opinions. 4. Sentimentality: the excessive display of emotion, especially in an overly sentimental manner. 5. Sentiment: a general feeling or opinion about something, based on emotion rather than reason. 6. Sentimentalize: to make something overly sentimental or to cause something to be viewed sentimentally. 7. Sentimentality: an excessive or mawkish display of emotion. 8. Sentimentalize: to cause something to become overly sentimental. 9. Sentimentalism: an excessive attachment to or reliance on emotion. 10. Sensibility: the capacity to perceive or feel things. resemble (v.) "be like, have likeness or similarity to," mid-14c., from Old French resembler "be like" (12c., Modern French ressemble), from re-, here perhaps an intensive prefix, + sembler "to appear, to seem, be like," from Latin simulare "to make like, imitate, copy, represent," from stem of similis "like, resembling, of the same kind" 1. Semblance - a superficial resemblance or outward appearance 2. Assembler - one who assembles or puts together reservation (n.) late 14c., "act of reserving or keeping back," from Old French reservation (14c.) and directly from Late Latin reservationem (nominative reservatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin reservare "keep back, save up; retain, preserve," from re- "back" + servare "to keep, save, preserve, protect" 1. Servile - adj. excessively submissive; slavish 2. Service - n. an act of helpful activity; assistance 3. Servitude - n. the state of being a slave; forced labor 4. Serve - v. to be of use; to be of service 5. Servitor - n. a servant; one who is subservient 6. Servitude - n. the condition of being a slave; forced labor 7. Servitorial - adj. of or relating to a servitude; subjugated 8. Servilely - adv. in a slavish manner; submissively 9. Servitorially - adv. in a servitorial manner; submissively --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/8/202313 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Second Q&A with Liam - Latin in Layman's

Another amazing set of questions asked for today's Q&A!  Here's a list of the questions asked on today's podcast: 1. What is the origin of the word 'anatomy'? 2. How do the human body systems interact to maintain homeostasis? 3. What is the etymological history of the word ‘physiology’? 4. What is the difference between anatomy and physiology? 5. How does medical terminology differ from everyday language? 6. Have you heard of chat GPT? If so, your thoughts? 7. How has modern medicine changed the way we understand anatomy and physiology? 8. Why you should study Latin and Greek? --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/7/202333 minutes, 32 seconds
Episode Artwork

First Q&A with Liam - Latin in Layman's

Join me in this episode where I go over a gamut of questions I've saved over time. Because of my small audience, I have had these questions trickled to me over time so that I could turtn this into a substantive epsiode rather than just having one or two questions. Ask me more questions at: [email protected] or [email protected] --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/2/202332 minutes, 55 seconds
Episode Artwork

More assimilated "con-/col-/com-/co-" words and ringing in the New Year (contemplating on the contemporary)

Conspiracy literally "to breathe together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + spirare "to breathe" (see spirit (n.)), perhaps on the notion of "to agree (by spoken oath) to commit a bad act." Con + nect - “with” + “nectere = to bind” “To bind together with” conspicuous (adj.) 1540s, "open to view, catching the eye," from Latin conspicuus "visible, open to view; attracting attention, striking," from conspicere "to look at, observe, see, notice," from assimilated form of com-, here perhaps an intensive prefix (see com-), + specere "to look at" (from PIE root *spek- "to observe"). consonant (n.) early 14c., "alphabetic element other than a vowel," from Latin consonantem (nominative consonans) "sounding together, agreeing," as a noun, "a consonant" (consonantem littera), present participle of consonare "to sound together, sound aloud," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + sonare "to sound, make a noise." Consonants were thought of as sounds that are produced only together with vowels. consort (n.1) early 15c., "partner" (a sense now obsolete), from Old French consort "colleague, partner," consorte "wife" (14c.), from Latin consortem (nominative consors) "partner, comrade; brother, sister," in Medieval Latin, "a wife," noun use of adjective meaning "having the same lot, of the same fortune," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + sors "a share, lot" (from PIE root *ser- (2) "to line up"). consolidate (v.) 1510s, "to combine into one body," from Latin consolidatus, past participle of consolidare "to make solid," from assimilated form of com "with, together" (see con-) + solidare "to make solid," from solidus "firm, whole, undivided, entire," from suffixed form of PIE root *sol- "whole." Meaning "to make firm or strong" is from 1530s; that of "to form into a solid mass" Con + templ + lation + “with” + “templatum = surveyed, observed” "reflect upon, ponder, study, view mentally, meditate," from Latin contemplatus, past participle of contemplari "to gaze attentively, observe; consider, contemplate," originally "to mark out a space for observation" Co + habitation = (habito, habitare - “to live/ to live and/or have a home”) “To live together with” Co + labor + ate = “to work together/with” Con + solidate = to bring together with (solidatum= to make solid/ bring together) "to combine into one body," from Latin consolidatus, past participle of consolidare "to make solid," from assimilated form of com "with, together" + solidare "to make solid," from solidus "firm, whole, undivided, entire," Con + done = “give with/together” “With” + “gift” from assimilated form of com- (with) + donare "give as a gift," from donum "gift" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
1/1/202316 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

New Year's Etymology with the Latin word - "Annus"

Anniversary Annus (“year”) + Versum (“Having been turned”) "year-day, annual return of a certain date in the year," originally especially of the day of a person's death or a saint's martyrdom, from Medieval Latin anniversarium, noun from Latin anniversarius (adj.) "returning annually," from annus (genitive anni) "year" + versus, past participle of vertere "to turn." Annual late 14c., "appointed by the year;" c. 1400, "occurring or done once a year," from Old French annuel "yearly" (12c.) or directly from Medieval Latin annualis "yearly," corresponding to Latin annalis as adjective form of annus "year." This is reconstructed to be from Proto-Italic *atno- "year" (compare Oscan akno- "year, holiday, time of offering"), from PIE *at-no- "which goes," also "a year" (as "going around"), suffixed form of root *at- "to go" (source also of Sanskrit atati "goes, wanders," atamana- "to travel, wander," atya- "steed, runner"). The root also has Germanic derivatives meaning "a year," such as Gothic aþnam (dative plural) "year." Anno Domino "in the year of the Christian era," 1570s, Latin, literally "in the year of (our) Lord," from ablative of annus "year"  + Late Latin Domini, genitive of Dominus "the Lord" Anno Hegirae Medieval Latin, "in the year of the hegira," the flight of Muhammad from Mecca, 622 C.E., from which Muslims reckon time; from ablative of annus "year" (see annual (adj.)) + genitive of hegira. Abbreviated A.H. centennial (adj.) "consisting of or lasting 100 years, happening every 100 years," 1789, from Latin centum "one hundred" + ending from biennial. As a noun, "a hundredth anniversary celebration,"  biennial (adj.) 1620s, "lasting for two years;" 1750, "occurring every two years," from Latin biennium "two-year period," from bi- "two" + annus "year."  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/30/20229 minutes, 48 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding where "affix", "prefix", and "suffix"

fix; fix + ture; cruci + fix; af + fix; pre + fix; trans + fix; suf + fix;  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/29/20228 minutes, 1 second
Episode Artwork

Understanding assimilation of words in association to the Latin preposition "Cum" - "co-", "col-", "com-"

communicate - (operor - to work) commemorate - (memoratum - remembered) committee - (mitto - sent)  content - (teneo - to hold) combat - (battuo - to battle) collect - (lectum - gathered) confection - (factum - done, made) cognate - (nascor, gnatus - to be born) community - (munio - to build, fortify) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/20/202215 minutes, 18 seconds
Episode Artwork

Deriving the Greek Root "SYN-/SYM-"

Too lazy to do show notes today... You just gotta listen! ;) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/17/202211 minutes, 11 seconds
Episode Artwork

Hormones and other processes/aspects of the body with the prefix "Endo-"

endocrine (adj.) "secreting internally," endo- + Latinized form of Greek krinein "to separate, distinguish". certain (adj.) c. 1300, "determined, fixed," from Old French certain "reliable, sure, assured" (12c.), from Vulgar Latin *certanus, extended form of Latin certus "determined, resolved, fixed, settled," of things whose qualities are invariable, "established," also "placed beyond doubt, sure, true, proved; unerring, to be depended upon" (also source of Old French cert, Italian certo, Spanish cierto), originally a variant past participle of cernere "to distinguish, decide," literally "to sift, separate." This Latin verb comes from the root *krei- "to sieve," thus "discriminate, distinguish.” endocrinology (n.) 1917, from endocrine + -ology. Related: Endocrinologist. endorse (v.) c. 1400, endosse "confirm or approve" endow (v.) late 14c., indowen "provide an income for," from Anglo-French endover, from en- "in" + Old French douer "endow," from Latin dotare "to endow, bestow, portion," from dos (genitive dotis) "marriage portion." endogenous (adj.) "growing or proceeding from within," especially with reference to a class of plants including cereals, palms, plantains, etc., 1822, from endo- "within" + -genous "producing." endorphin (n.) "chemical which occurs naturally in the brain and works like morphine," 1975, from French endorphine. First element from endogène "endogenous, growing within." endometrium (n.) "lining membrane of the uterus," 1882, medical Latin, from endo- + Greek mētra "uterus," related to mētēr "mother" (see mother (n.1)). Related: Endometrial (1870). endoskeleton (n.) 1838, from endo- + skeleton. ENDOSCOPY endo- word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," from Greek endon "in, within." -scopy word-forming element meaning "viewing, examining, observing," from Modern Latin -scopium, from Greek -skopion, from skopein "to look at, examine." --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/16/202229 minutes, 3 seconds
Episode Artwork

Breaking down and etymologizing "Hypo-" words (The opposite of "Hyper-")

hypocaust (n.) "arched fire chamber for heating rooms above via pipes," 1670s, from Late Latin hypocaustum, from Greek hypokauston, literally "heated from below," from hypo- "under; up from under.” The word "holocaust" originally derived from the Koine Greek word holokauston, meaning "a completely (holos) burnt (kaustos) sacrificial offering," or "a burnt sacrifice offered to a god." In Hellenistic religion, gods of the earth and underworld received dark animals, which were offered by night and burnt in full. hypothermia (n.) 1877, Modern Latin, from hypo- "under" + Greek therme "heat"  ("to heat, warm"). hypocrite (n.) c. 1200, ypocrite, "false pretender to virtue or religion," from Old French ypocrite (12c., Modern French hypocrite), from Church Latin hypocrita "a hypocrite," from Greek hypokritēs "stage actor; pretender, dissembler." hypothalamus (n.) 1896, coined 1893 in German from Greek hypo- "under" + thalamus. hypotenuse (n.) the side of a right triangle that is opposite the right angle, 1570s, from Late Latin hypotenusa, from Greek hypoteinousa "stretching under" (the right angle). hypotaxis (n.) in grammar, "dependent construction" (opposed to parataxis). hypothesis (n.) 1590s, "a particular statement;" 1650s, "a proposition, assumed and taken for granted, used as a premise," from French hypothese and directly from Late Latin hypothesis, from Greek hypothesis "base, groundwork, foundation," hence in extended use "basis of an argument, supposition," literally "a placing under," from hypo- "under" + thesis "a placing, proposition" hypotonic (adj.) "having reduced tension or pressure," 1873. from Greek tonikos "of stretching," from tonos "a stretching." hypoxia (n.) 1941, from hypo- + oxygen + abstract noun ending -ia. Related: Hypoxic. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/11/202212 minutes, 24 seconds
Episode Artwork

Glossary of Medical and Physiological Terms (part. i)

abdominal cavity · abdomin/o = abdomen · -al = pertaining to o The cavity beneath the thoracic cavity that is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm; contains the liver, gallbladder, spleen, stomach, pancreas, intestines, and kidneys. abdominopelvic cavity · abdomin/o = abdomen · pelv/i = pelvis · -ic = pertaining to o A term that describes the abdominal and pelvic cavity collectively; refers to the space between the diaphragm and the groin. anaplasia · (an-ah-PLAY-zee-ah) · ana- =  not, without · -plasia = formation, growth o A change in the structure and orientation of cells, characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversion to a more primitive form. Hyperplasia · hyper- = high · -plasia = formation, growth anterior · Pertaining to the front of the body or toward the belly of the body. aplasia · (ah-PLAY-zee-ah) ·  a = without, not · -plasia formation, growth o A developmental failure resulting in the absence of any organ or tissue. cardiac muscle · cardi/o = heart · -ac = pertaining to o The muscle that makes up the muscular wall of the heart. cervical vertebrae · (SER-vic-al VER-teh-bray) · cervic/o = neck · -al = pertaining to o The first seven segments of the spinal column; identified as C1 through C7. chromosomes · (KROH-moh-sohm) · The threadlike structures within the nucleus that control the functions of growth, repair, and reproduction for the body. coccyx · (COCK-siks) · The tailbone. Located at the end of the vertebral column, the coccyx results from the fusion of four individual coccygeal bones in the child. connective tissue · Tissue that supports and binds other body tissue and parts. cranial · (KRAY-nee-al) · crani/o skull · -al pertaining to · Pertaining to the skull or cranium. cytology · (sigh-TALL-oh-jee) · cyt/o cell · -logy the study of · The study of cells. cytoplasm · (SIGH-toh-plazm) · cyt/o cell · -plasm living substance · A gel-like substance that surrounds the nucleus of a cell. The cytoplasm · contains cell organs, called organelles, which carry out the essential · functions of the cell. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/10/202224 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Explaining the process of eytmologizing words and applying them to - "port-", "cardi-", "dermat-", and more!

port  report  import  support  export  transport  porter  portable cardiologist - One who specializes in the study of diseases and disorders of the heart; -logist (one who specializes) is a suffix.  cardiology - The study of the heart; -logy (the study of) is a suffix.  carditis - Inflammation of the heart; -itis (inflammation) is a suffix.  cardiac - Pertaining to the heart; -ac (pertaining to) is a suffix.  dermatologist - One who specializes in the study of diseases and disorders of the skin; -logist (one who specializes) is a suffix.  dermatology -  The study of the skin; -logy (the study of) is a suffix.  dermatitis -  Inflammation of the skin; -itis (inflammation) is a suffix.  dermatosis - Any condition of the skin; -osis (condition) is a suffix.  acrodermatitis - Inflammation of the skin of the extremities; -itis (inflammation) is a suffix; dermat is a word root; acr (extremities) is a word root.  hypodermic - Pertaining to under the skin; -ic (pertaining to) is a suffix; hypo (under) is a prefix. cardialgia - Pain in the heart, heart pain; -algia (pain) is a suffix. Note that a combining vowel was not used with this word because the suffix begins with a vowel. cardiocentesis - Surgical puncture of the heart; -centesis (surgical puncture) is a suffix.   cardiomegaly - Enlargement of the heart; -megaly (enlargement) is a suffix. endocardium - Within the heart, the inner lining of the heart; endo- (within) is a prefix; -um (structure, tissue, or thing) is a noun suffix.  intracardiac - Pertaining to within the heart (i.e., pertaining to the interior of the heart chambers); intra- (within) is a prefix; -ac (pertaining to) is an adjective suffix. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/4/202222 minutes, 7 seconds
Episode Artwork

On Vulnerability, Love, and what "heaven on earth" is?

Having issues with podcasting, because the episodes are not being recorded in their entirety. I appreciate all the love and support. It cuts off at 18 mins when I recorded for 24 minutes... It was off-the-cuff, so I don't have a good recollection of all that was said. I hope you enjoy this conversation I have with my audience. Thanks you again, everyone. Y'all are amazing supporters. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
12/3/202218 minutes, 5 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Harry Potter Spells and the Wizardry World!

'Expecto Patronum '  Expecto Patronum, the spell that conjured up Harry’s magnificent stag Patronus, roughly translates into ‘I expect (or await) a guardian’ in Latin, which is apt.  Historically, in Ancient Rome, the word ‘patronus’ meant protector, too, but with very different connotations. A patronus in Ancient Rome was someone of a high class who had a ‘patronage’ relationship with a client, who would usually be less rich, or lower class. In turn, the word ’patronage’ most likely came from the term ‘Pater’, which means ‘father’ in Latin.  'Petrificus Totalus ' First, we have ‘Petra’, which is derived from ‘petros’, which means ‘rock’ in Greek.  ‘Ficus’ is a Latin suffix which denotes ‘making’ or ‘doing’ something.  ‘Totalus’ is a loose reworking of ‘totalis’, which, once again, is Latin, meaning ‘total’ or ‘entire’.  So roughly speaking, ‘Petrificus Totalus’ translates to ‘Make rock totally.’ 'Expelliarmus ' ‘Ex’ means ‘out’ and ‘pellere’ means ‘to drive’, which finally formed the word ‘expel’.  Its definition in basic terms means to ‘drive out’. ‘ Armus’, as you may expect, is indeed Latin for a similar sounding part of the body: the arm, or specifically the shoulder joint. In time, the term ‘arm’ took on combat meaning (such as, to ‘arm’ yourself with a wand) with the Latin term ‘arma’, meaning weapon.  Piecing the syllables back together, we have a rough translation of the phrase ‘drive out weapon’ – which is precisely what Expelliarmus does. 'Lumos ' and 'Nox ' Sister spells Lumos and Nox give light and take it away, respectively. Lumos could well come from the 19th-century Latin word ‘lumen’, which simply means ‘light’. Adding the Latin suffix ‘os’ means to ‘have something’: to have light, in this instance.  Nox is Latin for ‘night’, but is also rooted in Greek mythology. ‘Nyx’, closely related to ‘Nox’, is the name for the Greek goddess of night. 'Sectumsempra ' The first half of his self-made curse, ‘sectum’, is Latin for ‘having been cut’: an interesting choice for a man who has the word ‘sever’ in his own name. The second part of the word, however, is fascinating. Because although ‘sempra’ isn’t a Latin word, it is very close to the word ‘semper’, which was known in the Latin phrase ‘semper fidelis’. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/29/202218 minutes, 53 seconds
Episode Artwork

Breaking down and deriving etymologized "Hyper-" words

hyperglycemia (n.) 1875, from hyper- "over" + glycemia "presence of sugar in the blood." hyperbole (n.) "obvious exaggeration in rhetoric," early 15c., from Latin hyperbole, from Greek hyperbole "exaggeration, extravagance," literally "a throwing beyond," from hyper- "beyond" (see hyper-) + bole "a throwing, a casting, the stroke of a missile, bolt, beam," from bol-, nominative stem of ballein "to throw". Greek had a verb, hyperballein, "to throw over or beyond." hyperextend (v.) 1863, from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" + from Latin extendere "stretch out, spread out; increase, enlarge, prolong, continue," from ex "out" + tendere "to stretch.” hyperinflation (n.) 1925 in the economic sense, from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" +from Latin inflationem (nominative inflatio) "a puffing up, a blowing into; flatulence," noun of action from past participle stem of inflare "blow into, puff up." hyperplasia (n.) 1849, from Modern Latin hyperplasia, from hyper- "over, beyond" + -plasia "formation, growth, development." New development of tissue. Muscles, usually. hypermnesia (n.) "unusual power of memory," 1847, from hyper- "over, beyond, in excess" + -mnēsia "memory," hyperopia (n.) "very acute vision," 1861, Modern Latin, from hyper- "over, exceedingly, to excess" + Greek ōps "eye" hyperpnea (n.) "panting," 1860, from hyper- "over, beyond, in excess" + ending probably based on older apnea. from apnoos "without breathing, without wind," from a- "not, without" + pnein "to breathe". hyperkinetic (adj.) characterized by fast-paced or frenetic activity. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/21/20228 minutes, 59 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing a TON of Pathologies as well as Medical terms you should know!

Arthritis - "inflammation of a joint," " from arthritis, fem. of arthrites (adj.) "pertaining to joints" (Greek nosos is a fem. noun), from arthron "a joint" + -itis, “an inflammation of” Conjunctivitis - from assimilated form of com "with, together" + iungere "to join together." Also known as “pink eye” because it can cause the white of the eye to take on a pink or red color. Symptoms of pink eye can vary but typically include redness or swelling of the white of the eye. Diabetes - medical name of a set of affections characterized by abnormal discharge of urine. from medical Latin diabetes, from late Greek diabetes "excessive discharge of urine" (so named by Aretaeus the Cappadocian, physician of Alexandria, 2c.), literally "a passer-through, siphon," from diabainein "to pass through," from dia "through"  + bainein "to go, walk, step". Chlamydia - type of genital infection, 1984, from the name of the bacteria that causes it. formed from a Latinized combining form of Greek khlamys (genitive khlamydos) "short mantle, upper garment for men, military cloak." Said to be so called due to its ability to "cloak" the nuclei of infected cells. Clostridium Difficile - Clostridium, the genus name of these gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic bacteria comes from Greek klōstēr (spindle) because, under the microscope, the colonies resemble spindles used in cloth weaving and long sticks with a bulge at the end. Staphylococcus aureus:; staphylo: "bunch of grapes" (from greek σταϕυλή, meaning "bunch of grapes") coccos: "berry" (from greek κόκκος, meaning "berry") aureus: "golden" (from latin aureus, meaning "golden") The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus looks like a cluster of small berry-shaped cells (coccos) that are arranged in a formation which resembles a bunch of grapes (staphylo), and appear golden (aureus) in colour when grown on a petri dish. Depression -  directly from Medieval Latin depressionem (nominative depressio), noun of action from past participle stem of Latin deprimere "to press down, depress." Leukemia - progressive blood disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of leucocytes, a type of white blood cell. Gonorrhea - from Late Latin gonorrhoia, from Greek gonos "seed" + rhoe "flow," from rhein "to flow". Mucus discharge was mistaken for semen. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/20/202223 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Medical Terms and Musculature/Bone Conditions

Latissimus Dorsi Latissumus comes from the Latin word, Lata, which means: “wide” The “-issumus” makes it superlative which turns “wide” to “widest” Dorsi is the GENITIVE SINGULAR form of Dorsum, which means: “Back” So, if we do an “A” + “B”, we get… “The widest of the back” (muscle) According to Google: The latissimus dorsi is a large, flat muscle covering the width of the middle and lower back Quadriceps Femoris So if we do an “A” + “B” + “C”, we get = _________________ “Four heads of the femur/upper leg” According to Google: The quadriceps femoris is a hip flexor and a knee extensor. It consists of four individual muscles; three vastus muscles and the rectus femoris. They form the main bulk of the thigh, and collectively are one of the most powerful muscles in the body. Hypothermia Hypo- (Greek) = “low, below” Therm- (thermos) = temperature -ia (shortened version of “–emia”) =“presence in the blood” “a” + “b” + “c” = “low “+ “temperature” + “presence in the blood” Hypercholestrolemia Hyper- (Greek) = “high, above” Cholesterol = Cholesterol is any of a class of certain organic molecules called lipids -emia (shortened version of “–emia”) =“presence in the blood” “a” + “b” + “c” = “high” + “cholesterol” + “presence in the blood” Hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis ATHERO+ SCLER+ OSIS athero- = (c) = groats scler- = (b) = hardening -osis= (a) = diseased condition of So “a” + “b” +”c” = “________________” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/18/202232 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing English Derivatives of the Latin words "tempus, temporis" and "pater, patris"

Con + tempor + ary - “with” + “tempor, temporis” “With the times” Google: refers to one who lives at the same time as another (Contemporaneous) Con + templ + lation + “with” + “templatum = surveyed, observed” "reflect upon, ponder, study, view mentally, meditate," from Latin contemplatus, past participle of contemplari "to gaze attentively, observe; consider, contemplate," originally "to mark out a space for observation" Tempo - the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played. (Tempor) patri + archy; patri + mony; patri + cide, patrician; patron; paternity; paternal; and many more! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/13/20229 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin on the Period Table - From Na to Hg to Ag and all other non-intuitive elements in-between!

Sodium = natrium, natri(n.) Potassium = kalium, kalii(n.) Iron = Ferrus, ferri(m.) gold = aurum, auri(n.) Tin = stannum, stanni(n.) Lead = plumbum, plumbi(n.) Silver = argentum, argenti(n.) HYDRARGYRUM = Mercury Copper = Cuprum, Cupri(n.) Hydrogen - contains the Greek word hydros (water) and genus, geni, which means “birth, origin, creation”. Hydrogen, therefore, literally means… “water-creator” “water-birther” “water-origin” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/12/202229 minutes, 25 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Pathos as both the prefix "patho-" and the suffix "-pathy"

pathos; pathetic; path + ology; patho + meter; a + pathy; anti +pathy; sym + pathy; tele + pathy; patho + genic; patho + phobia; patho + mania; em + pathy; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/6/20227 minutes, 49 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the dynamic and static preposition and prefix: "Trans-"

Here, I go into a bit of a introduction until about the 6 minute mark, where I transition into the linguistics! trans + port; trans + act(ion); tran + script(um); trans + fer(o); trans + form(o); trans + plant(a); trans + parent; tran +scend(o); trans + con + tinential(teneo);  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
11/5/202215 minutes, 52 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin and Greek within Science - Energy Flow Etymology

Metabolism 1878 in the physiology sense of "the sum of the chemical changes within the body by which the protoplasm is renewed, changed, or prepared for excretion," from Greek metabole "a change," from metaballein "to change," from meta "change" + ballein "to throw". Chemical from chemic "of alchemy" (a worn-down derivative of Medieval Latin alchimicus). Catabolic 1876, katabolism, "destructive metabolism," from Greek from kata "down" + ballein "to throw". Anabolic "pertaining to the process of building up" (especially in metabolism), 1876, with -ic + Greek from ana "up, upward"  + ballein "to throw." Reactant 1640s, "to exert, as a thing acted upon, an opposite action upon the agent," from re- "back" + “act” from Latin actus, past participle of agere "to set in motion, drive, drive forward," hence "to do, perform," Product early 15c., "mathematical quantity obtained by multiplication," from Medieval Latin productum, in classical Latin "something produced," noun use of neuter past participle of producere "bring forth" Endothermic Endo- word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," from Greek endon "in, within." from Greek therme "heat, feverish heat." Exothermic from Greek exō (adv.) "outside," related to ex (prep.) "out of" from Greek therme "heat, feverish heat." Enzyme from Modern Greek enzymos "leavened," from en "in" + zymē "leaven" Hence, where we get leavened bread: substance, typically yeast, that is used in dough to make it rise Catalyst 1650s, "dissolution," from Latinized form of Greek katalysis "dissolution, a dissolving" from kata "down" (or "completely"), + lyein "to loosen" Denaturation from Latin de "down, down from, from, off; concerning", also used as a prefix in Latin, usually meaning "down, off, away, from among, down from," (defenestration; the action of throwing someone out of a window.) Fenestra (latin noun); window from Latin natura "course of things; natural character, constitution, quality; the universe," literally "birth," from natus "born," past participle of nasci "to be born." Matrix from Latin mātrix (genitive mātricis) "pregnant animal," in Late Latin "womb," also "source, origin," from māter (genitive mātris) "mother" Aerobic from Greek aero- "air" + bios "life" Anaerobic from Greek an- "without" + aēr "air" + bios "life" Fermenstration from Late Latin fermentationem (nominative fermentatio), noun of action from past-participle stem of Latin fermentare "to ferment" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/30/202216 minutes, 33 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding the Latin in YOUR Zodiac Sign - Plus character traits and famous individuals you share your sign with

Aries (March 21 – April 19) Taurus (April 20 – May 20) Gemini (May 21 – June 20) Cancer (June 21 – July 22) -  Remember Hippocrates? Karkinos (Carcinoma) -> Cancer -> Crab!  Leo (July 23 – August 22) Virgo (August 23 – September 22) Libra (September 23 – October 22) - This one has historical information to consider too! Scorpio (October 23 – November 21) Sagittarius (November 22 – December 21) Capricorn (December 22 – January 19) Aquarius (January 20 – February 18) Pisces (February 19 – March 20) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/29/202227 minutes, 37 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Mathematical Terms - From Trigonometry to Geometry to Sine/Cosine/Tangent

Trigonometry from Modern Latin trigonometria (Barthelemi Pitiscus, 1595), from Greek trigonon "triangle" from tri- "three"+ gōnia "angle, corner" + metron "a measure." "branch of mathematics that deals with relations between sides and angles of triangles," Geometry - “a measuring of the earth” from combining form of gē (gaia) "earth, land" + -metria "a measuring of" Geometry is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. Parallel from para- "beside" + allēl "each other." in geometry, of lines, "lying in the same plane but never meeting in either direction." As a noun from 1550s, "a line parallel to another line." Meanings "a comparison made by placing things side by side" and "thing equal to or resembling another in all particulars" are from 1590s.  Parallel bars as gymnastics apparatus is recorded from 1868. Perpendicular - "at right angles to the horizon," from per "thoroughly" (see per) + pendere "to hang, cause to hang; weigh" (from PIE root *(s)pen- "to draw, stretch, spin"). Percent - “by/through a hundred” from Modern Latin per centum "by the hundred" Angle - directly from Latin angulus "an angle, a corner," a diminutive form from PIE root *ang-/*ank- "to bend" (source also of Greek ankylos "bent, crooked," Latin ang(u)ere "to compress in a bend, fold, strangle;" Old Church Slavonic aglu "corner;" Lithuanian anka "loop;" Sanskrit ankah "hook, bent," angam "limb;" Old English ancleo "ankle;" Acute - from Latin acutus "sharp, pointed," figuratively "shrill, penetrating; intelligent, cunning," past participle of acuere "to sharpen" (literal and figurative) It was also used of humors (early 15c.). The meaning "ending in a sharp point" is from 1560s; the sense of "sharp or penetrating in intellect" is from 1580s. i.e. acute injury, acute inflammation, acute pancreatitis Obtuse from Latin obtusus "blunted, dull," also used figuratively, past participle of obtundere "to beat against, make dull," from ob "in front of; against" + tundere "to beat," from PIE *(s)tud-e- "to beat, strike, push, thrust," from root *(s)teu- "to push, stick, knock, beat" In geometry, in reference to a plane angle greater than a right angle." Calculus - from Latin calculus "reckoning, account," originally "pebble used as a reckoning counter," diminutive of calx (genitive calcis) "limestone." In medicine, the word also has been used to refer generally to "concretion occurring accidentally in the animal body," such as dental plaque; dental calculus. Sine - from Latin sinus "fold in a garment, bend, curve, bosom." Cosine “with the fold” “with” + “bend, curve” Tangent - "meeting at a point without intersecting," from Latin tangentem (nominative tangens), present participle of tangere "to touch." Addition - "action of adding numbers." from Latin additionem (nominative additio) "an adding to, addition," noun of action from past-participle stem of addere "add to, join, attach" “The action of” + “joining” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/23/202221 minutes, 14 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing a TON of everyday words - From connected to conjugate to decline to nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and ablative!

Con + tempor + ary - “with” + “tempor, temporis” “With the times” Google: refers to one who lives at the same time as another (Contemporaneous) Con + nect - “with” + “nectere = to bind” “To bind together with” Con + templ + lation + “with” + “templatum = surveyed, observed” "reflect upon, ponder, study, view mentally, meditate," from Latin contemplatus, past participle of contemplari "to gaze attentively, observe; consider, contemplate," originally "to mark out a space for observation" Tempo - the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played. (Tempor) Co + habitation = (habito, habitare - “to live/ to live and/or have a home”) “To live together with” Co + labor + ate = “to work together/with” Con + solidate = to bring together with (solidatum= to make solid/ bring together) "to combine into one body," from Latin consolidatus, past participle of consolidare "to make solid," from assimilated form of com "with, together" + solidare "to make solid," from solidus "firm, whole, undivided, entire," Con + done = “give with/together” “With” + “gift” from assimilated form of com- (with) + donare "give as a gift," from donum "gift" Solidarity = support or sympathy “Solidatum” - to make solid/ bring together Conjugate = “con” + “jungo” + “ate” “Action of joining together/with” in the grammatical sense, "inflect (a verb) through all its various forms," from Latin coniugatus, past participle of coniugare "to yoke together," from assimilated form of com "with, together" + iugare "to join," from iugum "yoke". "This use has its origin in the fact that in inflected languages, a verb is conjugated by conjoining certain inflectional syllables with the root Declension = de + clinare from de "from" + clinare "to bend" in grammar, "the inflection of nouns, pronouns, and adjectives, especially with a change in form from the nominative case." This is ultimately from Latin declinationem (nominative declinatio) "a bending from (something), a bending aside; a turning away from (something)," also used in the grammatical sense, noun of action from past-participle stem of declinare "to lower; avoid, deviate; bend from, inflect," Nominative - from Latin nominativus "pertaining to naming, serving to name" (in casus nominativus), from nominat-, past-participle stem of nominare "to name, call by name, give a name to," from nomen "name" Genitive - from Latin (casus) genitivus "case expressing possession, source, or origin." from genitivus "of or belonging to birth," which is from genitus, the past participle of gignere "to beget, produce." Gens, gentis in Latin refers to clan, tribe, people (Where genocide, geneaology, generation come from) Dative - from Latin dativus "pertaining to giving," from datus "given" (from PIE root *do- "to give"); in grammatical use from Greek, from dotikos "of giving nature," from dotos "given" Accusative - directly from Latin (casus) accusativus "(case) of accusing," from accusatus, past participle of accusare "to call to account, make complaint against" Ablative - from Latin (casus) ablativus "(case) of removal," expressing direction from a place or time. coined by Julius Caesar from ablatus "taken away," past participle of auferre "to carry off or away, withdraw, remove," which is from ab "off, away" + the irregular verb ferre (past participle latum) "to carry, to bear" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/22/202227 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing Derivatives of Random Latin and Greek Roots (Pt. 1)

Discussing Derivatives of Random Latin and Greek Roots (Pt. 1) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/16/202213 minutes, 24 seconds
Episode Artwork

Muscular and Cell Etymology

Here are some guided questions to ask yourself as we move through this lesson! It's good stuff I promise... Within the word Sarcopenia, the root word “SARCO-” refers to _______________. When etymologizing the word “Sarcoma”, “sarc-“ + “-oma” literally means what?____________________________ Hippocrates named masses of cancerous cells as “Karkinos.” What does Karkinos mean is English? ___________________ Sarcophagus’ literal meaning is: “________________” + “________________” In Sarcomere, “-mere” means ______________ in English. A Sarcomere is made up of __________ and Myosin. In the word Autophagy, “Auto-” refers to _____________. If “BIOGRAPHY” means “A study of life,” then what do you think AUTObiography? _______________________________________________ “phago-” + “cyte” = “_____________________” In the term “CYTOPENIA”, the suffix “-penia” means: __________________ “Thrombo-” + “cytes” = ____________________________ Thrombocytes help to form ________________ to slow or stop bleeding and to help wounds heal. What do you think it means when you have a “-penia” of thrombocytes? AKA… Thrombocytopenia? Circle the correct answer: Do hemophilia and thrombocytopenia go hand in hand?  True or False What does the prefix “hemo-” mean?  “_______________” The root word “OSTEO” means _________________ Circle the correct answer: Is bone porous in nature?  True or False Osteoporosis = “a” + “b” + “c” = _____________________________________ --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/14/202227 minutes, 19 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing Legal terms and Phrases in both the Latin and English

Here, I got over TONS of legal terms in their Latin and then expound upon the Latin to provide their literal translations as well as their "englishified" uses within the legal system. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/9/202226 minutes, 13 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Character Traits and Personalities

Gregarious - from Latin gregarius "pertaining to a flock; of the herd, of the common sort, common," Assertive - assertus, meaning “defended” or “claimed.” Assertive can be thought of as the adjective version of the verb assert, which means “to maintain or defend” (as in phrases like assert your rights or assert their dominance), but assertive has actually been in use for longer than assert. Active directly from Latin activus, from actus "a doing"  Extraversion - "a turning out," from Medieval Latin extraversionem, from extra "outward"+ versionem Latin versionem (nominative versio) "a turning, a translation," from past-participle stem of Latin vertere "to turn, turn back, be turned; convert, transform, translate; be changed" Introversion - a turning into/inward," from Medieval Latin extraversionem, from extra "outward" Impulsive - Latin impulsivus, from Latin impuls-, past participle stem of impellere "strike against, push against. impellere "to push, strike against; set in motion, drive forward, urge on," from assimilated form of in- "into, in, on, upon" + pellere "to push, drive" Compulsive - from Latin compulsus, past participle of compellere "to drive together, force," from com "with, together" + pellere "to drive" Vulnerable - Latin vulnerare "to wound, hurt, injure, maim," from vulnus (genitive vulneris) "wound," Obsessive - from Latin obsessus, past participle of obsidere "watch closely; besiege, occupy; stay, remain, abide" literally "sit opposite to," from ob "against" + sedere "to sit.” Competent directly from Latin competentem (nominative competens), present participle of competere "coincide, agree" Depressed - from Late Latin depressare, frequentative of Latin deprimere "press down," from de "down" + premere "to press, hold fast, cover, crowd, compress" Altruistic -  "unselfishness, devotion to the welfare of others, the opposite of egoism," from Latin alteri, dative of alter "other" Diverse - directly from Latin diversus "turned different ways. Cognitive - "pertaining to cognition," with -ive + Latin cognit-, past participle stem of cognoscere "to get to know, recognize," Narcissistic  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/8/202224 minutes, 43 seconds
Episode Artwork

Deriving words pertaining to words - Littera, Gramma, Logos, Scribere

litteraliteral; litteraliterate; obliterate; illogical; analogy; apologetic; diagram; program; biographical; descriptive; subscribe; manuscript. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/2/202213 minutes, 58 seconds
Episode Artwork

Sum and Possum in the Present, Imperfect, Future; Understanding the Complementary Infinitive

Since the present is review, let’s jump into looking at the imperfect tense of sum. As with the present, the imperfect-tense forms of esse are irregular. They are: Eram: “I was”/Eramus: “We were” Eras: “You (s) were”/Eratis: “Y’all were/You (p) were/ You all were” Erat: “He, She, It was”/Erant: “They were” Notice that all these forms have as a characteristic vowel the letter a. This is the same a that shows up in the -ba- endings of other imperfect verbs. And as with other imperfect verb forms in Latin, the imperfect of the verb “to be” carries the sense of unfinished, repeated, or habitual action in the past, producing the following translations: “I was,” “I used to be,” “I kept on being”; “you were,” “you used to be,” “you kept on being”, “he, she or it was,” … Pretty obvious. Now let’s look at the irregular forms of future: Ero: “I will be”/Erimus: “We will be” Eris: “You (s) will be”/Eritis: “Y’all will be/You (p) will be/ You all will be” Erit: “He/She/It will be”/Erunt: “They will be” Notice that these forms share a characteristic letter i which is also seen in the -bi- of other future-tense forms. And notice that they also share the same irregularities. The characterizing i disappears in both -bo and ero, and it changes to u in the third person plural -bunt and erunt. Also, just like other future tense forms, the future of the verb “to be” carries the sense of action subsequent to the present: “I will be,” “you will be,” “he will be…” … crazy if we recite all of these forms. Now let’s look at another verb which is based upon the verb “to be,” possum. This verb ─ possum, posse ─ is a compound of sum, esse. Possum is really pot- + sum: pot- means “able”; sum means “I am.” Therefore, it literally means “I am able.” Posse is a combination of pot- + esse, meaning “to be able.” Here is the present tense of possum: Possum: I am able/Possumus: We are able Potes: You are able/Potestis: Ya’ll are able Potest: He/She/It is able/Possunt: They are able When “t” runs into “s” in Latin, very often the t will change to an “s” and produce the geminate consonant cluster “ss.” So *pot-sum will turn into possum, *pot-sumus will turn into possumus, *pot-sunt will turn into possunt, and *pot-esse will contract down to posse. Here is the imperfect tense of possum: Poteram: I was able/Poteramus: We were able Poteras: You were able/Poteratis: Y'all were able Poterat: He/She/It was able/Poterant: They were able Possum in the future; the expected combination of pot- + ero: Potero: I will be able/Poterimus: We will be able Poteris: You will be able/Poteritis: Ya’ll will be able Poterit: He/She/It will be able/Poterunt: They will be able Finally the complementary infinitive. In order to have a complete meaning, posse requires an infinitive, called a “complementary” infinitive because it “completes” the meaning of the main verb. Complementary infinitives serve to complete the meaning of the main verb by answering the question, "to be able to do what?" Only certain verbs take on complementary infinitives: debeo, “ought,” as in “ought to do something”; and possum, the verb introduced in this chapter, “to be able to do something.” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
10/1/202216 minutes, 13 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing Legal Nomenclature

Jurisprudence - study, theory, or philosophy of law “Juris (from “ius, iuris” = law) + “prudentia(knowledge)” In fact; philosophy = philo(love/lover of) + sophos(wise) And further!!! Sophomore = sophos(wise) + moros(stupid/fool) Jurisdiction - the power, right, or authority to interpret and apply the law a matter that falls within the court's jurisdiction “Law” + “dictio(participle form of “to say” aka ‘saying’)” Perjure - willfully tell an untruth when giving evidence to a court; commit perjury. “per(wrong)” + “ius(law)” - to wrong the law Impunity - freedom from punishment “in(not)” + “punire/punitum(to punish)” Subpoena - a writ ordering a person to attend a court. “under/beneath” + “penalty” (of law) Litigation - The process of a lawsuit “litigare/litigatum(to press a lawsuit)” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/25/20224 minutes, 50 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing a couple of sentences and then discussing Biological terms in regards to Longevity (Telomere, mitosis, chondrosarcoma, mitochondria, etc.)

There was an unexpected reward when the vaccine turned out to be polyvalent and worked against several diseases. POLY-. Is that a prefix? No, it’s a base, a Greek base, meaning “many, much.” Next element? VAL-, a Latin base meaning “be strong, be worthy.” Last element? The suffix -ent, meaning “-ing,” so this word is what part of speech? An adjective. And what do you think it means? Construct an etymological definition: “being strong (i.e. effective) in many (i.e. multiple) ways,” which implies a vaccine that “counteracts more than one toxin or microorganism.” Be sure, however, that the first word of your definition ends in -ing. This is an adjective: “counteracting more than one toxin…” The real tragedy is that drug use by women in this social class accounts for so many perinatal mortalities. A Greek prefix, peri- (“around, near”). Then what? A Latin base, NAT- (“be born”). And the last element? The suffix -al (“pertaining to”), which means this word is what part of speech? An adjective: “pertaining to being around being born.” The implication is clearly the time of birth. So, what’s the definition? Remember to make it an adjective. “Occurring at or around the time of birth.” Con + tempor + ary - “with” + “tempor, temporis” “With the times” (Contemporaneous) Tempo - the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played. (Tempor) Co + habitation = (habito, habitare - “to live/ to live and/or have a home”) Co + labor + ate = to work together Con + solidate = to bring together with (solidatum= to make solid/ bring together) Con + done = give with/together “With” + “gift” Solidarity = support or sympathy “Solidatum” - to make solid/ bring together _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Telomere - a compound structure at the end of a chromosome. “telos(end)” + “part” Telophase - the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed. “End” + “stage” Mitosis - a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth. “mitos(thread)” Mitochondria - POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL “Thread” + “kondros(granule)” + “likeness/related to” Chondromalcia patellae (genitive form of Patella) - degeneration of cartilage in the knee, usually caused by excessive wear between the patella and lower end of the femur. “Granule(transitions into - cartilage)” + “soft/softening” Chondrosarcoma - a type of bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is present in adults and the tissue from which most bones develop. Cartilage plays an important role in the growth process. “Cartilage” + “ flesh/muscle” + “tumor” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/25/202221 minutes, 31 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing words in sentences

quadraphonic; pyroconductivity; pseudandry; supererogatory; metempsychosis; reincarnation; hypercorrections. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/24/202216 minutes, 59 seconds
Episode Artwork

Medical suffixes and etymologizing (fancy-dancy) words in sentences

The first one, -itis, meaning “an inflammation of, an inflammatory disease of.”  In a medical context, that suffix has adopted the specialized sense of “inflammation” and occurs broadly ─ arthritis, bursitis, appendicitis, etc. The second suffix, -oma which has a basic sense of cancer or tumor. Here’s something you need to become used to about all the medical terms we’re looking at.  The third suffix, -osis (“the diseased condition of”). It’s what the suffix -sis (“the act of”) becomes when it checks into a hospital. And note please that, when an -osis word is turned into an adjective, it becomes -otic, like psychosis and psychotic. ARTHR- (“joint, speech sound or articulation”) and going through SCLER- (“hard”). Athrosclerosis [ är′thrō-sklə-rō′sĭs ] –  Stiffness or hardening of the joints. ____________________________________________________________________________ Next, let’s dive into -ectomy (“the surgical removal of”), which should look very familiar to you. It’s a combination of the prefix ec- (“out”) and the base TOM- (“cut”). Like anatomy (“to cut up”) or eccentric (“out of the center”). It means the doctor’s cutting something out. The next suffix -tomy (“a surgical operation on, a surgical cutting of”) is just -ectomy without the -ec-, so -tomy’s happen when the doctor cuts into something but doesn’t take it out. And it doesn’t have to be a doctor necessarily.  You should also know that there is a medical suffix -tome meaning “a surgical instrument for cutting,” as in a microtome (an instrument for making small cuts) or an osteotome used for cutting into bone. The final suffix to discuss is -rrhea (“an abnormal discharge”). This is where we get diarrhea (“an abnormal discharge through” the body, is this case.” amenorrhea (“without the month’s abnormal discharge) “A-” = without “Mens” = month “-rrhea” = “abnormal discharge” Now, let’s shift gears again and look at some more medical suffixes, beginning with -path (“one who suffers from a disease of, one who treats a disease”).  This suffix -path is actually a back formation of the next suffix -pathy (“disease of, treatment of disease of or by”). “-iasis,” another “diseased condition” suffix, is an extension of the suffix you’ve probably seen already, “-sis”. Note: that it can sometimes mean just “the process of,” as in odontiasis, “the process of creating teeth (ODONT-).” That is, this suffix doesn’t always take on degeneration, another term you need to remember. Next is the suffix -therapy, meaning “treatment of or by.” As you might guess, there’s a base THERAP- which we did not study, meaning “treat, attend to.” In ancient Greek a therapon is an attendant. Next suffix that’s medical (-emia, “condition of/presence in the blood”) has many pathologies that can arise and flourish fromm this suffix… One of my favorites because it was one of my first suffixes to learn and fully understand. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/23/202229 minutes, 35 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - LATIN AND GREEK WITHIN ANATOMY AND THE HUMAN BODY

ANATOMY LATISSIMUS DORSI QUADRICEPS FEMORIS BICEPS BRACHII TRICEPS BRACHII “ANTE” IS A PREPOSITION IN LATIN THAT MEANS: “BEFORE” “IN FRONT OF” “POST” IS A PREPOSITION IN LATIN THAT MEANS : “AFTER” “BEHIND” “LATER” GASTROCNEMIUS BICEPS FEMORIS --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/18/202213 minutes, 58 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding the Third-io and Fourth Conjugations

There are three important rules to remember: (1) the// thematic vowel in fourth conjugation is -i-; (2) the future tense sign in fourth conjugation is -e- and; (3) the third-io conjugation resembles fourth conjugation more than third. The formation of the present tense in fourth conjugation follows the same pattern as the other conjugations: a fourth-conjugation verb base is added a thematic vowel, in this case -i-, and onto that are appended personal endings. Those personal endings are the same we’ve seen in the other conjugations. Though the thematic vowel in fourth conjugation often shows up as a long -ī, nowhere is the long mark mandatory because it does not distinguish one form from another. The translation of the present tense in fourth conjugation should pose no challenges. It follows the same pattern as the other conjugations: “I come” “I do come” “I am coming,” etc. The imperfect tense in fourth conjugation presents few surprises, too. It uses the tense marker - ba- just like the other conjugations, and to that adds personal endings. The only irregularity of any sort is that fourth conjugation uses a double thematic vowel, -ie-, in the imperfect, but that hardly counts as a surprise given how strong the presence of -i- is at the end of the base in fourth conjugation. Thus, the imperfect in fourth conjugation follows along the lines of Veniebam (“I was coming,” “I used to come,” “I kept on coming”) Veniebas (“You were coming”) Veniebat (He, She, It was coming), etc. The fifth and final conjugation in Latin looks on the surface like it’s a blend of third- and fourth conjugation forms. Therefore, it’s called “third-io”. That’s because the first principal part ends -io, as if it were fourth-conjugation, but doesn’t have an -ire infinitive the way fourth-conjugation verbs do, but an -ere infinitive the way third-conjugation verbs do. So it’s third because of its infinitive, and -io because of its first principal part. Here are three examples of third-conjugation -io verbs: facio, facere fugio, fugere capio, capere. But in the third-io conjugation, the balance between third- and fourth-conjugation forms is nowhere near to even. There are far more forms that appear to be fourth-conjugation than third. Let’s look at “fugio”. You can see that it follows the same general pattern as the other conjugations: base plus thematic vowel plus personal endings: Fugio Fugis Fugit, etc. The dominance of the -i- thematic vowel makes this conjugation look a lot like fourth, especially since the -i- rarely contracts into other forms. The translation of third-io conjugation verbs in the present tense follows exactly the same pattern as the other conjugations, for example: “I flee,” “I do flee,” “I am fleeing.” The imperfect tense, where the -ba- tense sign, -ie- double thematic vowel like fourth conjugation, translates “was,” “used to,” “kept on.” Now, the future. Maybe this will be exciting! Look at it: -e- future tense marker, -a- in the first person singular, no thematic vowel -i- lost, translates “will,” “will be.” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/18/202213 minutes, 15 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding the Third Conjugation

Here are two important rules for you to remember: (1) the thematic vowel in third conjugation is a short vowel; it appears as -i- or -u- in the present and -e- in the imperfect (2) The tense sign for the future in third conjugation is -e-; the future tense in third conjugation uses no thematic vowel Third conjugation has the most number of irregularities of the four conjugations in Latin. Here is an example of a third-conjugation verb, scribo, which means “write,” conjugated in the present tense: Scribo  Scribimus Scribis  Scribitis Scribit  Scribunt Notice that the formation of the present tense in third conjugation follows a pattern similar to that seen in first and second conjugation. Take a third-conjugation verb base add a thematic vowel (Which will be fairly irregular in this conjugation) and to that, append personal endings. Note: the personal endings are the same as those in first and second conjugation. But unlike the -a- which dominates first conjugation or the strong -e- which dominates second, third uses a short vowel which readily changes form as it encounters different consonants. Here are somethings to consider and think about: So, like we see, it will appear as -i- in the second person and third person singular and the first and second person plural. In the third person plural it appears as -u- and in the first person singular there is no thematic vowel, the same way the -a- in first conjugation disappears in forms like laudo or amo. The translation of third-conjugation verbs differs in no way from verbs in first and second conjugation. So there’s no point in rehearsing what you already know. Scribo, for instance, would translate as “I write,” “I am writing,” “I do write;” the other persons and numbers would follow suite within the same paradigm. Imperfect As for the imperfect tense in third conjugation poses even fewer problems than the present. Just like in first and second conjugation, it uses -ba- as the marker for the imperfect. Thus the imperfect of scribo goes: scribebam, scribebas, etc. Note that unlike in the present the thematic vowel in the imperfect is -e-. The imperfect tense in third conjugation translates the same way it does in first and second; it denotes an incomplete or repeated action in the past. And therefore scribebam translates as “I was writing,” “I used to write,” “I kept on writing.” Future Unlike the -bo, -bis, -bit business you are used to from first and second conjugation, third conjugation uses -e- as its future tense marker. This -e- which is easily confused with the second conjugation thematic vowel will present manifold challenges and only goes to demonstrate how important it is to distinguish between second- and third-conjugation verbs. To make matters only worse, the -e- isn’t used universally. In the first person singular, the future tense marker is -a- rendering a conjugation that looks like: scribam “I will write,” scribes “you will write,” scribet “he will write,” and so on... And even worse yet, note that this tense marker eats up the thematic vowel. So there’s no thematic vowel at all in third-conjugation future. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
9/3/202222 minutes, 17 seconds
Episode Artwork

Third Declension Nouns and Understanding the Nuances of the "Catch-all" Declensional System

We’ve already encountered first- and second-declension nouns. Now we’ll address the third. A fair question to ask, and one which some of you may be asking, is why is there a third declension at all? Third declension is Latin’s “catch-all” category for nouns. Into it have been put all nouns whose bases end with consonants -- yep, any consonant! That makes third declension very different from first and second declension. First declension, as you’ll remember, is dominated by a-stem nouns like femina and cura. Second declension is dominated by o- or u-stem nouns like amicus or oculus. Because of those vowels, we are given a bit of consistency within those declensions… The same is not true of third declension where one form, the nominative singular, is affected by the fact that its ending -s runs into the wide variety of consonants found at the ends of the bases of third-declension nouns, and the collision of those consonants causes irregular forms to appear in the nominative singular. That’s the (malus) bad news. The (bonus) good news is that only one case and number is affected by this, the nominative singular. All the other case endings begin with vowels, and consonants-running-into-vowels does not create the same kind of problem that consonants-running-into-consonants does. Thus, after the nominative singular, third-declension forms are regular and predictable.(Yay!) And here they are, although we’ll leave both the nominative and vocative singulars off in our recitation, because the nominative is irregular and the vocative is always the same as the nominative, remember? So, starting with the genitive, let’s pronounce these endings with the Latin noun, civitas, civitatis, (f.): Nominative Singular - Civitas Plural - Civitates Gentive Singular - Civitatis Plural - Civitatum Dative Singular - Civitati Plural - Civitatibus Accusative Singular - Civitatem Plural - Civitates Ablative Singular - Civitate Plural - Civitatibus While third declension looks very different in form from first and second, its translation is the same: civitas “the state” (S), civitatis “of the state,” civitati “to/for the state,” which is as much as I am willing to do “for the state” right now. I think you get it. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/28/202222 minutes, 53 seconds
Episode Artwork

Thrombocytopenia vs. Cytopenia vs. Phagocytes vs. Sacromere vs. Autophagy

1. Sacro + penia “Muscle” + “poverty” loss of muscle tissue as a natural part of the aging process. 2. Sarc + oma “Flesh” + “tumor” a malignant tumor of connective or other nonepithelial tissue. 3. Sarc + phagus “flesh/muscle” + “eating/consuming” (preceded it was the meaning “glutton”) a stone coffin, typically adorned with a sculpture or inscription and associated with the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Rome, and Greece. 4. Sacromere “muscle/flesh” + “part (meros)” a structural unit of a myofibril in striated muscle, consisting of a dark band and the nearer half of each adjacent pale band. 5. Sarco + lemma “Flesh” + “husk” the fine transparent tubular sheath which envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles. 6. “Auto”+ “phagy” “Self” + “consuming” the body's way of cleaning out damaged cells, in order to regenerate newer, healthier cells. 7. Phagocytes “Phago” “cytes(kutos)” = vessel Cyte refers to a type of cell cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells 8. Marco - phage “Large” + “eating/eater” - a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection 9. Actin - From Ancient Greek ἀκτίς (aktís, “ray”), based on the shape of the filament formed, and the English chemical suffix -in. 10. Myosin - myo- (“relating to muscle/flesh”), from Ancient Greek μυός (muós), genitive of μῦς (mûs, “muscle”) + -in, the english chemical suffix mentioned prior. Actin and myosin are both proteins that are found in all types of muscle tissue (aka sarcomeres = actin + myosin). Myosin forms thick filaments (15 nm in diameter) and actin forms thinner filaments (7nm in diameter). Actin and myosin filaments work together to generate force. 11. Nanometer - one billionth of a meter. prefix nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the combination of the name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). 12. Cytopenia (“cyto” + “penia”) “cell/vessel” + “poverty, deficiency, lack of” A deficiency in the production of one or more types of blood cells is called cytopenia. This condition may be caused by liver disorders, poor kidney function, and chronic inflammatory diseases. 12. Thrombocytopenia (thrombo-cyto-penia): Thrombocytes are platelets, and thrombocytopenia is the condition of having an abnormally low platelet count in the blood. “thrombo(to clot/to lump)” + “cyto(vessel/cell)” + “poverty, deficiency” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/27/202221 minutes, 5 seconds
Episode Artwork

Osteomalacia to Osteopenia to Osteomyelitis to Arthrosclerosis to Arteriosclerosis to so many more!!

Spondylolisthesis -  defined by a slipped vertebra spondylos "a vertebra," and in plural "the backbone," From the gk: “olisthánein" = to slip Spondylosis - involves the separation of the pars interarticularis “Osis” - breakdown of ATHERO + SCLER + OSIS Athero = groats Scler = hardening Osis = diseased condition of atherosclerosis is a medical disorder that damages the lumen of the arteries by plaque deposits. Atherosclerosis is mostly a failure of controlled cholesterol and fat levels in the body. ARTHR- (“joint”) and going through SCLER- (“hard”) ARTHR- (“joint”) and going through POD- (“feet”) Arthropods are invertebrate animals having an exoskeleton, a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages ARTERIO + SCLER + OSIS Arterio = windpipe Scler = hardening Osis = diseased condition of/ breakdown of Arteriosclerosis is a disease that blocks the wall of arteries due to aging. Osteo = bone Arthro = joint Itis = inflammation Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, in which the tissues in the joint break down over time Osteopenia is decreased bone mass osteo=bone penia=poverty Osteoporosis osteo=bone poro=porous/pores Osis = breakdown Osteomalacia Bone Malakos = soft (mal=bad) Osteo + myl +itis = An infection of the bone Bone + muscle/marrow + inflammation Osteomalacia is more common in women and often happens during pregnancy. It's not the same as osteoporosis. Both can cause bones to break. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/21/202212 minutes, 45 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases (The RIGHT way... heh!)

Prepositions are small words which indicate place, motion, cause, time, manner, and the like. Those which indicate place include “in, at, on, near, beside, along, among, over, under.” Among those betokening motion are “from, toward, up, down, around, into, onto” and so on. Others show cause, such as “because of, for, by, with, out of.” English has around one hundred and fifty small words that can be used as prepositions. Here are a few of the most common: “about, above, across, after” and the rest of the words on this slide. However, not all small words in English are prepositions, for instance, what are probably the two most frequently used small words in English “the” and “a/n,” which represent a different part of speech, what grammarians call “articles.” Another type of small word which isn’t a preposition is called a “conjunction,” e.g. “and, or, but, since.” Conjunctions link two or more things, actions, ideas, etc. Yet another type of small word that’s not a preposition is the adverb. Adverbs include words like “very, well, soon, there, now,” and in the same way that adjectives modify nouns, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adverbs are yet another part of speech. Finally, interjections are also small words that aren’t prepositions. Interjections include exclamations like “oh!, darn!, ouch!, please!.” These are often associated with the expression of strong emotion or surprise, or pleading. Thus, they’re often followed by an exclamation point. Zounds! The basic function of prepositions is to show how a noun relates to the rest of the sentence. That noun is called the “object of the preposition,” which we’ll abbreviate as “OP.” The word “preposition” means literally “pre- [“before”] -position [“placed”], because a preposition almost always precedes its object. Actually, “preposition” is kind of a dumb name for this part of speech ─ the same could be said for articles like “the” which usually precede the word they go with, and titles like “sir” as in Sir Lancelot ─ but I can’t think of any better name than preposition. To call them what they actually are, “locational-motional-causal markers,” just seems like the wrong direction to go in. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/21/202222 minutes, 35 seconds
Episode Artwork

Hyponatremia to hypothermia to hypothesis to transfer to Natrium to Kalium

Energy Transfer Prediction constellation Evidence HypoNATRemia Hypothesis Dissolve and many more!!! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/20/202228 minutes, 57 seconds
Episode Artwork

Expounding upon Latin and Greek Roots

jacere, jectum; to throw Pendere, pensum; to hang or weigh  ballein; to throw pandere, passum; to spread out --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/18/20228 minutes, 49 seconds
Episode Artwork

Dissecting Classical Roots that Pertain to the Body (Latin and Greek)

derma; dorsum; gaster; nervus; sanguis; sedeo; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/13/202216 minutes, 30 seconds
Episode Artwork

Modern Applications of Latin​ in Science

1. What is the Latin word that we get the word “Science” from? 2. Energy literally means? 3. Why is the element, Silver, Ag on the periodic table? 3. “Hypo” + “thesis”  5. What is one (1) derivative that comes from the Latin word “Centum?” 6. What Latin verb is in the word observe? 7. Constellation = con: “_______________” + stella: “_________________” 8. Solution comes from the Latin verb  9.  Dis- = “apart” solvere = “to loosen” 8. What Latin verb is imbedded within evidence?  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/12/202211 minutes, 22 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing actions of the feet

pes, pedis; gradior, grassum; pous, podos; pedi + cure; pedi + gree; im + pedi + ment; im + pede; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/7/202212 minutes, 2 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing words involving the hands

plico, plicare; prehendo, prehendere; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/6/202215 minutes
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing aspects of the Head and Face in both Latin and Greek

caput; cerebum; cerebral, precipitate; and many more! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/4/202212 minutes, 21 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing FEELINGS in Greek and Latin - From Amo to Odium

Stick with me as I go over terms in both Greek and Latin that address emotions, feelings, and thoughts that humans experience. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
8/1/202214 minutes, 35 seconds
Episode Artwork

Vocabulary from Classical Roots: The Person (Both Greek and Latin)

Words gone over: humanus (L); anthropos (G.); ego (L); vir (L); femina (L); gyne (G); homo, hominis (L); autos (G.); --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/30/202223 minutes, 23 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin and Greek on the Periodic Table and taking Latin vocabulary and apply their derivatives in the modern world

Alba;  insula; amica; natrium; kalium; hydra-gyrum;  argentum; aureus; and more! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/28/202214 minutes, 36 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding a Declension System

The nominative case - Its primary function is to indicate which noun or nouns serves or serve as the subject of the sentence. The subject of the sentence is the noun or nouns which perform the action of the verb. A sentence can have more than one subject, for instance, “Caesar and his army attacked Gaul.” In that case, “Caesar” and the “army” are both the subject of the sentence. The genitive case - The primary function of the genitive case is to show possession, basically, that one noun is owned or in the possession of another noun, for instance, “the man’s house.” The possessive “man’s” would be in the genitive case in Latin. This can also be expressed as “the house of the man.” Note: English has two ways of expressing possession: “of,” or -s’/-’s. ’S is used to express the singular possessive in English, as in “the student’s assignment.” S’ is used to express the plural possessive, as in “the students’ assignments.” Though pronounced the same way, s’ refers to more than one student. The dative case - The primary function of the dative case is to indicate which noun is or nouns are the indirect object of the sentence, that is, who or what benefits from the action of the verb. To have the dative case at all in a sentence requires a special type of verb, one whose meaning includes the possibility of benefit, such as, “buy,” “build,” “tell,” “lend,” “sell,” “show,” “give.” As in: “Buy me a diamond,” “Build me a castle,” “Tell me you love me,” “Lend me your fortune,” and “Sell me the space to show you the love I can give you.” The accusative case - The primary function of the accusative case is to indicate which noun serves or nouns serve as the direct object of the sentence. The direct object receives the action of the verb. The accusative case is also used to indicate the object of certain prepositions like ad or inter. We’ll learn more about these prepositions later. The ablative case - The primary function of the ablative case, at least for now, is to indicate which noun or nouns serve as the object of certain prepositions. By prepositions we mean words like “by, with, from,” but the use of the ablative in Latin is far more pervasive than that. It is in many ways the catch-all case. It can show: means, the instrument with which something was done; manner, the way in which something was done; time, the time at which something was done; separation, that two things are apart from each other; all these and many other uses besides. Wheelock is right to call the ablative case adverbial inasmuch as it usually specifies how something happens, for instance, “with speed” or “in good time” or “by you.” We’ll spend several lessons later in the term learning different uses for the ablative but until then we’ll use the ablative only to serve as the objects of certain prepositions. The vocative case - The only use of which is to show direct address, in other words, the noun that is being called or directly spoken to, such as “Marcus!” when I’m talking directly to my friend Marcus or “You there!” or, in prayers, “O great Jupiter!” In several respects the vocative is the easiest case to learn in Latin. It has only one use, and its form is almost always identical to the nominative. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/26/202211 minutes, 29 seconds
Episode Artwork

Medical terms with their literal Greek/Latin translation

Adduct   to lead towards (the body) Abduct   to lead away from (the body) Diarrhea   Abnormal discharge through (the body) Metacarpal (Hint: Karpos = wrist)   Beyond the wrist Superior  refers to a body part being above another Posterior  refer to the back side of things (Hint: opposite of anterior) Anterior  refers to body part being in front or before another Lateral  refers to the outer side of a body part, also used to refer to the side of a body part Inferior refers to below to towards the feet Medial refers to the mid-line of the body, nearer to the middle of the body Ipsilateral situated/appearing on the same side of the body Dysmetria referring to wrong length Anemia condition in which blood is lacking Entotic within the ear Periosteum Around bone/tissue Epidermis upon the skin Subdermal underneath the skin Pericardium enveloping tissue of the heart Septicemia decaying of the blood, a poisoning presence in the blood Periodontal bone/tissue around tooth Colitis Inflammation of the colon --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/25/20228 minutes, 8 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing legal terminology, biological processes, and all things "con+tempor+ary"!

Con + tempor + ary - “with” + “tempor, temporis” “With the times” (Contemporaneous) Tempo - the speed at which a passage of music is or should be played. (Tempor) Co + habitation = (habito, habitare - “to live/ to live and/or have a home”) Co + labor + ate = to work together Con + solidate = to bring together with (solidatum= to make solid/ bring together) Con + done = give with/together “With” + “gift” Solidarity = support or sympathy “Solidatum” - to make solid/ bring together _______________________________________________________________________ BIO Processes Telomere - a compound structure at the end of a chromosome. “telos(end)” + “part” Telophase - the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed. “End” + “stage” Mitosis - a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth. “mitos(thread)” Mitochondria - POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL “Thread” + “kondros(granule)” + “likeness/related to” Chondromalcia patellae (genitive form of Patella) - degeneration of cartilage in the knee, usually caused by excessive wear between the patella and lower end of the femur. “Granule(transitions into - cartilage)” + “soft/softening” Chondrosarcoma - a type of bone cancer that develops in cartilage cells. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is present in adults and the tissue from which most bones develop. Cartilage plays an important role in the growth process. “Cartilage” + “ flesh/muscle” + “tumor” ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Legal Nomenclature Jurisprudence - study, theory, or philosophy of law “Juris (from “ius, iuris” = law) + “prudentia(knowledge)” In fact; philosophy = philo(love/lover of) + sophos(wise) And further!!! Sophomore = sophos(wise) + moros(stupid/fool) Jurisdiction - the power, right, or authority to interpret and apply the law a matter that falls within the court's jurisdiction “Law” + “dictio(participle form of “to say” aka ‘saying’)” Perjure - willfully tell an untruth when giving evidence to a court; commit perjury. “per(wrong)” + “ius(law)” - to wrong the law Impunity - freedom from punishment “in(not)” + “punire/punitum(to punish)” Subpoena - a writ ordering a person to attend a court. “under/beneath” + “penalty” (of law) Litigation - The process of a lawsuit “litigare/litigatum(to press a lawsuit)” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/24/202215 minutes, 40 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin in Layman’s - A Rhetoric Revolution (Trailer)

--- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/23/202253 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin in Layman's - A Rhetoric Revolution

Let's become mathematical linguistics!  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/23/20224 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Sarcopenia vs. Sarcophagus vs. Sarcolemma vs. Sarcoma vs. Sarcomere... and much more!

Sacro + penia - muscle loss over time, age, loss of marco/micro nutrients “Muscle” + “poverty” Sarc + oma “Flesh” + “tumor” Sarc + phagus “flesh/muscle” + “eating/consuming” (preceded it was the meaning “glutton”) Sacromere - a structural unit of a myofibril in striated muscle, consisting of a dark band and the nearer half of each adjacent pale band. “muscle/flesh” + “part (meros)” Sarco + lemma - the fine transparent tubular sheath which envelops the fibers of skeletal muscles. “Flesh” + “husk” “Auto”+ “phagy” - the body's way of cleaning out damaged cells, in order to regenerate newer, healthier cells. “Self” + “consuming” Phagocytes - cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells “Phago” “cytes(kutos)” = vessel Cyte refers to a type of cell Marco - phage - a large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, especially at sites of infection “Large” + “eating/eater” Actin - From Ancient Greek ἀκτίς (aktís, “ray”), based on the shape of the filament formed, and the English chemical suffix -in. Myosin - myo- (“relating to muscle/flesh”), from Ancient Greek μυός (muós), genitive of μῦς (mûs, “muscle”) + -in, the english chemical suffix mentioned prior. Actin and myosin are both proteins that are found in all types of muscle tissue (aka sarcomeres = actin + myosin). Myosin forms thick filaments (15 nm in diameter) and actin forms thinner filaments (7nm in diameter). Actin and myosin filaments work together to generate force. Nanometer - one billionth of a meter. prefix nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the combination of the name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). Cytopenia (“cyto” + “penia”): A deficiency in the production of one or more types of blood cells is called cytopenia. This condition may be caused by liver disorders, poor kidney function, and chronic inflammatory diseases. - “cell/vessel” + “poverty, deficiency, lack of” Thrombocytopenia (thrombo-cyto-penia): Thrombocytes are platelets, and thrombocytopenia is the condition of having an abnormally low platelet count in the blood. - “thrombo(to clot/to lump)” + “cyto(vessel/cell)” + “poverty, deficiency” --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/22/202215 minutes, 44 seconds
Episode Artwork

Osteopenia vs. Osteoporosis vs. Osteomyelitis vs. Osteomalacia vs. Spondylolisthesis vs. Spondylosis

Spondylolisthesis -  defined by a slipped vertebra spondylos "a vertebra," and in plural "the backbone," From the gk: “olisthánein" = to slip Spondylosis - involves the separation of the pars interarticularis “Osis” - breakdown of Athero + scler + osis "Athero" = groats "Scler" = hardening "Osis" = diseased condition of "Arterio" + "scler" + "osis" "Arterio" = windpipe "Scler" = hardening "Osis" = diseased condition of/ breakdown of Arteriosclerosis is a disease that blocks the wall of arteries due to aging. Whereas atherosclerosis is a medical disorder that damages the lumen of the arteries by plaque deposits. Atherosclerosis is mostly a failure of controlled cholesterol and fat levels in the body. Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, in which the tissues in the joint break down over time "Osteo" = bone "Arthro" = joint "Itis" = inflammation Osteopenia is decreased bone mass "osteo" =bone "penia" =poverty Osteoporosis "osteo" =bone "poro" =porous/pores "Osis" = breakdown Osteomalacia "osteo" = Bone Malakos = soft (mal=bad) Osteo + myl +itis = An infection of the bone Bone + muscle/marrow + inflammation --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/21/20229 minutes, 29 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - "-icon/icon-"

Shout out to a loyal listener for emailing me and asking to go over this root word! We have a lot of modern pop-culture words that have also came from this root... emot + icon; re + pl + icon/ica; lex + icon; orth + icon; silica dioxide; silicon; silicon(e); icono + graphy; icono + clast; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/20/202220 minutes, 36 seconds
Episode Artwork

Breaking down - "mens, mne-, gno-, noscere, ratio"

mentality, de + mented; a + mnesty; mnemonic; dia + gnosis; pro + gnosis; notorious; con + noisseur; re + con + naissance; cognizant; ration; rationalize; rational; rationality; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/20/202210 minutes, 55 seconds
Episode Artwork

Discussing 1st/2nd Conjugation and the difference between transitive and intransitive verbs

There are five essential grammatical terms that are used in reference to verbs. They are Mood tense Voice Person Number. You should become familiar with these terms as soon as you can. The mood of the verb indicates how the speaker feels about the action. Does the speaker feel that what’s being said is a fact, a command, or is there something uncertain about it in the speaker’s mind? Mood can also show that the verb is inside complicated grammar. Tense is the grammatical term used to indicate when the action of the verb is happening. Voice is the term used to indicate whether the subject of the verb is acting or being acted upon. Person is the grammatical term which indicates the nature of the subject. Is it I, you, he/she/it, we, you plural, or where I grew up, y’all, or they? And finally, number says whether the subject is singular or plural, that is, one person or many. For the moment, all the verbs that we will deal with are indicative in mood (that is, they indicate a fact), present in tense (they happen now), and active in voice (the subject is the doer of the verb). In Chapter 1, we’ll focus mainly on how to change person... That is, who is doing the action, and number, begs us to ask the question of whether the person is singular or plural? Another important grammatical term concerning Latin verbs is conjugation. Conjugation has two meanings in Latin. It’s the process of joining a personal ending onto the base of a verb to form a full Latin verb form, And it’s the term used to refer to one of the five categories of Latin verbs which are distinguished from each other by the vowels found at the end of their base (/a/, /ē/, /ě/, /ī/, /ĭ/). However, like many verbs that are very commonly used, the verb “to be” in Latin is irregular. Its forms are: The infinitive is esse which translates as “To be” Instead, with the verb “to be” two things are equated. For instance, when you say, “The man is a teacher,” you’re essentially saying “Man equals teacher.” So in place of an accusative direct object the Latin sum expects a nominative predicate. In this case the predicate is nominative because it is being equated with the subject which is nominative. So to go back to our example, “The man is a teacher,” “man” is the subject and “teacher” is the predicate. In Latin this sentence would be vir est magister, where vir is the nominative subject and magister is the nominative predicate. Predicates can be adjectives as well as nouns but in either instance the predicate is nominative. So one can say, puer est parvus “the boy is small,” or otium est malum, “leisure is evil,” or estis boni “y’all are good,” or if you translate the predicate as a substantive, what we studied before, an adjective functioning as a noun, you could translate it as, “y’all are good men,” or “good people” since masculine gender functions as common gender in Latin. Please note that predicate adjectives agree with the subject in number and gender as well as case whereas predicate nouns agree with the subject only in case because nouns have to maintain their own number and gender. Conversely, adjectives must agree with the noun they go with in number, gender and case. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/19/202227 minutes, 41 seconds
Episode Artwork

Grammar Review and Understanding Prepositions and Prepositional Phrases

Prepositions are small words which indicate place, motion, cause, time, manner, and the like. Those which indicate place include “in, at, on, near, beside, along, among, over, under.” Among those betokening motion are “from, toward, up, down, around, into, onto” and so on. Others show cause, such as “because of, for, by, with, out of.” English has around one hundred and fifty small words that can be used as prepositions. Here are a few of the most common: “about, above, across, after” and the rest of the words on this slide. However, not all small words in English are prepositions, for instance, what are probably the two most frequently used small words in English “the” and “a/n,” which represent a different part of speech, what grammarians call “articles.” Another type of small word which isn’t a preposition is called a “conjunction,” e.g. “and, or, but, since.” Conjunctions link two or more things, actions, ideas, etc. Yet another type of small word that’s not a preposition is the adverb. Adverbs include words like “very, well, soon, there, now,” and in the same way that adjectives modify nouns, adverbs modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Adverbs are yet another part of speech. Finally, interjections are also small words that aren’t prepositions. Interjections include exclamations like “oh!, darn!, ouch!, please!.” These are often associated with the expression of strong emotion or surprise, or pleading. Thus, they’re often followed by an exclamation point. Zounds! The basic function of prepositions is to show how a noun relates to the rest of the sentence. That noun is called the “object of the preposition,” which we’ll abbreviate as “OP.” The word “preposition” means literally “pre- [“before”] -position [“placed”], because a preposition almost always precedes its object. Actually, “preposition” is kind of a dumb name for this part of speech ─ the same could be said for articles like “the” which usually precede the word they go with, and titles like “sir” as in Sir Lancelot ─ but I can’t think of any better name than preposition. To call them what they actually are, “locational-motional-causal markers,” just seems like the wrong direction to go in. --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/18/202219 minutes, 51 seconds
Episode Artwork

Breaking down the Latin root words - "currere, celer, movere, fugare"

ex + cursion; dis + course; celer; accelerated; volatile; im + movable; mobile; auto + mobile; de + mote; fugitive; re + fuge; subter + fuge; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/17/202220 minutes, 37 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - "dico, dictum" & some word history

dictate; diction; dictation; dictionary; dictator; contra + dict; verdict; bene + diction; ad + dict; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/16/202213 minutes, 28 seconds
Episode Artwork

Breaking down the root words - "liber, libri" & "biblos"

libr + ary; libel; libra; lb.; liber + ation; liberty; libation; bibio + thetic; biblio + logy; biblio + klept; biblio + mania; biblio + phobia; Bible; biblio + clast; biblio + latry; biblio + graphy; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/14/202219 minutes, 25 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing words I saw around my world, yesterday

Spotify link: https://open.spotify.com/show/0EjiYFx1K4lwfykjf5jApM?si=8d8e60e1373b42ac Apple Podcasts: https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/latin-in-laymans-a-rhetoric-revolution/id1570726046 Anchor: https://anchor.fm/liam-connerly arthr + itis; pseud + onym; eu + thanas + ia; acro + phobia; geo + graph + er; bi + centr + ic; geo + path + ology; aug + ment; corpor + al; in + domit + able; dorm + ancy; in + tang + ible; nom + ology; iso + dynam + ic; re + ject + ion. Thanks again for the support! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/13/202212 minutes, 33 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - "centum" and "hydros"

cent; century; centurion; centi + grade; centi + pede; cent + ennial; hydro + phobia; hydro + electric; hydro + logy; hydro + gen; hydro + phone; de + hydr + ate; and more! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/12/202226 minutes, 3 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - "andro," "gyn," "(more) syn-/sym-"

Did you know senate cones from the Latin "SENEX"? It means "old man" and it's because the senate was made up of old, white, SENILE, men...  andro + gen; andro + gyn + ous; andro + cracy; miso + gyny; gynec + ologist;  sym + bio + otic; syn + nonym +ous; syn + nonym; syn + archy; syn + optic; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/11/202220 minutes, 44 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing the root words - "capit," "rid-/ris-," "gen/gend/gener-"

re + capit + ulate; capit + al; corpor + al; de + gener + ative; gend + er; gen + esis; en + gend + er; risorius (muscle); rictus sempra; rid + icule; rid + iculous; and more!! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/10/20229 minutes, 15 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologyzing root words: "peri-", "metr-", "sym-/syn-", "somat-", "path-"

Lot's of good words to absorb here! "ab" = from; "sorbere" = "to suck in" peri + cardial; peri + meter; peri + menopausal; peri + card + ium; path + ology; pyscho + somatic; pych + ology; somat + ic; sym + bio + tic; somat + ology; and more!!  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/10/202218 minutes, 11 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologyzing the root words: "pater," surg," "traumat," & "teneo"

patri + archy; pater + nal; ex + patri + ate; patri + cide; pater + nity; in + surg + ent; traumat + ic; in + surrect + ion; re + surg + ence; ten + able; de + ten + tion; ten + ure; ten + acious; re + tent + ive; un + ten + able; --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/9/202210 minutes, 21 seconds
Episode Artwork

Fleshing out the derivatives of "facio, factum" & "plico, plicatum"

This is an awesome episode! "Facio" is such a present root word within our English language... In fact, there are more than 260 words in the dictionary devoted to words that derive themselves from "facio." "Plico" is also fascinating as although the meaning is rather vague, the cognates and derivatives that accompany said root word are exponential and vast! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/7/202222 minutes, 34 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing a bunch of words!

Stick with me as I get into a bunch of words that I decided to write down the other day! From narcosis to exculpate to dogma to orthodox, learn the value of pulling apart words to first understand them from the ground up! Creating a foundation from which you build from is essential in the acquisition of knowledge and language!  --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/6/202227 minutes, 29 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - "Zoon" and "Scio, Scitum"

Here, I dive into modern derivatives of the Greek root, "zoon" and the Latin root word, "scio" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/5/202229 minutes, 18 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing and word substitution with Physiologic and Toxicologic terms

Adduct -  to lead towards (the body) Abduct - to lead away from (the body) Diarrhea - Abnormal discharge through (the body) Metacarpal - (Hint: Karpos = wrist)   Beyond the wrist Superior - refers to a body part being above another Posterior - refer to the back side of things (Hint: opposite of anterior) Anterior - refers to body part being in front or before another Lateral - refers to the outer side of a body part, also used to refer to the side of a body part Inferior -- refers to below to towards the feet Medial - refers to the mid-line of the body, nearer to the middle of the body Ipsilateral - situated/appearing on the same side of the body Dysmetria - referring to wrong length Anemia - condition in which blood is lacking Entotic - within the ear Periosteum - Around bone/tissue Epidermis - upon the skin Subdermal - underneath the skin Pericardium - enveloping tissue of the heart Septicemia - decaying of the blood, a poisoning presence in the blood Periodontal - bone/tissue around tooth Colitis - Inflammation of the colon --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/4/202222 minutes, 40 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologyzing - "para-" and "inter-"

These root words in both latin and greek have similar meanings and derivations... Stay tuned for announcements at the beginning! --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/4/202223 minutes, 4 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding Greek Prefixes in (Primarily) Medical Terminology

An, A-; not, without (anemia) absent Amphi-; around about (amphibian) amphibian Ana-, ano-; up, back, again (aneurysm) analysis Anti- (anth-); against, resisting antagonist Apo-; from, separation (apostasies: STA- “to stand”) apostle Arche-, archi-; first, chief (archiplasm) architype Cata- (cath-) or kata-; down, lower, under (catabolic) catastrophe Di-; twice, twofold (dimorphic) diameter (two radii) Dia-; through, across, apart (diameter, diagnosis) diameter Dicha-; in two, double (dichotomy) dichotomy Dys-; bad, difficult, hard, disordered (dysfunction) dysfunction Ek-, ex-; out form, outside (exophthalamus) eccentric Ekto-; without, on the outside (ectomere, ectopia) (see: ek-, ex-) En- (em-); in, within, among (endemic) energy Endo-; within (endothelium) endocrine Ento-; within (entotic: OT- “ear”) entropic (see: endo-) Epi-; upon, on (epidermis) epidemic Eso-; inward, within (esotropic, esotoxin) esoteric Eu-; we, good, normal (eugenics) euphony Exo-; outside, outward, outer (exocolitis) exotic Hemi-; half, partly (hemialgia: ALGOS – “pain”) hemisphere Hyper-; above, over, excessive (hyperemic, hypertrophy) hyperactive Hypo-; low, under, below (hyponatremia) hypocrite Meta-, (meth-); after, among, beyond, behind (metacarpal: KARPOS – “wrist”) metaphysical, metaphor, method Opistho-; behind (opisthognathism) Pali(n)-; back, again, once more (palikinesia: KINE – “movement”) palindrome Para-; by the side of, near (paranoia: NOOS, “mind”) paranoia Peri-; around (periosteum) Periodontal  Pro-; before, in front of, forward (prophase) professional Pros-; to, in addition, near (prosencephalon: ENCEPHALON, brain) prosthetic Proso-, prostho-; forward, before, in front of (prosoplasia) prosthetic Syn- (sym- before “b” or “p”); with, together (syndrome, symbiosis: BIOS, “life”) synonym, sympathy --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/3/202244 minutes, 56 seconds
Episode Artwork

Understanding Latin Prefixes in (Primarily) Medical Terminology

Latin Prefixes *Hook Word (mnemonic for memorization) A-, Ab-; away from Absent (word hook) Ad-; to, towards addition Ambi- (Ambo-, amb-, am-, an-); around, on both sides ambivalent Ante-; before, forward antebellum Antero-, anterior; before, front or forward part (Anterior) (see: antero-) Bi- (bis-, bin-); twice Bicycle Circum-; around circumference Contra- (Counter- often before vowels); against, opposite contraindicated De-; down from, away deficient Extra-, extro-; beyond, on the other side, outer (extrapulmonary, extraligamentous) external, extraordinary Infra-; below, lower (Inferior, infraspinatus, infrascapular, infracostal) Inferior Inter-; between (intervascular, interosseous) interloper Intra-; within, inside, during (intracervical) Intra-racism Juxta-; beside (juxtarticular, juxtaspinal) Juxtaposition Ob- (o-, oc-, op-); against, in the way, facing (occiput) object, objective Post-; after, behind (Posterior, Postcerebral, postnatal) poster Postero-; behind (Posterior, posterolateral, posterosuperior) postscript Prae- (pre); before, in front of (precordium) preclude Retro-; backward, behind (retroflexion, retronasal) retrograde Semi-; half (semiorbicular) semicircle Sub- (suc-, suf-, sup, sus-); under, below, near, somewhat (subdorsal, subcutis) submarine Super- (sur-); over, above (Superior) superior Supra-; Above, upon (supra-axillary, supraspinatus, suprapelvic) (see: super-) Trans- (often tran- before ‘s’); across, through (Transverse, transverse Abdominous, tranverse plane) Transcript Ultra-, ultro-; beyond, excessive (ultraligation, ultrasetaceous) ultra-runner, ultraviolet --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/2/202222 minutes, 19 seconds
Episode Artwork

Etymologizing - "Geo" & "Terra"

I begin this lesson with a huge tangent on the Rhetoric Revolution and pushing for help in disseminating the information. Like I always say, it's not about being smart, it's about proving to yourself you can do it to eventually build the confidence that turns into innate knowledge. The words I am going over today are "Geo" and "Terra" --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/1/202222 minutes, 14 seconds
Episode Artwork

Examples in Medicine in Greek Nomenclature - Medical terms and Greek suffixes accompanying

Suffixes -ectomy surgical removal of ("act of cutting out") vasectomy -tomy surgical operation on, surgical cutting of lobotomy -path one who suffers from a disease of, one who treats a disease psychopath -pathy disease of, treatment of disease of or by otopathy -mania madness about, passion for pyromania -maniac one having a madness or passion for nymphomaniac -phobia abnormal fear or hatred of arachnophobia -phobe one who fears or hates (abnormally) homophobe -emia condition of the blood, congestion of blood in septicemia -iasis diseased condition (often caused by parasites) hypochondriasis -itis inflammation of, inflammatory disease of colitis -ium part, lining or enveloping tissue, region Pericardium, myocardium -oma tumor of, swelling containing, tumor Carcinoma, sarcoma -osis diseased condition of, illness, act of, process of halitosis (mitosis) -rrh(o)ea abnormal discharge diarrhea -therapy treatment of or by Electrotherapy, psychotherapy --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support
7/1/202223 minutes, 20 seconds
Episode Artwork

Latin and Medical Terminology (Q-V): Learn Medical Nomenclature While Learning Latin Vocab!!!

Quadrare, quadratum; to square, to make four-cornered (quadriceps) Radius; rod, spoke, ray, beam; bone on outer forearm – radius (radius, dorsoradial, radioulnar, radiology) Ramus; branch (ramiform, ramus communicans – nerve which connects two other nerves) Rectus; right, straight (rectus abdominous, rectus femoris) Ren, renis; kidney (adrenalin, renal, circumrenal, prerenal) Rigor; stiffness, cold (rigor mortis) Scapula; shoulder, shoulder-blade (scapula, subscapula, infrascapular, scapuloclavicular, cervicobscapular) Scrotum; bag, pouch (scrotal, scrotum) Sebum; grease, fatty secretion (sebum) Sinister, sinistri; left, on the left (sinistrodextral, sinstrocular) Sinus; curve, cavity and/or recess (sinus, sinusoidal, Ethmoid sinus) Spina; thorn, spine (cerebrospinal, spina bifida, spinal erector) Spirare, spiratum; to breathe, blow (exspiration, inspiration, perspiration) Squama; scale, flake, thin plate (Squamous epithelial tissue, squamella) Stapes, stapedis; a stirrup, innermost ossicle of ear (extrastapedial, mediostapedial, stapes – involved in conduction of sound vibration) Stare, statum; to stand (distal) Sulcus; furrow, grove (costal sulci) Supinus; bending backwards, supine, lying on back (supination, supinator, supine, semisupination) Talus, ankle, ankle-bone (talus, talofibular, talotibial) Tempora; the temple (temporomandibular joint, temporal, infratemporal) Tender, tentum, tensum; to stretch (extensor, tendon, tensor fascia lata, hypertension) Tibia; pipe, flute; shinbone, the innder and larger bone of the lower leg (tibia, femorotibial) Tumere; to swell (tumor, tumentia) Ulcus, ulceris; open sore (ulcer, ulcerate) Ulna; elbow, inner and larger bone of the forearm (radioulnar, ulna) Umbilicus; the navel (umbilical cord, umbilicus) Unguis; nail, claw, hoof (subungual, unguis, ungula) Uva; grape (uvula – small lobe haning from palate) Vagus; wandering (vagus – nerve, valgus knee) Varus; crooked, bent inward (coxa vara, genu varum, pollex varus) Vas; vessel (vascular, cerebrovascular) Vellere, vulsum; to tear, puck (avulsion, evulsion) Vena; vein (intravenous, supervenosity, vein) Venter, ventris; to come (ventral- anatomical position, ventricle, ventrolateral) Verruca; a wart (verruca, verruciform) Vertebra; a joint (vertebrae) Vesica; bladder, blister (vesicle, vesicular, cervicovesicular) Villus; tuft of hair (villi, villiform, intervillous) Virus; potent juice, poison (virus) Vomer; plowshare, a bone in the septum (ethmovomerine, vomer, vomernasal) --- Support this podcast: https://podcasters.spotify.com/pod/show/liam-connerly/support