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Huberman Lab

English, Health / Medicine, 1 season, 207 episodes, 4 days, 3 hours, 35 minutes
About
The Huberman Lab Podcast discusses neuroscience: how our brain and its connections with the organs of our body control our perceptions, our behaviors, and our health. We also discuss existing and emerging tools for measuring and changing how our nervous system works. Dr. Andrew Huberman is a tenured Professor of Neurobiology and Ophthalmology at Stanford School of Medicine. His laboratory studies neural regeneration, neuroplasticity, and brain states such as stress, focus, fear, and optimal performance. For more than 20 years, Dr. Huberman has consistently published original research findings and review articles in top-level peer-reviewed journals, including Nature, Science, Cell, Neuron, and Current Biology. He is a regular member of several National Institutes of Health review panels and a Fellow of the McKnight Foundation and the Pew Charitable Trusts. Dr. Huberman regularly consults for technology development companies, professional athletic organizations, and various units of U.S. and Canadian Special Operations.
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Guest Series | Dr. Matthew Walker: Protocols to Improve Your Sleep

This is episode 2 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., a professor of neuroscience and psychology and founder of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. We discuss basic and advanced tools for improving sleep and explain how sleep quality is affected by temperature, light and dark, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis, nutrition, meal timing, and different medications.  Dr. Walker also provides strategies for coping with a poor night of sleep, wind-down routines, technology in the bedroom, insomnia, visualizations, and building sleep “confidence.”  We also discuss the current status of sleep research for developing advanced techniques to optimize sleep.  This episode provides numerous zero-cost behavioral protocols for improving sleep quality and restorative power, which can benefit daytime mood, energy, performance, and overall health.  The next episode in this special series explores napping, caffeine, and additional protocols to improve sleep. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Improving Sleep (00:01:16) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, WHOOP & Waking Up (00:05:30) Basics of Sleep Hygiene, Regularity, Dark & Light (00:12:05) Light, Day & Night; Cortisol, Insomnia (00:18:45) Temperature; “Walk It Out”; Alcohol & Caffeine (00:26:05) Sleep Association, Bed vs. Sofa (00:29:43) Tool: Falling Asleep; Meditation, Breathing (00:35:23) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:37) Alcohol & Sleep Disruption (00:40:01) Food & Sleep, Carbs, Melatonin (00:49:25) Caffeine; Afternoon Coffee, Nighttime Waking (00:55:52) Caffeine Metabolism & Sleep, Individual Variation (01:01:19) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:02:04) Cannabis: THC vs. CBD, REM Sleep, Withdrawal (01:12:03) Sleep Hygiene Basics (01:16:08) Tool: Poor Sleep Compensation, “Do Nothing” (01:20:23) Tool: Sleep Deprivation & Exercise (01:24:11) Insomnia Intervention & Bedtime Rescheduling, Sleep Confidence (01:32:58) Wind-Down Routine; Mental Walk; Clocks & Phones (01:41:29) Advanced Sleep Optimization, Electric Manipulation (01:50:07) Temperature Manipulation, Elderly, Insomnia (01:58:57) Tool: Warm Bath Effect & Sleep, Sauna (02:04:36) Acoustic Stimulation, White Noise, Pink Noise (02:13:30) Rocking & Sleep, Body Position (02:24:17) Enhance REM Sleep & Temperature; Sleep Medications (02:28:35) Pharmacology, DORAs & REM Sleep; Narcolepsy & Insomnia (02:34:12) Acetylcholine, Serotonin, Peptides; Balance (02:40:45) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
4/10/20242 hours, 42 minutes, 54 seconds
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Coleman Ruiz: Overcoming Physical & Emotional Challenges

In this episode, my guest is Coleman Ruiz, a former Tier One U.S. Navy SEAL joint task force commander. He served in Afghanistan and Iraq and as a BUD/S training officer. He shares his journey from childhood through the Naval Academy to elite Navy SEAL special operations. He shares the physical and emotional challenges he has overcome and discusses his struggle with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). He also talks about the key role of mentors, family and friends in building resilience. Coleman gives us a raw, humble account of hitting rock bottom. He tells of the intense pain, fear, depression and suicidality in his journey of redemption. Coleman’s story is a real-life hero’s journey. He tells it with extraordinary vulnerability and humility. He explains the challenges and sudden tragedies that helped to ground, shape and renew him. His story will inspire listeners of all ages and backgrounds. Note: This conversation includes profanity and topics that are not suitable for all audiences and ages. For show notes, including additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivension.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Coleman Ruiz (00:01:55) Sponsors: BetterHelp, Maui Nui Venison & Eight Sleep (00:06:06) Childhood, “Wildness” (00:13:24) Wrestling, Combat Sports & Respect (00:22:26) Divorce, College Applications & Naval Academy (00:29:51) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:22) Prep School, Patriotism, Fear (00:40:08) Growth Mindset, 24-Hour Horizon (00:43:02) Naval Academy, Mentor, Focus (00:52:45) Wife, Work Ethic (00:59:23) Sponsor: Plunge (01:00:51) Navy SEALs, BUD/S, Hell Week (01:04:51) BUD/S Success Predictors; Divorce & Aloneness; Rebellion (01:16:30) Patriotism, Navy SEALs, Green Team (01:22:15) Advanced Training, Tier One, Free-Fall (01:26:13) Special Operations, Deaths & Grief (01:36:08) Mentor Death & Facing Mortality (01:47:49) Warriors & Compassion; Trauma, Family (01:52:37) Civilian Life Adjustment (01:57:39) Hero With a Thousand Faces, Civilian Return & PTSD (02:07:03) Massage, Perspective, Space-Time Bridging (02:14:10) Psychedelics, Connection, Warrior Culture (02:19:15) Rock Bottom: Talk Therapy, Depression, Alcohol (02:25:50) Emotional & Physical Pain, Vulnerability, Fighter Mentality (02:30:42) Suicide, Asking For Help & Support (02:38:32) Therapy, PTSD Recovery, Dread; Pharmacology (02:44:54) Healing Process: Unsatisfaction & Asking For Help (02:54:03) Daily Routine, Movement, Nutrition (03:02:22) Manhood, Range, Parenthood, Surrender (03:10:08) Current Pursuits (03:16:01) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
4/8/20243 hours, 18 minutes, 2 seconds
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Guest Series | Dr. Matthew Walker: The Biology of Sleep & Your Unique Sleep Needs

In this episode 1 of a 6-part special series on sleep with Dr. Matthew Walker, Ph.D., professor of neuroscience and psychology and founder of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of the book “Why We Sleep” discusses the essential role that sleep plays in our health. We cover how sleep affects our hormones, immune system, learning and memory, mood, appetite, and weight regulation. We also discuss what causes the urge to sleep, how sleep is structured throughout the night, and the biology of the different phases of sleep. We also teach you how to determine your individualized sleep needs, including your chronotype (best waking and to-bed time), tips for combat snoring and insomnia, and your QQRT (Quality, Quantity, Regularity, and Timing)—a key framework for optimizing your sleep and therefore daytime energy and focus, and overall health. The next episode in this special series explores how to improve one’s sleep. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Importance of Sleep (00:02:24) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, BetterHelp & LMNT (00:06:00) Sleep; Non-REM & REM Sleep (00:11:40) Sleep Cycles, Individuality, Women vs. Men (00:14:49) Tool: Wakefulness in Bed, Insomnia (00:19:08) Non-REM Stages of Sleep (00:27:05) Role of Deep Sleep (00:34:02) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:15) Light Sleep Stages, Hypnogogic Jerks (00:42:00) REM Sleep, Paralysis & Bizarre Dreams; “Falling” Asleep (00:49:09) Tools: Body Position & Sleep; Snoring & Sleep Apnea (00:57:43) Yawning & Theories, Contagion (01:04:03) Nodding Off, Afternoon & Postprandial Dip (01:08:46) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:09:51) Sleep, Animals & Evolution (01:14:09) Poor Sleep & Health Consequences, Sleep Deprivation (01:27:13) Positive Effects of Good Sleep, Health Improvements (01:31:56) Sleep & Mood; Appetite & Weight Management (01:42:55) Sleep Deprivation & Looking Tired, “Beauty Sleep” (01:47:57) Tool: Getting Good Sleep, QQRT Macros, Quantity & Quality (01:56:45) Tool: Sleep Regularity, Mortality Risk (02:03:15) Tool: Sleep Timing, Chronotypes (02:14:21) Chronotypes & Insomnia, Circadian Rhythm, Shift Work (02:20:31) Tool: Sleep Tests, Alarm Clock, Micro-Sleeps (02:27:27) Sleep Inertia & Waking; Afternoon Dip, Optimum Performance (02:34:19) Causes of Sleep: Circadian Rhythm, Sleep Pressure (02:43:02) Adenosine & Sleepiness (02:46:13) Tool: Growth Hormone & Deep Sleep (02:50:47) Cortisol & Circadian Rhythm, “Tired But Wired” (02:57:24) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
4/3/20242 hours, 59 minutes, 33 seconds
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Benefits & Risks of Peptide Therapeutics for Physical & Mental Health

In this episode, I explain the major categories and types of peptides currently in use for therapeutic purposes. I discuss peptides for improving tissue rejuvenation and repair, promoting longevity, improving muscle growth and fat loss, and boosting mood, vitality, and libido. I explain the biology of how these peptides work and both their potential benefits and risks. I also discuss peptide sourcing, dosages, cycling, routes of administration, and how peptides work in combination.  This episode will help you better understand the rapidly expanding landscape of peptide therapeutics and how to evaluate if specific peptides might be advantageous towards achieving your physical or mental health goals. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Mateína: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Peptides (00:03:20) Sponsors: Mateina, Levels & Joovv (00:07:44) What is a Peptide? (00:12:06) Peptide Sourcing, Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (00:14:48) Rejuvenation & Tissue Repair: BPC-157, Angiogenesis (00:21:50) BPC-157 & Tissue Injury; Mode of Delivery (00:27:53) BPC-157: Safety, Doses, Cycling, Tumor Risk (00:35:16) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:43) Tissue Repair: Thymosin Beta-4, TB-500 (00:40:49) Growth & Metabolism: Growth Hormone, IGF-1, Risks (00:45:25) Secretagogues, Sermorelin, Tesamorelin, CJC-1295 (00:52:21) Sponsor: LMNT (00:53:44) Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, GHRP-3, MK-677; Risks & Timing (00:58:69) Peptides for Growth Hormone & IGF-1, Risk; Combinations & Dosing (01:06:12) Longevity: Thymosin Beta-4, Epitalon (Epithalon) (01:12:09) Vitality: Melanotan, PT-141 (Vyleesi), Risks (01:17:21) Vitality: Kisspeptin (01:21:46) Peptides, Potential Benefits, Side-Effects & Risks (01:24:19) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
4/1/20241 hour, 26 minutes, 41 seconds
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Asi Wind: What Magic & Mind Reading Reveal About the Brain

In this episode, my guest is Asi Wind. He's one of the world’s top magicians and mentalists.  We discuss what magic and mentalism reveal about the human mind, including how memories are made, how to erase them, and how and why we perceive things the way we do, all in the context of how he performs his astonishing tricks.  Asi explains that magic works because it involves storytelling, which is key to how we organize memories. He also explains how emotional connection allows people to co-create and believe a common narrative, even one that did not actually occur.  We also discuss how Asi's love of painting and photography and his specific daily routine allow him to access creativity. We also discuss fear, perfectionism, and how feeling emotions deeply serves his craft.  Whether you are interested in magic or not, this conversation with Asi will give you an incredible window into how you perceive, learn, and remember the world around you and how what you believe may or may not be based in reality.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Asi Wind (00:02:48) Sponsors: LMNT, BetterHelp & AeroPress (00:07:07) “Jazzy Magic”, Tricks & Improvisation, Memory (00:14:57) Magic & Imagination (00:24:06) Memory “Experiments” (00:29:18) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:46) Reality Augmentation, Free Will (00:35:31) Audience Interactions & Connection, Empathy, Tool: Breathing (00:41:20) Audience, Empathetic Attunement & Connection; Skeptics (00:49:10) Trick Explanation, Props (00:57:21) Exposing Magic, Misdirection, Storytelling (01:07:29) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:36) Delight, Hypnosis, Behavior Patterns (01:17:35) Hypnotists & Guiding Attention; Social Media (01:23:01) “Power of Pauses” & Memory; Tool: Gap Effects & Learning (01:30:14) Tension, Understanding Magic (01:36:16) Storytelling (01:43:00) Painting & Composition (01:51:08) Truths, Clean Slate, Art & Storytelling (01:59:03) Art & Motivation, Honesty (02:05:17) Inspiration & Creativity, “Sponge” (02:12:38) Morning Routine & Creativity (02:19:28) Memory & Fear, Power of Story; Tool: Walking & Creativity (02:29:53) Body Language (02:33:01) Perfectionism; Negative Emotions, Photography (02:40:19) Sensitivity, Empathy, Family (02:45:16) Incredibly Human Show (02:49:22) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
3/25/20242 hours, 51 minutes, 37 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Melbourne, AU

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Melbourne, AU. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question and answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Melbourne, AU at Plenary. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Resources Ask Huberman Lab (AI platform) 10 Minute Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:50) Strategies for Preventing Dementia (00:15:07) Enhancing Willpower: Is It Comparable to Muscle Training? (00:22:40) Minimizing Circadian Disruption for Shift Workers (00:29:24) Difference Between NSDR & Meditation (00:37:32) Combatting Mindless Phone Scrolling (00:42:18) Dream Clinical Trials (00:55:55) Conclusion Disclaimer
3/22/202458 minutes, 25 seconds
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Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky: How the Brain Works, Curing Blindness & How to Navigate a Career Path

In this episode, my guest is Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky, Ph.D., a professor of neurosurgery and ophthalmology at Stanford University. He studies how we see and uses that information to build artificial eyes that restore vision to the blind.  We discuss how understanding the retina (the light-sensing brain tissue that lines the back of our eyes) is critical to knowing how our brain works more generally.  We discuss brain augmentation with biologically informed prostheses, robotics, and AI and what this means for medicine and humanity.  We also discuss E.J.’s unique journey into neuroscience and how changing fields multiple times, combined with some wandering, taught him how to guide his decision-making in all realms of life.  This episode ought to be of interest to anyone interested in learning how the brain works from a world-class neuroscientist, those interested in the future of brain therapeutics and people seeking inspiration and tools for navigating their own professional and life journey. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman  BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. E.J. Chichilnisky (00:02:31) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, ROKA & BetterHelp (00:06:06) Vision & Brain; Retina (00:11:23) Retina & Visual Processing (00:18:37) Vision in Humans & Other Animals, Color (00:23:01) Studying the Human Retina (00:29:48) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:16) Cell Types (00:36:00) Determining Cell Function in Retina (00:43:39) Retinal Cell Types & Stimuli (00:49:27) Retinal Prostheses, Implants (01:00:25) Artificial Retina, Augmenting Vision (01:06:05) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:07:12) Neuroengineering, Neuroaugmentation & Specificity (01:17:01) Building a Smart Device, AI (01:20:02) Neural Prosthesis, Paralysis; Specificity (01:25:21) Neurodegeneration; Adult Neuroplasticity; Implant Specificity (01:34:00) Career Journey, Music & Dance, Neuroscience  (01:42:55) Self-Understanding, Coffee; Self-Love, Meditation & Yoga (01:47:50) Body Signals & Decisions; Beauty (01:57:49) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
3/18/20242 hours, 6 seconds
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Dr. Cal Newport: How to Enhance Focus and Improve Productivity

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Cal Newport, Ph.D., a professor of computer science at Georgetown University and bestselling author of numerous books on focus and productivity and how to access the deepest possible layers of your cognitive abilities in order to do quality work and lead a more balanced life. We discuss how to avoid digital distraction, specific systems to best arrange and update your schedule, and how to curate your work and home environment. We discuss how to engage with smartphones and technology, the significant productivity cost of task-switching, and how to avoid and overcome burnout. This episode provides specific protocols for enhancing focus and productivity, time management, task prioritization, and improving work-life balance that ought to be useful for anyone, young or old, regardless of profession. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Cal Newport (00:02:52) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, Maui Nui & Joovv (00:07:00) Smartphones, Office & Walking (00:13:08) Productive Meditation, Whiteboards (00:20:04) Tool: Capturing Ideas, Notebooks (00:24:57) Tool: Active Recall & Remembering Information (00:30:02) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:29) Studying, Deliberate Practice (00:38:13) Flow States vs. Deep Work (00:41:39) Social Media, Emergencies (00:45:27) Phone & Addiction; Task Switching (00:53:20) Sponsor: LMNT (00:54:23) “Neuro-Semantic Coherence” vs. Flow; Concentration (01:02:40) Internet Use & Kids; Video Games; Audiobooks (01:08:15) Pseudo-Productivity, Burnout (01:12:34) Social Media Distraction; The Deep Life (01:18:03) Attention, ADHD, Smartphones & Addiction; Kids (01:26:12) TikTok, Algorithm (01:30:39) Tool: Boredom Tolerance, Gap Effects & “Thoreau Walks” (01:37:43) Solitude Deprivation, Anxiety (01:41:22) Tools: Fixed Work Schedule & Productivity, Exercise, Sleep (01:47:52) Deep Work, Insomnia; Productivity & Core Work; Music (01:55:08) Cognitive Focus & Environment; Isolation (02:02:30) Burnout Epidemic, Digital Collaboration (02:11:11) Cognitive Revolution, Balance (02:16:45) Remote, Hybrid vs. In-Person Work; Zoom (02:22:05) Tool: Pull-Based System, Designing Workload (02:28:49) Tools: Multi-Scale Planning, Time Blocking; Deep Work Groups (02:38:56) Tool: Shutdown Ritual (02:42:37) Accessibility, Reputation & Flexibility (02:47:29) Work-Life Balance, Vacation; Productivity (02:54:47) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
3/11/20242 hours, 56 minutes, 58 seconds
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How Placebo Effects Work to Change Our Biology & Psychology

In this episode, I discuss placebo and belief and mindset effects — all of which exert a powerful and real influence on our biology and psychology. I discuss how your beliefs and expectation that a certain outcome will occur after taking a substance (or any intervention cause genuine changes in brain and bodily function. I discuss how placebos can change neurotransmitter and hormone release, pain levels, whether the stress response is beneficial or detrimental and more. I also explain how placebo effects can work with traditional drug or behavioral treatments to help improve health outcomes and why some people are more susceptible to placebo effects. By the end of the episode, listeners will understand the placebo effect, how it works, and how beliefs and mindsets can be leveraged toward mental health, physical health, and performance goals.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Placebo Effects (00:02:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, AeroPress & Levels (00:07:24) Placebo, Nocebo vs. Belief Effect, Prefrontal Cortex (00:14:03) Dopamine, Placebo & Parkinson’s Disease; Placebo Controls (00:21:36) Hormone Release & Placebo Effect, Paired Associations (00:28:52) Conditioning Effect & Insulin; Pavlovian Response (00:32:50) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:17) Context & Expectations; Placebo Effect & Brain (00:40:51) Cancer, Mind-Body Practices; Placebo Effects & Limits (00:44:54) Asthma, Specificity & Placebo Effects (00:48:01) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:49:03) Nicotine & Dose-Dependent Placebo Effects (00:55:31) Placebo Effects vs. Belief Effects, Food & Mindset (01:01:02) Exercise & Belief Effects (01:04:08) Placebo Effect, Brain & Stress Response (01:11:18) Individual Variation, Genetics & Placebo Effect (01:16:11) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
3/4/20241 hour, 18 minutes, 15 seconds
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AMA #16: Sleep, Vertigo, TBI, OCD, Tips for Travelers, Gut-Brain Axis & More

Welcome to a special edition of the 16th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium, recorded in Sydney, Australia. This episode is a recording of a live stream AMA, originally exclusive to our Premium members. We've decided to make the full-length version available to everyone, including non-members of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. If you're not yet a member but enjoyed this full-length livestream AMA, we invite you to join Huberman Lab Premium. By subscribing, you'll gain access to exclusive benefits including our regular monthly full-length AMA episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and more. Additionally, a significant portion of your membership proceeds contributes to advancing human scientific research. You can learn more about the research we were able to support in our Annual Letter 2023. If you're a Huberman Lab Premium member, you can access the transcript for this AMA episode here. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:34) Achieving Key Health Pillars While Traveling (00:07:11) Improving Sleep Quality (00:13:11) Understanding and Managing Vertigo (00:20:44) Enhancing Brain Function Post-TBI (00:26:58) Getting Closer to Unraveling OCD (00:30:44) Adjusting Circadian Rhythms for Travel (00:34:58) Optimal Dosage for Fish Oil Supplements (00:40:17) Monitoring Hormone Levels (00:46:09) Optimizing the Gut-Brain Axis (00:52:04) Best Practices for Tongue Cleaning (00:56:36) Conclusion & Thank You Disclaimer
2/29/202456 minutes, 48 seconds
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Dr. Becky Kennedy Protocols for Excellent Parenting & Improving Relationships of All Kinds

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Becky Kennedy, Ph.D., a clinical psychologist, bestselling author, and founder of Good Inside, an education platform for parents and parents-to-be. We discuss actionable protocols for raising resilient, emotionally healthy kids and effective alternatives to typical forms of reward and punishment that instead teach children valuable skills and strengthen the parent-child bond. These protocols also apply to other types of relationships: professional, romantic, friendships, siblings, etc.  We explain how to respond to emotional outbursts, rudeness, and entitlement, repair fractured relationships, build self-confidence, and improve interpersonal connections with empathy while maintaining healthy boundaries.  We also discuss how to effectively communicate with children and adults with ADHD, anxiety, learning challenges, or with “deeply feeling” individuals.  The conversation is broadly applicable to all types of social interactions and bonds. By the end of the episode, you will have learned simple yet powerful tools to build healthy relationships with kids, teens, adults, and oneself. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Mateína: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Becky Kennedy (00:02:44) Sponsors: Mateína, Joovv & AeroPress (00:07:35) Healthy Relationships: Sturdiness, Boundaries & Empathy (00:14:34) Tool: Establishing Boundaries (00:18:24) Rules, Boundaries & Connection (00:22:19) Rewards & Punishments; Skill Building (00:29:48) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:16) Kids & Inherent Good (00:34:06) Family Jobs, Validation & Confidence, Giving Hope (00:41:54) Rewards, Pride (00:44:48) Tool: “I Believe You”, Confidence & Safety; Other Relationships (00:52:15) Trauma, Aloneness & Repair (00:57:07) Tool: Repair & Apologies, Rejecting Apology (01:01:04) Tool: Good Apologies (01:03:35) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:04:37) Tool: Rudeness & Disrespect, Most Generous Interpretation (01:12:32) Walking on Eggshells, Pilot Analogy & Emotional Outbursts, Sturdy Leadership (01:20:49) Deeply Feeling Kids; Fears, Sensory Overload (01:30:10) Co-Parenting Differences & Punishment (01:37:11) Tool: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Meditation (01:41:20) Tool: Tolerating Frustration, Screen Time, Learning (01:51:57) Grace & Parenthood, Parenting Job Description; Relationship to Self (01:55:24) Tool: “I’m Noticing”, Asking Questions; Emotional Regulation (02:01:15) Adolescence & Critical Needs, Explorers vs. Nomads (02:09:58) Saying “I Love You”, Teenagers; Family Meetings (02:15:07) Self-Care, Rage & Boundaries; Sturdy Leaders; Parent Relationship & Conflict (02:22:08) Tool: Wayward Teens, Marijuana & Substance Use, Getting Additional Help (02:30:03) Mentors (02:34:26) Tool: Entitlement, Fear & Frustration (02:41:57) Tool: Experiencing Frustration; Chores & Allowance (02:46:31) Good Inside Platform (02:51:27) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
2/26/20242 hours, 54 minutes, 1 second
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Dr. Mark D'Esposito: How to Optimize Cognitive Function & Brain Health

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Mark D'Esposito, M.D., a neurologist and professor of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California, Berkeley. We discuss the brain mechanisms underlying cognition and the forms of memory required for focus, productivity, planning and achieving goals, and learning. We discuss neurochemicals such as dopamine and acetylcholine and how they can be leveraged to improve cognitive functioning. We also discuss concussion, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's disease, and ways to restore or slow cognitive decline by using pharmacologic, lifestyle and behavioral protocols. This episode provides a modern understanding of cognition and memory and actionable tools to optimize brain health and function. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Mark D’Esposito (00:02:08) Sponsors: Maui Nui, Joovv & Eight Sleep (00:06:23) Brain & Frontal Lobes, Prefrontal Cortex, Executive Function (00:10:31) Frontal Lobe Development, Children (00:14:12) Rules, Context & Impulse Control; Learning & Goals (00:21:45) Focus, Improving Executive Function (00:26:04) Connections & Top-Down Signals (00:29:02) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:29) Frontal Lobe Injury; Emotional Regulation (00:37:26) Smartphones, Social Media (00:44:37) Working Memory, Dopamine (00:52:59) Sponsor: LMNT (00:54:22) Dopamine Levels & Working Memory, Cognitive Tasks, Genetics (01:00:03) Bromocriptine & Working Memory, Dopamine (01:06:21) Guanfacine, Neurotransmitter Levels, Pupil Dilation & Biomarker Tests (01:12:46) Bromocriptine, Olympics; Pharmacology & Cognitive Function, Adderall (01:19:27) Concussion, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (01:25:22) Sleep, TBI, Concussion & Executive Function; BrainHQ (01:31:57) Aging & Frontal Executive System; Brain Health (01:39:26) Tools: Brain Health & Boosting Executive Function, Books (01:47:26) Alzheimer’s Disease, Genetics, Pharmacology (01:51:48) Parkinson’s Disease, L-Dopa; Coping with Alzheimer’s; Nicotine (01:58:37) Estrogen & Dopamine, Cognition; Tool: Physical Exercise (02:04:43) Tool: Mindfulness Meditation & Executive Function (02:10:31) Brain Networks; Modularity (02:17:08) Modularity, Brain Indices (02:22:53) Psilocybin; Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (02:30:16) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
2/19/20242 hours, 32 minutes, 37 seconds
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How to Improve Oral Health & It’s Critical Role in Brain & Body Health

In this episode, I discuss the importance of oral health for dental and microbiome health and general physical and mental well-being. I explain science-supported protocols for strengthening your teeth and gums, including how to remineralize your teeth. I cover the best approaches and timing for brushing and flossing, tongue, gum, and oral microbiome care and how oral health is critically important to offset metabolic, cardiac, and brain diseases, including dementia. I also discuss proper nutrition for oral health, fluoride, and how sugar and mouth breathing can accelerate tooth decay. This episode ought to be of interest to everyone seeking to improve their physical health, mental health, and lifespan, given the critical role that oral health plays in all of these. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Mateína: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Oral Health (00:03:28) Sponsors: Mateina, ROKA & Helix Sleep (00:07:13) Oral Health Quiz (00:13:53) Teeth Biology, Cavity Repair (00:20:01) Mouth, Gums, Saliva (00:27:23) Sponsor: AG1 (00:28:51) Cavity Formation, Bacteria, Sugar, Acidity (00:35:10) Teeth Remineralization, Fluoride, Water (00:42:57) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:43:58) Tools: The “Do Nots” of Oral Health, Mouth Breathing (00:54:48) Tools: Fasting & Teeth Remineralization; Nighttime Toothbrushing (01:03:23) Proper Teeth Brushing; Tooth Sensitivity & Gums (01:08:16) Bacteria, Plaque & Tartar; Tooth Polishing (01:11:02) Proper Flossing Technique, Waterpik; Children & Flossing (01:14:23) Tool: Xylitol, Bacteria & Cavity Prevention (01:19:43) Toothpastes: Xylitol, Fluoride, Hydroxyapatite (01:22:38) Mouthwash & Alcohol, Antiseptic Mouthwash (01:26:29) Tools: Baking Soda, Hydrogen Peroxide?, Salt Water Rinse (01:32:36) Alcohol-Based Mouthwash, Nitric Oxide (01:34:52) Tools: Canker Sore Prevention & Gut Microbiome; Sleep (01:37:47) Tools: Tongue Brushing; Toothbrush Care (01:41:38) Teeth Sealants; Metal Fillings, Mercury, Mastic Gum; Root Canals (01:48:43) Dentist Visits, Daily Routines & Oral Health (01:54:17) Practices for Oral Health, Oil Pulling (01:58:21) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
2/12/20242 hours, 26 seconds
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Dr. Kay Tye: The Biology of Social Interactions and Emotions

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Kay Tye, PhD, Professor of Systems Neurobiology at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Investigator. We discuss the neural circuit basis of social interactions and loneliness. We also discuss how animals and people establish themselves in a group hierarchy by rank and how the brain responds to dominance and subordination. Much of our discussion relates to how social media impacts our sense of social connectedness or lack thereof. The topics covered in this episode are directly relevant to anyone interested in the neuroscience of mental health, work-life balance, abundance versus scarcity mindset, and interpersonal dynamics. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kay Tye (00:02:39) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Levels & LMNT (00:06:40) Amygdala; “Valence” (00:12:43) Novelty; Reward & Punishment Response (00:20:06) Amygdala & Hunger; Social Interaction (00:26:21) Social Media & Social Connection; Tool: Email & Time Management (00:35:03) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:30) Social Media; Friction & Feedback, Leadership (00:43:44) Social Isolation, Harlow Experiments, “Loneliness Neurons” (00:51:47) Social Homeostasis, COVID-19 Pandemic & Loneliness (01:01:29) Quality of Social Contact, Social Homeostasis, Social Media (01:08:40) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:09:42) Social Media, Relationships; Social Isolation & Exclusion (01:18:26) Empathy: Friend vs. Foe (01:28:40) Background & Empathy, Diversity, Emotional Regulation (01:34:34) Abundance vs. Scarcity Mindset (01:37:22) Social Rank & Hierarchy, Sibling Order, Development (01:45:54) Dynamic Hierarchy; Dominants vs. Subordinates; Mentors (01:55:32) Psychedelics: Research & Mechanisms; Psilocybin (02:06:28) Work-Life Balance, Fitness & Extracurriculars (02:11:56) Personal Life, Diversity, Happiness; Typical Day (02:15:42) Science & Academia; Future Directions (02:23:48) Research & Science Outreach (02:28:48) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
2/5/20242 hours, 31 minutes, 5 seconds
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AMA #15: Fluoride Benefits/Risks & Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Welcome to a preview of the 15th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Timestamps 00:00:00 Introduction 00:01:46 Why Is Fluoride in Water and Is It Harmful? 00:26:44 Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: What Are the Effects of the Vagus Nerve on Calming the Body and the Brain? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/1/202429 minutes, 2 seconds
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Tools to Enhance Working Memory & Attention

In this episode, I discuss working memory, which is critical for learning and productivity, strategy setting, goal seeking, and navigating new environments. I explain the key role of dopamine and the biological mechanisms underlying working memory and how working memory differs from both short- and long-term memory. I also describe science-supported tools to enhance working memory and attention—including zero- or low-cost behavioral, supplemental and pharmacologic approaches. I include how to assess your working memory and how to use memory tasks to determine your baseline dopamine levels in certain brain circuits. This episode provides listeners with highly actionable tools to assess and improve their attention to specific tasks and task-switching capacity and to enhance their overall productivity. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Mateína: https://drinkmateina.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Working Memory (00:01:12) Sponsors: Mateina, BetterHelp & Helix Sleep (00:05:00) Short- vs. Long-Term Memory (00:09:59) Neuroplasticity (00:15:42) Working Memory; Attention & Focus (00:20:04) Working Memory Test (00:25:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:27:02) Brain & Working Memory; Dopamine (00:36:13) Working Memory Capacity Test (00:44:37) Increasing Dopamine & Working Memory (00:49:26) Task Switching, Distractions (00:54:42) Sponsor: LMNT (00:56:04) Tool: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) & Dopamine (01:03:08) Tool: Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine (01:11:02) Tool: Working Memory & Binaural Beats (01:15:23) Supplements to Increase Dopamine: L-Tyrosine, Mucuna Pruriens (01:22:53) Dopamine Prescriptions, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (01:29:12) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors,  Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
1/29/20241 hour, 31 minutes, 11 seconds
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Journal Club with Dr. Peter Attia | Effects of Light & Dark on Mental Health & Treatments for Cancer

In this journal club episode, my guest is Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., a Stanford and Johns Hopkins-trained physician focusing on healthspan and lifespan and the host of The Drive podcast. We each present a peer-reviewed scientific paper chosen because it contains novel, interesting, and actionable data. First, we discuss a paper on how bright light exposure at sunrise and throughout the day and dark exposure at night independently improve mental health and can offset some of the major symptoms of mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety. Then, we discuss an article that explores a novel class of immunotherapy treatments to combat cancer. We also discuss some of the new data on low-calorie sweeteners and if they are safe. This episode should be of interest to listeners curious about maximizing their vitality and longevity and to anyone seeking science-supported ways to improve mental health and lifespan. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://www.eightsleep.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Peter Attia, Journal Club (00:02:40) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, BetterHelp & Joovv (00:07:14) Light, Dark & Mental Health; Retina (00:11:16) Outdoor vs. Indoor Light, Cataracts, Sunglasses (00:16:17) Tools: Sunrise & Sunsets, Circadian Rhythm; Midday Light (00:24:55) Tools: Night & Light Exposure; Waking Before Sunrise (00:31:05) Article #1, Light/Dark Exposure & Mental Health (00:36:50) Sponsor: AG1 (00:38:18) Odds Ratio, Hazard Ratio (00:45:43) Night vs. Daylight Exposure, Mental Health Disorders (00:51:35) Major Depression & Light Exposure; Error Bars & Significance (00:59:15) Sponsor: LMNT (01:00:39) Prescriptions; Environmental & Artificial Light; Red Lights (01:08:14) Nighttime Light Exposure; Sleep Trackers & Belief Effects (01:13:54) Light Directionality, Phone, Night (01:17:21) Light Wavelengths & Sensors; Sunglasses (01:20:58) Hawthorne Effect, Reverse Causality, Genetics (01:26:26) Artificial Sweeteners, Appetite (01:31:16) Natural Light Cycles, Circadian Rhythm & Mental Health (01:39:53) Article #2, Immune System & Cancer (01:43:18) T-Cell Activation; Viruses (01:50:41) Autoimmunity; Cancer & Immune System Evasion (02:00:09) Checkpoint Inhibitors, CTLA-4 (02:06:45) Anti-CTLA-4 Study Drug (Ipilimumab), Melanoma (02:12:07) Patient Population, Randomization, GP100 (02:18:09) Response Rate (02:22:52) Overall Survival & Response (02:28:38) Median Survival vs. Overall Survival, Drug Development (02:35:45) Gender & Dose (02:40:32) Adverse Events; Autoimmunity (02:46:42) Pancreatic Cancer; Aging & Immune System Health (02:53:57) Melanoma; Lynch Syndrome, Keytruda (02:58:43) Immunotherapy & Cancer Treatment; Melanoma Risk (03:06:26) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
1/22/20243 hours, 8 minutes, 31 seconds
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Dr. Sean Mackey: Tools to Reduce & Manage Pain

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Sean Mackey, M.D., Ph.D., Chief of the Division of Pain Medicine and Professor of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine and Neurology at Stanford University School of Medicine. His clinical and research efforts focus on using advanced neurosciences, patient outcomes, biomarkers and informatics to treat pain. We discuss what pain is at the level of the body and mind, pain thresholds, and the various causes of pain. We also discuss effective protocols for controlling and reducing pain, including the use of heat and cold, acupuncture, chiropractic, physical therapy, nutrition, and supplementation. We also discuss how pain is influenced by our emotions, stress and memories, and practical tools to control one’s psychological perception of pain. And we discuss pain medications, including the controversial use of opioids and the opioid crisis. This episode will help people understand, manage, and control their pain as well as the pain of others. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Sean Mackey (00:02:11) Sponsors: AeroPress, Levels & BetterHelp (00:06:13) Pain, Unique Experiences, Chronic Pain (00:13:05) Pain & the Brain (00:16:15) Treating Pain, Medications: NSAIDs & Analgesics (00:22:46) Inflammation, Pain & Recovery; Ibuprofen, Naprosyn & Aspirin (00:28:51) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:19) Caffeine, NSAIDs, Tylenol (00:32:34) Pain & Touch, Gate Control Theory (00:38:56) Pain Threshold, Gender (00:44:53) Pain in Children, Pain Modulation (Pain Inhibits Pain) (00:53:20) Tool: Heat, Cold & Pain; Changing Pain Threshold (00:59:53) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:00:54) Tools: Psychology, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Catastrophizing (01:08:29) Tool: Hurt vs. Harmed?, Chronic Pain (01:12:38) Emotional Pain, Anger, Medication (01:20:43) Tool: Nutrition & Pain; Food Sensitization & Elimination Diets (01:28:45) Visceral Pain; Back, Chest & Abdominal Pain (01:34:02) Referenced Pain, Neuropathic Pain; Stress, Memory & Psychological Pain (01:40:23) Romantic Love & Pain, Addiction (01:48:57) Endogenous & Exogenous Opioids, Morphine (01:53:17) Opioid Crisis, Prescribing Physicians (02:02:21) Opioids & Fentanyl; Morphine, Oxycontin, Methadone (02:07:44) Kratom, Cannabis, CBD & Pain; Drug Schedules (02:18:12) Pain Management Therapies, Acupuncture (02:22:19) Finding Reliable Physicians, Acupuncturist (02:26:36) Chiropractic & Pain Treatment; Chronic Pain & Activity (02:31:35) Physical Therapy & Chronic Pain; Tool: Pacing (02:36:35) Supplements: Acetyl-L-Carnitine, Alpha Lipoic Acid, Vitamin C, Creatine (02:42:25) Pain Management, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Biofeedback (02:48:32) National Pain Strategy, National Pain Care Act (02:54:05) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
1/15/20242 hours, 56 minutes, 41 seconds
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How to Prevent & Treat Colds & Flu

In this episode, I explain the biology of the common cold and flu (influenza) and how the immune system combats these infections. I describe behavior, nutrition and supplementation-based tools supported by peer-reviewed research to enhance immune system function and better combat colds and flu. I also dispel common myths about how the cold and flu are transmitted and when you and those around you are contagious. I explain if common preventatives and treatments such as vitamin C, zinc, vitamin D and echinacea work. I also highlight other compounds known to reduce contracting and duration of colds and flu.  I discuss how to use exercise and sauna to bolster the immune response. This episode will help listeners understand how to reduce the chances of catching a cold or flu and help people recover more quickly from and prevent the spread of colds and flu. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Joovv: https://joovv.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Avoid Colds & Flu (00:01:58) Sponsors: Joovv, Helix Sleep & ROKA (00:06:00) Common Cold: Source & Transmission; Cold Temperature Myth (00:13:48) Spreading a Cold; Symptoms & Contagious Myths (00:17:43) Flu Virus & Transmission; Flu Shots (00:23:56) Tools: Injections & Safety; Charting Health Trends & Sickness (00:27:16) Sponsor: AG1 (00:28:44) Spreading Cold & Flu, Symptoms (00:30:43) Immune System, Physical Barriers (00:39:33) Tool: Social Connection & Touch, Avoiding Flu & Cold (00:45:14) Innate Immune System (00:53:13) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:54:15) Adaptive Immune System; Lymphatic System (01:00:19) Tools: Enhance Innate Immune System (01:06:19) Tool: Microbiome & Nasal Breathing (01:10:58) Tools: Enhance Gut Microbiome: Foods & Water Protocol (01:16:13) Exercise When Feeling Sick?, Sleep (01:21:39) Tool: Exercise & Preventing Sickness (01:28:13) Exercise When Sleep Deprived? (01:32:24) Tool: Exercise Recovery & Carbohydrates (01:34:52) Tool: Sauna & Enhance Immune System (01:42:20) Supplements: Vitamin C, Vitamin D (01:50:58) Echinacea, Zinc (01:55:08) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Decongestants (02:03:42) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/8/20242 hours, 5 minutes, 48 seconds
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David Goggins: How to Build Immense Inner Strength

In this episode, my guest is David Goggins, retired Navy SEAL, highly accomplished ultramarathoner, best-selling author, and influential public speaker. David explains how he mastered his inner dialogue to build extraordinary levels of discipline and mental and physical toughness. He describes how confronting his early hardships, including physical and mental abuse, learning disorders, and obesity, became a practice of deep and excruciating self-reflection — eventually allowing him to transmute those experiences into a superhuman work ethic. This conversation is a unique window into David Goggins’ process in that it focuses both on the underlying science and how David manages and directs his inner dialogue. It’s a conversation that will inform and inspire anyone wondering how exactly to go about building discipline and confidence and reach their potential. Note: This conversation includes profanity. Some content might not be suitable for all audiences and ages. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) David Goggins (00:03:22) Sponsors: Maui Nui, AeroPress & Eight Sleep (00:07:58) Learning, Studying & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (00:14:59) Writing & Learning, ADHD & Focus (00:20:35) Friction, Focus, “Conqueror’s Mindset” (00:25:16) Early Hardships, “Haunted” (00:30:48) Anger, Social Media; Growth & Challenges (00:36:14) Sponsor: AG1 (00:37:11) Stick vs. Carrot, Negative Inner Dialogue, “Stay Hard” (00:42:39) Inspiration, Characters & Self Image (00:46:09) Willpower & Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex (00:53:23) Friction & the “Suck”, Willpower (00:59:14) Building Willpower, Brain & “No Days Off” Mentality  (01:08:52) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:09:54) Losing Weight, Challenge & Willpower (01:18:47) Self-Criticism & Discipline; Recovery; Stutter & Building Confidence (01:26:45) Relationships & Honest Conversations, People Pleasing (01:34:49) Self-Reflection & Empowerment (01:39:06) Unseen Work, Real Passion & Purpose, Medicine Cabinet Analogy (01:46:32) Feeling Lost, Self-Reflection & Individual Process (01:54:11) Challenges & Two Internal Voices, Misunderstood (01:59:32) Running, Smoke Jumping; Success; Willpower & Perishable Skills (02:07:04) Self-Reflection & Action, Distractions (02:15:27) Inner Dialogue; Failing Properly (02:24:59) Introspection & Unconscious Mind, Cleaning “Cupboards” (02:35:19) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors,  Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
1/1/20242 hours, 37 minutes, 34 seconds
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AMA #14: 2023 Philanthropy, Evening Routine, Light Therapy, Health Metrics & More

Welcome to a special edition of the 14th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. This episode is a recording of a live stream AMA, originally exclusive to our Annual and Lifetime Members. We've decided to make the full-length version available to everyone, including non-members of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. If you're not yet a member but enjoyed this full-length livestream AMA, we invite you to join Huberman Lab Premium. By subscribing, you'll gain access to exclusive benefits including our regular monthly full-length AMA episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and more. Additionally, a significant portion of your membership proceeds contributes to advancing human scientific research. You can learn more about the research we were able to support in our Annual Letter 2023. If you're a Huberman Lab Premium member, you can access the transcript for this AMA episode here. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:34) 2023 Scientific Research Contributions (00:07:07) Anterior Mid Cingulate Cortex Studies: Discussion on Research & Findings (00:12:32) Evening Routines and Light: Insights on Managing Light Exposure Before Sleep (00:21:26) Light Therapy in Northern Regions: Tips for Coping With Limited Morning Light (00:28:48) Annual Health and Fitness Metrics: Key Metrics to Monitor Yearly (00:39:59) Dealing With Midnight Wakefulness: Strategies for Falling Back Asleep (00:46:41) Strength Training for Women: Protocols for Strength Without Hypertrophy (00:50:56) Full Body Scan MRIs: Evaluating the Benefits and Usage (00:55:07) Dog Wellness and Communication: Potential Exploration Into Canine Well-Being (00:56:17) Balancing Muscle Strength: Strategies for Equalizing Arm Strength (01:00:54) Content on Children's Development: Future Plans and Current Resources (01:03:23) Conclusion & Thank You Disclaimer
12/31/20231 hour, 5 minutes, 10 seconds
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Rick Rubin: Protocols to Access Creative Energy and Process

In this episode, my guest is Rick Rubin, world-renowned music producer of numerous award-winning artists, including Johnny Cash, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Beastie Boys, Adele, Eminem, Slayer, and many more. Rick is also the host of the podcast Tetragrammaton and the author of the best-selling book about the creative process entitled “The Creative Act: A Way of Being.” In this Q&A episode, Rick explains the practical aspects of the creative process, such as specific morning and daily routines, the role of movement, and how to source and capture ideas, interpret dreams, and generate work-life balance. He also offers advice for those struggling with creative or motivation blocks. He explains how cultivating relationships with the unknown, uncertainty and life circumstances heightens the creative process. Rick’s insights into accessing your artistic spirit and direction apply to everyone and all realms of art, work, and life. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Rick Rubin (00:02:00) Sponsors: Maui Nui, Eight Sleep & Waking Up (00:06:27) Tool: Coherence Breathing, Heart Rate Variability (00:09:32) Treading Water, Podcasts (00:11:45) Tool: Meditation Practices (00:15:43) Sunlight, Skin, Circadian Rhythm (00:20:00) Headphones, Natural Living, Diet (00:24:31) Artificial Intelligence (AI); Childhood; Magic & Mentalists (00:28:34) Tool: Writer’s Block, Creativity, Diary Entries; Deadlines (00:34:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:54) Uncertainty; Creativity & Challenges; Sensitivity & Environment (00:40:43) Wrestling, Storytelling; Johnny Cash (00:48:51) Creative Endeavors & Outcome; Surprise in Oneself; Experimentation (00:56:36) Resistance; Business & Art (01:00:37) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:01:39) Source of Ideas; Internet & Information (01:08:31) Dreams & Interpretation; Unconscious Mind; Motivations, Art & Outcome (01:14:07) Career Advice, Book Writing, Diary Entries, Expressive Writing (01:19:25) Music Industry; Capturing Ideas; Money & Ingenuity (01:25:21) Audience; Innovative Ideas (01:29:35) Alcohol, Confidence, Psychedelics (01:35:10) Creativity, Chaos & Organization; Shocking Experiences (01:42:13) News & False Stories; Playing, Wonder & Childhood (01:46:58) Ramones; Henry Rollins (01:49:55) Daily Routine; Red Light, Circadian Rhythm & “Cheap Photons” (01:57:46) Creativity, Experience vs. Institutions; Work, Stress & Relationships (02:04:29) Book Recommendations; Ancestry & Creativity (02:07:41) Experiencing Music; Developing Albums (02:12:28) Music Videos; Book Interpretation; Current Projects & Documentaries (02:16:40) Podcasting & Conversation (02:25:41) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors,  Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
12/25/20232 hours, 28 minutes, 8 seconds
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Dr. Robert Lustig: How Sugar & Processed Foods Impact Your Health

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Robert Lustig, M.D., neuroendocrinologist, professor of pediatrics at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), and a bestselling author on nutrition and metabolic health. We address the “calories in- calories out” (CICO) model of metabolism and weight regulation and how specific macronutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrates), fiber and sugar can modify the CICO equation. We cover how different types of sugars, specifically fructose, sugars found in liquid form, taste intensity, and other factors impact insulin levels, liver, kidney, and metabolic health. We also explore how fructose in non-fruit sources can be addictive (acting similarly to drugs of abuse) and how sugar alters brain circuits related to food cravings and satisfaction. We discuss the role of sugar in childhood and adult obesity, gut health and disease and mental health. We also discuss how the food industry uses refined sugars to create pseudo foods and what these do to the brain and body. This episode is replete with actionable information about sugar and metabolism, weight control, brain health and body composition. It ought to be of interest to anyone seeking to understand how specific food choices impact the immediate and long-term health of the brain and body. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Robert Lustig (00:02:02) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Levels & Aero Press (00:06:41) Calories, Fiber (00:12:15) Calories, Protein & Fat, Trans Fats (00:18:23) Carbohydrate Calories, Glucose vs. Fructose, Fruit, Processed Foods (00:26:43) Fructose, Mitochondria & Metabolic Health (00:31:54) Trans Fats; Food Industry & Language (00:35:33) Sponsor: AG1 (00:37:04) Glucose, Insulin, Muscle (00:42:31) Insulin & Cell Growth vs. Burn; Oxygen & Cell Growth, Cancer (00:51:14) Glucose vs. Fructose, Uric Acid; “Leaky Gut” & Inflammation (01:00:51) Supporting the Gut Microbiome, Fasting (01:04:13) Highly Processed Foods, Sugars; “Price Elasticity” & Food Industry (01:10:28) Sponsor: LMNT (01:11:51) Processed Foods & Added Sugars (01:14:19) Sugars, High-Fructose Corn Syrup (01:18:16) Food Industry & Added Sugar, Personal Responsibility, Public Health (01:30:04) Obesity, Diabetes, “Hidden” Sugars (01:34:57) Diet, Insulin & Sugars (01:38:20) Tools: NOVA Food Classification; Perfact Recommendations (01:43:46) Meat & Metabolic Health, Eggs, Fish (01:46:44) Sources of Omega-3s; Vitamin C & Vitamin D (01:52:37) Tool: Reduce Inflammation; Sugars, Cortisol & Stress (01:59:12) Food Industry, Big Pharma & Government; Statins (02:06:55) Public Health Shifts, Rebellion, Sugar Tax, Hidden Sugars (02:12:58) Real Food Movement, Public School Lunches & Processed Foods (02:18:25) 3 Fat Types & Metabolic Health; Sugar, Alcohol & Stress (02:26:40) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners, Insulin & Weight Gain (02:34:32) Re-Engineering Ultra-Processed Food (02:38:45) Sugar & Addiction, Caffeine (02:45:18) GLP-1, Semaglutide (Ozempic, Wegovy, Tirzepatide), Risks; Big Pharma (02:57:390 Obesity & Sugar Addiction; Brain Re-Mapping, Insulin & Leptin Resistance (03:03:31) Fructose & Addiction, Personal Responsibility & Tobacco (03:07:27) Food Choices: Fruit, Rice, Tomato Sauce, Bread, Meats, Fermented Foods (03:12:54) Intermittent Fasting, Diet Soda, Food Combinations, Fiber, Food Labels (03:19:14) Improving Health, Advocacy, School Lunches, Hidden Sugars (03:26:55) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
12/18/20233 hours, 29 minutes, 20 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Chicago, IL

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Chicago, IL. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Chicago, IL at The Chicago Theatre. We'll be hosting four live events in Australia in February 2024. Limited tickets remain for our show in Melbourne on February 10, 2024, and our second show in Sydney at the Aware Super Theatre on February 18, 2024. For tickets and event details, please visit https://www.hubermanlab.com/events. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:42) What Is Your Best Advice to Keep My Brain Healthy in Old Age? (00:07:07) How Can I Optimize Sleep While Working 24 Hour Shifts? (00:10:17) How Does Hypnosis Therapy Work? (00:17:15) Psychedelics in Clinical Therapy (00:30:23) How Has Your Podcast Changed Your Life? (00:35:21) What Do You Feel Is the Next Big Thing in the Health Space? (00:44:31) Daylight Saving Time: Is It Worth the Productivity Trade-Off? (00:46:34) Enhancing Neuroplasticity: Strategies for a 19-Year-Old College Student (00:50:17) How Can We Transform the American Education System to Be More Effective? (00:54:06) Conclusion Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/13/202354 minutes, 43 seconds
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Dr. Karen Parker: The Causes & Treatments for Autism

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Karen Parker, Ph.D., professor of psychiatry and director of the Social Neurosciences Research Program at Stanford University School of Medicine. We discuss the biology of social connections and bonding in babies, children and adults. Dr. Parker explains our current understanding of autism and autism spectrum disorders: what they are, why the incidence of autism has increased so dramatically in recent years and both the current and emerging treatments for autism. We also discuss the condition formerly called “Asperger’s.” This episode ought to be highly relevant for anyone interested in child and human development, how social bonds form, and to those curious about autism and other spectrum conditions. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman AeroPress: https://aeropress.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Karen Parker (00:01:30) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT & AeroPress (00:06:25) Autism, Frequency, Diagnosis (00:10:41) Early Interventions; Heritability & Autistic Traits (00:13:00) Autistic Spectrums; Studying Autism (00:21:29) Environment, Risk Factors & In Utero Development (00:29:55) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:26) Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Social Behavior & Parent-Child Bonding (00:43:240 Oxytocin in Humans; Social Features of Autism, Intranasal Oxytocin (00:54:14) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:55:16) Oxytocin & Autism; Benefit & Risks (01:06:30) Neuroplasticity & Autism; Early Intervention; Challenges of Early Diagnosis (01:14:30) MDMA & Autism (01:17:05) Vasopressin, Social Interaction; Voles & Parenthood (01:27:07) Human Social Connection, Oxytocin Levels & Autism (01:33:45) Primate Model of Social Impairment (01:42:47) Preclinical Animal Models, Mouse & Primates (01:47:11) Primates, Biomarkers & Social Connection; Vasopressin (01:52:20) Vasopressin Levels & Autism, Children & In Utero (02:03:06) Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) & Vasopressin; Urination; Alternative Therapies (02:10:32) Intranasal Vasopressin, Children, Autism & Social Responsiveness (02:19:15) Vasopressin & Social Connection, Mechanism & Future Studies (02:26:35) Gut Microbiome & Vasopressin; Scientific Funding (02:34:52) Vasopressin Pathways, Social Behavior, Autism (02:43:00) Vaccine Theory & Autism; Immunology (02:54:06) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
12/11/20232 hours, 56 minutes, 27 seconds
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Robert Greene: A Process for Finding & Achieving Your Unique Purpose

In this episode, my guest is Robert Greene, multiple New York Times bestselling author and expert on human psychology and behavior both at the individual and group levels and in the context of relationships, careers, and society. We discuss how to find, pursue and achieve one’s unique life purpose, and how to best learn from good and hard experiences along that journey. We discuss power dynamics in relationships, the different types of human communication and the interplay between seduction and vulnerability. We discuss how to find the right romantic partner, improve healthy self-awareness, the link between anxiety and creativity, and pick ideal mentors and role models. Robert also discusses his recent stroke and what he has learned from his near-death experience about motivation, urgency and appreciation for life. Listeners of all ages will benefit from Robert’s insights on navigating the process of building a deeply purposeful life and enhancing one’s relationship with the self, others and society.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Robert Greene (00:01:58) Sponsors: ROKA, Helix Sleep & Waking Up (00:05:56) Mastery (The Book), Purpose (00:08:26) Finding Purpose, Childhood, Learning & Emotional Engagement (00:18:00) Early Interests, Delight & Discovery (00:22:50) Love vs. Hate Experiences & Learning (00:28:25) Self-Awareness, Frustration, Excitation (00:31:47) Sponsor: AG1 (00:33:18) Sublime Experiences, Real vs. False; Authenticity & Time (00:43:57) Power & Relationships; Purpose & Mastery (00:55:51) Seduction, Vulnerability, Childhood (01:07:04) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:05) Power Dynamics & Romance; Equality, Love Sublime & Connection (01:18:42) Vulnerability in Relationships, Creativity; Social Media, Justice (01:29:45) Outrage, Control, “Art of Ignore” (01:33:50) Masculinity & Femininity (01:42:16) Picking Role Models; Purpose & Mentor Relationship (01:51:07) “Alive” Thinking; Anxiety & Creativity (01:58:55) Convergent Interests & Romantic Relationships (02:07:19) Self-Awareness, Core Values & Romantic Relationships (02:15:27) Non-Verbal Communication & Relationships (02:24:58) Eyes, Voice, Intuition & Seduction (02:28:38) Virtual World, Social Skills, Non-Verbal Communication (02:32:19) Self-Awareness & Intelligence, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Nuance (02:41:43) Human Brain, Plasticity (02:45:18) Stroke & Near-Death Experiences, Self, Time (02:55:49) Appreciation & Near-Death Experience, Urgency (03:01:36) “Death Ground” & Urgency (03:09:13) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
12/4/20233 hours, 11 minutes, 17 seconds
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AMA #13: Winter Months & Sickness, Wim Hof Breathing & Stressors

Welcome to a preview of the 13th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. Huberman Lab Premium was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the main Huberman Lab podcast — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Read our Annual Letter 2023. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:46) Does Cold Weather Make You Sick? (00:21:58) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Wim Hof Breathing and Sickness Articles Association of oral breathing with dental malocclusions and general health in children Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/30/202324 minutes, 17 seconds
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Dr. Adam Grant: How to Unlock Your Potential, Motivation & Unique Abilities

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Adam Grant, Ph.D., a professor of organizational psychology at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania, an expert in the science and practical steps for increasing motivation, maximizing and reaching our potential, and understanding how individuals and groups can best flourish. He is also an avid public educator, having written five bestselling books, delivered several top-ranking TED Talks and is the host of two psychology podcasts. We discuss how to overcome procrastination, how to increase intrinsic motivation (even for dreaded tasks), identify blind spots and rethink our assumptions, and how we can build a persistent growth mindset. We also explain tools to improve creativity and discuss the surprising relationship between creativity and procrastination. We then explore how to effectively solicit useful feedback and grow from constructive criticism and how you can improve your level of focus and attention using science-supported methods. We also discuss mental tools to get out of negative thought spirals, how to nurture potential in yourself or others, and the dark side of perfectionism. The discussion delivers more than a dozen science-supported protocols that are readily applicable to anyone seeking to live a more productive, fulfilling, and creative life. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Waking Up: https://www.wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Adam Grant (00:01:37) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Levels & Waking Up (00:05:56) Procrastination & Emotion; Curiosity (00:14:06) Creativity & Procrastination; Motivation (00:20:48) Intrinsic Motivation & Curiosity (00:27:59) Tool: Tasks & Sense of Purpose (00:30:52) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:34) Extrinsic Rewards, Choice; Social Media (00:42:24) Tool: “Quiet Time” Protocol, Chronotypes (00:49:20) Tool: Creativity: Mornings, Movement, Stillness (00:57:05) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:58:14) Tools: Ideas & Filtering, Feedback & Opinions, Advice (01:07:15) Tool: Constructive Criticism, “Second Score”; Verbs (01:14:40) Tool: Growth Mindsets, Scaffolding; Job Innovation (01:21:50) Tools: Task Sequencing & Intrinsic Motivation; Tapering & Frame of Reference (01:30:03) Tools: Momentum, Confidence & Domains; Negative Thought Spirals (01:36:16) Tool: Phone & “To Don’t” List; Writing Ideas (01:39:54) Tool: Bias Blindspot, Reflected Best-Self Portrait (01:45:36) Helping Others, Synthesizing Information (01:50:24) Modes of Thinking, Blind Spots & Assumptions (01:56:10) Thinking Like a Scientist: Hypothesis-Testing & Discourse, Social Media (02:05:150 Tool: Authenticity, Sincerity & Etiquette, “Snapshot” & Online Presence (02:12:49) Realizing Potential: Motivation, Opportunity & Process (02:21:53) Skills to Realize Potential, Perfectionism (02:27:52) Tool: Early Success & Performance Cycle, “Failure Budget” (02:31:56) Future Projects, Complex Issues & Challenging Ideas (02:40:10) Artistic Hobbies, Magicians (02:45:55) Science Communication, Interest & Self-Relevance (02:52:16) Languishing, Descriptive Language & Emotions (03:00:09) Tool: Nurture Potential in Children, “Coach Effect” (03:10:16) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
11/27/20233 hours, 12 minutes, 22 seconds
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A Science-Supported Journaling Protocol to Improve Mental & Physical Health

In this episode, I explain a specific writing protocol shown in hundreds of scientific studies to significantly improve immediate and long-term health. I explain how to implement this specific protocol, which takes only four days and 15-30 minutes per day. I also explain the mechanism for how the four-day writing protocol affects neuroplasticity (brain rewiring) and brain function in the short and long term. I explain how these brain changes positively impact our physical health, including our system's immune function and thus our ability to combat infections, improve sleep, reduce feelings of physical and emotional pain, lower anxiety, and bring about healing from traumas. This episode ought to be of interest to anyone seeking better mental and/or physical health through the use of brief yet highly effective science-supported protocols. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Journaling Protocol for Mental & Physical Health (00:03:06) Sponsors: LMNT, Eight Sleep & Waking Up (00:07:16) Journaling & Confronting Traumatic Events (00:11:25) Tool: Expressive Writing (00:14:38) Morning Notes, Gratitude Journaling, Diary Journaling (00:18:00) Tool: Consecutive Writing Bouts; Trauma Definition (00:24:38) Low Expressors vs. High Expressors (00:29:29) Tools: Language, Vocabulary & Emotion; Analyzing Writing (00:35:02) Tool: Writing Session Tips (00:39:31) Sponsor: AG1 (00:41:02) Positive Mental & Physical Benefits (00:46:45) Expressive Writing & Immune Function; Brain-Body Connection  (00:57:02) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:58:10) Neuroplasticity, Prefrontal Cortex & Subcortical Structures (01:05:00) Structured Writing, Trauma & Narratives; Truth-Telling (01:08:56) Neuroplasticity, Truth-Telling & Relief from Trauma (01:15:32) Honesty, Brain Activity & Narratives (01:22:01) Overcoming Trauma & the Brain; Stress, Emotions & Honesty (01:26:41) Expressive Writing Protocol & Benefits (01:36:16) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/20/20231 hour, 38 minutes, 21 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Toronto, ON

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Toronto, ON. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Toronto, ON. We'll be hosting four live events in Australia in February 2024. Limited tickets remain for our show in Melbourne on February 10, 2024, and Brisbane on February 24, 2024. Our show in Sydney at the Sydney Opera House sold out quickly, so we've added a second show at the Aware Super Theatre on February 18, 2024. For tickets and event details, please visit https://www.hubermanlab.com/events. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:41) What Motivated You to Do the Guest Series With Dr. Paul Conti? (00:08:07) Enhancing Emotional Resilience in Triggering Situations: Protocols and Best Practices (00:12:46) Understanding and Fostering Sudden Inspiration in the Brain (00:16:36) How Can Canadians Fight the Season Depression? (00:22:45) How Do You Increase Neuroplasticity After 30? (00:28:46) What Type of Movement Protocol Do You Recommend for Someone Working From Home? (00:33:02) What Does Your Morning Meditation Consist Of? (00:38:05) Conclusion Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/15/202339 minutes, 7 seconds
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Dr. Natalie Crawford: Female Hormone Health, Fertility & Vitality

In this episode, my guest is Natalie Crawford, MD, a double board-certified physician specializing in obstetrics and gynecology, fertility and reproductive health and host of the “As a Woman” podcast. We discuss female hormones, nutrition, supplementation, reproductive health, and fertility, including how the timing and duration of puberty impact a woman’s long-term hormone cycles and menopause. We also discuss the pros and cons of various birth control methods and how hormonal vs. non-hormonal birth control each affects fertility. We cover the factors that impact egg and sperm quality and how to leverage timing for conception. We also discuss procedures to assess female fertility, including egg count and hormone testing, the process of egg freezing, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other reproductive options. This episode represents fairly comprehensive coverage of female hormones and reproductive health, highlighting important tests and screening, behavioral, nutritional, supplement and prescription-based tools that women of any age can use to improve their fertility, hormone function and overall health.  For the full show notes, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Natalie Crawford (00:01:40) Sponsors: Maui Nui Venison & Helix Sleep; The Brain Body Contract (00:04:59) Female Puberty & Growth Characteristics, Height (00:13:27) Eggs & Ovulation, Harvesting Eggs, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) (00:17:31) Endocrine Disruptors, Fetal Development (00:21:39) Lavender, Tea Tree & Evening Primrose Oils, Scents, Diapers (00:25:13) Breast Milk vs. Formula & Fertility (00:26:04) Menstruation Cycle & Hormones, Timing (00:34:08) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:59) Estrogen, Progesterone & Menstrual Cycle (00:38:08) Hormonal Birth Control & Ovarian Reserve, AMH Testing, Fertility (00:42:42) Spermatogenesis & Testosterone; Heat: Ovaries vs Testes (00:46:11) Period & Pregnancy, Conception Window (00:48:56) Estrogen, Libido & Ovulation; Mittelschmerz (00:51:33) Tool: Intercourse Timing & Conception; Artificial Insemination, IVF (00:55:03) Egg/Sperm Quality, Cigarettes, Vaping, Cannabis & Alcohol  (01:02:20) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:03:29) Intrauterine Device (IUD), Depo-Provera & Fertility (01:10:00) Birth Control Risks & Benefits, Cancers, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) (01:19:39) Blood Clotting & Birth Control Pill; Health Screening  (01:24:50) Tool: AMH Testing, Ovarian Reserve, Antral Follicle Count Ultrasound (01:29:55) IVF, In Vitro Maturation (IVM); Early Ovarian Reserve Screening (01:35:40) Tools: Egg Freezing, IVF; Age & Egg Quality (01:43:37) Egg Freezing & IVF Procedures, Maternal Age, Success Rates (01:51:30) Tool: Sperm Freezing & Paternal Age, Vasectomy (01:55:01) Hormones, Egg Freezing & IVF (02:00:42) Three-Parent IVF, Mitochondrial DNA (02:05:21) IVF Embryo Storage & Donation; Donor Education & Consent (02:14:29) Autism, Developmental Disorders, IVF Babies, Age  (02:20:36) Tools: Sleep, Nutrition & Fertility; Dietary Fat (02:27:32) Protein, Meat, Tofu, Fish; Sugar, Artificial Sweeteners; Weight & Miscarriage (02:37:38) Tools: Supplements; Prenatal Vitamins, Omega 3s, Vitamin D, Coenzyme Q10 (02:42:26) L-Carnitine & Male Fertility; PCOS & Myo-inositol; Metformin (02:47:11) Egg Retrieval, Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, Minimal Stimulation (02:57:56) INVOcell (03:03:12) Egg Freezing, Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), Sperm Fragmentation (03:11:45) Genetic Testing, IVF Transfer & Success Rate, Embryo Banking (03:15:10) Menopause (03:19:47) Hormone Replacement Therapy & Menopause (03:22:25) Early-signs of Menopause (03:25:18) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer
11/13/20233 hours, 27 minutes, 33 seconds
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Dr. Michael Eisenberg: Improving Male Sexual Health, Function & Fertility

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Michael Eisenberg, MD, a urologist and professor specializing in male sexual function and fertility at Stanford University. Based on his clinical work and research, he is considered a top world expert on male sexual and reproductive health. We discuss testosterone levels and what really impacts them, testosterone therapy, sperm quality and counts, penile and testicular health and function, pelvic floor and prostate and urinary tract health, erectile function and dysfunction and the various causes and treatments for common male sexual, hormonal and reproductive challenges. We also address post-finasteride syndrome and trends in penile length. This episode is rich in actionable information about men’s sexual and reproductive health, including key tests and at-home evaluations, and the behavioral, nutritional, exercise and prescription-based tools that can support male sexual and reproductive health. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Michael Eisenberg (00:01:49) Sponsors: ROKA & Eight Sleep (00:04:20) Sperm Quality, Geographic & Environmental Factors  (00:12:00) Fertility & Sperm Quality; Testosterone, Cell Phones & Heat (00:19:26) Testosterone, Age, Obesity (00:26:49) Tool: Optimize Sperm Quality, Exogenous Testosterone, hCG (00:35:26) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:57) Tool: Lifestyle Factors & Sperm Quality, Alcohol (00:43:27) Sperm Quality, Recreational & Over-the-Counter Drugs, Cannabis (00:46:56) High-Impact Sports, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), Pituitary & Testosterone (00:49:55) Bicycling, Numbness & Sexual Dysfunction; Walking & Testosterone (00:55:39) Exogenous Testosterone Therapy & Cancer (00:58:39) Sponsor: LMNT (00:59:57) Sexual & Urinary Health, Nighttime Urination (01:03:12) Sleep & Semen Quality; Overall Health (01:09:19) Tool: Sperm Analysis & Overall Health; Sperm Banking (01:13:21) Paternal Age & Puberty Trends; Older Fathers & Child Health Risk (01:26:42) Tool: Prostate Health, Urination; Tadalafil (Cialis) (01:33:02) Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs); Erectile Dysfunction Causes (01:38:21) Blood Flow & Erectile Dysfunction, Medication; Cardiovascular Health (01:44:30) Mechanical Erectile Dysfunction Treatments; Peptides; Delayed Ejaculation (01:52:36) Pelvic Floor Health, Urology & Physical Therapy; Split-Stream Urination (01:59:03) Penile Length & Trends; Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Puberty (02:09:01) Hair Loss, Dutasteride, Finasteride & Sexual Health; Post-Finasteride Syndrome (02:16:11) Clomiphene, Testosterone & Estrogen Signaling (02:19:31) Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Therapy; Prolactin, Estrogen (02:24:15) Varicocele; Peyronie’s Disease (02:27:26) Testis & Cancer Risk; Insurance, Blood Profiles & Semen Analysis (02:35:03) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/6/20232 hours, 37 minutes, 13 seconds
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AMA #12: Thoughts on Longevity Supplements (Resveratrol, NR, NMN, Etc.) & How to Improve Memory

Welcome to a preview of the 12th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. If you're an existing Premium member, you can login to access the full episode. If you're not a member, you can join Huberman Lab Premium to enjoy exclusive content, including monthly Ask Me Anything (AMA) episodes, AMA transcripts, podcast episode transcripts, early access to live events and help advance human scientific research. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:46) Resveratrol and Longevity Supplements (00:26:49) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: What Is Working Memory and How to Improve It Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/31/202329 minutes, 7 seconds
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Mental Health Toolkit: Tools to Bolster Your Mood & Mental Health

In this episode, I provide science-based tools and protocols to improve mood and mental health. These tools represent key takeaways from several recently published research studies, as well as from former Huberman Lab guests Lisa Feldman Barrett, Ph.D., an expert in the science of emotions, and Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist with vast clinical expertise in helping people overcome mental health challenges. I explain the first principles of self-care, which include the “Big 6” core pillars for mood and mental health. Those ensure our physiology is primed for our overall feelings of well-being. Then, I explain science-based tools to directly increase confidence, build a stronger concept of self, better understand our unconscious mind, manage stress and improve our emotional tone and processing. I also explain ways to better process negative emotions and traumas. This episode ought to be of interest to anyone wishing to improve their relationship with themselves and others, elevate their mood and mental health, and better contribute to the world in meaningful ways. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Mood & Mental Health Toolkit (00:03:10) Sponsors: Plunge, Eight Sleep & Waking Up (00:05:35) First Principles of Self-Care & 6 Pillars of Mental Health (00:13:58) Pillar #1: Sleep & Sleep Routine (00:18:00) Pillar #2: Light, Sunlight (00:24:38) Tool: Nighttime Environment & Darkness (00:28:33) Pillar #3: Movement; Pillar #4: Nutrition (00:33:18) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:51) Pillar #5: Social Connection (00:40:00) Pillar #6: Stress Control; Physiological Sigh (00:45:40) Tool: Raise Stress Threshold, Deliberate Cold Exposure (00:50:00) 6 Pillars & Brain Predictability, Affect & Emotion (00:57:58) Pharmacology, Psychedelics, Supplements & Neuroplasticity (01:06:25) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:07:26) Tool: Emotional Granularity (01:14:39) Tool: Heart Rate Variability & Emotional Graduality; Physiological Sigh (01:23:49) Tool: Unconscious Mind (01:26:54) Tool: Self-Concept, Self-Narrative Exercise (01:34:34) Tool: Unconscious Mind & Dream Analysis; Liminal States (01:42:52) Tool: Journaling; Generative Drive (01:52:43) Tool: Processing Trauma (02:00:43) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/30/20232 hours, 4 minutes, 11 seconds
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Mark Zuckerberg & Dr. Priscilla Chan: Curing All Human Diseases & the Future of Health & Technology

In this episode, my guests are Mark Zuckerberg, CEO of Meta (formerly Facebook, Inc.), and his wife, Dr. Priscilla Chan, M.D., co-founder and co-CEO of the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI). We discuss how CZI plans to cure all human diseases by the end of this century by funding transformative projects and technologies at the intersection of biology, engineering, and artificial intelligence (AI). They describe their funding and development of Biohubs and the progress already underway to accelerate the understanding of cell function, pathways, and disease. Then, Mark discusses social media, its impact on mental health, and new tools for online experiences. We also discuss Meta’s virtual reality (VR), augmented and mixed reality tech, and how AI will soon completely transform our online and physical life experiences. This episode ought to interest anyone curious about biology, medicine, mental health, AI, and the future of technology and humanity. For the full show notes, including the episode transcript (available exclusively to Huberman Lab Premium members), please visit hubermanlab.com. The Brain Body Contract Tickets: https://www.hubermanlab.com/events Pre-sale password: HUBERMAN Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman The Brain Body Contract Tickets: https://www.hubermanlab.com/events Timestamps (00:00:00) Mark Zuckerberg & Dr. Priscilla Chan (00:02:15) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & LMNT; The Brain Body Contract (00:05:35) Chan Zuckerberg Initiative (CZI) & Human Disease Research (00:08:51) Innovation & Discovery, Science & Engineering (00:12:53) Funding, Building Tools & Imaging (00:17:57) Healthy vs. Diseased Cells, Human Cell Atlas & AI, Virtual Cells (00:21:59) Single Cell Methods & Disease; CELLxGENE Tool  (00:28:22) Sponsor: AG1 (00:29:53) AI & Hypothesis Generation; Long-term Projects & Collaboration (00:35:14) Large Language Models (LLMs), In Silico Experiments (00:42:11) CZI Biohubs, Chicago, New York (00:50:52) Universities & Biohubs; Therapeutics & Rare Diseases (00:57:23) Optimism; Children & Families (01:06:21) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:07:25) Technology & Health, Positive & Negative Interactions (01:13:17) Algorithms, Clickbait News, Individual Experience (01:19:17) Parental Controls, Meta Social Media Tools & Tailoring Experience (01:24:51) Time, Usage & Technology, Parental Tools (01:28:55) Virtual Reality (VR), Mixed Reality Experiences & Smart Glasses (01:36:09) Physical Exercise & Virtual Product Development (01:44:19) Virtual Futures for Creativity & Social Interactions (01:49:31) Ray-Ban Meta Smart Glasses: Potential, Privacy & Risks (02:00:20) Visual System & Smart Glasses, Augmented Reality (02:06:42) AI Assistants & Creators, Identity Protection (02:13:26) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/23/20232 hours, 15 minutes, 31 seconds
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Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett: How to Understand Emotions

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett, Ph.D., a Distinguished Professor of Psychology at Northeastern University who is a world expert in the science of emotions. She explains what emotions are and how the brain represents and integrates signals from our body and the environment around us to create our unique emotional states. We discuss the relationship between emotions and language, how our specificity of language impacts our emotional processing, the role of facial expressions in emotions, and how emotions relate to sleep, movement, nutrition and the building and reinforcement of social bonds. We also discuss actionable tools for how to regulate feelings of uncertainty and tools to better understand the emotional states of others. This episode ought to be of interest to anyone curious about the neuroscience and psychology underlying emotions and for those who seek to better understand themselves and relate to others and the world in richer, more adaptive ways. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Lisa Feldman Barrett (00:03:01) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & Levels (00:05:46) Core Components of Emotions (00:10:42) Facial Movement & Interpretation, Emotion (00:19:33) Facial Expressions & Emotion, Individualization (00:31:03) Emotion Categories, Culture & Child Development (00:36:53) Sponsor: AG1 (00:37:50) Legal System, ‘Universal’ Emotions & Caution (00:41:07) Language Descriptions, Differences & Emotion (00:48:18) Questions & Assumptions; Language, Emotions & Nervous System (00:53:40) Brain, Uncertainty & Categories (01:02:51) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:03:57) Brain & Summaries; Emotions as “Multimodal Summaries” (01:14:45) Emotional Granularity, Library Analogy (01:19:40) Brain & Compression, Planning (01:29:04) Labels & Generalization (01:34:29) Movement, Sensation, Prediction & Learning (01:42:44) Feelings of Discomfort & Action (01:50:32) Tool: Feelings of Uncertainty, Emotion, “Affect” (02:01:18) Tool: Experience Dimensions & Attention; Individualization (02:08:36) Affect, Allostasis & Body Budget Analogy (02:15:41) Depression, “Emotional Flu” (02:20:20) Tool: Positively Shift Affect; Alcohol & Drugs; SSRIs (02:27:40) Relationships: Savings or Taxes, Kindness (02:36:50) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/16/20232 hours, 39 minutes, 3 seconds
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How to Increase Your Willpower & Tenacity

In this episode, I discuss neuroscience and psychology studies that address the basis of willpower and tenacity, how they differ from motivation and how we can all increase our levels of willpower and tenacity. I discuss whether willpower is a limited resource, the controversial “ego depletion” theory of willpower and the role that beliefs play in determining our tenacity and willpower. Then, I discuss the neural basis of willpower in the brain and body and how tenacity and willpower relate to sleep, stress, focus, and possibly lifespan. Then, I provide a series of science-supported tools and protocols to increase your level of tenacity and willpower. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman  Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Tenacity & Willpower (00:01:19) Sponsors: Maui Nui & Helix Sleep (00:03:49) Tenacity & Willpower vs. Habit Execution; Apathy, Depression & Motivation  (00:10:40) Ego Depletion & Willpower as a Limited Resource; Controversy  (00:19:14) Tool: Autonomic Function, Tenacity & Willpower; Sleep & Stress  (00:28:02) Sponsor: AG1 (00:28:58) Willpower as a Limited Resource (Theory) (00:35:36) Willpower & Glucose, Brain Energetics (00:42:44) Beliefs about Willpower & Glucose; Multiple Challenges (00:52:43) Sponsor: LMNT (00:54:01) Willpower Brain ‘Hub’; Anorexia Nervosa, Super-Agers (01:07:15) Anterior Midcingulate Cortex & Brain/Body Communication  (01:14:54) Allostasis, Anterior Midcingulate Cortex Function (01:25:19) Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex (aMCC), Difficult Tasks & Neuroplasticity (01:29:30) Tool: Novel Physical Exercise & Brain; Cognitive Exercise (01:43:43) Tool: “Micro-sucks”, Increase Tenacity/Willpower (01:50:58) Impossible Tasks, Super-Agers & Learning, Will to Live (01:57:23) Tool: Rewards & Improving Tenacity/Willpower (02:01:07) Tenacity & Willpower Recap (02:05:55) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/9/20232 hours, 7 minutes, 58 seconds
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Chris Voss: How to Succeed at Hard Conversations

In this episode, my guest is Chris Voss, a former Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent who was the lead negotiator in many high-risk, high-consequence cases. Chris has taught negotiation courses at Harvard and Georgetown Universities and is the author of the book “Never Split the Difference.” We discuss how to navigate difficult conversations of all kinds, including in business, romance and romantic breakups, job firings and tense conversations with family and friends. Chris explains how to navigate online, in person and in written negotiations, the red flags to watch out for and how to read body and voice cues in face-to-face and phone conversations. He explains how to use empathy, certain key questions, proactive listening, emotional processing and more to ensure you reach the best possible outcome in any hard conversation. This episode ought to be of interest to anyone looking to improve their interpersonal abilities and communication skills and for those who want to be able to keep a level head in heated discussions.  For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman InsideTracker Giveaway: https://info.insidetracker.com/hydrow Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Chris Voss (00:02:18) Sponsors: Plunge & ROKA (00:04:59) Negotiation Mindset, Playfulness (00:11:41) Calm Voice, Emotional Shift, Music (00:18:59) “Win-Win”?, Benevolent Negotiations, Hypothesis Testing (00:28:38) Generosity (00:32:46) Sponsor: AG1 (00:33:44) Hostile Negotiations, Internal Collaboration (00:39:40) Patterns & Specificity; Internet Scams, “Double-Dip” (00:48:15) Urgency, Cons, Asking Questions (00:54:46) Negotiations, Fair Questions, Exhausting Adversaries (01:01:09) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:02:18) “Vision Drives Decision”, Human Nature & Investigation (01:07:47) Lying & Body, “Gut Sense” (01:15:42) Face-to-Face Negotiation, “738” & Affective Cues  (01:20:39) Online/Text Communication; “Straight Shooters” (01:26:47) Break-ups (Romantic & Professional), Firing, Resilience (01:32:16) Ego Depletion, Negotiation Outcomes (01:37:35) Readiness & “Small Space Practice”, Labeling (01:45:17) Venting, Emotions & Listening; Meditation & Spirituality (01:51:41) Physical Fitness, Self-Care (01:57:01) Long Negotiations & Recharging (02:02:40) Hostages, Humanization & Names (02:08:50) Tactical Empathy, Compassion (02:15:27) Tool: Mirroring Technique (02:22:20) Tool: Proactive Listening (02:29:48) Family Members & Negotiations (02:35:21) Self Restoration, Humor  (02:39:01) Fireside, Communication Courses; Rapport; Writing Projects (02:47:45) “Sounds Like…” Perspective (02:50:54) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/2/20232 hours, 53 minutes, 28 seconds
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AMA #11: Improve Task Switching & Productivity and Reduce Brain Fog

Welcome to a preview of the 11th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at www.hubermanlab.com/premium. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:46) Is There a Way to Get Better at Task Switching? (00:32:17) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: What Can I Do in Order to Avoid Getting Brain Fog? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/29/202334 minutes, 36 seconds
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Guest Series | Dr. Paul Conti: Tools and Protocols for Mental Health

This is episode 4 of a 4-part special series on mental health with Stanford and Harvard-trained psychiatrist Dr. Paul Conti, M.D. Dr. Conti explains what true self-care is and how our mental health benefits from specific self-care and introspection practices — much in the same way that our physical health benefits from certain exercise and nutrition habits. He describes how the foundation of mental health is an understanding of one’s own mind and the specific questions to ask in order to explore the conscious and unconscious parts of ourselves. He describes how this process can be done either on our own, through journaling, meditation and structured thought, or in therapy with the help of a licensed professional. He also explains how unprocessed trauma can short-circuit the process and how to prevent that, and the role of friendships and other relational support systems in the journey of self-exploration for mental health. People of all ages and those with and without self-introspection and therapy experience ought to benefit from the information in this episode. For show notes and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Self Care (00:02:37) Sponsors: BetterHelp & Waking Up (00:05:34) What is Self-Care?, Foundation, Self-Understanding (00:13:18) Life Narratives (00:15:24) Journaling, Self-Inquiry & Therapy (00:24:41) Unconscious Mind, Salience & Journaling; Panic Attacks (00:28:20) Self-Inquiry; Grief & Death (00:33:23) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:39) Self-Harm, Hopelessness & Therapy (00:37:27) Apprehension of Unconscious Mind Exploration (00:42:34) Mental Health Map: Cupboards, Agency & Gratitude, Generative Drive (00:54:18) Structure of Self, Unconscious Mind, Abscess Analogy (01:01:57) Exploring the Unconscious Mind, Curiosity, “Question the Givens” (01:10:48) Conscious Mind Exploration; Self Curiosity, Busyness (01:19:20) Exploring Defense Mechanisms, Character Structure (01:24:54) Self & Character Structure, “Tending the Garden” (01:32:45) Function of Self Cupboards (01:35:50) Self-Awareness Exploration, Mirror Meditation (01:38:34) Defense Mechanisms in Action & Self-Inquiry, Patterns (01:47:15) Salience Exploration, Grounding Meditation (01:52:37) Behavior & Self-Reflection; Phantom Driver Analogy (02:00:14) Self & Strivings; Empowerment & Humility (02:09:07) Challenges in Certain Life Domains (02:17:49) Friendships & Support, Social Media (02:23:50) Anger & Self-Care (02:34:18) Self-Care & Challenges (02:38:43) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/27/20232 hours, 41 minutes, 13 seconds
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U.S. Surgeon General Dr. Vivek Murthy: Efforts & Challenges in Promoting Public Health

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Vivek Murthy, M.D., the acting U.S. Surgeon General who earned his undergraduate degree from Harvard and his M.D. from Yale School of Medicine. We discuss nutrition, food additives, social media and mental health, public health initiatives to combat the crisis of social isolation, the obesity crisis, addiction and other pressing issues in public health. Dr. Murthy explains the role of the U.S. government in promoting specific public health issues and the steps needed to rebuild public trust in scientific and medical information. We also discuss health care accessibility, insurance barriers and individual versus team-based medical care. We also discuss topics gleaned from listener questions, such as the facts and myths about “Big Pharma” and “Big Food” industries, scientific research and public health policies. For show notes, including referenced articles and additional resources, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Vivek Murthy (00:01:53) Sponsors: Maui Nui & ROKA (00:04:35) Surgeon General Roles (00:07:44) Illness Framework, Enhancing Wellbeing (00:12:42) Priorities as Surgeon General (00:19:50) Public Health Message Distribution (00:28:24) Diagnosis vs. Optimizing Health (00:33:04) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:01) Food Additives, Highly Processed Foods, Food Availability (00:39:11) Difficulties Addressing Health Issues & Highly Processed Foods (00:49:53) Retribution, Integrity & Public Trust (00:54:41) Company Opposition (00:58:32) Sponsor: LMNT (00:59:50) Public Health Communication, Masks & COVID-19, Public Trust (01:07:01) Masks, Humility; Building Public Trust (01:10:45) Rebuilding Relationship to Public, Vaccines (01:17:41) Community Core & Diversity; Federal Funding (01:24:55) Big Pharma, “Pill for Every Problem” Society  (01:31:48) Interdisciplinary Medical Teams, Individualized & Value-Based Medical Models (01:38:44) Insurance Barriers, Mental Health Care, Drug Prices (01:44:40) Isolation Crisis, Social Disconnection, Health Risks  (01:49:15) Community Organizations & Modern Life, Social Media (01:56:36) Youth & Social Media, Parents, Policy Change (02:06:45) Real Life vs. Social Media, Kids & Playtime (02:11:56) Social Media Advice for Parents (02:20:43) Society & Disconnection, Human Connection & Service (02:31:20) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/25/20232 hours, 33 minutes, 48 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Paul Conti: How to Build and Maintain Healthy Relationships

This is episode 3 of a 4-part special series on mental health with Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist who did his medical training at Stanford School of Medicine and residency at Harvard Medical School. He is the author of the book, “Trauma: The Invisible Epidemic.” Dr. Conti explains how to find, develop and strengthen healthy relationships — including romantic relationships, work and colleague relationships, and friendships. He explains a roadmap of the conscious and unconscious mind that can allow anyone to navigate conflicts better and set healthy boundaries in relationships. We also discuss common features of unhealthy relationships and clinically supported tools for dealing with relationship insecurity, excessive anxiety, past traumas, manipulation and abuse. Dr. Conti explains how, in healthy relationships, there emerges a dynamic of the mutually generative “us” and how to continually improve that dynamic. The next episode in this special series explores true self-care, which can be cultivated through a process of building self-awareness along with other important practices.   For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Build Healthy Relationships (00:02:04) Sponsors: BetterHelp & Waking Up (00:05:01) Healthiest Self in Relationships (00:10:51) Structure & Function of Self (00:15:44) Relationships, Levels of Emergence (00:22:48) Generative Drive in Relationships (00:35:00) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:26) Generative Drive, Aggressive Drive, Pleasure Drive (00:45:16) Romantic Relationships & Matched Generative Drives, Trauma Bonds (00:53:05) Generative Drive Expression, Libido, Giving & Taking (01:04:29) Sponsor: Eight Sleep (01:05:50) Generative Drive in Partnerships (01:11:16) Libido, Avoidance & Working through Barriers (01:18:02) Repeating Bad Relationship Patterns, Repetition Compulsion (01:29:23) Narcissism, Dependence, Attachment Insecurity (01:34:10) Abusive Relationships, Demoralization (01:39:37) Oppressors, Darkness, Hope & Change (01:48:08) Work Relationships, Oppression & Accountability (01:53:53) Jealousy vs. Envy, Narcissism (01:59:13) Power Dynamics in Relationships (02:05:54) Giving vs. Taking in Relationships (02:09:39) Transactions & Relationships; Family & Generative Drive; Flexibility (02:19:47) Relationships & Kindergarten (02:23:04) Anxiety in Relationships, Communication (02:31:32) The “Magic Bridge of the Us” (02:37:09) Mentalization, Getting into Another’s Mindset; Navigating Conflict (02:46:51) Healthy Boundaries (02:52:08) Self-Awareness, Mentalization (02:55:28) “Broken Compass” & Self Inquiry, “Map” Analogy (03:02:25) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/20/20233 hours, 4 minutes, 37 seconds
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How to Use Music to Boost Motivation, Mood & Improve Learning

In this episode, I describe how your brain and body are fundamentally wired to perceive and respond to music and how those responses can be leveraged to improve your mood, allow for processing sad emotions and enhance learning and performance throughout your lifespan. I explain the data on how music can increase motivation for cognitive or physical work, what music has been shown to enhance cognitive performance, and whether silence or music is more effective in enhancing focus while studying. I also discuss how specific music can rapidly reduce anxiety and certain prescription medications. I explain how listening to certain types of music can improve various health metrics (e.g., heart rate). Finally, I discuss how music helps to enhance neuroplasticity (rewiring of brain connections), thereby improving learning and memory. Whether you sing, play an instrument or enjoy listening to music, this episode provides numerous science-informed tools for using music to enhance productivity, mood, emotional states, and overall enjoyment of life. For the full show notes, including articles and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. The Brain Body Contract Tickets: https://hubermanlab.com/tour Code: "Huberman" Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Music & Your Brain (00:03:32) The Brain Body Contract (00:04:12) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & ROKA (00:07:09) Music & Emotions; Brain & Body Interpretation (00:13:03) Music & Intent; Babies, Music & Movement (00:19:19) Tool: Health Metrics & Music, Breathing & Heart Rate (00:29:54) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:50) Music, Brain & Predictions (00:38:07) Music & Brain: Novelty, Arousal, Memories (00:44:22) Tool: Movement; Motivation & Faster Music (00:50:49) Tool: Cognitive Work & Binaural Beats (00:54:11) Silence or Music for Studying?, White Noise, Binaural Beats (00:58:47) Tool: Retain Information & Internal Dialogue (01:00:53) Tool: Focus, Work Breaks & Music (01:04:11) Physical Exercise, Performance & Music (01:07:37) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:43) Music & Shifting Mood (01:14:41) “Happy” vs. “Sad” Music, “One-Hit Wonders” & Artificial Intelligence (01:19:30) “Bass Face”; Music, Movement & Facial Expressions (01:22:46) Tools: Shift to Happy Mood with Music; Sad Mood Catharsis (01:27:30) Tool: Music & Reducing Anxiety, “Weightless” (01:31:16) Playing Instruments, Singing & Brain Connectivity (01:39:58) Music & the Brain (01:42:14) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, YouTube Feedback, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/18/20231 hour, 44 minutes, 25 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Paul Conti: How to Improve Your Mental Health

This is episode 2 of a 4-part special series on mental health with Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a Stanford and Harvard-trained psychiatrist currently running a clinical practice, the Pacific Premiere Group. Dr. Conti explains specific tools for how to overcome life’s challenges using a framework of self-inquiry that explores all the key elements of self, including defense mechanisms, behaviors, self-awareness and attention. We also discuss our internal driving forces, how to align them and ultimately, how to cultivate a powerful “generative drive” of positive, aspirational pursuits. Dr. Conti also explains how to adjust your internal narratives, reduce self-limiting concepts, overcome intrusive thoughts, and how certain defense mechanisms, such as “acting out” or narcissism, show up in ourselves and others. The next episode in this special series explores how to build healthy relationships with others. For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Improve Mental Health (00:02:19) Sponsors: BetterHelp & Waking Up App (00:05:26) Structure & Function of Healthy Self  (00:16:25) Agency & Gratitude (00:21:14) Aggressive Drive, Pleasure Drive, Generative Drive (00:30:00) Physical & Mental Health Similarities, Verb States (00:37:05) Sponsor: AG1 (00:38:32) Lack of Motivation, Drives (00:43:06) Video Games/Social Media & Distraction, Generative Drive (00:51:46) Asking Better Questions, Psychiatric Medicine, Physical Health Parallels (00:59:10) Sponsor: Eight Sleep (01:00:30) Self-Reflection & Structure of Self “Cupboards”, Trauma & Agency (01:08:53) Feeling Stuck, Defense Mechanisms & Sublimation, Character (01:13:58) Self-Reflection & Function of Self “Cupboards”, Self-Awareness (01:19:24) Defense Mechanisms & “Acting Out” (01:26:43) Salience, Intrusive Thoughts (01:31:24) Self-Reflection, Behaviors & Strivings; Roadmap Forward (01:38:25) Internal Narratives, Childhood (01:44:44) Internal Narratives: Self-Scrutiny & Overcoming; Trauma (01:55:18) Time Required for Change, Understanding Intrusive Thoughts (02:03:13) Self-Reflection on Internal Drives; Envy (02:09:56) Generative Drive; Strong Aggressive Drive & Envy (02:21:50) High Aggressive Drive & Social Relationships, Narcissism (02:28:43) Narcissism, Destruction, Envy (02:37:18) Narcissism & Childhood, Change (02:41:26) Engaging with Narcissists, Disengagement (02:44:47) Demoralization, Learned Helplessness (02:49:34) Self-Inventory of Drives, Optimization (02:56:09) Social Media & Salience, Generative Drive (03:03:21) Rational Aspiration (03:13:16) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/13/20233 hours, 15 minutes, 18 seconds
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Journal Club with Dr. Peter Attia | Metformin for Longevity & The Power of Belief Effects

In this journal club episode, my guest is Stanford and Johns Hopkins-trained physician, Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., who is also the host of The Drive podcast and the author of the bestselling book "Outlive: The Science & Art of Longevity." We each present a scientific paper and discuss the findings' strengths, weaknesses and actionable takeaways. First, we discuss an article that addresses whether taking the drug metformin can enhance longevity. Then, we discuss an article on belief effects (similar to placebo effects), showing how the effects of a drug on the brain and cognition depend on one's belief about the dose of the drug taken, not the actual dose. Our conversation also highlights how to read, interpret and critique scientific studies. This episode ought to be of interest to those curious about health and longevity, medicine and psychology and for anyone seeking to better understand how to read and digest scientific findings. For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps 00:00:00 Dr. Peter Attia, Journal Club 00:03:27 Sponsors: Helix Sleep & Levels 00:06:11 Dreams 00:12:36 Article #1, Metformin, Mitochondria, Blood Glucose 00:19:47 Type 2 Diabetes & Causes, Insulin Resistance 00:25:30 Type 2 Diabetes Medications, Metformin, Geroprotection, Bannister Study 00:36:19 Sponsor: AG1 00:37:15 TAME Trial; Demographics, Twin Cohort 00:44:27 Metformin & Mortality Rate 00:51:28 Kaplan-Meier Mortality Curve, Error Bars & Significance, Statistical Power 01:01:17 Sponsor: InsideTracker 01:02:23 Hazard Ratios, Censoring 01:09:00 Metformin Advantage?, Variables, Interventions Testing Program 01:16:02 Berberine, Acarbose, SGLT2 Inhibitors 01:23:48 Blood Glucose & Energy Balance; Caloric Restriction, Aging Biomarkers 01:32:22 Tool: Reading Journal Articles, 4 Questions, Supplemental Information 01:38:10 Article #2, Belief Effects vs. Placebo Effect 01:45:22 Nicotine Effects 01:51:07 Nicotine Doses & Belief Effects, fMRI Scan 02:00:07 Biological Effects, Dose-Dependent Response & Belief Effects 02:05:14 Biology & Beliefs, Significance, Dopamine Response, Non-Smokers 02:10:57 Dose-Dependence & Beliefs, Side Effects, Nocebo Effect 02:19:06 Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/11/20232 hours, 21 minutes, 18 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Paul Conti: How to Understand & Assess Your Mental Health

This is episode 1 of a 4-part special series on mental health with psychiatrist Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., who trained at Stanford School of Medicine and completed his residency at Harvard Medical School before founding his clinical practice, the Pacific Premiere Group. Dr. Conti defines mental health in actionable terms and describes the foundational elements of the self, including the structure and function of the unconscious and conscious mind, which give rise to all our thoughts, behaviors and emotions. He also explains how to explore and address the root causes of anxiety, low confidence, negative internal narratives, over-thinking and how our unconscious defense mechanisms operate. This episode provides a foundational roadmap to assess your sense of self and mental health. It offers tools to reshape negative emotions, thought patterns and behaviors — either through self-exploration or with a licensed professional. The subsequent three episodes in this special series explore additional tools to further understand and improve your mental health. For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman BetterHelp: https://betterhelp.com/huberman Waking Up: https://wakingup.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti (00:03:46) Sponsors: BetterHelp & Waking Up App (00:06:55) What is a Healthy Self? (00:10:41) Agency & Gratitude; Empowerment & Humility  (00:16:13) Physical Health & Mental Health Parallels (00:20:21) Structure of Self; Unconscious vs. Conscious Mind; “Iceberg” (00:26:15) Defense Mechanisms; Character Structure “Nest”, Sense of Self  (00:31:27) Predispositions & Character Structure (00:36:01) Sponsor: AG1 (00:37:27) Character Structure & Action States; Physical Health Parallels (00:46:20) Anxiety; Understanding Excessive Anxiety (00:53:12) Improving Confidence: State Dependence & Phenomenology; Narcissism (00:59:44) Changing Beliefs & Internal Narratives (01:06:04) Individuality & Addressing Mental Health Challenges (01:11:21) Mental Health Goals & Growth (01:17:32) Function of Self (01:23:00) Defense Mechanisms: Projection, Displacement (01:30:14) Projection, Displacement, Projective Identification (01:34:50) Humor, Sarcasm, Cynicism (01:40:41) Attention & Salience; Negative Internal Dialogue  (01:45:02) Repetition Compulsion & Defense Mechanism, Trauma (01:58:55) Mirror Meditation & Self Awareness; Structure & Function of Self, “Cupboards” (02:04:57) Pillars of the Mind, Agency & Gratitude, Happiness (02:13:53) Generative Drive, Aggressive & Pleasure Drives (02:21:33) Peace, Contentment & Delight, Generative Drive; Amplification (02:24:18) Generative Drive, Amplification & Overcoming (02:33:00) Over-Thinking, Procrastination, Choices (02:42:20) Aggressive, Pleasure & Generative Drives, Envy (02:49:46) Envy, Destruction, Mass Shootings (02:55:38) Demoralization, Isolation, Low Aggressive Drive (03:02:50) Demoralization, Affiliate Defense  (03:09:32) Strong Aggressive Drive, Competition, Generative Drive Reframing  (03:20:02) Cultivating a Generative Drive, Spirited Inquiry of the “Cupboards” (03:26:06) Current Mental Health Care & Medications (03:35:33) Role of Medicine in Exploration (03:40:41) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/6/20233 hours, 42 minutes, 49 seconds
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Marc Andreessen: How Risk Taking, Innovation & Artificial Intelligence Transform Human Experience

In this episode, my guest is Marc Andreessen, the legendary software innovator who co-created the internet browser Mosaic, co-founded Netscape, and is now at Andreessen Horowitz — a venture capital firm that finds and brings to life technologies that transform humanity. We discuss what it takes to be a true innovator, including the personality traits required, the role of environment and the support systems needed to bring revolutionary ideas to fruition. We discuss risk-taking as a necessary but potentially hazardous trait, as well as the role of intrinsic motivation and one’s ability to navigate uncertainty. We also discuss artificial intelligence (AI) and Marc’s stance that soon everyone will use AI as their personalized coach and guide for making decisions about their health, relationships, finances and more — all of which he believes will greatly enhance our quality of life. We also delve into nuclear power, gene editing, public trust, universities, politics, and AI regulation. This episode is for those interested in the innovative mind, psychology, human behavior, technology, culture and politics. For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Marc Andreessen (00:03:02) Sponsors: LMNT & Eight Sleep (00:06:05) Personality Traits of an Innovator (00:12:49) Disagreeableness, Social Resistance; Loneliness & Group Think  (00:18:48) Testing for Innovators, Silicon Valley (00:23:18) Unpredictability, Pre-Planning, Pivot (00:28:53) Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation, Social Comparison (00:32:52) Sponsor: AG1 (00:33:49) Innovators & Personal Relationships (00:39:24) Risk Taking, Innovators, “Martyrs to Civilizational Progress” (00:46:16) Cancel Culture, Public vs. Elite (00:53:08) Elites & Institutions, Trust (00:57:38) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:58:44) Social Media, Shifts in Public vs. Elite  (01:05:45) Reform & Institutions, Universities vs. Business (00:14:14) Traditional Systems, Lysenkoism, Gen X (01:20:56) Alternative University; Great Awakenings; Survivorship Bias  (01:27:25) History of Computers, Neural Network, Artificial Intelligence (AI) (01:35:50) Apple vs. Google, Input Data Set, ChatGPT (01:42:08) Deep Fakes, Registries, Public-Key Cryptography; Quantum Internet (01:46:46) AI Positive Benefits, Medicine, Man & Machine Partnership (01:52:18) AI as Best-Self Coach; AI Modalities (01:59:19) Gene Editing, Precautionary Principle, Nuclear Power (02:05:38) Project Independence, Nuclear Power, Environmentalism (02:12:40) Concerns about AI (02:18:00) Future of AI, Government Policy, Europe, US & China (02:23:47) China Businesses, Politics; Gene Editing  (02:28:38) Marketing, Moral Panic & New Technology; Politics, Podcasts & AI (02:39:03) Innovator Development, Courage, Support  (02:46:36) Small Groups vs. Large Organization, Agility; “Wild Ducks” (02:54:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/4/20232 hours, 57 minutes, 1 second
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AMA #10: Benefits of Nature & “Grounding," Hearing Loss Research & Avoiding Altitude Sickness

Welcome to a preview of the 10th Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:42) Scientifically-Supported Benefits of Nature (00:24:12) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: New Research for Those With Sudden Hearing Loss Science-Backed Methods for Altitude Sickness Prevention & Enhanced Acclimatization Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/30/202321 minutes, 33 seconds
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Goals Toolkit: How to Set & Achieve Your Goals

In this episode, I describe science-based protocols to set and achieve your goals in a way that maximizes the likelihood of reaching them. I explain how to define a priority and reach a specific goal by systematically assessing the challenge level, measurability, milestones, and action states needed to make progress from start to finish. I also explain research-supported tools to improve your performance during cognitive or physical goal work — including directed visualization, variable reward timing, and optimizing your physical environment. I also dispel common myths about goal setting and achievement. This episode provides a science-supported toolkit of zero-cost strategies for goal-setting, goal-pursuit, and goal-completion that can be applied to any physical or cognitive endeavor. For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Goal Setting Toolkit (00:02:09) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & Maui Nui (00:04:43) Biology of Goal Setting & Pursuit (00:08:50) Tool 1: Choose a Priority Goal (00:12:04) Tool 2: Pursue Lofty Goals (00:17:23) Tool 3: Define Verb Actions, Measurability & Specificity; Writing vs. Typing (00:24:06) Tool 4: Visual Reminder Myth; “Post-It Fallacy” (00:26:44) Tool 5: Accountability Myth, “Don’t Tell the World” Rule (00:31:35) Intrinsic Motivation & Goal Achievement  (00:32:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:33:54) Tool 6: Measurable Goal; Quarterly Cycle (00:37:35) Tool 7: Quantifiable Goals; Book Writing (00:43:34) Tool 8: Visualization of End; Motivation & Negative Thinking (00:50:38) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:51:44) Tool 9: Visual Target/Finish Line Training & Perceived Effort (01:05:50) Tool 10: Distance from Phone (01:08:31) Tool 11: Random, Intermittent Reinforcement; Cognitive Rewards (01:17:11) Tool 12: “Middle Problem”; Time Chunking (01:23:16) Tool 13: Circadian Rhythm & Attention (01:30:09) Tool 14: Protocol Flexibility, Subjective Feelings (01:32:13) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/28/20231 hour, 34 minutes, 37 seconds
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Dr. David Linden: Life, Death & the Neuroscience of Your Unique Experience

In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Linden, Ph.D., professor of neuroscience at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the author of many popular books about the brain. We discuss individual differences between people — focusing on differences in how people sense the world around them and the roles that chance, heredity, and life experiences (even in utero) play in determining our physical and cognitive traits. We discuss the bidirectional connection between the mind and body and how our thoughts and mental practices (e.g., meditation and breathwork) impact our health. We also discuss the link between inflammation and depression. We also discuss Dr. Linden’s terminal illness diagnosis, his mindset during chemotherapy and what his diagnosis has taught him about the mind, gratitude, time perception and life. This episode also covers sensual touch, cerebellar function, and epigenetic inheritance and ought to be of interest to all interested in neuroscience, genetics, psychology and human development.  For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Take our survey and get 2 months of Huberman Lab Premium Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) David Linden (00:03:59) Sponsors: ROKA & Levels; Huberman Lab Survey (00:07:54) Sensory Touch & Genitals, Krause Corpuscles (00:16:46) Sexual Experiences & Sensation (00:19:14) Human Individuality & Variation; Senses & Odor Detection (00:30:25) Sponsor: AG1 (00:31:22) Visual Individuality; Heat Tolerance; Early Life Experiences & Variation (00:40:28) Auditory Variability, Perfect Pitch (00:42:08) Heritability & Human Individuality: Cognitive & Physical Traits (00:49:36) Heritability, Environment, Personality; Twin Studies (01:00:12) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:01:19) Development, Chance; Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance (01:07:37) Single Generation Epigenetic Inheritance & Stress; Autism (01:15:52) Sleep Paralysis; Cerebellum, Prediction (01:23:47) Nature vs. Nature, Experience; Linden Hypothesis (01:30:37) Mind-Body Interaction; Chemical Signals (01:39:10) Inflammation & Depression (01:43:35) Neuroplasticity, Inflammation & Mental Disorders; Microglial Cells, Exercise  (01:52:15) Fads & Science (01:55:16) Mind-Body Communication; Cancer  (02:03:28) Mind-Body, Mediation, Breathwork (02:07:30) Atrial Fibrillation, Synovial Sarcoma, Heart  (02:14:22) Gratitude & Anger; Chemotherapy, Curiosity & Time Perception (02:19:58) Death, Brain & Future Prediction, Religion & Afterlife (02:24:15) Life Advice; Time Perception & Gratitude (02:34:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/21/20232 hours, 36 minutes, 46 seconds
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Dr. Rena Malik: Improving Sexual & Urological Health in Males and Females

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Rena Malik, M.D., a board-certified urologist and pelvic surgeon, male and female pelvic medicine expert, and public health educator. We discuss the major causes of and treatments for sexual and urologic dysfunction, including how to restore, maintain and enhance pelvic floor function and proper neural and vascular (blood) supply to the genitals. We also discuss what controls and can enhance desire and arousal, how to assess and treat erectile dysfunction, and challenges with vaginal lubrication and/or orgasm. We also discuss vaginal and penile health, including preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) and which common prescription drugs can cause sexual dysfunction in males and females. This episode covers a range of topics: oral contraception, masturbation, pornography, prostate health, and male and female hormone health.  Note: This episode covers topics related to sexual and reproductive health. Some content might not be suitable for all audiences and ages. For the full show notes, including articles, books, and other resources, visit hubermanlab.com. Take our survey and get 2 months of Huberman Lab Premium for free Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Rena Malik (00:04:04) Sponsors: ROKA & Helix Sleep; HLP Survey (00:07:45) Pelvic Floor: Urination & Sexual Function (00:14:13) What is a Healthy Pelvic Floor? (00:19:44) Kegels, Benefits & Risks, Urinary Incontinence (00:24:08) Pelvic Floor Relaxation; Exercise & Pelvic Floor (00:28:03) Desire vs. Arousal, Erections: Psychology, Hormones, Blood Flow & Nerves (00:36:10) Sponsor: AG1 (00:37:07) Pelvic Floor: Medical Professionals & Physical Therapy (00:40:15) Sexual Dysfunction, Erectile Dysfunction, Orgasm Difficulty (00:43:13) Desire & Arousal Issues; Erectile Dysfunction, Viagra, Cialis (Tadalafil)  (00:52:20) L-Citrulline, Supplements (00:54:09) Erectile Dysfunction & Cialis; Prostate Health; Females  (00:58:58) Erectile Dysfunction in Young Men (01:01:37) Pornography, Masturbation & Ejaculation; Healthy Sexual Behavior  (01:07:16) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:08:22) Arousal Habituation, Masturbation, Addiction (01:12:57) Female Arousal Response, Orgasm, Coolidge Effect (01:17:22) Priapism, Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone; Women & Low Libido Medications (01:22:25) Libido & Individuality (01:26:18) Female Arousal, Vaginal Lubrication; Discharge, Odors & Douching (01:33:09) Vaginal Infections, Discharge; Vaginal Microbiome (01:35:45) Female Orgasm, Vaginal Penetration, Stimulation, Clitoris, G-Spot (01:42:31) Erection & Orgasm, Pelvic Floor Muscles (01:46:32) Dopamine-Enhancing Medication & Arousal Arc (01:51:18) Menstrual Cycle & Libido (01:52:49) Vaginal Penetration, Variation & Communication  (01:55:24) Sexual Interaction Communication, Sex Therapists (01:58:45) Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) in Male & Females; Prevention, Vaginal Estrogen (02:04:04) Male Urination Sitting; Spermicide, Cranberry, D-Mannose & UTIs (02:11:33) Testosterone, Post-Menopausal Women & Libido (02:14:56) Kidney Stones: Prevention & Treatment (02:19:14) Oral Contraception, Libido, Individuality, Intrauterine Device (IUDs) (02:26:52) Anti-Depressants, SSRIs & Low Libido (02:29:32) Prostate Health, Cialis, Urination Difficulty (02:34:22) Bicycling, Genital Numbness, Erectile Dysfunction (02:37:48) Anal Sex, Females, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Lubricants (02:44:14) Libido, Behavioral Interventions, Supplements (02:49:15) Supplements for Libido (02:52:14) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/14/20232 hours, 54 minutes, 29 seconds
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Ketamine: Benefits and Risks for Depression, PTSD & Neuroplasticity

In this episode, I explain how ketamine causes rewiring of brain circuits and dissociative states to relieve symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). I explain how ketamine impacts both the brain’s glutamate and its endogenous opioid pathways, which together regulate mood and well-being. I discuss how ketamine therapy is used clinically to treat major depression, bipolar depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), suicidality and other psychiatric challenges. I also describe how ketamine causes the subjective effects of dissociation and euphoria and, at higher doses, is an anesthetic. I compare the different routes of ketamine administration, dosages and forms of ketamine, and if micro-dosing ketamine is effective. I also highlight the potential risks of recreational ketamine use (and the colloquial term ‘K-holes’). This episode should interest anyone interested in ketamine, treatments for depression, neuroplasticity mechanisms, psychiatry and mental health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Ketamine (00:02:29) Sponsors: ROKA & Eight Sleep (00:05:13) Ketamine & PCP; Clinical & Recreational Use (00:09:00) Depression & Current Treatments (00:15:17) Preclinical Models of Depression & Ketamine; “Learned Helplessness”  (00:22:11) Ketamine & Clinical Uses; Depression & Suicidality  (00:28:32) Ketamine & Other Psychiatric Challenges; Relief & Durability  (00:33:24) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:29) NMDA Receptor & Neuroplasticity (00:41:36) Excitatory & Inhibitory Communication, Seizure, NMDA Receptors & Ketamine (00:48:26) How Ketamine Functions in Brain; Acute & Long-Term Effects (00:55:36) Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) & Ketamine Therapy (01:02:28) Sponsor: LMNT (01:03:40) Ketamine & Opioid Pathway  (01:10:00) Divergent Mechanisms of Immediate & Long-Term Effects (00:15:45) Habenula, Pro-Depressive Behaviors & Ketamine Therapy (01:20:36) Ketamine & Context-Dependent Strategy; Reward Pathway (01:22:45) Dissociative States (01:26:04) Doses & Routes of Administration; “K-holes”; Risk & Caution (01:32:25) Ketamine Forms; R-, S- vs R/S- Ketamine; Micro-Dosing (01:38:24) Ketamine: Effects & Therapy (01:40:40) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/7/20231 hour, 42 minutes, 40 seconds
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Tony Hawk: Harnessing Passion, Drive & Persistence for Lifelong Success

In this episode, my guest is Tony Hawk, the legendary and pioneering professional skateboarder, video game and skateboard industry entrepreneur, and founder of the Skatepark Project, whose philanthropic mission is to help underserved communities create safe and inclusive public skateparks for all youth. We discuss his career, how he helped popularize and evolve the sport of skateboarding, and his role as an ambassador for skateboard culture. We also discuss where he derives his intrinsic drive, how he sets and evolves goals and how he has made remarkable and continual progress throughout his career. We also discuss Tony’s ability to overcome what would otherwise be career-ending injuries. For anyone seeking to find or pursue their passion and make lifelong progress while serving the larger world, this episode with Tony Hawk ought to be of deep interest. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Tony Hawk (00:03:16) Sponsors: LMNT & ROKA (00:05:55) Childhood & Self-Concept (00:11:08) Early Skateboarding & Skateparks (00:16:58) Adolescence, Skateboarding (00:23:10) Turning Professional, The Bones Brigade (00:34:22) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:27) Trick Development & Evolution (00:40:33) Visualization, Dreaming (00:47:09) “Feeling” While Skateboarding (00:51:15) Drive & Discipline; Injuries (00:58:46) Injury Recovery Practices (01:05:46) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:06:52) Healthy Life Practices & Skateboarding (01:15:03) Video Game Development (01:23:00) Financial Investments, Birdhouse (01:30:16) Professionalism; Hobbies (01:35:43) Kids, Parents & Skateboarding (01:44:15) Music; High School (01:49:28) Females in Skateboarding (01:56:04) Inspiration, Kids, Bones Brigade (02:01:18) Memorabilia, Autographs (02:05:50) Skatepark Project (02:08:14) Future Goals & Aspirations (02:13:08) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/31/20232 hours, 15 minutes, 18 seconds
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AMA #9: Kratom Risks, Does Infrared Sauna Work & Journaling Benefits

Welcome to a preview of the ninth Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:42) What Are the Short and Long-Term Effects of Taking Kratom? (00:24:12) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: How Does Infrared Sauna Compare to Traditional Sauna? Neurological Impact and Best Practices for Journaling for Goals, Habits and Growth Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/28/202326 minutes, 31 seconds
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Dr. Maya Shankar: How to Shape Your Identity & Goals

In this episode, my guest is Maya Shankar, Ph.D., a cognitive scientist, former senior advisor to the White House and Chair of the White House Social and Behavioral Sciences Team. She is the creator and host of the podcast, A Slight Change of Plans. We discuss how our identities develop and change, how our beliefs and internal narratives shape our perception of self, and how to use structured introspection about our values to determine our goals. We discuss how to cope and grow through uncertain situations, especially those that force us to reexamine our roles and identity. Dr. Shankar shares her experience of redefining her identity after an early career-ending setback. She also explains numerous science-based strategies to effectively define goals, structure our goal pursuits and maintain consistent motivation. This episode provides a science-supported toolkit and roadmap to assess your identity and goals and positively transform in the face of change. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Maya Shankar (00:02:37) Sponsors: Maui Nui Venison & Eight Sleep (00:05:15) Identity Foreclosure, Identity Paralysis, Throughlines (00:12:10) Identity & Adolescence; “Essence” & Shame (00:16:58) Delight & Awe (00:23:00) Delight & Possibilities for Self (00:29:28) Playing Violin, Childhood (00:34:54) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:58) Intrinsic Motivation; Juilliard & Courage (00:45:43) Competitive Environments; Curiosity & Growth (00:53:46) Re-Creating of Self (01:00:51) Pop-Science, Science Accessibility (01:05:25) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:06:32) Passions & Curiosity (01:13:20) Change, Cognitive Closure, End-of-History Illusion (01:22:29) Self-Awareness & Critical Feedback (01:30:48) Tools: Flexible Mindset; Reframing & Venting; Gratitude (01:40:13) Tool: Framing Goals (01:47:13) Tool: Agency in Goal Pursuit (01:52:25) Tool: Like-Minded People & Goal Pursuit; Challenging Beliefs (02:01:27) Cultivating Open-Mindedness & Empathy (02:08:15) Building Self Narratives: Empathy, Burnout (02:13:56) Tools: Goal Setting (02:19:54) Tool: “Middle Problem”, Maintaining Motivation (02:24:55) Tool: Aversion & Memory, Peak-End Rule (02:31:41) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/24/20232 hours, 33 minutes, 55 seconds
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How to Enhance Performance & Learning by Applying a Growth Mindset

In this episode, I discuss how to build and apply a growth mindset — the practice of self-rewarding and focusing on learning and skill development through effort — to improve learning and performance. I also discuss how our internal narratives drive our ability to make progress. I contrast the growth mindset vs. the fixed mindset and describe how the type of feedback or praise we receive shapes our mindsets, and the huge advantage of rewarding and celebrating “verbs” (actions) rather than adjectives (performance labels). I also discuss data showing how stress can enhance performance and explain why the growth mindset works synergistically with the “stress-is-enhancing mindset,” and how to combine them. Whether you are a student, coach, therapist, parent, teacher or simply someone seeking to improve at something, this episode provides numerous science-supported tools for how to adopt a performance enhancing mindset. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Growth Mindset (00:02:55) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & ROKA (00:05:17) Mindset & Narrative (00:12:58) Intelligence Feedback vs. Effort Feedback, Identity Labels (00:20:10) Intelligence vs. Effort Praise: Performance, Persistence & Self-Representation (00:26:45) Fixed Intelligence vs. Growth Mindset (00:28:53) Tool: Intelligence (Performance) vs. Effort Narrative, Labels (00:32:30) Tool: Failure & Identity; Effort & Verbs (00:34:36) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:41) Tool: Timing, Intelligence vs. Effort Praise & Performance (00:40:080 Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset: Failure & Performance (00:50:28) Tool: Shift from Fixed Mindset (00:54:23) Sponsor: InsideTracker (00:55:30) Stress-is-Enhancing Mindset (01:05:53) How Stress Can Enhance Performance  (01:13:21) Growth Mindset + Stress-is-Enhancing Mindset & Performance (01:20:36) Reframing Stress (01:25:45) Tool 1: Student & Teacher Mindset (01:28:17) Tool 2: Effort Praise/Feedback: Verbs not Labels (01:31:24) Tool 3: Errors & Seeking Help (01:32:58) Tool 4: Self-Teaching & Growth Mindset (01:34:35) Tool 5: Reframe “Mind is Like a Muscle” Analogy (01:39:20) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/17/20231 hour, 41 minutes, 23 seconds
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Dr. Robert Malenka: How Your Brain’s Reward Circuits Drive Your Choices

In this episode, my guest is Robert Malenka, MD, PhD, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford School of Medicine who has made numerous seminal discoveries of how the brain changes (neuroplasticity) in response to learning and in response to rewarding and reinforcing experiences. We discuss the brain’s several reward systems involving dopamine and serotonin and how these motivate us to seek out specific behaviors and substances. We discuss how these reward systems are modified based on context and our memories, and how they can be hijacked toward maladaptive drug seeking in addiction. We also explore how reward systems influence social connections, oxytocin and empathy and how that applies to our understanding of autism spectrum disorders. This episode should be of interest to those interested in neuroplasticity, social bonding, addiction, autism, learning and motivation. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman  Levels: https://levels.link/huberman  LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Robert Malenka (00:02:37) Sponsors: ROKA & Levels (00:05:21) Dopamine & Reward Circuitry (00:11:31) Reward, Arousal, Memory & Dopamine  (00:17:34) Context, Cues & Dopamine Modification (00:25:38) Memory & Reward Scaling (00:30:50) Dopamine, “Addictive Liability” & Route of Administration  (00:39:07) Sponsor: AG1 (00:40:04) Drugs of Abuse & Brain Changes; Addiction & Individual Variability (00:50:51) Reinforcement vs. Reward, Wanting vs. Liking (00:57:500 Opioids, Psychostimulants & Dopamine (01:03:38) Sponsor: LMNT (01:04:51) Self-Doubt, Confidence & Career (01:12:40) Autism Spectrum Disorder (01:19:29) Pro-Social Interaction & Reward; Oxytocin, Serotonin & Dopamine (01:30:30) Nucleus Accumbens & Behavior Probability (01:38:28) Reward for Pro-Social Behavior (01:43:13) Social Media & “Addictive Liability”; Gambling (01:52:17) Pain, Social Behavior & Empathy (02:02:19) Empathy Circuitry, Dopamine & Serotonin  (02:10:07) Autism Spectrum Disorder & Social Interactions, Empathy (02:17:23) MDMA, Serotonin & Dopamine; Addiction & Pro-Social Effects (02:28:13) Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Behavior, MDMA & Pharmacology (02:37:18) Serotonin, MDMA & Psychedelics  (02:40:16) Psychedelics: Research & Therapeutic Potential (02:47:57) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/10/20232 hours, 50 minutes, 2 seconds
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Science-Supported Tools to Accelerate Your Fitness Goals

In this episode, I explain a set of fitness tools gleaned from the 6-part guest series on fitness, exercise and performance with Dr. Andy Galpin. First, I explain the essential components of a well-rounded fitness program for lifelong health and performance including the minimum requirements for progressive resistance and cardiovascular training. Then, I discuss 12 valuable science-supported fitness tools that take a small amount of time to implement, yet all of which can greatly enhance your level of fitness. These include short endurance-enhancing and strength and hypertrophy-enhancing tools, as well as psychological, respiration (breathing), nutrition and supplementation-based tools — all of which will improve your fitness in meaningful ways and can be easily layered into existing exercise programs to improve your fitness and performance outcomes. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Tools to Improve Fitness (00:02:36) Sponsors: LMNT & Helix Sleep (00:05:13) Foundational Fitness Program (00:13:33) Tool 1: Zone 2 Cardio & Daily Activities (00:20:33) Tool 2: Low Repetition Strength Training, 3 x 5 Protocol, Warm-Up Sets (00:33:11) Age-Related Strength Decline (00:36:53) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:38:08) Tool 3: “Sugarcane” Endurance Protocol (00:43:29) Tool 4: Exercise “Snacks”; Cardiovascular & Muscular Endurance (00:55:31) Tool 5: Rest Period & Physiological Sighs (00:01:20) Tool 6: Down-Regulation Breathing & Recovery (01:04:32) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:05:38) Tool 7: “The Line” (01:09:55) Tool 8: Smartphone Use & Training (01:13:44) Tool 9: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (01:15:37) Tool 10: Creatine (01:20:080 Tool 11: Rhodiola Rosea (01:25:13) Tool 12: Training Fasted or Fed, Caffeine (01:31:09) Training Session Flexibility (01:33:37) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/3/20231 hour, 35 minutes, 39 seconds
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Dr. Jeffrey Goldberg: How to Improve Your Eye Health & Offset Vision Loss

In this episode, my guest is Jeffrey Goldberg, MD, PhD, professor and chair of the department of ophthalmology at the Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University. His clinical and research efforts focus on retinal and optic nerve diseases such as glaucoma and discovering stem cell and nanotechnology treatments to cure blindness. We discuss how to maintain and improve eye health throughout life, the advantages and disadvantages of corrective lenses, including if you should wear “readers,” the use and risks of contact lenses, considerations for LASIK eye surgery, floaters, dry eye, the importance of sunlight and UV protection and specific exercises to improve eye and vision health. Dr. Goldberg also explains age-related conditions: cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy; and the behavioral and supplementation-based, prescription and surgical tools used to promote eye health. This episode provides essential tools for listeners of any age and background to maintain eye health and offset vision loss. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman  Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman  InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman  Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Jeffrey Goldberg (00:03:08) Sponsors: Maui Nui, LMNT, Eight Sleep (00:06:29) Childhood & Eye Exams (00:11:36) Eye Misalignment & Recovery (00:20:38) Myopia (Near-Sightedness), Children & Sunlight (00:30:04) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:31:18) Eye Safety & Protection; Eye Hygiene (00:40:07) Adults & Eye Exams; Optometrist vs Ophthalmologist (00:46:35) Presbyopia (Age-Related Vision Decline), Reading Glasses (00:54:54) Reading Glasses: Use & Recommendations (00:58:34) Night Vision & Glasses (01:02:55) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:03:54) Corrective Eye Glasses, Exercises (01:09:52) Near-Far Exercise & Presbyopia; Smooth Pursuit Exercise & Concussion (01:13:25) Supranormal Vision & Performance Training (01:19:11) 20/20 Vision; Visual Acuity (01:24:51) Contact Lenses: Use, Risks & Aging (01:31:34) UV Protection & Cataracts, “Blue Blockers” (01:38:20) Light Sensitivity & Eye Color (01:40:29) LASIK Eye Surgery (01:46:26) Dry Eye, Tears & Age (01:53:24) Dry Eye, Serum Tears & Preservative-Free Artificial Tears; PRP (02:00:46) Vision Loss: Cataracts, Glaucoma (02:09:23) Age-Related Macular Degeneration, Dry & Wet Forms (02:14:02) Diabetic Retinopathy, Type I vs Type II Diabetes (02:18:54) Diabetic Retinopathy Treatment, Blood Pressure (02:22:17) Glaucoma Screening & Treatment (02:28:07) Smoking, Vaping & Vision Diseases; Cannabis & Eye Pressure (02:35:13) Eye Pressure & Sleep Position (02:37:48) Macular Degeneration, Optic Neuropathies & Red-Light Therapy (02:42:23) “Floaters” (02:45:29) Eye Twitching (02:48:10) AREDS2 Supplementation & Age-Related Macular Degeneration (02:53:39) Glaucoma & Vitamin B3 Supplementation (02:58:42) Retinal Imaging & Neurodegeneration Screening, Multiple Sclerosis (03:06:30) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/26/20233 hours, 8 minutes, 44 seconds
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AMA #8: Balancing Caffeine, Decision Fatigue & Social Isolation

Welcome to a preview of the eighth Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction 00:01:46 Pros & Cons of Daily Caffeine Consumption 00:23:01 Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Can Caffeine Have a Detrimental Effect on the Gut Microbiome? What Are Some Ways of Recovering or Resetting From Decision Fatigue? Effects of Social Isolation Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/23/202325 minutes, 20 seconds
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Tim Ferriss: How to Learn Better & Create Your Best Future

In this episode, my guest is Tim Ferriss — a five-time #1 New York Times bestselling author, technology investor and host of the iconic podcast, The Tim Ferriss Show. We discuss Tim’s process of exploration, experimentation and mastery — themes that have spanned his career that have placed him on the cutting-edge of many important fields. Tim explains what questions to ask when approaching any new endeavor in order to maximize success. He also explains how to incorporate structure and playfulness into skill and knowledge mastery, how to find and work with mentors, the key importance of location and networks in creating truly impactful things. We also discuss Tim’s philanthropic efforts to support research on psychedelics for the treatment of mental health challenges and we discuss his latest creative endeavors. This episode should be of interest to a wide range of listeners, as Tim’s mastery and wisdom spans athletic and mental pursuits, business, media, technology and the arts. What distinguishes Tim is his ability to thoughtfully deconstruct these processes in order to teach others how to do the same. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Tim Ferriss (00:04:08) Sponsors: Maui Nui, LMNT, Levels (00:07:43) 4-Hour Body & Development Mindset (00:15:22) Origins of Good Ideas (00:20:06) Writing & Structured Thinking (00:27:58) Writing, Night Owls (00:33:06) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:21) Investigating Outliers; Social Media & Smartphones (00:40:37) Scientific Literacy, Randomized Clinical Trials (00:45:09) Supplement & Experiment Fails; Cold Exposure & Hyperthermia (00:50:46) Slow Carb Diet & Adherence (01:03:35) Morning Protein Intake; Fasting (01:08:48) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:09:53) Power of Place; Building Your Network & Volunteering (01:21:43) Developing Skills; Examining Motivation & Good Questions; Simplicity (01:33:32) Early Psychedelic Exploration, Depression (01:45:38) Psychedelic Research & Mental Health Funding (01:59:00) Saisei Foundation, Journalism Fellowship, Law & Education (02:08:22) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), Psychedelics (02:13:28) Meditation, Transcendental Meditation, Nature (02:18:50) Extended Nature Retreats & Integration Period; “Generative Drive” (02:28:05) Mentors (02:34:53) Mind & Attention Allocation, Social Media, Boredom (02:44:12) Cockpunch (03:00:23) Suicide & Depression, Sexual Abuse, Vulnerability (03:14:22) Making Meaning from Suffering (03:19:32) Role Identity, Future (03:27:38) Parenthood, Animals & Training (03:32:21) Podcasting, Experimentation (03:36:52) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/19/20233 hours, 39 minutes, 8 seconds
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The Science of MDMA & Its Therapeutic Uses: Benefits & Risks

In this episode, I discuss Methyl​enedioxy​methamphetamine (MDMA), which is also commonly known as “ecstasy” or “molly,” including how it works in the brain to cause short- and long- term-shifts in emotional processing and its clinical applications for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol and other substance-use addictions. I discuss the neuronal mechanisms for how MDMA elevates mood, empathy, motivation, social engagement, and reduces “threat detection” and how these effects can synergistically support talk therapy. I also explain the ongoing debate about the potential neurotoxicity of MDMA, myths about the origins and treatments for post-MDMA “crash,” the evolving legal landscape around MDMA use for clinical purposes, and I caution recreational users about the extremely dangerous additives (e.g., fentanyl) now commonly found in black market MDMA. This should be of interest to those curious about MDMA, neuropharmacology, the origins of emotional processing in the brain, empathy, PTSD, neuroplasticity, mental health and psychiatry. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://drinkag1.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) MDMA “Ecstasy” (00:04:37) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, ROKA, HVMN (00:08:18) MDMA History & Synthesis; Legality (00:14:45) MDMA, Methamphetamine (Meth), Dopamine & Serotonin (00:23:30) MDMA vs Psychedelics vs Ketamine (00:26:54) MDMA & Serotonin 1B Receptor, Subjective Feelings, Trauma (00:33:36) Sponsor: AG1 (00:34:51) Amygdala & Threat Detection, Pro-Social Behavior, MDMA Dosages (00:45:48) Interoception, MDMA & Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (00:52:36) Long-Term Effects, Threat Detection & PTSD (00:56:14) MDMA, Social Connection & Empathy; Meth, SSRIs (01:06:10) Sponsor: LMNT (01:07:22) Oxytocin & MDMA (01:16:10) Safety & Neurotoxicity; Recreational Use, Caffeine & Fentanyl (01:26:36) Is MDMA Neurotoxic?; Poly-Pharmacology, Body Temperature (01:37:07) Post-MDMA “Crash”, Prolactin & P‑5‑P (01:43:07) PTSD & Trauma; Talk Therapy, SSRIs (01:54:09) PTSD Treatment: Talk Therapy + MDMA (02:02:46) MDMA & Addiction; Dissociative PTSD & Empathy (02:09:47) Side-Effects?, MDMA Efficacy & Legality (02:15:22) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/12/20232 hours, 17 minutes, 34 seconds
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Dr. Immordino-Yang: How Emotions & Social Factors Impact Learning

In this episode, my guest is Mary Helen Immordino-Yang, EdD, professor of education and psychology at the University of Southern California and director of the Center for Affective Neuroscience, Development, Learning and Education, who has done groundbreaking research on emotions, self-awareness and social interactions and how these impact the way we learn and change across our lifespan. She explains how an understanding of emotions can be leveraged to improve learning in children and in adults, and how the education system should be altered to include new forms of exploration and to facilitate better learning and to include more diverse learning (and teaching) styles. This episode ought to be of interest to anyone interested in how we learn, human development in children and adults, as well as those generally interested in education, psychology or neuroscience. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://livemomentous.com/huberman The Brain Body Contract https://hubermanlab.com/tour Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Mary Helen Immordino-Yang (00:02:11) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, HVMN, ROKA (00:05:54) Inspiration, Awe & Story (00:09:59) Brain-Body, Narratives (00:15:58) Emotions, Durability & Lifespan (00:21:47) Conjuring Stories, Historical Context & Emotion (00:32:16) Sponsor: AG1 (00:33:30) Hierarchal Emotion Organization, Default Mode Network, Story & Emotion (00:46:24) Emotional Development & Lifetime (00:57:13) Narrative & Genocide; Checking Assumptions & Mental Flexibility (01:05:22) Social Media, Cognitive Dissonance (01:09:52) Education, Deconstructing Beliefs & Curiosity (01:17:22) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:18:32) Emotion & Learning; Constructing Meaning (01:28:59) Good Teachers & Curiosity (01:33:25) Inter-disciplinary Education; Development & Culture (01:50:58) Idea Exploration, Tolerance (01:56:53) Reframing Education, Deconstructing Assumptions (02:03:28) Safety, Creativity & Default Mode Network (02:12:15) Civic Discourse & Education; Deconstructing Ideas (02:27:31) “Mirror” Neurons, Shared Social Experiences (02:35:49) Cold Exposure & Sickness; Role of Education (02:38:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/5/20232 hours, 41 minutes, 21 seconds
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AMA #7: Cold Exposure, Maximizing REM Sleep & My Next Scientific Studies

Welcome to a preview of the seventh Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium. Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:45) Is It Possible to Get a Cold or Sick From Deliberate Cold Exposure? (00:20:02) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: How Can You Increase Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep? What Experiment(s) Would You Like to Undertake in Regard to Physical or Mental Performance? Articles Immune system of cold-exposed and cold-adapted humans Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players Sleep extension improves serving accuracy: A study with college varsity tennis players The impact of extended sleep on daytime alertness, vigilance, and mood Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/31/202322 minutes, 20 seconds
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Adderall, Stimulants & Modafinil for ADHD: Short- & Long-Term Effects

In this episode, I explain how medications such as Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse and other stimulants work to increase focus and treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). I explain the brain circuits involved in focus and the key roles dopamine and norepinephrine play in their regulation. Then I explain how stimulants such as Adderall and Vyvanse can increase focus and reduce hyperactivity in kids or adults with ADHD, and how and why Ritalin and other medications (e.g., Modafinil, Guanfacine) may work better for some. I explain the long-term effects of ADHD medications on height, cardiovascular health, hormones, predisposition to addiction and psychosis, and whether these treatments can be used and then stopped. I also discuss the immense individual variation in dosage sensitivity for these medications and the negative side-effects that occur from recreational use. This episode ought to benefit anyone with ADHD, their parents, those on ADHD medications or anyone curious about how these medications work. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman The Brain Body Contract https://hubermanlab.com/tour Timestamps (00:00:00) Stimulants & Attention-Deficient/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (00:03:21) Sponsors: Maui Nui, ROKA, HVMN (00:06:35) The Brain-Body Contract (00:07:22) Attention, Prefrontal Cortex & ADHD (00:16:27) Stimulants “Sympathomimetics” (00:21:29) Adderall, Dopamine & Norepinephrine (00:25:58) Sympathomimetics, Dopamine & Norepinephrine (00:31:05) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:20) Vyvanse is Timed-Release D-Amp (00:36:36) Ritalin, Concerta (00:40:10) Dopamine & “Noise Reduction”; Norepinephrine & “Signal Amplification” (00:45:28) ADHD: Focus, Hyperactivity & Impulsivity; Drug Selection & Dose (00:50:57) How do Stimulants ‘Calm’ ADHD? (00:54:480 Neuroplasticity & Neuromodulators (00:58:06) Kids, ADHD Diagnosis & Treatment; Predispose Addiction? (01:04:02) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:05:12) ADHD Medications: Individuality, Doses, Tapering & Long-Term Use (01:13:28) Medication & Long-Term Effects: Height, Cardiovascular Risk, Alcohol (01:19:32) Cortisol & Hormones (01:27:45) Psychosis & Addiction; Methamphetamine (01:38:20) Recreational Use, Addiction & Psychosis; Habituation (01:42:30) Drug Holidays; Ritalin & Long-Term Effects (01:45:35) Modafinil, Armodafinil; Side-Effects (01:53:03) Guanfacine, Alcohol (01:58:03) ADHD Medications (02:00:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/29/20232 hours, 2 minutes, 11 seconds
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Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris: The Science of Psychedelics for Mental Health

In this episode, my guest is Robin Carhart-Harris, PhD, distinguished professor of neurology and psychiatry at the University of California, San Francisco. He is one of leading researchers in the study of how psychedelics such as psilocybin, LSD and DMT can change the human brain and in doing so, be used to successfully treat various mental health challenges such as major depression, anorexia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and addiction. He explains how psilocybin induces sustained changes in adaptive brain wiring and cognition. We discuss the key components of safe and effective psychedelic journeys, the role of hallucinations, the use of eye-masks to encourage people to “go internal,” and music, as well as what effective therapist support consists of before, during and after the session (also known as integration). We discuss micodosing vs. macrodosing and how researchers control for placebo effects in psychedelic research. We also discuss the current legal landscape around psychedelic therapies. Psychedelic therapies are fast emerging as powerful and soon-to-be mainstream treatments for medical health disorders, but they are not without their risks. As such, this episode ought to be of use to anyone interested in brain plasticity, mental health, psychology or neuroscience. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman The Brain Body Contract https://hubermanlab.com/tour Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Robin Carhart-Harris (00:02:12) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, Levels, HVMN (00:05:41) The Brain-Body Contract (00:06:31) Origin of the Word: “Psychedelics”; Pharmacology (00:12:05) Psychedelics & Revealing the Unconscious Mind, Psychotherapy (00:17:32) Microdosing (00:26:08) Psilocybin vs. Magic Mushroom Doses (00:28:28) “Psychedelic-Therapy”, Music (00:35:12) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:36:26) Psychedelic Journey: “Trust, Let Go, Be Open” (00:43:01) Negative Emotions, Fear & Psychedelics (00:46:21) Global Functional Connectivity, Serotonin 2A Receptor; Subjective Experiences (00:52:33) Pharmacology: Therapeutics without Psychedelic Effects; SSRIs (00:58:45) Psilocybin & Depression; Long-Term Effects: Connectivity & Neuroplasticity (01:09:14) Sponsor: LMNT (01:10:26) Psilocybin Therapy & Anorexia (01:12:56) Integration Phase & Psychedelic-Therapy; Meditation (01:19:50) First-Time Psychedelic Use, “Entropic Brain Effect”, Neuroplasticity, Cognition (01:30:16) Fibromyalgia & Psychedelic Treatment; MDMA Therapy & “Inner Healer” (01:38:55) Placebo Response & Psychedelic Therapy (01:41:39) LSD & Psychedelic-Therapy, Micro-Dose (01:48:19) Combination Psilocybin-MDMA Therapy (01:56:06) DMT “Rocketship” & Serotonin 2A Receptors; Ibogaine (02:01:04) “Ego Dissolution”, Cocaine vs. Psychedelics; Relapses (02:12:26) Psychedelics & Legal Landscape; Decriminalization (02:17:54) MDMA, Trauma & Clinical Trials; Future Regulatory (FDA) Approval? (02:23:25) Psilocybin & Current Clinical Trials (02:28:41) Mental Health & Psychedelic Treatment, Safeguards, Paradigm Shift (02:34:39) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/22/20232 hours, 37 minutes, 8 seconds
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Dr. Susanna Søberg: How to Use Cold & Heat Exposure to Improve Your Health

In this episode, my guest is Susanna Søberg, PhD. She earned her doctoral degree at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, researching the effects of deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure on metabolism and other aspects of human physiology. We discuss how cold or sauna can improve metabolism, cardiovascular and brain health, balance hormones, and decrease inflammation. Dr. Søberg discusses how deliberate cold protocols can improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity and trigger release of neurotransmitters like dopamine and norepinephrine which enhance energy, mood, and focus. We compare cold showers and cold immersion, traditional and infrared saunas, and other variables. This episode provides actionable tools and answers to common questions about the use of deliberate cold and heat to improve health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Plunge: https://plunge.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman The Brain Body Contract Tickets: https://hubermanlab.com/tour Presale code: HUBERMAN Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Susanna Søberg (00:03:23) Sponsors: Plunge, Maui Nui, Thesis (00:06:49) The Brain-Body Contract (00:07:40) Physiology in Uncomfortably Cold Environments (00:12:05) Tool: Water Temperature, “Cold Shock” & Discomfort (00:17:37) Cold Showers vs. Immersion in Water, Brown Fat (00:22:11) Cold Receptors, Brown Fat & Temperature Homeostasis (00:25:22) Shiver, “After Drop”, Healthy Stress (00:31:08) Long-Term Health Benefits of Deliberate Cold Exposure (00:35:48) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:37:02) Blood Pressure & Heath (00:38:26) Brown Fat, Insulin Sensitivity & Metabolism (00:45:07) Temperature Regulation, Brown Fat vs. White Fat (00:52:26) Cold Resilience, Scandinavia (00:59:07) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:00:16) Winter Swimmers & Brown Fat; Discomfort (01:10:28) Sex differences & Brown Fat, Cold-Adapted (01:15:21) Diving Reflex & Parasympathetic Activation (01:18:44) Tool: Deliberate Cold & Sauna Protocol (01:23:11) Winter Swimmers, Shiver; Circadian Rhythm & Brown Fat (01:31:14) Tool: Minimum Threshold for Cold & Heat; Sauna & Cardiovascular Health (01:35:19) Tool: Maintaining Stimulus when Cold-Adapted; Shorter Sessions (01:38:09) Cold Exposure, Sleep Quality, Clothing (01:47:37) “Brown Fat Negative” & Shiver (01:52:13) Cold & Heat, Inflammation Reduction (01:55:40) Tool: “Soberg Principle”: End on Cold, Metabolism (01:59:39) Cold Exposure: Fed or Fasted? (02:00:32) Raynaud’s Syndrome; Hand/Feet Protection in Cold (02:05:21) Tool: Headache & Cold Exposure; Head Submersion & Head Coverings (02:11:29) Children & Hypothermia Risk (02:17:16) Gender Differences & Cold Exposure (02:19:57) Tool: Brief, Repeated Temperature Changes; Circadian Rhythm & Temperature (2:27:53) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/15/20232 hours, 30 minutes, 34 seconds
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How Psilocybin Can Rewire Our Brain, Its Therapeutic Benefits & Its Risks

In this episode, I discuss what psilocybin is (chemically) and how it works at the cellular and neural circuit level to trigger neuroplasticity, which is our brain’s ability to rewire itself in ways that lead to long-lasting shifts in our emotional, cognitive and behavioral patterns and abilities. I discuss the emerging clinical trial evidence for the use of psilocybin in the treatment of depression, addictions and other psychiatric challenges. I explain the typical duration and phases of a psilocybin journey, the different categories of dosages often used and I explain the importance of set, setting and support when using psychedelics. I explain which groups of people place themselves at great risk by taking psilocybin as well as groups that could benefit, and I highlight the rapidly changing legal and medical landscape around psilocybin. This episode is a thorough exploration of psilocybin from the scientific and clinical literature perspective and ought to be of interest to anyone curious about psilocybin, mental health, neuroplasticity and/or psychedelics more generally. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Psilocybin, Legal Considerations (00:08:32) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, ROKA, HVMN (00:12:00) Psilocybin Becomes Psilocin in the Gut, Serotonin (00:17:00) The Serotonin 2A Receptor, Therapeutic Outcomes SSRIs vs. Psilocybin (00:21:40) Serotonin Receptor Expression; Visual Hallucinations & Eyes Closed (00:27:21) Safety & Cautions for Specific Patient Populations (00:29:13) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:30:28) Psilocybin, “Magic Mushrooms” Dosing, Micro-Dosing, “Heroic Doses” (00:36:21) Psychedelic Journey: Set, Setting & Support (00:43:43) Music & the Psilocybin Journey; Duration of Effects (00:48:58) Psilocybin & the Brain: Subjective Experiences, Perception (00:58:36) Sponsor: LMNT (00:59:48) Brain Networks & Therapeutic Outcomes (01:05:23) Creativity; Music, Emotionality & Psychedelic Journeys (01:12:39) Depression & Psychedelics as Neuroplasticity “Wedge” (01:16:53) Positive Psychedelic Journeys, Unity, “Oceanic Boundlessness” (01:25:23) “Bad Trips”, Anxiety & Physiological Sighs (01:32:57) Therapeutic Use of Psilocybin (01:36:11) Neuroplasticity, Structural Brain Changes & Psilocybin (01:48:08) Psychedelics: Therapeutic Breakthroughs & Depression (01:56:37) Combining Psilocybin Therapy & Talk Therapy, Antidepressant Effects (02:03:11) Psilocybin Experience & Mental Health (2:06:42) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/8/20232 hours, 9 minutes, 1 second
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Dr. Noam Sobel: How Smells Influence Our Hormones, Health & Behavior

In this episode, my guest is Noam Sobel, PhD, professor of neurobiology in the department of brain sciences at the Weizmann Institute of Science. Dr. Sobel explains his lab’s research on the biological mechanisms of smell (“olfaction”) and how sensing odorants and chemicals in our environment impacts human behavior, cognition, social connections, and hormones. He explains how smell is a crucial component of “social sensing” and how we use olfaction when meeting new people to determine things about their physiology and psychology, and he explains how this impacts friendships and romantic partners. He explains how smell influences emotions, hormone levels, memories and the relationship between breathing and autonomic homeostasis. He describes how smell-based screening tests can aid disease diagnosis and explains his lab’s work on digitization of smell — which may soon allow online communication to include “sending of odors” via the internet. Dr. Sobel’s work illustrates how sensitive human olfaction is and how it drives much of our biology and behavior. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Noam Sobel (00:03:46) Sponsors: ROKA, Thesis, Helix Sleep (00:06:46) Olfaction Circuits (Smell) (00:14:49) Loss & Regeneration of Smell, Illness (00:21:39) Brain Processing of Smell (00:24:40) Smell & Memories (00:27:52) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:29:07) Humans & Odor Tracking (00:39:25) The Alternating Nasal Cycle & Autonomic Nervous System (00:48:18) Cognitive Processing & Breathing (00:54:47) Neurodegenerative Diseases & Olfaction (01:00:12) Congenital Anosmia (01:05:01) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:06:19) Handshaking, Sharing Chemicals & Social Sensing (01:15:07) Smelling Ourselves & Smelling Others (01:22:02) Odors & Romantic Attraction (01:24:58) Vomeronasal Organ, “Bruce Effect” & Miscarriage (01:40:20) Social Chemo-Signals, Fear (01:50:26) Chemo-Signaling, Aggression & Offspring (02:03:57) Menstrual Cycle Synchronization (02:12:11) Sweat, Tears, Emotions & Testosterone (02:27:46) Science Politics (02:37:54) Food Odors & Nutritional Value (02:45:34) Human Perception & Odorant Similarity (02:52:12) Digitizing Smell, COVID-19 & Smell (03:05:50) Medical Diagnostic Future & Olfaction Digitization (03:10:55) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/1/20233 hours, 13 minutes, 15 seconds
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AMA #6: Eye Health, Why We Yawn & Increasing Motivation

Welcome to a preview of the sixth Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:53) What Are the Best Eye Exercises, Supplements, Food, Protection Practices for the Eye? (00:33:55) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Why We Yawn and Don't Yawn During Sleep How to Stay Motivated and Overcome Lethargy in Learning Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/27/202336 minutes, 13 seconds
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Science-Based Mental Training & Visualization for Improved Learning

In this episode, I explore the science of mental visualization and its application for learning motor and cognitive skills. I discuss neuroplasticity-based skill development and the roles of focus, sleep, movement restriction, and agitation. I then present five key principles of mental visualization to enhance learning speed, accuracy, and consistency. I also provide examples of specific protocols, including repetitions, rest periods, and session frequency, and how to adapt these methods for injuries or breaks from traditional training. Throughout, I reference the scientific studies supporting these concepts. This episode should allow anyone to learn or teach more effectively through the use of mental visualization and training. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Mental Training & Visualization (00:04:46) Sponsors: LMNT, Maui Nui, Eight Sleep (00:08:04) Developmental vs. Adult Neuroplasticity (00:11:42) Learning New Skills: Focus & Sleep (00:14:49) Long-Term Potentiation (LTP), Long-Term Depression (LTD) & New Skills (00:23:42) Principle #1: Very Brief, Simple, Repeated Visualization (00:29:36) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:30:51) Principle #2: Mental Training Cannot Replace Real Training (00:37:36) Principle #3: Combining Real & Mental Training (00:43:17) Principle #4: Assigning Real-World Labels to Visualizations (00:50:37) Principle #5: Mental Imagery Equivalence to Real-World Perception (00:55:28) Tools: Effective Mental Training: Epochs, Repetitions, Sets & Frequency (01:03:43) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:05:00) Adding Mental Training; Injury, Travel or Layoffs (01:11:09) Timing of Mental Training & Sleep (01:15:17) Role of Gender & Age on Mental Training (01:17:10) First-Person vs. Third-Person Visualization; Eyes Open vs. Closed (01:23:53) Physical Skills, Motor Cortex & Cerebellum (01:31:15) “Go” & “No-Go” Pathways (01:34:19) Stop-Signal Task, Withholding Action (01:44:19) Aphantasia, Synesthesia; Social Cognition (01:52:58) Mental Training Practice & Benefits (01:57:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/24/20231 hour, 59 minutes, 46 seconds
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Dr. Matthew MacDougall: Neuralink & Technologies to Enhance Human Brains

In this episode, my guest is Matthew MacDougall, MD, the head neurosurgeon at Neuralink. Dr. MacDougall trained at the University of California, San Diego and Stanford University School of Medicine and is a world expert in brain stimulation, repair and augmentation. He explains Neuralink’s mission and projects to develop and use neural implant technologies and robotics to 1) restore normal movement to paralyzed patients and those with neurodegeneration-based movement disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s, Huntington’s Disease) and to repair malfunctions of deep brain circuitry (e.g., those involved in addiction). He also discusses Neuralink’s efforts to create novel brain-machine interfaces (BMI) that enhance human learning, cognition and communication as a means to accelerate human progress. Dr. MacDougall also explains other uses of bio-integrated machines in daily life; for instance, he implanted himself with a radio chip into his hand that allows him to open specific doors, collect and store data and communicate with machines and other objects in unique ways. Listeners will learn about brain health and function through the lens of neurosurgery, neurotechnology, clinical medicine and Neuralink’s bold and unique mission. Anyone interested in how the brain works and can be made to work better ought to derive value from this discussion. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Matthew MacDougall (00:04:05) Sponsors: HVMN, Levels, Thesis (00:07:38) Brain Function & Injury; Brain Tumor Treatment (00:13:52) Frontal Lobe Filter; Sleep Deprivation (00:19:00) Neuroplasticity, Pharmacology & Machines (00:22:10) Neuralink, Neural Implants & Injury, Robotics & Surgery (00:31:05) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:20) Neocortex vs. Deep Brain (00:36:45) Decoding Brain Signals (00:42:08) “Confidence Test” & Electrical Stimulation; RFID Implants (00:51:33) Bluetooth Headphones & Electromagnetic Fields; Heat (00:57:43) Brain Augmentation & Paralysis (01:00:51) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:02:09) Brain Implants & Peripheral Devices (01:12:44) Brain Machine Interface (BMI), Neurofeedback; Video Games (01:22:13) Improving Animal Experimentation, Pigs (01:33:18) Skull & Injury, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (01:39:14) Brain Health, Alcohol (01:43:34) Neuroplasticity, Brain Lesions & Redundancy (01:47:32) Car Accidents & Driver Alertness (01:50:00) Future Possibilities in Brain Augmentation & BMI; Neuralink (01:58:56) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/17/20232 hours, 1 minute, 40 seconds
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The Science of Healthy Hair, Hair Loss and How to Regrow Hair

In this episode, I explain the biology of hair, hair growth, why hair growth slows and what causes hair to stop growing and/or “fall out.” I discuss the essential role of hair stem cells and other supporting biological factors for healthy hair growth. Then I describe various approaches (mechanical and chemical) to slow hair loss by increasing blood flow to hair stem cells, including minoxidil, tadalafil, PRP, microneedling, Botox and ketoconazole treatments. I also discuss how age-related hormone changes cause hair loss and explain the effectiveness of treatments such as caffeine, saw palmetto, growth hormone, finasteride and dutasteride. For all hair growth options, I describe potential side effects, how soon to expect results and the amount of hair regrowth to expect and I highlight effective combination treatments for hair regrowth even in hair “dead” (bald) zones. For many listeners, thinning, brittle hair, or pattern baldness are a source of anxiety and stress. This episode explains the mechanisms underlying hair regrowth tools and the science behind them so that you can evaluate potential treatments and associated side-effect profiles and select the best one(s) for you. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Hair (00:04:13) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, HVMN, ROKA (00:08:04) Psychological States & Hair (00:13:19) Hair Anatomy & Stem Cells (00:26:05) 3 Phases of Hair Growth (00:35:40) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:36:55) Minoxidil & Blood Flow (00:45:37) Increase Blood Flow: Massage, Tadalafil, Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP), Microneedling (00:56:10) Microneedling, Minoxidil & “Dead Zones” (01:00:13) Sponsor: LMNT (01:01:25) Botox Treatments (01:06:27) Androgens, Hair Growth & Pattern Hair Loss; Scalp vs. Beard Hair (01:15:46) Topical Caffeine & Slowing Hair Loss (01:21:06) IGF-1: Growth Hormone & Sermorelin; Insulin Sensitivity: Myo-Inositol (01:25:52) Iron & Hair Growth (01:27:04) 5-Alpha Reductase & Saw Palmetto; Curcumin (01:33:22) Ketoconazole & Offsetting Hair Loss (01:38:46) Topical & Oral Finasteride (01:51:00) Post- Finasteride Syndrome (01:56:01) Dutasteride (01:58:53) Mechanical & Chemical Stimulation for Hair Growth (02:02:46) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/10/20232 hours, 4 minutes, 47 seconds
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Dr. Elissa Epel: Control Stress for Healthy Eating, Metabolism & Aging

In this episode, my guest is Elissa Epel, Ph.D., professor and vice chair of the department of psychiatry at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) and the author of a new book entitled The Stress Prescription. We discuss her work showing how stress impacts mood, eating behavior, mental health, physical health, and aging. She explains stress intervention tools using “top-down” techniques (e.g., radical acceptance, mindfulness, reframing), body-based methods (e.g., breathwork) including the Wim Hof Method, exercise, meditation, body scans, and environmental shifts proven to help people cease unhealthy rumination patterns. We discuss how stress can positively impact psychology and sense of purpose, how stress affects cellular aging, how our narratives of stressful events impact our mood and biology, and how to effectively reframe stress. She explains science-based techniques to break stress-induced cycles of craving and overeating and thereby improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic health. Dr. Epel provides a wide range of tools shown to be effective in reducing stress and improving various aspects of our health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Elissa Epel (00:02:17) Sponsors: Thesis, Eight Sleep, HVMN, Momentous (00:06:18) Stress; Effects on Body & Mind (00:12:50) Tools: Overthinking & Stress (00:15:37) Acute, Moderate & Chronic Stress, Breathing (00:21:23) Stress Benefits, Aging & Cognition; Stress Challenge Response (00:31:04) Sponsor: AG-1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:19) Tool: Shifting Stress to Challenge Response, “Stress Shields” (00:37:400 Stress, Overeating, Craving & Opioid System (00:48:55) Tools: Breaking Overeating Cycles, Mindfulness (00:54:44) Soda & Sugary Drinks (01:00:51) Smoking, Processed Food & Rebellion (01:05:29) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:06:47) Tools: Mindfulness, Pregnancy & Metabolic Health (01:14:11) Body Scan & Cravings (01:17:28) Tool: Meditation & Aging; Meditation Retreats (01:23:35) Meditation, Psychedelics & Neuroplasticity (01:26:02) Mitochondrial Health, Stress & Mood (01:29:49) Chronic Stress & Radical Acceptance, “Brick Wall” (01:37:57) Tool: Control, Uncertainty (01:45:25) Stress Management, “Skillful Surfing” (01:50:25) Narrative, Purpose & Stress (01:52:49) Breathwork, Wim Hof Method, Positivity & Cellular Aging (02:03:11) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/3/20232 hours, 5 minutes, 50 seconds
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Leverage Dopamine to Overcome Procrastination & Optimize Effort

In this episode, I explain how dopamine dynamics — meaning changes and interactions between our baseline and peak levels of dopamine drive our cravings and sense of motivation. I also explain how to leverage dopamine dynamics to overcome procrastination. I cover behavioral, cognitive, nutrition-based and supplementation-based tools to optimize baseline and peak dopamine levels to ensure a persistently motivated state. I also discuss how to boost motivation when you are in a rut, why you might not want to stack behaviors/substances that spike dopamine and how to build and maintain a “growth mindset” for pursuing goals of any kind. Dopamine is an incredibly powerful neuromodulator involved in basic functions (e.g., hunger, romantic attraction, etc.) and feats of cognitive and physical performance; by understanding the dynamics of dopamine, listeners ought to be better positioned to overcome procrastination, maintain motivation, and improve confidence. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dopamine (00:02:32) Sponsors: Helix Sleep, WHOOP, ROKA, Momentous (00:06:27) Dopamine Brain Circuits (00:14:53) Goals & Addiction (00:17:13) Dopamine Dynamics, “Wave Pool” analogy (00:20:28) Craving, Motivation, Pursuit & Reward Prediction Error (00:28:26) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:29:40) Feedback Cues & Reward Contingent Learning, “Scoreboard” (00:37:40) Addiction; Pleasure & Pain Imbalance (00:44:55) Dopamine Release & Addictive Substances/Behaviors (00:50:43) Addiction Recovery, Binding Behaviors (00:53:25) Tools: Maintain Baseline Dopamine Levels (01:02:08) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:03:26) Tool: Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine (01:09:38) Prescriptions & Supplementation: L-Tyrosine, Mucuna Pruriens (01:18:58) Dopamine Trough Recovery, Postpartum Depression (01:23:31) Dopamine Dynamics, “Dopamine Stacking”; Intrinsic Motivation (01:38:10) Making Effort the Reward, Growth Mindset (01:41:49) Tool: Overcome Procrastination (01:52:16) Tool: Meditation & Procrastination (01:57:01) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/27/20231 hour, 58 minutes, 49 seconds
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AMA #5: Intrusive Thoughts, CGMs, Behavioral Change, Naps & NSDR

Welcome to a preview of the fifth Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:53) Strategies for Abstaining From Addictive Thoughts and Narratives (00:21:07) Huberman Lab Premium In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs) How to Build Good Habits Alongside a Partner Who Challenges Them? Short Naps vs. Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) for Replenishing Energy and Dopamine Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/24/202323 minutes, 26 seconds
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Dr. Peter Attia: Improve Vitality, Emotional & Physical Health & Lifespan

In this episode, my guest is Peter Attia, M.D. He completed his medical and advanced training at Stanford University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Attia is host of the health and medicine podcast, The Drive, and the author of a new book, “Outlive: The Science & Art of Longevity,” which examines disease prevention and healthy aging, including emotional health. He explains the leading causes of death worldwide and how to measure one’s risk of death and mitigate each risk factor. Dr. Attia shares how, in addition to blood-based markers of lipids and hormones, there are behavioral measures and interventions, and key aspects of emotional health (i.e., relationships, emotional stability, purpose, etc.) that fundamentally impact our physical health and longevity, and how to assess and adjust our emotional health. This episode is rich with actionable information related to disease screening and biomarker testing, nutritional, exercise, behavior and prescription-based tools that area useful to all people regardless of age, male or female, and that can significantly improve vitality, health and lifespan. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman   HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Peter Attia (00:03:22) Sponsors: Eight Sleep, LMNT, HVMN, Momentous (00:07:34) Lifespan vs. Healthspan (00:10:54) “4 Horseman of Death”, Diseases of Atherosclerosis (00:14:44) Tool: Hypertension & Stroke, Blood Pressure Testing  (00:23:14) Preventing Atherosclerosis, Smoking & Vaping, Pollution (00:32:24) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:33:29) Cholesterol, ApoB (00:42:21) Cholesterol Levels, LDL & ApoB Testing (00:49:29) ApoB Levels & Atherosclerosis, Causality (01:01:06) ApoB Reduction, Insulin Resistance, Statins, Ezetimibe, PCSK9 Inhibitors (01:12:30) Monitoring ApoB (01:17:12) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:18:30) Reducing Blood Pressure, Exercise & Sleep (01:20:50) High Blood Pressure & Kidneys (01:23:11) Alcohol, Sleep & Disease Risk (01:31:21) Cancer & Cancer Risks: Genetics, Smoking & Obesity (01:39:47) Cancer Screening & Survival (01:44:17) Radiation Risks, CT & PET Scans (01:48:48) Environmental Carcinogens (01:52:11) Genetic & Whole-Body MRI Screening, Colonoscopy (01:58:47) Neurodegenerative Diseases, Alzheimer’s Disease, ApoE (02:08:08) Alzheimer’s Disease & Amyloid (02:13:58) Interventions for Brain Health, Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) (02:21:26) Accidental Death, “Deaths of Despair”, Fentanyl Crisis (02:31:20) Fall Risk & Stability, 4 Pillars of Strength Training (02:41:05) Emotional Health (02:53:45) Mortality & Preserving Relationship Quality (03:02:20) Relationships vs. Outcomes, Deconstructing Emotions (03:09:34) Treatment Centers, Emotional Processing & Recovery (03:16:34) Tool: Inner Monologue & Anger, Redirecting Self-Talk (03:27:37) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/20/20233 hours, 29 minutes, 55 seconds
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Dr. Satchin Panda: Intermittent Fasting to Improve Health, Cognition & Longevity

In this episode, my guest is Satchin Panda, PhD, professor and the director of the Regulatory Biology Laboratories at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. We discuss his lab’s discovery that “time-restricted eating” (TRE) aka intermittent fasting, is beneficial effects for metabolic health and longevity. Dr. Panda explains how TRE, and also longer fasts, can positively impact obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular health, age-related chronic diseases, and improve mood and cognitive performance. He also describes how the timing of eating, light exposure and exercise that ~50% of all people engage in, negatively impacts their health and explains how specific simple adjustments to these can positively shift their subjective feelings of health and biomarkers of cardiovascular function, glucose regulation and metabolism. We discuss how our circadian behaviors, which include our patterns of eating, sleeping and socializing, have an enormous impact on our biology, mood and health and how by simply confining our calorie consumption to a semi-regular daily window, can positively impact our physical health, mental health and longevity. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Satchin Panda (00:03:02) Sponsors: HVMN, Eight Sleep, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:24) Time-Restricted Eating (TRE), Calorie Restriction (CR) & Health (00:14:38) Mealtimes & Circadian Clock (00:21:34) Circadian Rhythm, Meal Anticipation, Digestion (00:25:28) Breaking a Fast, Burning Fat (00:32:49) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:34:04) CR, Time Restricted Eating, Circadian Rhythm & Longevity (00:47:20) Gender, Hormones & CR; Relative Energy Deficient in Sports (REDS) (00:52:40) Physical Activity, Nutrition & Feeding Window (00:59:04) Nutrition Timing, Quality & Quantity; Low- Carbohydrate Diet (01:03:00) Caffeine, Nighttime Socialization, Fire, Breakfast (01:15:07) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:16:20) Circadian Rhythm, “Night Owls” & Genetics (01:26:37) Morning vs. Nighttime Discussions, “Me Time” (01:30:08) Light Sensitivity & “Night Owls”; Puberty, Melatonin (01:36:05) Shift Workers, Health & Disease (01:45:43) Artificial Lights, Young Adults & Sleep, Metabolic Dysfunction (01:50:59) Firefighters, Sleep & TRE; Cardiovascular Health, Blood Glucose (02:05:18) Shift Workers & Sleep; Alcohol & Caffeine (02:09:15) 12- Hour Feeding Window for Adults & Children, Sleep (02:22:10) Meal Timing (02:25:20) “Complete Fast”, Longer Fasts, Physical Health & Mental Health (02:28:12) “Fat Fasting”, Blood Glucose & Insulin (02:31:57) Fasting, Metformin, Rapamycin & Longevity; Human Applicability? (02:39:14) Circadian Rhythm & Metabolism (02:41:36) Ontime Health App, Circadian Clock App (02:46:17) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/13/20232 hours, 49 minutes, 6 seconds
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How to Optimize Your Water Quality & Intake for Health

In this episode, I discuss our body’s most vital and essential nutrient—water. I explain the structure of water and how it is used by the cells and tissues of our body, how much water we each need to drink and when in order to optimize our mental focus and physical performance; and I include how exercise, humidity, heat, and caffeine affect our hydration needs. I explain how temperature and pH influence water’s physical properties and if there is any scientific basis for drinking so-called “pH water” or “alkalized water” to improve health. I explain how to test your tap water for contaminants (e.g., endocrine disruptors) and the documented problems with fluoride in drinking water. I provide options for filtering drinking water and describe different water types (e.g., reverse osmosis, hydrogen-enriched, electrolyzed reduced, deuterium depleted, etc.). Since the human body is mostly water (55-80% depending on one’s age) and water has essential roles in health, disease and cellular function, everyone ought to benefit from understanding how best to clean our tap water, hydrate effectively and in some cases, adjust the type of water we drink to allow our brain and body to function optimally in regard to health and performance. For recommended water filters, tests and the full show notes, please visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Water (00:03:33) Tool Deliberate Cold Exposure, Immersion & Showers Mood & Fat Loss (00:15:26) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, HVMN, Momentous (00:19:27) Water: Physical Properties & Chemistry (00:26:32) Bonds & Water Phases, “Structured Water” (00:34:07) Body, Cells & Water (00:36:22) Sponsor: AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:37:37) Water as a Solvent, Temperature & pH (00:41:49) Water Transport in Cells, Aquaporin Channels (00:49:46) Alkaline/pH Water; Temperature, pH & Water Transport (00:55:14) Water Cellular Function, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) & Antioxidants (01:01:20) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:02:38) Tool: Baseline Hydration (01:11:35) Tool: Hydration & Exercise, Galpin Equation (01:15:40) Tool: Hydration, Sauna, Humidity & Sweat; Thirst, Caffeine (01:19:15) Hydration; Cognitive & Physical Performance  (01:23:53) Tool: Water Filtration; Nighttime Urination (01:29:35) Tap Water Tests, Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs), Fluoride & Thyroid Health (01:37:18) Tool: Water Filters (01:44:18) Tool: Resting Tap Water & Sediment (01:48:13) Tool: “Hard Water”; Magnesium, Calcium & Cardiovascular Health (01:53:40) Water Temperature (01:56:42) Water Types: Distilled, Reverse Osmosis, Hydrogen-Enriched (02:03:26) Hydrogen-Enriched Water, Magnesium, Optimize Hydration (02:11:13) Tool: Molecular Hydrogen Tablets, Water pH (02:14:05) Structured Water (02:16:39) Tool: Water Pipes, Faucet Filter (02:19:42) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/6/20232 hours, 22 minutes, 22 seconds
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Dr. Oded Rechavi: Genes & the Inheritance of Memories Across Generations

In this episode, my guest is Oded Rechavi, Ph.D., professor of neurobiology at Tel Aviv University and expert in how genes are inherited, how experiences shape genes and remarkably, how some memories of experiences can be passed via genes to offspring. We discuss his research challenging long-held tenets of genetic inheritance and the relevance of those findings to understanding key biological and psychological processes including metabolism, stress and trauma. He describes the history of the scientific exploration of the “heritability of acquired traits” and how epigenetics and RNA biology can account for some of the passage of certain experience-based memories. He discusses the importance of model organisms in scientific research and describes his work on how stressors and memories can be passed through small RNA molecules to multiple generations of offspring in ways that meaningfully affect their behavior. Nature vs. nurture is a commonly debated theme; Dr. Rechavi’s work represents a fundamental shift in our understanding of that debate, as well as genetic inheritance, brain function and evolution. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Oded Rechavi (00:02:08) Sponsors: ROKA, HVMN, Eight Sleep (00:06:04) DNA, RNA, Protein; Somatic vs. Germ Cells (00:14:36) Lamarckian Evolution, Inheritance of Acquired Traits (00:22:54) Paul Kammerer & Toad Morphology (00:28:52) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:30:06) James McConnell & Memory Transfer (00:37:31) Weismann Barrier; Epigenetics  (00:45:13) Epigenetic Reprogramming; Imprinted Genes  (00:50:43) Nature vs. Nurture; Epigenetics & Offspring (00:59:06) Generational Epigenetic Inheritance  (01:09:03) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:10:20) Model Organisms, C. elegans (01:21:50) C. elegans & Inheritance of Acquired Traits, Small RNAs (01:26:02) RNA Interference, C. elegans & Virus Immunity (01:34:13) RNA Amplification, Multi-Generational Effects (01:38:41) Response Duration & Environment (01:47:50) Generational Memory Transmission, RNA (01:59:36) Germ Cells & Behavior; Body Cues (02:04:48) Transmission of Sexual Choice (02:11:22) Fertility & Human Disease; 3-Parent In Vitro Fertilization (IVF); RNA Testing (02:17:56) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Learning & Memory (02:29:26) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/27/20232 hours, 32 minutes
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AMA #4: Maintain Motivation, Improve REM Sleep, Set Goals, Manage Anxiety & More

Welcome to a preview of the fourth Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:27) How to achieve consistent state of motivation? [Martin Zokov] In the full AMA episode, we discuss: Are there neurological benefits from different types of body work? Are goals necessary for the growth mindset and how to set the best short and long-term goals for creativity? Is anxiety useful? Can it be controlled? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/24/202323 minutes, 13 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Andy Galpin: Optimal Nutrition & Supplementation for Fitness

In this episode 6 of a 6-part series on fitness, exercise and performance with Andy Galpin, PhD, professor of kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, he explains optimal nutrition, hydration and supplementation to achieve your fitness goals. We cover macronutrient guidelines, when to eat relative to training and training fasted versus fed. Dr. Galpin describes proper hydration for before and during exercise, how dehydration and/or low electrolyte concentrations impede physical and mental performance. He discusses what supplements work best for fitness and performance, how to decide which to take, if any, and when to take them. He also shares high-impact, lower-cost supplements and nutrition recommendations to benefit performance, recovery, and sleep. This episode also includes an audience Q&A. Overall, it is an in-depth but clear discussion of nutrition strategies and supplements that can help anyone improve their level of fitness physical and mental performance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Nutrition & Supplementation (00:05:16) Creatine Supplementation, Muscle & Cognitive Function, Loading Phase (00:16:51) Sponsors: Momentous, Levels, LMNT (00:20:31) Dehydration, Overhydration, Night Urination (00:35:37) Tool: Hydration, Caffeine & Electrolytes (00:41:22) Tool: Sweating, Salt & Performance (00:48:57) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:49:49) Galpin Equation for Hydration & Exercise, Focus (00:55:28) Tool: 5 Steps to Optimize Hydration, Sipping Water, W.U.T. Status, Salt (01:10:58) Electrolytes, Carbohydrates & Exercise (01:15:44) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:16:47) Training Fasted versus Fed, Caffeine, Carbohydrate Timing (01:25:13) Caffeine & Endurance (01:31:20) Citrulline, Beet Root Juice & Performance; Alpha-GPC & Focus, Nootropics (01:35:43) Rhodiola, Cortisol & Fatigue (01:39:55) Tool: Supplement Formulations (01:47:31) Supplements, Dependency & Root Cause; Foundational Behaviors (01:57:44) Acute vs. Chronic Effects, Supplements & Gut Microbiome (02:02:33) Tool: Sleep Environment, Absolute Rest (02:11:03) Tools: Sleep & Disturbances, Inositol (02:20:03) Tool: “Fitness Fatigue” Model, Taper, Anti-Inflammatory Supplements (02:26:33) Exercise Recovery: Curcumin, Omega 3s, Glutamine, Nutrition, Vitamins (02:39:27) Intermittent Fasting, Training & Keto Diets; GABA (02:43:39) Carbohydrate Loading; Amino Acid Supplements; “Anabolic Window” (02:47:23) Garlic; Tart Cherry Extract; Examine.com (02:51:50) Fitness Testing, Training Programs; Exercise Recovery (03:04:13) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/22/20233 hours, 5 minutes, 33 seconds
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How to Breathe Correctly for Optimal Health, Mood, Learning & Performance

In this episode, I explain the biology of breathing (respiration), how it delivers oxygen and carbon dioxide to the cells and tissues of the body and how is best to breathe—nose versus mouth, fast versus slow, deliberately versus reflexively, etc., depending on your health and performance needs. I discuss the positive benefits of breathing properly for mood, to reduce psychological and physiological stress, to halt sleep apnea, and improve facial aesthetics and immune system function. I also compare what is known about the effects and effectiveness of different breathing techniques, including physiological sighs, box breathing and cyclic hyperventilation, “Wim Hof Method,” Prānāyāma yogic breathing and more. I also describe how to breath to optimize learning, memory and reaction time and I explain breathing at high altitudes, why “overbreathing” is bad, and how to breathe specifically to relieve cramps and hiccups. Breathwork practices are zero-cost and require minimal time yet provide a unique and powerful avenue to improve overall quality of life that is grounded in clear physiology. Anyone interesting in improving their mental and physical health or performance in any endeavor ought to benefit from the information and tools in this episode. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman HVMN: https://hvmn.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Breathing (00:05:41) Sponsors: HVMN, Thesis, WHOOP (00:09:36) Respiration, Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide (00:18:18) Breathing Mechanics (00:30:08) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:31:23) Chemistry of Breathing, Hyperventilation (00:40:35) High Altitudes, Oxygen & Breathing (00:47:16) Tool: Sleep Apnea, Nasal Breathing (00:51:50) Brain Centers & Breathing Rhythm (00:57:23) Brain, Hyperventilation & “Over-breathing” (01:03:53) What is Healthy Breathing? (01:08:26) InsideTracker (01:09:44) Tool: Train Healthy Breathing, Carbon Dioxide Tolerance Test & Box Breathing (01:22:39) Tool: Breathwork & Stress Reduction; Cyclic Sighing (01:33:56) Tool: Physiological Sighing & Exercise Side Cramp (01:39:16) Breathing & Heart Rate Variability (01:46:21) Tool: How to Stop Hiccups (01:51:17) Tool: Stress Management & Cyclic Hyperventilation, “Wim Hof Method” (01:57:11) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Breathing (01:59:54) Tool: Inhales & Learning; Exhales & Movement (02:09:15) Mouth vs. Nasal Breathing, Aesthetics (02:16:19) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/20/20232 hours, 18 minutes, 49 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Andy Galpin: Maximize Recovery to Achieve Fitness & Performance Goals

In this episode 5 of a 6-part special series on fitness, exercise and performance with Andy Galpin, PhD, professor of kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, he explains how to optimize post-training recovery and how to avoid overtraining in order to better achieve your fitness and exercise goals. He explains the cellular mechanisms of muscle soreness and pain, why adequate recovery is essential for all physical adaptations, and how to enhance recovery using breathwork, thermal, movement, and pressure-based techniques. He describes how overtraining impedes exercise progress and how to assess if you are overreaching or overtraining, by using specific biomarkers and indicators. Like other performance metrics, recovery is a skill that can and should be trained, and that can be learned. This episode provides an actionable toolkit for how to monitor and improve your exercise recovery abilities, which will improve your overall mental and physical health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Recovery (00:04:17) Exercise & Delayed Muscle Soreness, Pain (00:11:35) Muscle Spindles, Reduce Soreness (00:18:56) Exercise, Homeostasis & Hormesis; Blood Test & Fitness Level (00:30:20) Recovery Timescales, Adaptation & Optimization (00:35:10) Adaptation & Biomarkers Levels (00:40:36) 4 Recovery Levels, Enhance Recovery (00:47:28) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:48:19) Overreaching vs. Overtraining (00:52:53) Tool: Acute Overload & Recovery, Breathwork (01:03:39) Tool: Alleviate Acute Soreness, Compression Clothing (01:08:27) Tool: Acute Soreness, Massage, Temperature (01:14:21) Cold & Heat Contrast, Cold Shower vs. Immersion, Sauna & Fertility (01:20:44) InsideTracker (01:21:46) Combine Recovery Techniques (01:24:34) Monitoring for Overreaching & Overtraining (01:31:33) Overreaching/Overtraining, Performance & Physiology, Sleep (01:45:41) Overreaching/Overtraining, Biomarkers, Cortisol (01:50:45) Cortisol, Daily Levels & Performance; Rhodiola Supplementation (02:01:25) Carbohydrates, Cortisol & Sleep (02:05:05) Tool: Stress Biomarkers, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) (02:15:07) Tool: “Acute State Shifters”, Stimulants, Dopamine Stacking, Phones (02:25:04) Mirrors & Resistance Training (02:29:01) Tool: “Chronic State Shifters” (02:32:43) Training Recovery & Resilience; Bowling Alley Analogy (02:39:45) Trigger Adaptations & Stress Recovery  (02:42:41) Tool: Measure Recovery; Blood Biomarkers (02:50:06) Libido & Sex Hormones, Supplementation Caution (03:00:08) Tools: No-/Low-Cost Recovery Measurements (03:03:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/15/20233 hours, 5 minutes, 5 seconds
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Dr. Gina Poe: Use Sleep to Enhance Learning, Memory & Emotional State

My guest this episode is Gina Poe, PhD, a professor in the department of integrative biology & physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). We discuss her research exploring how sleep impacts learning, memory, hormones and emotions. She discusses tools to enhance your quality of sleep, increase deep sleep, rapid eye movement sleep and growth hormone release-- a key hormone for health, immune function and vitality. Dr. Poe explains how a specific brain area, the locus coeruleus, facilitates the processing of emotions, helps relieve traumas and how to maximize locus coeruleus function. She also explains sleep’s vital role in opiate addiction recovery and how anyone can determine their optimal sleep timing and duration. This episode is rich with basic science information and zero-cost tools to enhance quality and effectiveness of sleep for sake of mental health, physical health and performance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Gina Poe (00:02:52) LMNT, Helix Sleep, Eight Sleep, Momentous (00:06:58) Sleep Phases, Perfect Night’s Sleep (00:10:32) Can You Oversleep? (00:14:50) Sleep Cycles, Sleep Spindles, “Falling” Asleep, Dreams & Memories (00:19:01) Tool: Growth Hormone Release & Sleep (00:22:05) Adolescence; Early Sleep, Alcohol & Sleep Spindles (00:24:55) Middle Sleep States & REM, Schema, Waking at Night (00:30:33) Deep Sleep, Dreams & Senses (00:33:22) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:34:37) Later Sleep, Paralysis, Sleepwalking, Sleep Talking (00:36:47) Alarm Clock & Grogginess; Sleep Trackers, Brain & Sleep (00:43:19) Early Slow Wave Sleep & “Washout”, Normal Sleep Cycle & Night Owls (00:54:30) Locus Coeruleus, Learning & REM Sleep (01:01:46) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Locus Coeruleus & Sleep (01:06:13) InsideTracker (01:07:31) Locus Coeruleus, Trauma & Sleep, Antidepressants, Norepinephrine (01:12:29) Locus Coeruleus, Bedtime & Novelty, Estrogen & Trauma (01:16:22)Sex Differences & Sleep (01:19:12) Tool: Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR), Insomnia, Meditation, Prayer (01:27:42) Sleep Spindles, Learning & Creativity, P Waves & Dreaming (01:34:51) Lucid Dreams, Reoccurring Dreams, Trauma (01:44:11) Trauma Recovery, Locus Coeruleus & Norepinephrine, REM Sleep  (01:52:15) Opiates, Addiction, Relapse & Sleep (02:02:45) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/13/20232 hours, 5 minutes, 40 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Andy Galpin: Optimize Your Training Program for Fitness & Longevity

In episode 4 of a 6-part series, Andy Galpin, PhD, explains how to design an effective training program for fitness, health and longevity through a 10-step approach. He covers goal setting, exercise selection, balancing, recovery periods and real-world challenges. He provides a year-long training example that considers sleep, sunlight and social connection. The program is modifiable for personal fitness goals and experience. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Optimal Fitness Programming (00:07:19) Sponsors: Momentous, Eight Sleep (00:09:53) #1: Plan Fitness Goals, S.M.A.R.T. Goals (00:19:52) Intermediate Goals, Dopamine, Identify Your “Defender”, Goal Timing (00:26:25) Multiple Goals, Synergistic Goals, Interference Effects (00:36:13) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:37:060 Physical Goal “Bins”, Specificity  (00:48:02) Tool: #2: Identify Your “Defender”, Quadrant System, “Drop Everything and…” (01:04:330 InsideTracker (01:05:35) #3: Goal Timeframe & Life Events; #4: Weekly Training Frequency (01:10:33) #5: Exercise Selection, Progression  (01:18:200 #6: Exercise Order, Identify Friction (01:29:20) Exercise Timing & Sleep, Down Regulation, Caffeine (01:36:24) #7: Intensity, #8: Volume, Progressive Overload, “Deloading” (01:43:59) #9: Rest Intervals, #10: “Chaos Management” (01:49:06) Fitness, Health & Longevity Goals, Proprioception & Non-Structured Exercise (01:53:41) Tool: Year-Long Program Example for Overall Fitness (02:07:58) Tool: Overall Fitness Template by Quarter, Matching Goals & Seasons (02:25:49) Training & Life Challenges: Sleep, Illness  (02:32:10) Tool: Program Flexibility, 3-Day Weekly Training Program (02:37:12) Physical Activity vs. Exercise (02:40:12) Tool:4-Day Weekly Training Program, Muscular Endurance (02:51:15) Tool: 5/6-Day Weekly Training Program, Recovery (02:54:06) Program Modification, Balancing Joy (03:04:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/8/20233 hours, 6 minutes, 7 seconds
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How to Stop Headaches Using Science-Based Approaches

In this episode, I discuss the causes and treatments of different types of headaches, including tension headaches, migraines, sinus and cluster headaches, as well as menstrual and other hormone-based headaches. I describe how to distinguish between the different headache types and how to select the right treatment, including prescription-based and non-prescription-based treatments, behavioral and nutrition-based approaches. I also explain the evidence and mechanisms supporting the use of omega-3 fatty acids, high dose creatine, peppermint oil, turmeric, acupuncture and more. Additionally, I touch on traumatic brain injury, the causes of photophobia, aura, and the link between spicy foods and thunderclap headaches. By the end of this episode, listeners and viewers will have a comprehensive understanding of headaches, their types and the best way to prevent and stop them. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Maui Nui Venison: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Headache (00:03:51) Sponsors: Thesis, LMNT, Maui Nui, Momentous (00:07:47) Headache Sources: Muscle Tension; Blood Flow & Meninges (00:14:06) Headache Sources: Neurons; Inflammation & Sinus Headache  (00:23:21) 3 Neuron Types, Pain, Tension Headaches (00:31:05) Tension Headaches (00:33:25) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:34:29) Migraine Headaches, Aura, Photophobia  (00:43:10) Cluster Headaches (00:47:47) Hormone-Based Headaches, Menstrual Cycle & Menopause (00:53:38) Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) & Headache, Baseline Health (01:02:08) Tool: Headache Treatment, Creatine Monohydrate & TBI (01:12:22) InsideTracker (01:13:55) Headache Treatment, Omega-3 & Omega-6 Fatty Acids (Linolic Acid) (01:22:14) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-6 Fatty Acids & Inflammation (01:28:11) Hormone Headache Treatment & Omega-3s (01:31:24) Tool: Aura, Photophobia & Offsetting with Red Light  (01:44:15) Tool: Tension Headache & Botox Treatment (01:49:43) Tool: Alternative Headache Treatments, Peppermint Oil, Menthol (02:01:35) Tool: Tension Headaches Treatment & Acupuncture (02:05:41) Tool: Migraine & Herbal Treatment, Caffeine Timing (02:13:26) Tool: Migraine Treatments & Curcumin (Turmeric) (02:18:00) Carolina Reaper Pepper & Thunderclap Headache (02:24:21) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/6/20232 hours, 26 minutes, 43 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Build Physical Endurance & Lose Fat

This is episode 3 of a 6-part special series on fitness, exercise and performance with Andy Galpin, PhD, professor of kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton. He explains protocols to improve the various kinds of physical endurance: muscular endurance, anerobic capacity, maximum aerobic output, and long duration endurance. He also explains how the body uses different energy sources (carbohydrates, proteins, fats) during rest and exercise. He also explains the mechanisms underlying fat loss and how and why exercise accelerates rates of fat loss. We cover the many concepts related to endurance training and fat loss such as metabolic flexibility, breathwork training for exercise performance and recovery, lactate production and regulation, how to improve blood flow to muscles, anaerobic vs. aerobic metabolism, exercise fatigue, low-carbohydrate diets and fat loss, and how to combine different types of workouts to improve overall endurance. This episode in intended for everyone ranging from novice and recreational exercisers to elite endurance athletes. Anyone wishing to improve their physical health and performance stands to benefit from the information. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Endurance: Benefits, Mechanics & Breathing  (00:07:30) Tool: “Exercise Snacks” (00:14:21) Momentous, Levels, LMNT (00:18:01) Endurance Categories (00:22:16) Fat Loss & Respiration; Carbon Cycles & Storage, Metabolism (00:33:08) Exhalation Rates, Exercise & Fat Loss; Calories (00:41:47) Cardiovascular Adaptations, Cardiac Output & Maximum Heart Rate (00:47:03) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:47:55) Excess Post-Exercise Consumption (EPOC); Exercise Intensity & Fat vs. Carbohydrate Energy Utilization (00:59:35) Tool: Training for Fat Loss, Carbohydrate Stores, Liver Glycogen & Fatigue (01:08:01) Metabolic Flexibility, Carbohydrates & Fat; Exercise & Flexible Fuel Utilization  (01:16:07) Muscle & Basal Metabolic Rate (01:19:40) InsideTracker (01:20:43) Assessing Metabolic Flexibility, Blood Glucose, Carbohydrates (01:27:48) Caffeine, High-Carbohydrate Meals & Timing, Managing Daily Energy  (01:36:42) Cellular Energy (ATP) Production from Carbs; Lactate; Anerobic, Aerobic (01:50:45) Lactate, Energy Production Buffer (01:53:14) Fuel Sources & Exercise; Mitochondria, Oxygen Availability & Lactate (02:02:50) Lactate for Exercise & Cognitive Performance (02:04:33) Energy Production, Waste Management & Endurance Exercise; Insulin (02:12:49) Protein & Fat Utilization for Energy; Exercise & Fat Loss (02:21:20) Protein as Fuel Source, Fire Analogy  (02:26:39) Low-Carbohydrate Diet & Performance (02:29:40) Muscular Endurance: Fuel Sources, Training & Capillarization (02:37:30) Tool: Muscular Endurance & Modifiable Variables; Examples (02:45:07) Anerobic Capacity: Fuel Sources, Training & Oxygen Utilization  (02:49:23) Tool: Cardiac Output, Heart Rate Zones & Breathing “Gear System” (02:58:10) Tool: Anerobic Capacity & Modifiable Variables; Examples, Nasal Recovery (03:11:45) Tool: “Sugarcane” Endurance Protocol  (03:14:02) Anerobic Capacity, Training Progression  (03:16:40) Tool: Maximum Aerobic Output, Training & Modifiable Variables (03:21:58) Tool: Long Duration Endurance, Training, Circuits (03:25:13) Long Duration Endurance, Capillarization, Fatigue & Breathwork, Technique (03:29:10) Weekly Combination Training, Metabolic Flexibility & Longevity (03:37:23) Tool: Mixed Endurance Training, Half Marathon Example (03:47:33) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify & Apple Reviews, YouTube Feedback, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/1/20233 hours, 48 minutes, 52 seconds
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Dr. Sara Gottfried: How to Optimize Female Hormone Health for Vitality & Longevity

My guest is Sara Gottfried, M.D., a Harvard-trained, board-certified gynecologist and clinical assistant professor of integrative medicine & nutritional sciences at Thomas Jefferson University. Dr. Gottfried specializes in hormone health, vitality and longevity using precision/personalized approaches. We discuss female hormone health, puberty, perimenopause, and menopause, hormone testing, the microbiome, stress related hormone challenges, their causes, and various treatments. We also discuss fertility, birth control and tools for improving microbiome health, treating PCOS, insulin management, and the best nutrition, supplementation, and exercise programs for women. While the episode focuses mainly on female hormones, males will also  benefit from our discussion because it includes  actionable tools suggested for managing stress, bolstering the gut microbiome, and immunity—all of which stand to improve overall health, vitality and longevity in males and females. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://roka.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Sara Gottfried (00:03:51) ROKA, Thesis, LMNT, Momentous (00:07:50) Women, Family History, Heredity & Environment (00:11:00) Puberty, Stress, Menstrual Cycles, Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) (00:17:26) Tool: Sex Hormones, Microbiome, Estrobolome & Disease; Biomarker Testing (00:25:11) Nutritional Testing; Vegetables, Microbiome & Disease (00:31:13) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:32:22) Microbiome, Prebiotics & Probiotics, Inflammation (00:36:08) Microbiome Testing, Magnesium, Constipation & Thyroid (00:42:25) Female Colonoscopy; Network Effect & Modern Medicine, Stress Factors (00:45:13) Constipation, Stress & Trauma, Autonomic Balance (00:55:35) Constipation Relief, Stress, Breathwork & Meditation (01:02:58) Systemic & Societal Stress Unique to Females (01:08:19) InsideTracker (01:09:23) Testing & Future Behavior (01:11:55) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) & Cardiometabolic Disease; Stress  (01:22:57) PCOS, Insulin, Glucose Monitoring and Management; Data Access (01:29:48) Behaviors for Vitality; Exercise & Body Phenotype; Cortisol (01:36:40) Cortisol Supplements: Ashwagandha, Rhodiola, Fish Oil, Phosphatidylserine (01:42:36) Cortisol, Anxiety & Immune System; Adrenal Function, Resilience (01:48:07) Tool: Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Inflammation, Specialized Pro-Resolving Mediators (01:54:20) Oral Contraceptives, Benefits & Risks; Ovarian Cancer; Testosterone (02:06:50) Fertility, Follicular & Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Assessments (02:10:29) Menopause & Hormone Replacement Therapy; Women’s Health Initiative (02:15:30) Perimenopause, Cerebral Hypometabolism, Metabolism & Estrogen (02:21:49) Intermittent Fasting, Ketogenic Diet, Metabolic Flexibility  (02:23:29) Stool Testing (02:25:32) Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Test, ACE Score & Disease  (02:31:56) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter, Momentous Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/30/20232 hours, 35 minutes, 4 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Andy Galpin: Optimal Protocols to Build Strength & Grow Muscles

In this episode 2 of a 6-part special series, Andy Galpin, PhD, professor of kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton and world expert on exercise science, explains optimal protocols for increasing strength and causing hypertrophy (muscle growth), as well as for increasing speed and power. He explains the training principles and underlying mechanisms for reaching these goals. Our conversation covers a breadth of training topics, including selecting the number of repetitions, sets, inter-set and inter-workout rest periods, warm-ups, exercise cadence, breathing, stretching, recovery, training frequency, overcoming plateaus, nutrition, and he gives specific examples of exercises for power, strength, and hypertrophy. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Benefits of Strength & Hypertrophy Training, Aging (00:10:52) Strength & Hypertrophy Training, Aesthetics  (00:14:02) Momentous, Eight Sleep, Levels (00:17:48) Strength vs. Hypertrophy Training: Adaptations (00:22:42) Ligaments, Tendons & Resistance Training (00:28:05) Bone Strength & Resistance Training, Age, Women (00:32:38) Strength Training & Major Adaptations (00:41:32) AG1 (Athletic Greens)  (00:42:25) Hypertrophy Training & Major Adaptations; Protein Synthesis (00:45:56) Endurance vs. Strength Training & Cell Signaling, Protein Synthesis (00:52:26) Muscle Hypertrophy, Sarcoplasmic Hypertrophy (00:56:37) Muscle Physiology & Plasticity, Muscle “Memory” (01:04:00) Non-Negotiables & Modifiable Variables of Exercise Training (01:11:51) InsideTracker (01:12:53) Tool: Speed & Power Training, “3 to 5” Approach, Periodization, Planning  (01:22:02) Warming Up & Training, Dynamic Movements (01:30:55) Strength vs. Hypertrophy Repetition Cadence, Triphasic Training (01:44:03) Tool: Breathing & Training, Valsalva Technique (01:53:22) Tool: Training Auto-Regulation, Specificity vs. Variation, Prilepin's Chart (02:02:35) Training to Failure, Exercise Selection & Recovery, Standardization (02:13:45) Tool: Power vs. Strength Training & Modifiable Variables; Supersets  (02:24:22) Sets & Rest Periods; Stretching (02:28:48) Tools: Power Training & Modifiable Variables; Examples (02:30:16) Tools: Strength Training & Modifiable Variables, Cluster Sets, Dynamic Variable Sets (02:40:44) Power & Strength Training Protocols (02:43:37) Intention, Focus & Exercise (02:47:29) Hypertrophy Training Program, Muscle Growth & Signaling  (02:55:12) Tools: Hypertrophy Training & Modifiable Variables; Examples (03:03:02) Balanced Muscle Development & Hypertrophy (03:09:04) Tools: Hypertrophy Training & Modifiable Variables; Splits (03:23:08) “Non-Responders” & Exercise Plateaus, Volume (03:27:06) Hypertrophy, Repetition & Rest Ranges, Muscle Failure, “Chaos Management” (03:37:39) Frequency & Workout Duration, Splits (03:44:52) Training Frequency, Infrequent Training, Intermediate Repetition Ranges (03:55:22) Hypertrophy, Muscle Damage & Recovery (04:01:15) Combining Cardiovascular & Hypertrophy Training, Interference Effect (04:06:22) Hypertrophy Training Protocols  (04:12:06) Tool: Neck & Rear Deltoid Exercises, Stabilization & Hypertrophy (04:14:42) Hypertrophy: Reps, Sets & Progression, “Hidden” Stressors, Exercises to Avoid (04:21:09) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Hypertrophy vs. Strength (04:26:41) Nutrition, Timing & Strength/Hypertrophy; Creatine (04:38:04) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/25/20234 hours, 39 minutes, 23 seconds
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How to Optimize Fertility in Males & Females

In this episode, I discuss the mechanisms by which human eggs and sperm are generated, the ovulatory/menstrual cycle, the conception process and overall fertility in males and females. I also explain how, regardless of whether you seek to conceive children, optimizing egg and sperm health is directly related to vitality and longevity. I cover the nutrition-based, behavioral, supplement-based and prescription approaches to optimizing egg and sperm health, the ovulatory/menstrual cycle and fertility. In addition, I explain lifestyle choices that greatly assist or harm fertility—several of which are very surprising. I provide science-based protocols for those trying to conceive children. The tools and principles I discuss can also improve overall vitality and longevity in all people, regardless of age.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Fertility, Vitality & Longevity (00:04:24) Maui Nui Venison, Eight Sleep, Momentous (00:08:20) Eggs & Sperm, Genes, Fertilization (00:18:28) Puberty: Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH), Melatonin & Leptin (00:23:38) Onset Trends of Puberty, Odors Effects (00:31:24) Female Puberty, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (00:35:25) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:36:34) Ovulatory & Menstrual Cycle (00:40:36) Follicular Phase: Egg Maturation & Ovulation, FSH & Estrogen (00:51:09) Luteal Phase: Progesterone & Estrogen, Menstruation (00:58:14) Ovulation & Libido; Luteal Phase & Malaise; Individual Variability (01:03:14) InsideTracker (01:04:18) Sex Chromosomes, Sperm (01:11:40) Tool: Testicular Temperature & Fertility (01:17:22) Sperm Production, Seminal Fluid, Vasectomy (01:24:07) Sperm Cells, Mitochondria & Motility, Intercourse Frequency & Fertilization (01:28:31) Sperm Production, GnRH, FSH, LH & Testosterone (01:36:21) Ejaculate Quality, Sperm Counts, Fertilization, Ectopic Pregnancy (01:44:14) Tool: Sexual Intercourse Frequency & Fertilization (01:53:24) Tools: Tracking Ovulation, Libido, Lubricants (01:56:42) Fecundability: Egg Quality & Woman’s Age, Cumulative Pregnancy Rate (02:08:17) Miscarriages, Chromosomal Abnormalities (02:11:23) Female Fertility: Age, Follicle Testing & Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) Testing (02:18:51) Male Fertility: Sperm Analysis, Age (02:24:52) Fertility & Hormone Analysis, Age (02:29:07) Fertility Effects of Sleep, Cortisol/Stress, Cannabis/Nicotine & Alcohol (02:42:40) Fertility, Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), Viral Infection & Cystic Fibrosis (02:47:42) Tool: Testicular Temperature & Fertility (02:51:26) Tool: Phones & Sperm Quality (02:58:06) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Fertility, Testicular Temperature, Cortisol/Stress (03:05:43) Fertility, Exercise & Mitochondrial Health; Intermittent Fasting (03:14:46) Testosterone Replacement Therapy & Sperm Production; Supplements (03:20:36) Sex Determination in Offspring, In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Sperm Fractions (03:32:23) Postcoital Female Position & Fertilization, Sperm Quality (03:36:57) Cannabis & Sperm Motility, Libido, Pregnancy (03:42:33) Acupuncture, Fertility & Pregnancy (03:49:25) Fertility Supplements: L-Carnitine & Allicin, Coenzyme Q10 (03:56:18) Fertility Supplements: Inositol, Omega 3 Fatty Acids (04:02:50) Supplements for Hormones: Tongkat Ali, Shilajit, Zinc (04:13:02) Fertility & Prescription Medications (04:16:44) Human Reproduction & Fertility (04:20:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
1/23/20234 hours, 22 minutes, 14 seconds
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GUEST SERIES | Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Assess & Improve All Aspects of Your Fitness

In this episode 1 of a 6-part special series, Andy Galpin, PhD, professor of kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton and world expert on exercise science, explains the 9 different types of exercise adaptations that can be used to transform the functional capacities and aesthetics of our body, and benefits each adaptation has for our health. He explains the best evidence-based protocols to optimize your progress in building strength, endurance, muscle growth, flexibility and for optimal recovery, and he provides zero-cost and low-cost tests to assess all aspects of your physical fitness. This episode provides a foundation and tools for establishing a comprehensive assessment of your current fitness level, allowing you to select the ideal fitness programs to implement toward your goals. Subsequent episodes 2-6 in this special series explain goal-directed protocols to reach those goals. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Andy Galpin (00:02:04) Assessing Fitness  (00:05:40) 9 Exercise-Induced Adaptations  (00:10:56) Assessing Fitness Levels per Category; Fat Loss & Health (00:13:33) Momentous, LMNT, Eight Sleep (00:17:20) Lifetime Endurance Training: VO2 Max & Other Health Metrics (00:26:10) Genetics vs. Lifestyle, Endurance Training & Identical Twins (00:33:49) Aging, Muscle Fibers & Exercise (00:37:12) Lifetime Strength Training & Outcomes  (00:39:58) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:40:51) Exercise Physiology History; Strength Training Popularity (00:51:26) Bodybuilding & Misconceptions; Circuit/Group Training  (00:57:22) Women & Weight Training (01:04:19) Exercise Physiology History & Current Protocol Design (01:06:15) InsideTracker (01:07:18) Movement/Skill Test (01:12:38) Speed Test, Power Test (01:18:42) Strength Test (01:27:16) Hypertrophy Test (01:29:38) Muscular Endurance Test, Push-Up (01:36:23) Anaerobic Capacity Test, Heart Rate (01:39:29) Maximal Heart Rate Test, VO2 Max (01:42:42) Long Duration Steady State Exercise Test (01:44:00) Fitness Testing Frequency & Testing Order (01:52:44) VO2 Max Measurements (01:58:04) Protocols for the 9 Adaptations (01:59:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
1/18/20232 hours, 1 minute, 17 seconds
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Rick Rubin: How to Access Your Creativity

My guest is Rick Rubin, one of the most renowned music producers of all time, known for his work with a wide range of artists, including Run DMC, Public Enemy, Beastie Boys, Red Hot Chili Peppers, JayZ, Adele, Johnny Cash, LL Cool J, Slayer, Neil Young, Ye (formerly Kayne West), Tom Petty, and many more. He is also the author of a new book, "The Creative Act: A Way of Being," which explores the creative process and how to access creativity. We discuss topics such as finding inspiration, the role of feelings as guideposts, learning from observing nature, balancing self-doubt and anxiety, and adopting new perspectives to channel the creative process. Rick also shares his thoughts on using deadlines, eliminating distractions, and how our experiences and emotions influence the creative process. Additionally, we discuss his love for professional wrestling. Our conversation can be applied to any activity or profession to access creativity. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Rick Rubin (00:04:08) Maui Nui Venison, Thesis, WHOOP, Momentous (00:08:23) Creativity & Ideas, Cloud Analogy  (00:12:26) Language & Creativity; Kids (00:17:36) Feelings & Creative Ideas (00:22:01) Rules, Choice & Art; Personal Taste & Other’s Opinions  (00:30:20) Changing Perspective & Creativity (00:33:55) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:35:04) Scientific Knowledge; Opinions & Art (00:41:27) Finishing Projects; The Source & Nature (00:47:40) Perception Filters, Contrast & Novelty (00:58:42) Music & Identity, Evolving Tastes (01:03:03) InsideTracker (01:04:14) Focus, Disengaging & Subconscious; Anxiety  (01:13:22) Collaboration, Art & Rigorous Work (01:18:26) Process & “Cloud”; Perception & Storytelling (01:29:13) Limited Resolution, Considering the Inverse (01:35:38) Wrestling, Energy & Reality; Dopamine  (01:49:43) Wrestling, Style & Performance (01:52:40) Resetting Energy & Nature; Nostalgia (02:01:56) Sleep, Waking Up & Sunlight, Capturing Ideas (02:08:16) Creative Work Phases; Structure & Deadlines (02:15:32) Self-Doubt & Performance (02:19:13) Predictability & Surprise, Authenticity   (02:25:02) Past Experiences, Other’s Opinions  (02:29:42) Public Opinion & Science: Light, Acupuncture & Nutrition  (02:39:44) “Look for Clues”, Belief Effects  (02:46:25) Attention, Emotion & Art (02:48:07) Mantra Meditation, Awareness Meditation  (02:57:33) Rick Rubin Questions, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
1/16/20233 hours, 38 seconds
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AMA #3: Adaptogens, Fasting & Fertility, Bluetooth/EMF Risks, Cognitive Load Limits & More

Welcome to a preview of the third Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:27) Adaptogens (00:29:42) Huberman Lab Premium In the full 1.5 hour+ AMA episode, we discuss: Caloric restriction in fertile women Cognitive load limits Potential risks of Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, EMFs Creatine and aging Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/13/202332 minutes, 1 second
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Developing a Rational Approach to Supplementation for Health & Performance

In this episode, I explain how to design a supplementation protocol to support maximum mental and physical health and performance depending on your specific needs, nutrition, lifestyle and finances. When most people hear about “supplements,” they think they are vitamin supplements, but there are many compounds that are powerful and sold over-the-counter that can enhance our health in performance and that can’t be obtained from foods. First, I discuss “foundational” supplements to support overall health, including water and fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, digestive enzymes, adaptogens, and prebiotics/probiotics. Then I explain how to use single-ingredient supplements to enhance specific aspects of your physiology, such as aiding sleep, cognitive enhancement, and focus supporting healthy hormone levels (e.g., testosterone, estrogen and growth hormone, thyroid). Finally, I explain when it makes sense to add supplements to your lifestyle and discuss how best to use supplements, including how to determine dosage, sourcing, continuous schedules and cycling, and how to layer different supplements most effectively. This episode will explain how to design the safest, most biologically effective, cost-effective supplementation protocol to meet your particular goals and support your overall health, including vitality and longevity. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Helix Sleep: https://helixsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Supplements (00:03:38) Hierarchy of Tools/Interventions, Developing a Supplementation Protocol (00:11:51) Momentous, LMNT, Helix Sleep (00:15:38) Role of Supplements, Foundational Supplements, Water/Fat-Soluble Vitamins (00:21:07) Supplement Considerations: Cost, Nutrition & Schedule (00:25:25) Foundational Supplements, Digestive Enzymes, Adaptogens (00:28:04) Gut Microbiome, Probiotics/Prebiotics & Nutrition (00:33:06) Supplements for Gut Microbiome, Brain Fog (00:35:59) InsideTracker (00:36:44) Adaptogens & Broad-Spectrum Foundational Supplements (00:38:35) Core Supplement Questions & Meeting Foundational Needs (00:43:45) Supplements to Support Sleep: Myo-Inositol, Theanine (00:50:52) Supplements for Falling Asleep: Magnesium Threonate/Bisglycinate, Apigenin (00:55:55) Melatonin Caution (00:58:11) Supplement Dependency?, Placebo Effects (01:02:45) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (01:03:53) Nutrition & Behavior for Hormone Health (01:08:59) Hormone Health: Shilajit, Ashwagandha, L-Carnitine, Maca Root  (01:12:48) Growth Hormone: Behaviors, Arginine, Prescriptions  (01:16:04) Testosterone/Estrogen: Fadogia Agrestis; Bloodwork  (01:23:06) Testosterone Supplement: Tongkat Ali, Libido  (01:27:24) Menstrual Cycle, Birth Control & Fertility (01:30:54) Cognitive Enhancement & Focus, Sleep, Stimulants: Caffeine  (01:36:57) Adrenaline & Stimulants: Yohimbine, Rauwolscine (01:38:55) Adjusting Neurotransmitters: Alpha-GPC, L-Tyrosine; Layering Supplements (01:43:58) Cognitive, Mood & Metabolic Support: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (01:47:25) Food-Mimic Supplements, Protein  (01:50:09) Kids, Aging & Supplements (01:55:25) A Rational Supplementation Protocol (01:58:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
1/9/20232 hours, 47 seconds
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Dr. Sam Harris: Using Meditation to Focus, View Consciousness & Expand Your Mind

My guest is Sam Harris, Ph.D. Sam earned his bachelor’s degree in philosophy from Stanford University and his doctorate (Ph.D.) in neuroscience from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). He is the author of multiple best-selling books and is a world-renowned public-facing intellectual on meditation, consciousness, free will, psychedelics and neuroscience. He is also the creator of Waking Up and the host of the Making Sense podcast. In this episode, we discuss meditation as a route to understanding “the self” and experiencing consciousness, not just changing one’s conscious state. Sam describes several meditation techniques and their benefits, including how meditation fundamentally changes our worldview and how it can be merged seamlessly into daily life. It can help us overcome universal challenges such as distractibility and persistent, internal dialogue (“chatter”) to allow for deep contentment and pervasive shifts in our awareness, all while acknowledging the more immediate stress-lowering and memory-improving effects of meditation. We also discuss the therapeutic use of psychedelics and the mechanistic similarities between the benefits of a psychedelic journey and long-term meditation practices. And we discuss the rationale behind Sam’s recent decision to close his social media (Twitter) account. This episode should interest anyone wanting to learn more about the higher order functions of the brain, the brain-body connection, consciousness and, of course, meditation and why and how to meditate for maximum benefit. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Levels: https://levels.link/huberman WHOOP: https://join.whoop.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Sam Harris  (00:04:36) Levels, WHOOP, Eight Sleep, Momentous (00:08:54) Sense of Self & Meditation, Dualism of Self (00:18:07) Sense of Self in Brain & Body  (00:25:28) Consciousness vs. Contents, Meditation (00:28:25) Interrupting Sense of Self & Attentional Focus, Visual Saccade  (00:33:30) Observer & Actor, Default Mode Network & Meditation, Blind Spot (00:40:48) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:41:57) Mediation & Paths to Understanding Consciousness, Non-Dualistic Experience (00:57:32) Sense of Self throughout Evolution  (01:07:40) Sense of Self from Human Development, Language (01:18:42) InsideTracker (01:19:46) Internal Dialogue, Distractibility & Mindfulness  (01:26:27) Time Perception & Mindfulness, Vipassana Meditation, Resistance & Pain (01:37:13) Consciousness & Sense of Control, Free Will (01:43:14) Authoring Thoughts: Storytelling & Ideas, Free Will (01:52:11) Meditation & the Paradoxical Search for Self (02:06:44) Meditation & Concentration Practice  (02:11:58) Mindfulness, “Skylike Mind” & Thoughts (02:15:11) States of Self & Context, Dualistic Experiences (02:32:39) Distraction & Identification of Thoughts, Meditation & “Flow” States (02:42:58) Eyes-Open Meditations, Sense of Self, Visual Cues & Social Interactions (02:54:59) Paths to Meditation, Mindfulness Meditation Step-Functions (03:05:58) Psychedelics, MDMA & Experiences in Consciousness, Religion (03:21:11) Meditation, Psychedelic Journeys & Inner Truths (03:29:48) Psilocybin, Ego-Dissolution & Thought Expansion (03:40:09) Process vs. Achievement of Goals, Fulfillment in Present (03:54:29) Leaving Twitter; Conflict, Life Interruption & Politics  (04:06:14) Social Media, Attentional Disruption & Deep Work (04:15:39) Meditation & Sense of Self (04:19:02) Sam Harris & Waking Up App, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Social Media, Neural Network Newsletter Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
1/2/20234 hours, 21 minutes, 55 seconds
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Jocko Willink: How to Become Resilient, Forge Your Identity & Lead Others

My guest is Jocko Willink, a retired Navy SEAL officer and author of multiple books on effective leadership and teamwork, self-discipline and mindset, and host of the Jocko Podcast. We discuss how people can build and sculpt their identity and psychology through specific mindsets and actions and how to adapt the self to novel and challenging situations, using specific daily routines. We consider how “energy” actually stems from physical action and describe practical tools and scientific mechanisms for leveraging exercise, cold exposure, nutrition, fasting, hydration, sunlight, mindset and music to make us feel more energized and what that, in turn, does for our life. Jocko explains how discipline and specific daily routines allow for productivity and creativity. And we discuss the qualities of successful leaders, including how to build confidence and real bonds when working with a team or family/friends. Jocko describes a particularly powerful tool of using perspective shifts to allow for ‘detachment’ as a unique way to identify novel solutions to problems. We also discuss the power of early developmental narratives and how experiences of friendship, love, connection and loss can serve as pillars for making us better human beings in all aspects of life. Our conversation covers a wide range of topics, including mental health, physical health and performance, and provides actionable tools that anyone, regardless of age or profession, can apply to live a more effective and meaningful life. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Maui Nui: https://mauinuivenison.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Jocko Willink (00:03:50) Maui Nui Venison, Eight Sleep, LMNT, Momentous (00:08:42) Sense of Self, Discovery & Autonomy (00:19:11) Mindsets in the Military: Garrison vs. Combat (00:25:02) Military Divisions (00:29:34) Daily Workouts & Discipline (00:35:39) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:36:53) Energy & Movement, Cortisol, Nutrition (00:52:10) Exercise & Energy, Deliberate Cold Exposure (00:59:05) Win vs. Loss Mindset, Leadership, Action & Energy  (01:12:07) InsideTracker (01:13:11) Confidence, Generators vs. Projectors, Family (01:24:01) Restoring Motivation: Social Connection & Play (01:32:44) Self-Identity & Context, Alcohol, Music, Dopamine (01:45:10) Motivation Sources & Recovering from Loss (01:54:05) Suicide, Navy SEALs, Social Contagion (02:09:00) Suicide, Alcohol, Positive Action  (02:15:03) Meditation, Detachment (02:20:30) Adaptability & Opportunities, Navy SEALs  (02:30:43) Ambition & Love, Likeability, Leadership (02:40:18) Building Teams, Detachment, Family (02:50:20) Detachment: Problems & Perspective (02:55:55) Tools: Strategies to Detach from Situation (03:08:31) Tool: Situational Awareness & Detachment (03:17:49) Social Media, Personal Flaws (03:23:01) Falling Asleep & Detachment (03:27:02) Resilience Calibration, Navy SEAL Training & Combat (03:39:16) Deliberate Discomfort & Mental Resilience (03:42:21) People & Animals, Personalities (03:51:25) Political Leadership & Military, Social Media (04:01:38) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
12/26/20224 hours, 4 minutes, 26 seconds
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The Science of Creativity & How to Enhance Creative Innovation

In this episode, I explain how the brain engages in creative thinking and, based on that mechanistic understanding, the tools to improve one’s ability to think creatively and innovate in any area. I discuss how convergent and divergent thinking are essential for generating creative ideas and provide three types of meditation tools (open monitoring meditation, focused attention meditation & non-sleep deep rest; NSDR), which improve our ability to engage in these creative thinking patterns in specific and powerful ways. I also discuss how dopamine and mood contribute to the creative process and describe behavioral, nutritional and supplementation-based approaches for increasing dopamine to engage in creative thought and implementation. I explain how movement and storytelling (narrative) approaches can generate novel creative ideas and how substances like alcohol, cannabis, and psilocybin impact our creative ability. Excitingly, creativity is a skill that can be cultivated and enhanced; this episode outlines many tools to help anyone access creativity and apply creative patterns of thought to different domains of life. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman ROKA: https://www.roka.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://www.insidetracker.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Creativity (00:04:30) ROKA, Thesis, LMNT, Momentous (00:08:51) What is Creativity? (00:11:16) Creativity in Visual Arts, Escher & Banksy (00:23:37) Neural Circuits of Creativity (00:31:58) AG1 (Athletic Greens) (00:33:13) Creative Ideas & Divergent Thinking (00:42:09) Testing Creative Ideas & Convergent Thinking (00:46:41) Dopamine, Convergent & Divergent Thinking Pathways (00:57:02) InsideTracker (00:58:06) Tool: Open Monitoring Meditation & Divergent Thinking (01:07:38) Tool: Focused Attention Meditation & Convergent Thinking (01:11:06) Mood, Creativity & Dopamine (01:16:00) Tool: Mood Calibrating, Caffeine & Dopamine (01:23:41) Dopamine Supplementation; L-Tyrosine, Caffeine (01:30:15) Tool: Non-Sleep Deep Rest, Mesocortical Dopamine & Divergent Thinking (01:43:13) Serotonin, Psylocibin & Creative Thinking (01:49:13) Alcohol & Autobiographical Scripting; Cannabis (01:52:04) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Creativity (01:54:45) Tool: Movement & Divergent Thinking (02:01:02) Tool: Narratives & Storytelling for Creativity (02:14:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Disclaimer Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
12/19/20222 hours, 16 minutes, 57 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in New York, NY

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in New York, NY. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in New York, NY. Get notified when new live events are announced: https://hubermanlab.com/tour Thank you to our sponsors Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:17) You've Said Before That Stress Can Be Good for Us. How Do We Know When It's Too Much? (00:07:44) How Has Hypnosis Been Impacting Your Life? (00:12:51) What Are the Most Effective Protocols for Boosting the Microbiome? (00:18:38) Why Do Humans Love/Need Dogs so Much? (00:23:21) How Can "Night Owls" Best Function in a Society Made For "Morning Birds" (00:27:04) How Do You See Your Podcast Growing Over the Next Few Years? (00:31:12) What Is a Stress Inoculation Protocol for Workplace Anxiety? (00:33:04) What Do You Think Will Be the Next Hot Topic/New Trend in the Field of Neuroscience & Behavioral Therapeutics Within the Next 10-20 Years? (00:37:53) What Changes Have You Made to Your Fitness Protocol That Include Nutrition That You Wish You Knew Before Starting the Podcast? (00:40:11) For Things That Take a Long Time — Career, Pursuing a Degree, Etc — Is There a Way to Know Were on the Right Path? (00:46:36) Conclusion Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/14/202247 minutes, 16 seconds
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Dr. Kyle Gillett: Tools for Hormone Optimization in Males

My guest is Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health. We discuss how to optimize male hormones using a range of nutritional and behavioral tools, exercise, and supplementation (including discussions on tongkat ali, fadogia agrestis, creatine, peptides and more). We explain how puberty and aging affect hormone levels, how to use bloodwork to monitor hormone levels, how hormone health impacts fertility, libido, hair loss, and prostate health, and describe behaviors that negatively impact testosterone levels. We also discuss how to approach prescription hormone therapies, including which biomarkers to monitor when using these approaches and how to optimize synergistic hormones (e.g., growth hormone and thyroid hormone) to support complete hormone health safely and rationally. Dr. Gillett offers numerous actionable tools that can be tailored to specific goals and age ranges to attain and maintain optimal levels of male hormones for overall health, well-being and longevity.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett & Male Hormone Optimization (00:03:56) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:43) Puberty: Height, Resistance Training, Childhood Obesity (00:15:14) “First” vs. “Second” Puberty (00:17:17) Hormone Optimization & Blood Work (00:22:14) Diet, Exercise, Sleep & Hormones (00:28:23) Hormones, Stress, Social Connection & Purpose (00:32:19) Hormones, Supplementation & Medication (00:34:08) Determining Individual Hormone Levels, ADAM Questionnaire (00:40:35) Libido, Masturbation, Pornography & the Dopamine “Wave Pool” (00:47:56) Sponsor: AG1 (00:49:46) Sustainable Exercise Regimen for Hormone Health (00:58:12) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) (01:01:02) Supplementation: Creatine & Hair Loss, Betaine, L-Carnitine & Allicin (Garlic) (01:11:45) Vitamin D, Boron; SHBG & Free Testosterone (01:15:34) Sponsor: InsideTracker (01:16:39) Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; Longjack) & Steroid Pathways (01:22:09) Fadogia Agrestis & Testosterone  (01:26:32) Optimize Growth Hormone & IGF-1: Diet, Fasting, Supplements & Exercise  (01:31:52) Optimize Thyroid Hormone: Iodine & Goitrogens (01:33:56) Peptides: Growth Hormone, Tesamorelin, Ibutamoren & Gut Microbiome (01:42:06) Testosterone Therapy (01:47:03) Prescriptions & Hormones: Human Choriogonadotropin (HCG), Clomiphene (01:52:56) Testosterone Therapy + HCG, Fertility & Temperature (01:55:30) Hormone Health Q&A: Marijuana, Nicotine, Cycling, Pelvic Floor, Alcohol, Fat (02:06:08) Prostate Health & Tadalafil, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) (02:09:56) Hair Loss & DHT; Turmeric & Curcuminoids (02:18:13) BPAs, Phthalates & Hormone Health (02:21:55) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/12/20222 hours, 20 minutes, 43 seconds
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AMA #2: Improve Sleep, Reduce Sugar Cravings, Optimal Protein Intake, Stretching Frequency & More

Welcome to a preview of the second Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of the Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:54) Are there any science-backed protocols to increase deep sleep? (00:28:11) Huberman Lab Premium In the full 1.5 hour AMA episode, we discuss: What is your studying routine? What's the ideal amount of protein intake? Any tips to eliminate sugar cravings? What can we do when we wake up early in the morning before the sun is up and can’t benefit from direct sunlight exposure? Is it better to do shorter bouts of dynamic stretching more frequently throughout the day or longer bouts but multiple times per week? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac The Huberman Lab podcast is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user’s own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions.
12/8/202230 minutes, 30 seconds
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Using Caffeine to Optimize Mental & Physical Performance

In this episode, I explain how to use caffeine to enhance mental and physical health and performance, including the optimal dosages and intake schedules for caffeine. I explain how caffeine powerfully reinforces the consumption of certain foods and drinks—thereby increasing how much we like their tastes and seek them out. I discuss the mechanisms by which caffeine increases focus, alertness and mood and reduces sleepiness. I also explain many practical tools for caffeine use, including delaying caffeine intake after waking, intermittent caffeine use, during fasting, before and during exercise, and the use of theanine to curb jitters caused by caffeine. I also discuss the positive effects of caffeine on overall health and longevity and address several myths about caffeine. Since caffeine is one of the most commonly used substances (more than 90% of adults use caffeine daily!), this episode provides actionable tips for adjusting caffeine consumption to positively impact performance and health, including sleep. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Caffeine (00:02:58) Tool: GLP-1, Yerba Mate, Satiety & Weight Loss (00:11:22) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:15:23) Caffeine Benefits for Mental & Physical Performance (00:20:23) Caffeine in Nature & Positive Reinforcement (00:26:44) Caffeine Effects on Brain; Reward Pathways (00:29:55) Caffeine as a Reinforcing Agent (00:35:55) Sponsor: AG1 (00:38:01) Caffeine, Adenosine & Reduced Sleepiness  (00:45:16) Tool: Caffeine Dosage, Caffeine Adapted (00:53:44) Tool: Delayed Caffeine Intake, Afternoon Crash & Sleep (01:04:46) Morning Exercise & Residual Caffeine Effects (01:07:56) Tool: Theanine & Jitteriness; Fasting, Intermittent Caffeine Use  (01:13:00) Theanine: Effects & Dosage (01:18:41) InsideTracker (01:19:45) Other Effects: Osteoporosis, Hormone Levels, Depression (01:27:41) Afternoon Caffeine & Sleep (01:31:45) Tool: Caffeine & Mental/Physical Performance; Cortisol & Caffeine Abstinence (01:46:04) Caffeine, Performance & Menstrual Cycle (01:47:27) Tool: Memory & Caffeine Timing; Adrenaline & Cold Exposure (01:54:08) Caffeine & Naps (01:56:34) Tool: Exercise, Caffeine, Dopamine & Positive Reinforcement  (02:01:55) Dopamine Stacking (02:06:04) Scheduling Caffeine to Maximize Its Effects (02:08:33) Pro-Health Effects of Caffeine (02:13:38) Tool: Sugar Cravings & Reinforcing Effects of Caffeine  (02:20:17) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/5/20222 hours, 18 minutes, 38 seconds
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Dr. Lex Fridman: Navigating Conflict, Finding Purpose & Maintaining Drive

My guest this episode is Lex Fridman, Ph.D., a Research Scientist at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology (MIT), an expert on artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics, and the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast. We discuss Lex’s recent trip to the heart of the Ukrainian-Russian War, geopolitics, perspectives on people living in war zones, the shared human experience, and how information is communicated and controlled. As an experienced podcaster and public educator, Dr. Fridman offers unique insights into the art of holding conversations that grow understanding, especially when they involve people with opposing viewpoints. We also discuss the peer-review process for scientific research publications and how social media and podcasts are evolving the way science and technology are communicated. We consider how to find and follow your life’s purpose, maintain ongoing motivation and implement support systems to build and sustain momentum. Our conversation also covers capitalism, masculinity, chess and cheating, Lex’s idea for an AI robotics start-up and a Q&A from audience questions solicited on social media. As one of the main inspirations for the Huberman Lab podcast, hosting Dr. Fridman for this special centennial episode was an honor and a pleasure! For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Lex Fridman (00:04:46) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:28) Podcasting (00:12:11) Ukraine, Russia, War & Geopolitics (00:23:17) Conflict & Generalized Hate (00:26:23) Typical Day in Ukraine; American Military & Information Wars (00:36:56) Sponsor: AG1 (00:38:42) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Sauna; Fertility (00:46:44) Ukraine: Science, Infrastructure & Military; Zelensky (00:53:33) Firearms; Violence & Sensitization (00:57:40) MIT & Artificial Intelligence (AI), University Teaching & Pandemic (01:05:51) Publications & Peer Review, Research, Social Media (01:13:05) InsideTracker (01:14:17) Twitter & Social Media Mindset, Andrew Tate & Masculinity (01:26:05) Donald Trump & Anthony Fauci; Ideological Extremes (01:35:11) Biotechnology & Biopharma; Money & Status (01:45:08) Robotics, AI & Social Media; Start-ups (01:53:50) Motivation & Competition; Relationships (02:01:55) Jobs; A Career vs. A Calling; Robotics & Relationships (02:12:11) Chess, Poker & Cheating (02:22:25) Ideas of Lately (02:24:44) Why Lex Wears a Suit & Tie (02:27:50) Is There an AI Equivalent of Psychedelics?  (02:29:06) Hardest Jiu-Jitsu Belt to Achieve (02:32:07) Advice to Young People (02:39:29) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/28/20222 hours, 38 minutes, 10 seconds
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Dr. Chris Palmer: Diet & Nutrition for Mental Health

My guest this episode is Chris Palmer, M.D., a board-certified psychiatrist and assistant professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He explains the important connection between nutrition, metabolism and mental health and his pioneering work using the ketogenic diet to successfully treat patients with various mental illnesses, including depression and schizophrenia. Dr. Palmer explains how the ketogenic diet is an evidenced-based treatment for epilepsy, mimics the fasted state and can offset the cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s. He describes the key roles of mitochondria in mental health, how certain conditions likely arise from mitochondrial dysfunction, and how low-carbohydrate diets increase mitochondrial turnover to improve mental health. He also explains how low-carbohydrate diets positively impact the gut microbiome and weight loss, important risk factors for mitochondrial health such as marijuana and alcohol, and the best way to increase circulating ketones depending on individual needs. We also cover how a ketogenic diet impacts mood, sleep, and fertility. Dr. Palmer’s work stands as a revolutionary approach to mental health and disease that, given the prevalence of mental health challenges, should be of interest to people of all backgrounds and ages. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Chris Palmer, Mental Health & Metabolic Disorders (00:03:42) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:18) Nutrition & Mental Health (00:20:43) Low-Carb Diets & Anti-Depression, Fasting, Ketosis (00:27:52) Schizophrenia, Depression & Ketogenic Diet (00:33:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:38) Psychiatric Mediations, Diet Adherence (00:42:35) Highly Processed Foods, Ketones & Mental Health Benefits (00:46:51) Ketogenic Diet & Epilepsy Treatment (00:56:10) Ketogenic Diet & Mitochondria Health (00:57:05) Nutrition & Benefits for Neurologic/Psychiatric Disorders (01:05:44) Mitochondrial Function & Mental Health (01:15:12) InsideTracker (01:16:23) Mitophagy, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Aging & Diet (01:25:09) Neurons, Mitochondria & Blood Glucose (01:31:54) Obesity, Ketogenic Diet & Mitochondria (01:40:00) Mitochondrial Function: Inheritance, Risk Factors, Marijuana  (01:46:34) Alcohol & Ketogenic Diet (01:55:21) Brain Imaging, Alzheimer’s Disease & Ketones (02:01:05) Exogenous (Liquid) Ketones vs. Ketogenic Diet (02:06:27) Neuronal Damage, Ketones & Glucose  (02:10:16) Alzheimer’s Disease, Age-Related Cognitive Decline & Ketogenic Diet (02:23:45) Ketogenic Diet & Weight Loss (02:35:47) Ketogenic Diet & Fasting, Hypomania, Sleep (02:46:37) Low Carbohydrate Diets, Menstrual Cycles, Fertility (02:52:23) Obesity Epidemic, Semaglutide & GLP-1 Medications  (03:01:01) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/21/20223 hours, 12 seconds
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Science-Based Tools for Increasing Happiness

I explain the science of happiness, including the different types of happiness and how our actions, circumstances and mindset control them. While it is difficult to standardize happiness from one person to the next, I outline a structured framework of what is critical to increasing your innate “natural happiness,” including financial security, purposeful work and relationships, and I explain specific tools to increase internal happiness (so-called “synthetic happiness”). I review how specific types of human connection and attention to our choices (or lack thereof) can increase or undermine our level of happiness. I also discuss the importance of certain types of physical contact, gratitude, financial choices and volunteer contributions that research shows can maximize happiness. And I discuss how factors such as children, pets, physical well-being, substance use, prior traumas and life-phase milestones affect our quest for and depth of happiness. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors Athletic Greens: https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Happiness (00:06:27) Tool: Light Exposure Timing & Brightness Timing (00:14:30) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:17:51) Imprecise Language for Happiness (00:20:26) Happiness: Neuromodulators & Neurotransmitters  (00:26:32) Harvard Happiness Project  (00:29:22) Income & Happiness; Social Interactions & Peer Group  (00:37:20) Work, Sense of Meaning & Happiness (00:40:13) Toolkit for General Wellbeing (00:43:06) Happiness Across the Lifespan, Does Having Children Make Us Happier? (00:47:20) Sponsor: AG1 (00:50:20) Birthdays & Evaluated Happiness (00:52:45) Smoking, Alcohol & Happiness (00:54:23) Trauma & Happiness, Lottery Winner vs. Paraplegic Accident (01:05:05) Synthesizing Happiness (01:09:18) Natural Happiness & Synthetic Happiness; Music (01:13:45) Tool: Synthesizing Happiness: Effort, Environment & Gratitude (01:24:50) Tool: Pro-Social Spending/Effort, Happiness (01:31:55) Tool: Focus, Wandering Mind & Meditation  (01:39:40) Tool: Quality Social Connection (01:41:28) Brief Social Connection, Facial Recognition & Predictability (01:46:33) Deep Social Connection, Presence & Eye Contact (01:54:00) Physical Contact & Social Connection, Allogrooming, Pets (02:03:00) Freedom & Choice; Synthetic Happiness (02:11:57) Happiness Toolkit (02:22:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/14/20222 hours, 21 minutes, 37 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Los Angeles, CA

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting a live event in Los Angeles, CA. This event was part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of the evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Los Angeles, CA. Get notified when new live events are announced: https://hubermanlab.com/tour Thank you to our sponsors Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:52) Sponsors: Eight Sleep & Momentous (00:02:23) What Occurs in the Mind/Body When You Have ADHD? Are There Ways to Address It Without Medication? (00:11:55) As a Teenager, What Are 5 Things You Would Recommend to Physically Feel My Best? (00:14:42) Should We Wait to Feel the Rise of Adrenaline and the Fall of It Before Bailing From Cold Water? (00:24:03) What Is the Competing Mechanism Behind Bilateral Eye Movement (EMDR & Walking) That Helps Resolve Psychological Trauma? (00:28:07) What New Research or Interventions Are You Most Excited About in the Health & Wellness Realm? (00:37:30) What Lessons From Skateboarding Have You Learned That Can Be Applied to Neuroscience? (00:39:03) Favorite Feynman Story (00:42:10) Do You Suppose This Physiological Stress Regulator Transcends Species? (00:47:20) Is There Any Science Behind Staying Motivated or Developing Discipline? (00:50:48) What Would Be Your Biggest Piece of Advice for Achieving One's Dreams? (00:57:09) What's Your Opinion on Psilocybin? (01:01:07) Why Does My Desire to Eat Disappear After I Use the Sauna? (01:02:26) Conclusion Huberman Lab is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user’s own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions. Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac
11/9/20221 hour, 3 minutes, 37 seconds
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Dr. Layne Norton: The Science of Eating for Health, Fat Loss & Lean Muscle

My guest is Layne Norton, Ph.D. — one of the world’s foremost experts in nutrition, protein metabolism, muscle gain and fat loss. We discuss the science of energy utilization and balance, the efficacy of different diets (e.g., ketogenic, vegan, vegetarian, carnivore, omnivore), and how best to build lean muscle mass and lose fat. We also discuss optimal protein and fiber intake, the best sources of protein, the correlation between appetite, satiety signals and exercise, along with male and female-specific needs. Dr. Norton also explains how to support a healthy gut microbiome and offers insight into sugar and artificial sweeteners, processed, cooked, and raw foods, supplements, seed oils, and the relationship of LDL/HDL levels to cardiovascular health. This episode serves as a master class in nutrition, metabolism and exercise and is sure to benefit people of all ages and with different health and fitness goals. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Layne Norton, Nutrition & Fitness (00:03:10) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:50) Calories & Cellular Energy Production (00:12:35) Energy Balance, Food Labels, Fiber (00:15:19) Resting Metabolic Rate, Thermic Effect of Food (00:19:04) Exercise & Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis (NEAT) (00:25:49) Losing Weight, Tracking Calories, Daily Weighing (00:29:24) Post-Exercise Metabolic Rate, Appetite (00:34:35) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:19) Exercise & Appetite, Calorie Trackers, Placebo Effects & Beliefs (00:43:46) Exercise & Satiety Signals, Maintain Weight Loss & Identity (00:56:32) Weight Loss & Maintenance, Diet Adherence (01:03:33) Restrictive Diets & Transition Periods (01:08:03) Gut Health & Appetite (01:16:23) Tool: Supporting Gut Health, Fiber & Longevity (01:23:59) LDL, HDL & Cardiovascular Disease (01:30:31) Leucine, mTOR & Protein Synthesis (01:37:31) Tool: Daily Protein Intake & Muscle Mass (01:44:24) Protein & Fasting, Lean Body Mass (01:55:38) Plant-Based Proteins: Whey, Soy, Leucine, Corn, Pea (02:04:28) Processed Foods (02:11:54) Obesity Epidemic, Calorie Intake & Energy Output (02:17:33) Obesity, Sugar & Fiber, Restriction & Craving (02:25:57) Artificial Sweeteners & Blood Sugar (02:38:55) Artificial Sweeteners & Gut Microbiome, Sucralose, Blood Sugar (02:50:19) Rapid Weight Loss, Satiety & Beliefs (02:58:13) Seed Oils & Obesity, Saturated Fat, Overall Energy Toxicity (03:08:15) Females, Diet, Exercise & Menstrual Cycles (03:14:05) Raw vs. Cooked Foods (03:16:32) Berberine & Glucose Scavenging (03:19:12) Fiber & Gastric Emptying Time (03:21:00) Supplements, Creatine Monohydrate, Rhodiola Rosea (03:30:33) Hard Training; Challenge & Mental Resilience (03:36:12) Carbon App (03:47:11) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/7/20223 hours, 47 minutes, 13 seconds
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AMA #1: Leveraging Ultradian Cycles, How to Protect Your Brain, Seed Oils Examined and More

Welcome to a preview of the first Ask Me Anything (AMA) episode, part of Huberman Lab Premium subscription. The Huberman Lab Premium subscription was launched for two main reasons. First, it was launched in order to raise support for the standard Huberman Lab podcast channel — which will continue to come out every Monday at zero-cost. Second, it was launched as a means to raise funds for important scientific research. A significant portion of proceeds from the Huberman Lab Premium subscription will fund human research (not animal models) selected by Dr. Huberman, with a dollar-for-dollar match from the Tiny Foundation. Subscribe to Huberman Lab Premium at https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:09) How do you use ultradian cycles in your daily work? (00:22:38) Huberman Lab Premium In the full 2 hour+ AMA episode, we discuss: Neuroplasticity and dementias (Alzheimer's, MS, Parkinson's) — Protocols for protecting the brain? Zone 2 training What do you do when you live in a northern climate and the sun doesn't rise until hours after you are up? Morning routine for people who work from 8 am to 5 pm Best productivity method: to-do list or time-blocking everything on a calendar? Seed oils and metabolic disease Do recommendations and protocols you give change with age (beyond 60)? What advice would you give to your younger self? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Huberman Lab is for general informational purposes only and does not constitute the practice of medicine, nursing or other professional health care services, including the giving of medical advice, and no doctor/patient relationship is formed. The use of information on this podcast or materials linked from this podcast is at the user’s own risk. The content of this podcast is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Users should not disregard or delay in obtaining medical advice for any medical condition they may have and should seek the assistance of their health care professionals for any such conditions.
11/2/202224 minutes, 56 seconds
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How Meditation Works & Science-Based Effective Meditations

In this episode, I discuss the biological mechanisms of the state changes that occur during different types of meditation and describe how to develop the meditation practice optimal for you. I explain key meditation principles, such as using specific breathwork patterns and adjusting your perception to specific locations along the continuum between interoception, exteroception and dissociation. I discuss how meditation practices lead to long-term trait changes and neuroplasticity, including changing your default mood, reducing baseline anxiety/depression, increasing your ability to focus, enhancing relaxation, improving sleep, and increasing your overall happiness level. I also explain the concept behind the “third-eye center,” what mindfulness is from a biological standpoint, the power of ultra-brief meditations and how to select the best meditation and time and duration to meditate to meet your need. I also explain a novel open-eyed perception-based meditation that may enhance focus, relaxation and task-switching ability. Whether you are a novice or an experienced meditator or simply interested in how our brain controls different aspects of conscious awareness and self-regulation, this episode should interest you. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Meditation (00:04:48) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:25) Brief History of Meditation: Consciousness, Psychedelics, fMRI (00:16:19) How the Brain Interprets the Body & Surrounding Environment; Mindfulness (00:26:07) Neuroscience of Meditation; Perceptual Spotlights (00:31:58) Sponsor: AG1 (00:33:41) Interoception vs. Exteroception (00:42:20) Default Mode Network, Continuum of Interoception & Exteroception (00:53:30) Tools: Interoceptive or Exteroceptive Bias, Meditation Challenge (01:01:48) State & Trait Changes, Interoceptive & Exteroceptive Meditations, Refocusing (01:07:35) Tool: Brief Meditations, Waking Up App (01:10:30) “Third Eye Center” & Wandering Thoughts (01:20:46) Meditation: Practice Types, Focal Points & Consistency (01:24:10) Breathwork: Cyclic Hyperventilation, Box Breathing & Interoception (01:30:41) Tool: Meditation Breathwork, Cyclic vs. Complex Breathwork (01:39:22) Interoception vs. Dissociation, Trauma (01:47:43) Model of Interoception & Dissociation Continuum (01:53:39) Meditation & Dissociation: Mood, Bias & Corresponding Challenge (02:00:18) Meditation & Sleep: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (02:11:33) Choosing a Meditative Practice; Hypnosis (02:14:53) Tool: Space-Time Bridging (STB) (02:25:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/31/20222 hours, 23 minutes, 39 seconds
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Dr. Eddie Chang: The Science of Learning & Speaking Languages

My guest is Eddie Chang, MD, a neurosurgeon and professor of neurological surgery at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and the co-director of the Center for Neural Engineering & Prostheses. We discuss the brain mechanisms underlying speech, language learning and comprehension, communicating human emotion with words and hand gestures, bilingualism and language disorders, such as stuttering. Dr. Chang also explains his work developing and applying state-of-the-art technology to decode speech and using that information and artificial intelligence (AI) to successfully restore communication to patients who have suffered paralyzing injuries or “locked in syndrome.” We also discuss his work treating patients with epilepsy. Finally, we consider the future: how modern neuroscience is overturning textbook medical books, the impact of digital technology such as smartphones on language and the future of natural and computer-assisted human communication. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Eddie Chang, Speech & Language (00:03:16) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:19) Neuroplasticity, Learning of Speech & Environmental Sounds (00:13:10) White Noise Machines, Infant Sleep & Sensitization (00:17:26) Mapping Speech & Language in the Brain (00:24:26) Emotion; Anxiety & Epilepsy (00:30:19) Epilepsy, Medications & Neurosurgery (00:33:01) Ketogenic Diet & Epilepsy (00:34:04) Sponsor: AG1 (00:36:10) Absence Seizures, Nocturnal Seizures & Other Seizure Types (00:41:08) Brain Areas for Speech & Language, Broca’s & Wernicke’s Areas, New Findings (00:53:23) Lateralization of Speech/Language & Handedness, Strokes (00:59:05) Bilingualism, Shared Language Circuits (01:01:18) Speech vs. Language, Signal Transduction from Ear to Brain (01:12:38) Shaping Breath: Larynx, Vocal Folds & Pharynx; Vocalizations (01:17:37) Mapping Language in the Brain (01:20:26) Plosives & Consonant Clusters; Learning Multiple Languages (01:25:07) Motor Patterns of Speech & Language (01:28:33) Reading & Writing; Dyslexia & Treatments (01:34:47) Evolution of Language (01:37:54) Stroke & Foreign Accent Syndrome (01:40:31) Auditory Memory, Long-Term Motor Memory (01:45:26) Paralysis, ALS, “Locked-In Syndrome” & Brain Computer Interface (BCI) (02:02:14) Neuralink, BCI, Superhuman Skills & Augmentation (02:10:21) Non-Verbal Communication, Facial Expressions, BCI & Avatars (02:17:35) Stutter, Anxiety & Treatment (02:22:55) Tools: Practices for Maintaining Calm Under Extreme Demands (02:31:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab Premium, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/24/20222 hours, 31 minutes, 40 seconds
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Fitness Toolkit: Protocol & Tools to Optimize Physical Health

I describe a fitness protocol that maximizes all the major sought-after aspects of physical fitness, including strength, endurance and flexibility. I discuss fundamentals of resistance training protocols, including repetitions, sets, inter-set and inter-workout rest periods and periodization of intensity and volume to improve strength and hypertrophy. I also explain how to integrate this with endurance training across the week by controlling the duration, timing and intensity of cardiovascular workouts. I also cover science-based protocols on leveraging the mind-body connection, deliberate breathing (during and after exercise), stretching, deliberate heat and cold exposure, and non-sleep deep rest (NSDR) for better workout performance and faster recovery. Further, I tackle a range of real-world issues that can affect a consistent training schedule, such as whether you should train if you are sick, have had a poor night of sleep or had a stressful event and how to start training again after a break and whether you should train in a fasted or fed state. Physical fitness is a key variable for immediate and long-term health. This episode provides a modifiable “foundational” template that can be adjusted based on your current fitness level, goals, time constraints, and access to different types of equipment. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Foundational Protocol for Fitness (00:04:35) Tool: Soleus (Calf) Push-Ups, Glucose Utilization & Metabolism (00:13:49) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:18:53) Core Principles of Fitness & Modifiable Variables (00:23:37) Day 1: Long Endurance Workout (00:34:38) Day 2: Leg Resistance Training, Strength & Hypertrophy (00:36:13) Sponsor: AG1 (00:39:22) Key Principles of Resistance Training (00:51:10) Day 3: Heat & Cold Exposure, Recovery (01:00:35) Day 4: Torso & Neck Resistance Training (01:09:55) Day 5: Moderate Intensity Cardiovascular Training, Running Alternatives (01:16:43) Day 6: High-Intensity Interval Training, Maximum Heart Rate (01:24:10) Day 7: Arms, Neck & Calves Resistance Training (01:28:45) Flexibility of Foundational Protocol, Workout Spacing (01:33:00) Tool: Mind-Muscle Contraction, Physiological Sighs  (01:37:10) Safety & Endurance/Cardiovascular Workouts (01:38:32) Tool: Stress or Poor Sleep & Workouts, Recovery & NSDR (01:41:20) Should You Train Fasted or Fed? (01:43:58) Tool: Static Stretching & Flexibility, Irradiation & Resistance Training (01:49:10) Tool: Hanging from a Bar & Fitness Metric  (01:50:16) Should You Train Sick?, Ramping Training (01:53:33) Tool: Deliberate Slow Breathing & Recovery (01:55:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab Premium, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/17/20221 hour, 55 minutes, 16 seconds
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Dr. Nolan Williams: Psychedelics & Neurostimulation for Brain Rewiring

In this episode, my guest is Nolan Williams, M.D., a triple board-certified psychiatrist, neurologist and professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford School of Medicine. He is also the Director of the Stanford Brain Stimulation Lab. We discuss clinical applications for brain stimulation, behavioral protocols and novel drug treatments to halt and reverse mental health disorders, including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We first discuss the neural circuits for self-identity and mood and stress control. We discuss Dr. Williams’ work using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to depression, trauma, PTSD, and other mood disorders. We then dive deep into the history, biology, modern use, and safety margins of the various psychedelics, including MDMA, LSD, ketamine, ibogaine, ayahuasca, and psilocybin, as well as cannabis and the use of SSRIs in both adults and children. Finally, we discuss behavioral treatments for mental health disorders, including sleep and sleep deprivation, light exposure, exercise, and training to control the brain-heart-rate pathways. Regardless of age, all those interested in mental health should benefit from the incredible breadth and depth of Dr. Williams’ knowledge and the clarity with which he conveys that information. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Nolan Williams, Brain Stimulation & Depression Treatment (00:03:48) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:37) Momentous Supplements (00:09:16) Depression, Risk Factors, Emergency Psychiatric Treatments (00:15:11) The Brain-Heart Connection, Vagus Nerve, Prefrontal Cortex (00:17:51) Right vs. Left Brain Hemispheres & Mood Balance, Connectome (00:22:34) Heart Rate & Depression, Behavioral Interventions, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (00:33:02) Prefrontal Cortex & Cognitive Control, TMS (00:35:30) Sponsor: AG1 (00:39:00) Belief/Identity “Rules”, Re-scripting, TMS & Talk Therapy (00:45:49) Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, TMS & Depression Treatment (00:48:36) Cingulate Cortex & Emotion, Dissociation & Catatonia (00:54:27) Ketamine, the Opioid System & Depression; Psychedelic Experience or Biology? (01:03:42) SSRIs, Serotonin & Depression; Childhood, Chemical Imbalance or Circuit? (01:13:58) Memories & “Rule” Creation; Psilocybin & “Rule” Resolution (01:21:00) MDMA & Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Treatment, Psilocybin & Depression Treatment (01:24:12) Is MDMA Neurotoxic?, Drug Purity, Dopamine Surges, Post-MDMA Prolactin (01:30:38) Psilocybin, Brain Connectivity & Depression Treatment (01:34:53) Exposure Response Prevention: “Letting Go” & Depression Treatment (01:41:23) Normal Spectrums for Mental Health Disorders (01:45:35) Ibogaine & “Life Review”; PTSD, Depression & Clinical Trials (01:57:16) Clinical Use of Psychedelics (02:01:59) Ayahuasca, Brazilian Prisoner Study (02:06:55) Cannabis: THC, CBD & Psychosis, Clinical Uses (02:14:52) Personal Relative Drug Risk & Alcohol (02:20:42) Circadian Reset for Depression, Sleep Deprivation, Light (02:28:43) Stanford Neuromodulation Therapy (SNT) Study (02:34:25) Space Learning Theory & TMS Stimulation (02:45:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Huberman Lab Premium, Neural Network Newsletter, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/10/20222 hours, 44 minutes, 46 seconds
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The Effects of Cannabis (Marijuana) on the Brain & Body

In this episode, I discuss cannabis (aka marijuana), including the biological mechanisms underlying its effects on the mind and body, its known medical applications, its impact on libido, creativity, hunger, hormones and more. I also cover the known adverse health consequences of chronic and even acute (one-time) use and the factors that determine if cannabis is helpful or harmful. Additionally, I detail how the various strains of cannabis: sativa, indica and hybrid strains, can produce such divergent effects depending on the strain type, THC-to-CBD ratio, total dosage, and frequency of use. I review why cannabis can impact speech patterns and one’s propensity to develop anxiety/depression during and after use and, in some individuals, paranoia. As the legal landscape for cannabis is rapidly evolving, this episode should interest a wide audience, including former/current cannabis users, those in the medical, sports, law enforcement, and educational communities and, of course, children, teenagers, and parents. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Huberman Lab Premium https://hubermanlab.com/premium Timestamps (00:00:00) Cannabis (Marijuana) (00:005:02) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:03) Tool: Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR), Sleep & Anxiety (00:15:08) Cannabis Strains, Psychoactive Compounds: THC & CBD (00:19:34) Sativa vs. Indica, Stimulant vs. Relaxation Effects (00:25:55) Hybrid Cannabis Strains, Type 1, 2 & 3 Strains (00:31:56) Naturally Occurring Receptors: Nicotinic & Cannabinoid Receptors (CB1) (00:35:18) Sponsor: AG1 (00:40:35) THC, CBD vs. Endogenous Cannabinoids, Dependence (00:43:14) Endogenous Cannabinoids, Cannabinoid Receptors & Nervous System Function (00:53:07) Biological Effects of Cannabis (00:56:29) Cannabis Sativa & Subjective Effects: Mood, Stress, Alertness, Paranoia (01:04:58) Cannabis Indica & Subjective Effects, Memory, Dosage (01:09:41) Brain Areas Affected by THC & CBD, Side Effects (01:16:08) Creativity: Convergent vs. Divergent Thinking & Dopamine (01:26:41) Does Cannabis Increase Creativity? (01:35:08) Chronic Cannabis Use & Changes in Speech Patterns (01:46:46) Cannabis & Libido, Dopamine & Prolactin (01:56:55) Cannabis & Hormones: Prolactin, Testosterone, Estrogen & Fertility (02:06:53) Smoking/Vaping Tobacco or Cannabis & Negative Health Consequences (02:10:06) Avoiding Cannabis During Pregnancy/Breastfeeding, Fetal Neural Development (02:18:13) Negative Health Consequences of Cannabis, Anxiety & Depression, Tolerance (02:25:57) Cannabis Use & Adolescence/Young Adulthood, Predisposition to Psychosis (02:34:36) Adolescent Cannabis Use: Brain Development & Mental Health Disorders (02:41:44) Cannabis & Pain Management, Divergent Effects of Cannabis (02:44:54) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Huberman Lab Premium, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/3/20222 hours, 38 minutes, 46 seconds
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Dr. Casey Halpern: Biology & Treatments for Compulsive Behaviors & Binge Eating

My guest is Casey Halpern, M.D., Chief of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery and Professor of Neurosurgery at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Halpern’s research and clinical practice focus on using deep brain stimulation to treat compulsive and movement disorders (e.g., binge eating disorders, bulimia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Parkinson’s disease essential tremor, dystonia). We discuss using deep brain stimulation to help patients who suffer from movement and compulsive disorders and applying this treatment to patients afflicted with binge eating. We also explore applications of this technology to other conditions such as OCD, anorexia and tremor, and the future therapeutic directions of the use of non-invasive brain stimulation approaches, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and ultrasound, for the treatment of other psychiatric illnesses and conditions. This episode will interest those curious about the biology of eating, anorexia, bulimia, compulsive thoughts and behaviors, and movement. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Casey Halpern & Disordered Eating & Brain Stimulation (00:03:35) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:28) Neurosurgeon’s View of the Brain, Neurosurgery Specialization (00:13:05) Deep Brain Stimulation & Other Unexpected Positive Effects (00:17:20) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), Prescriptions & Cognitive Therapies (00:25:40) Brain Areas in OCD, Risk, Rewards & Addiction (00:29:30) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:27) Facial and Vocal Ticks, Stimulants, Stress & Superstition (00:39:28) Nucleus Accumbens, Reward Circuits, Eating Disorders & Obesity (00:47:18) Stimulation of Nucleus Accumbens, Continuous vs. Episodic Stimulation (00:49:49) Binge Eating Disorder & Loss of Control Eating (00:53:02) Developing Binge Eating Disorder: Predisposition, Environment, Stress (01:02:07) Electrodes in Nucleus Accumbens, Identifying “Craving Cells” (01:11:41) Effects of Stimulation, Interrupting Craving, Intermediate Stimulation (01:16:46) Anorexia, Obesity & Compulsions, Potential Treatments for Anorexia (01:23:14) Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (01:32:27) MRI-Guided Focused Ultrasound: Tremor, Essential Tremor & Parkinson’s (01:36:40) Future of Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Epilepsy & Depression (01:41:51) Pre-Behavioral States in Compulsion & Awareness, Mood Provocation (01:48:02) Machine Learning/Artificial Intelligence & Compulsion Predictions (01:53:05) Neurosurgeon Hands, Resistance Training & Deadlifts (01:59:00) “Neurosurgeon Calm,” Quality Time & Prioritization, Neurosurgeon Training (02:09:53) Daily Habits: Sleep, Exercise, Mediation (02:11:59) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/26/20222 hours, 11 minutes
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Nicotine’s Effects on the Brain & Body & How to Quit Smoking or Vaping

In this episode, I explain how nicotine impacts the brain and body, including its potent ability to enhance attention, focus, and alertness, increase blood pressure and metabolism and reduce appetite. I discuss nicotine’s ability to increase the action of neurochemicals, including dopamine, norepinephrine, and acetylcholine and activate sympathetic (alertness-promoting) neural circuits. I also discuss common nicotine delivery methods, such as cigarettes, vaping, dip, and snuff, and how they each create their own unique experience and how they, but not nicotine itself, cause cancer and other adverse health effects. I also explain science-based tools to permanently quit smoking cigarettes or vaping, including peer-reviewed clinical hypnosis tools, antidepressants, and alternative nicotine replacement (patches, lozenges, gums etc.). As nicotine is one of the most widely used substances with billions of users — most of whom report wanting to quit — this episode ought to be of interest to former/current nicotine users, those who want to quit smoking or vaping and/or those interested in learning the biology behind how nicotine impacts the brain and body. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Nicotine (00:03:41) Tool: Brief Daily Meditation & Focus (00:05:59) The Arrow Model of Focus, Alpha GPC & Garlic Supplements (00:10:05) Sponsor: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:14:35) Nicotine Effects vs. Methods of Delivery, Acetylcholine (00:19:55) Where is Nicotine Found? Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (00:25:12) Nicotine & Effects on the Brain: Appetite, Dopamine & GABA (00:29:37) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:11) Nicotine, Acetylcholine & Attentional “Spotlighting” (00:37:29) Nicotine, Norepinephrine & Alertness/Energy (00:41:10) Nicotine & Effects on Appetite & Metabolism (00:46:47) Nicotine & Effects on Body: Sympathetic Tone (00:51:29) Nicotine & Cognitive Work vs. Physical Performance (00:55:08) Nicotine Delivery Methods & Side Effects, Young People & Dependency (00:58:35) Smoking, Vaping, Dipping & Snuffing: Carcinogens & Endothelial Cells (01:02:34) Smoking, Vaping, Dipping & Snuffing: Negative Impacts on Lifespan & Health (01:09:23) How to Quit Smoking, Nicotine Cravings & Withdrawal (01:13:56) Vaping & Nicotine, Rates of Effect Onset, Dopamine, Addiction & Depression (01:25:06) Tool: Quitting Smoking & Clinical Hypnosis, Reveri (01:30:16) Bupropion (Wellbutrin) & Quitting Smoking (01:36:24) Tool: A Nicotine Replacement Schedule to Quit Smoking, Nicotine Patch/Gum (01:41:52) Tool: Biological Homeostasis & Nicotine Withdrawal, The “First Week” Strategy (01:51:39) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Facebook Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/19/20221 hour, 50 minutes, 24 seconds
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Dr. David Anderson: The Biology of Aggression, Mating, & Arousal

My guest is David Anderson, PhD, a world expert in the science of sexual behavior, violent aggression, fear and other motivated states. Dr. Anderson is a Professor of Biology at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), a member of the National Academy of Sciences and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). We discuss how states of mind (and body) arise and persist and how they probably better explain human behavior than emotions per se. We also discuss the many kinds of arousal that create varying levels of pressure for certain behaviors to emerge. We discuss different types of violent aggression and how they are impacted by biological sex, gender, context, prior experience, and hormones, and the neural interconnectedness of fear, aggression and sexual behavior. We also discuss peptides and their role in social isolation-induced anxiety and aggression. Dr. Anderson also describes novel, potentially powerful therapeutics for mental health. This episode should interest anyone wanting to learn more about mental health, human emotions, sexual and/or violent behavior.   For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Anderson, Emotions & Aggression  (00:03:49) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:10) Emotions vs. States (00:10:36) Dimensions of States: Persistence, Intensity & Generalization (00:14:38) Arousal & Valence  (00:18:11) Aggression, Optogenetics & Stimulating Aggression in Mice, VMH (00:24:42) Aggression Types: Offensive, Defensive & Predatory  (00:29:20) Evolution & Development of Defensive vs. Offensive Behaviors, Fear (00:35:38) Hydraulic Pressures for States & Homeostasis (00:37:24) Sponsor: AG1 (00:39:46) Hydraulic Pressure & Aggression (00:44:50) Balancing Fear & Aggression (00:48:31) Aggression & Hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone (00:52:33) Female Aggression, Motherhood (00:59:48) Mating & Aggressive Behaviors  (01:05:10) Neurobiology of Sexual Fetishes  (01:10:06) Temperature, Mating Behavior & Aggression (01:15:25) Mounting: Sexual Behavior or Dominance? (01:20:59) Females & Male-Type Mounting Behavior (01:24:40) PAG (Periaqueductal Gray) Brain Region: Pain Modulation & Fear  (01:30:38) Tachykinins & Social Isolation: Anxiety, Fear & Aggression  (01:43:49) Brain, Body & Emotions; Somatic Marker Hypothesis & Vagus Nerve  (01:52:52) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/12/20221 hour, 52 minutes, 34 seconds
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Focus Toolkit: Tools to Improve Your Focus & Concentration

In this episode, I provide a list of behavioral, nutritional, and supplement-based tools you can use to improve your ability to get into a focused state to do mental or physical work. I explain science-supported strategies for transitioning into focus, maintaining focus during the work bout, and exiting the focus session, which is also critical, including decompression/defocusing tools. I explain when and how to use: binaural beats, caffeine, deliberate cold exposure, the pros and cons of working in fasted vs. fed states, and supplements and foods that enhance dopamine, epinephrine (i.e., adrenaline) and acetylcholine to promote optimal focus. Also, I explain how short behavioral practices, such as meditation and visual gaze training, will benefit your ability to focus over the long term. As deep focus is crucial to significantly improve cognitive or physical performance in any realm, this episode should be useful to anyone. By the end, you’ll have an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost focus and concentration strategies to select from that can be tailored to your physical and mental performance needs. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Focus Toolkit  (00:04:42) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:37) The “Arrow Model” of Focus: Epinephrine, Acetylcholine & Dopamine (00:15:15) Modulation vs. Mediation, Importance of Sleep (00:18:11) Tool: Binaural Beats to Improve Concentration  (00:20:54) Tool: White, Brown & Pink Noise, Transition to Focused State (00:22:55) Warm-Up for Cognitive Work, Refocusing Attention & Neuroplasticity  (00:26:14) Tool: Ultradian Cycles: Warm-Up, Maintaining Focus & Deliberate Defocusing  (00:31:22) How Many Daily Ultradian Cycles Can One Perform?  (00:32:28) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:35) Virtusan: Mental & Physical Health Journeys  (00:36:52) Tool: Fasted vs. Fed States & Focus, Prevent an Afternoon Crash, Ketosis (00:45:52) Tool: Foods to Improve Focus & Regulating Food Volume (00:47:53) Tool: Caffeine & Focused Work, Dopamine Efficacy, Alertness (00:52:55) Tool: Stress & Improved Concentration  (00:55:46) Tool: Deliberate Cold Exposure & Focus, Dopamine & Epinephrine  (01:00:39) Layer Focusing Tools & Design Your Own Protocols  (01:01:19) Tool: Short Meditation & Improved Ability to Refocus  (01:07:40) Tool: Yoga Nidra, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) & Defocus Periods (01:12:13) Tool: Hypnosis & Focus/Deep Relaxation States (01:16:07) Optimal Time of Day to Use Specific Tools (01:16:46) Tool: Overt Visual Focus & Deliberate Gaze  (01:20:42) Covert Visual Focus; Deliberate Gaze Warm-Up & Focused Work  (01:24:43) Tool: Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids  (01:27:28) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate  (01:29:10) Tool: Alpha-GPC & Acetylcholine, Increased Risk of Stroke? & Garlic  (01:33:52) Tool: L-Tyrosine Supplements & Food (01:34:47) Combining & Choosing Focus Tools, Variability  (01:36:50) ADHD Prescriptions, Training Neural Circuits, Maintenance & Reduced Dosage (01:39:19) Tool: Optimal Order Approaching Focus Tools, Prescriptions & Dependency  (01:42:56) Tool: Phenylethylamine & Dopamine (01:44:50) Tool: Other Supplements to Enhance Dopamine, Epinephrine & Acetylcholine  (01:46:46) Behavioral, Nutrition & Supplement Tools for Focus (01:49:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/5/20221 hour, 46 minutes, 27 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Portland, OR

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Portland, OR. Get notified when new live events are announced: https://hubermanlab.com/tour Thank you to our sponsors Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A (00:01:08) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker (00:01:36) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York (00:02:16) What Are the Current Best Practices for Post-TBIs? Thoughts on Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy? (00:08:03) Are There Effective Ways to Decrease Dopamine When You Get Too Much of It? (00:13:50) How and When to Improve Brain Plasticity if You Have 10 Minutes a Day? (00:17:51) How to Use Supplements to Optimize Health When Career Prevents Consistent Routines? (00:21:09) How Is Social Media Changing Our Brains? (00:25:10) What New Piece of Neurological Research Most Excites You? (00:28:35) Do You Believe in the Wim How Method? Does It Work? What's Happening in the Brain? (00:37:08) Can Red Light Therapy Help Treat Exercise Intolerance and Fatigue in Mitochondrial Disease? (00:40:39) Is It Possible to Over Do Ice Baths? (00:46:10) What Are Your Favorite Brain Hacks for Doing Hard Things? (00:48:25) What Do You Fear? How Do You Manage Fear? (00:50:05) Conclusion Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/31/202251 minutes, 30 seconds
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Dr. Erich Jarvis: The Neuroscience of Speech, Language & Music

My guest this episode is Dr. Erich Jarvis, PhD—Professor and the Head of the Laboratory of Neurogenetics of Language at Rockefeller University and Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI). Dr. Jarvis’ research spans the molecular and genetic mechanisms of vocal communication, comparative genomics of speech and language across species and the relationship between speech, language and movement. We discuss the unique ability of humans (and certain animal species) to learn and communicate using complex language, including verbal speech production and the ability to interpret both written and spoken language. We also discuss the connections between language, singing and dance and why song may have evolved before language. Dr. Jarvis also explains some of the underlying biological and genetic components of stutter/speech disorders, non-verbal communication, why it's easiest to learn a language as a child and how individuals can learn multiple languages at any age. This episode ought to be of interest to everyone interested in the origins of human speech, language, music and culture and how newer technology, such as social media and texting, change our brains.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Erich Jarvis & Vocal Communication (00:03:58) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:01) Speech vs. Language, Is There a Difference?   (00:10:55) Animal Communication, Hand Gestures & Language  (00:15:25) Vocalization & Innate Language, Evolution of Modern Language     (00:21:10) Humans & Songbirds, Critical Periods, Genetics, Speech Disorders  (00:27:11) Innate Predisposition to Learn Language, Cultural Hybridization (00:31:34) Genes for Speech & Language (00:35:49) Learning New or Multiple Languages, Critical Periods, Phonemes  (00:40:47) Sponsor: AG1 (00:42:52) Semantic vs. Effective Communication, Emotion, Singing (00:47:32) Singing, Link Between Dancing & Vocal Learning  (00:52:55) Motor Theory of Vocal Learning, Dance  (00:55:03) Music & Dance, Emotional Bonding, Genetic Predispositions (01:04:11) Facial Expressions & Language, Innate Expressions (01:09:35) Reading & Writing  (01:15:13) Writing by Hand vs. Typing, Thoughts & Writing (01:20:58) Stutter, Neurogenetics, Overcome Stutter, Conversations (01:26:58) Modern Language Evolution: Texting, Social Media & the Future (01:36:26) Movement: The Link to Cognitive Growth  (01:40:21) Comparative Genomics, Earth Biogenome Project, Genome Ark, Conservation (01:48:24) Evolution of Skin & Fur Color (01:51:22) Dr. Erich Jarvis, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Momentous Supplements, AG1 (Athletic Greens), Instagram, Twitter Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/29/20221 hour, 51 minutes, 35 seconds
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What Alcohol Does to Your Body, Brain & Health

In this episode, I discuss the physiological effects that drinking alcohol has on the brain and body at different levels of consumption and over time. I also describe genetic differences that predispose certain individuals to alcoholism, binge and habit-drinking. I explain alcohol metabolism in simple terms and how it effectively acts as a poison, leading to cellular stress and damage. I then explain that it impacts neuronal function and changes our thinking and behavior – hallmarks of inebriation. I also discuss how alcohol consumption of different amounts impacts inflammation, stress, neurodegeneration, and cancer risk and negatively impacts the gut microbiome, brain thickness, hormone balance, mood and feelings of motivation. Additionally, I discuss the biology of hangovers and describe science-based strategies to mitigate the severity of a hangover. Since alcohol is one of the most widely consumed recreational substances, this episode ought to be of relevance to everyone.  Indeed, even low-to-moderate alcohol consumption negatively impacts the brain and body in direct ways. The goal of this episode is to help people make informed decisions about their alcohol consumption that are in keeping with their mental and physical health goals.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Effects of Alcohol Consumption (00:03:19) Low to Moderate Alcohol Consumption & Neurodegeneration  (00:06:14) Sponsors: LMN, Thesis, Momentous (00:10:46) Historical Context & Uses of Alcohol  (00:13:28) Alcohol Metabolism, “Empty Calories”  (00:18:23) Inebriation: Top-Down Inhibition, Impulsivity & Memory Formation (00:24:23) Long-Lasting Effects & Impulsivity, Neuroplasticity & Reversibility  (00:27:55) Food & Alcohol Absorption (00:30:07) Alcohol & Serotonin, SSRIs & Depression, Risk for Alcoholism, Blackouts (00:37:39) Predisposition for Alcoholism; Chronic Consumption, Cortisol & Stress (00:43:29) Sponsor: AG1 (00:46:07) Genetic Predisposition for Alcoholism, Consuming Alcohol Too Young (00:52:27) Gut-Liver-Brain Axis: Alcohol, Gut Microbiome, Inflammation & Leaky Gut  (00:59:46) Tool: Improving/Replenishing Gut Microbiome  (01:02:44) Reducing Alcohol Consumption & Stress  (01:04:25) Hangover: Alcohol & Sleep, Anxiety, Headache (01:12:11) Hangover Recovery, Adrenaline & Deliberate Cold Exposure  (01:17:16) Hangover Recovery, Dehydration & Electrolytes (01:20:45) Types of Alcohol & Hangover Severity, Congeners   (01:25:25) Alcohol Tolerance, Dopamine & Serotonin, Pleasure-Pain Balance    (01:33:36) Are There Any Positive Effects of Alcohol?, Resveratrol  (01:35:42) Alcohol & Brain Thickness  (01:37:11) Alcohol & Cancer Risk: DNA Methylation, Breast Cancer Risk  (01:44:31) Mitigating Cancer Risk, Folate, B Vitamins  (01:46:54) Alcohol & Pregnancy, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  (01:50:58) Hormones: Testosterone & Estrogen Balance (01:55:09) Negative Effects of Alcohol Consumption  (01:58:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/22/20221 hour, 57 minutes, 45 seconds
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LIVE EVENT Q&A: Dr. Andrew Huberman Question & Answer in Seattle, WA

Recently I had the pleasure of hosting two live events, one in Seattle, WA and one in Portland, OR. These events were part of a lecture series called The Brain Body Contract. My favorite part of each evening was the question & answer period, where I had the opportunity to answer questions from the attendees of each event. Included here is the Q&A from our event in Seattle, WA. Get notified when new live events are announced: https://hubermanlab.com/tour Thank you to our sponsors Momentous: https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Brain Body Contract Q&A (00:01:07) Momentous Supplements, InsideTracker (00:01:35) Upcoming Live Events: Los Angeles & New York (00:02:16) What Is Your Most-Used Protocol? (00:04:12) Should You Vary Wake-Up Time Seasonally? (00:06:05) Why Is My Drive Depleted Upon Waking-Up? (00:08:42) What Are Your Favorite/Most Impactful Books? (00:12:08) What Excites You About the Future of Mental Health Treatment? (00:17:25) What Is the Biggest Area for Performance Enhancement? (00:21:44) Can You Still Do a Kickflip? (00:22:32) Tips on How to Improve Memory (00:24:54) How Do You Manage Social Media Addiction? (00:27:43) Were You Nervous Tonight/ How Did You Prepare? (00:29:10) Is Learning from Failure Equal to Learning from Success? (00:32:23) When Are You Going to Start Training Jiu-Jitsu? (00:33:28) Discuss the Supplements You Take (00:36:29) Advice or Protocols to Improve Learning & Retention (00:38:42) What Exciting Research/Work are You Doing? (00:40:22) How Does Dopamine Factor into Neuroplasticity? (00:43:12) What Advice Do You Have for Future Scientists? (00:46:47) Is Age 66 Too Old for Neuroplasticity & Learning? (00:48:00) How Do You Read Research Papers? (00:49:40) What is Your Favorite Condiment? (00:50:10) Most Important Takeaway from Your ADHD Research? (00:52:58) What Future Episodes Are in the Pipeline? Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/17/202256 minutes, 4 seconds
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Dr. Peter Attia: Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones for Vitality & Longevity

My guest this episode is Dr. Peter Attia, M.D., who trained at Stanford University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins Hospital and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Attia is host of The Drive podcast and is a world expert on behavioral approaches, nutritional interventions, supplementation and pharmacological techniques to improve lifespan, healthspan and athletic performance. We discuss how best to evaluate your health status using routine blood work, body scans and regular tests of physical strength and endurance. Dr. Attia explains what he uses with his patients to “back-cast” their health goals as a way to design their exercise and nutritional programs. We also discuss hormone modulation and replacement therapy for both men and women. We explain how cholesterol and related factors contribute to cardiovascular disease risk and how to monitor and mitigate that risk. Dr. Attia details various supplementation, nutrition, exercise and prescription approaches useful to people in every decade of life to improve vitality, reduce their risk of disease and increase the number of years sustaining peak cognitive and physical health.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Assessing Health Status & Improving Vitality  (00:03:07) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:29) Lifespan: Bloodwork & Biomarkers Testing, The “4 Horseman of Disease”  (00:11:51) Healthspan: Functional Testing, Cognitive & Emotional States  (00:13:59) Blood Testing: Best Frequency  (00:16:01) DEXA Scan: Lean Mass & Fat, Bone Mineral Density & Osteoporosis  (00:22:33) Bone Mineral Density & Age-Related Decline, Strength Training, Corticosteroids  (00:29:24) Osteopenia & Osteoporosis Diagnosis, Strength Training (00:29:52) Sponsor: AG1 (00:32:16) Back-casting: Defining Your “Marginal Decade”  (00:38:31) All-Cause Mortality: Smoking, Strength, VO2 max  (00:44:43) Attia’s Rule of Supplementation, “Centenarian Decathlete” Physical Goals (00:49:24) Importance of Exercise, Brain Health, MET hours  (00:55:23) Nicotine & Cognitive Focus (01:03:12) Menstruation, PMS & Menopause  (01:10:10) Hormone Replacement Therapy, Menopause & Breast Cancer Risk (01:22:06) Estrogen, Progesterone & Testosterone Therapies in Women (01:26:35) Hormone Replacement Therapy in Men, SHBG & Testosterone, Insulin (01:37:23) Clomid, Pituitary, Testosterone & Cholesterol, Anastrozole, HCG (01:47:46) Fadogia Agrestis, Supplements, Rapamycin  (01:52:06) Testosterone Replacement Therapy & Fertility  (01:59:26) Total Testosterone vs. Free Testosterone (02:02:51) Cholesterol & Dietary Cholesterol, Saturated Fat, LDL & HDL, Apolipoprotein B (02:17:42) Apolipoprotein B, Diet, Statins & Other Cholesterol Prescriptions  (02:25:15) Cardiovascular Disease, Age & Disease Risk  (02:28:53) Peptides, Stem Cells, BPC157, PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma), Injury Rehabilitation  (02:37:40) Metabolomics & Exercise  (02:40:44) GLP-1 & Weight Loss  (02:47:06) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter, Huberman Lab Clips Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/15/20222 hours, 47 minutes
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Sleep Toolkit: Tools for Optimizing Sleep & Sleep-Wake Timing

In this episode, I describe a comprehensive toolkit consisting of behavioral and supplement-based tools that you can customize to enhance the quality, duration and impact of your sleep. This has an enormous positive impact on your overall health and daytime functioning, brain, hormones and immune system. I teach you how to effectively harness light (and darkness), temperature, food, exercise, caffeine, supplements, and digital devices in order to fall asleep faster, stay deeply asleep longer and overall, and achieve better quality sleep. I also describe how these tools can be modified to recover quickly from a poor night’s sleep, jet lag or bouts of shift work. Given that sleep is the foundation of all mental health, physical health and performance, this episode should benefit everyone as it provides an essential toolkit of science-supported, low- to zero-cost strategies that can be tailored to optimize your sleep routine. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Eight Sleep: https://eightsleep.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Tools to Optimize Sleep (00:03:18) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous, Eight Sleep (00:08:24) Factors to Control Circadian Rhythm & Sleep (00:15:10) Morning Tool: Morning Sunlight Viewing, Cortisol (00:20:44) Morning Sunlight: Circadian Rhythm, Artificial Lights, Cloudy Days (00:26:18) Evaluating Light in Environment, Compensating for Missed Morning Light (00:29:01) Sponsor: AG1 (00:30:46) Morning Tools: Temperature & Deliberate Cold Exposure, Exercise (00:34:58) Timing Caffeine, “Afternoon Crash,” Exercise (00:40:08) Timing Eating, Alertness & Circadian Rhythm (00:45:20) 3 Daily Critical Periods (00:46:49) Afternoons: Naps, Deep Relaxation (NSDR, Self-Hypnosis), Exercise & Body Temperature, Caffeine (00:51:59) Afternoon Tools: Viewing Sunlight in Late Afternoon, Evening Light (00:56:45) Evening/Night Tools: Overhead Artificial Lights, Light Sensitivity (01:04:40) Evening Tools: Hot Bath/Sauna, Temperature & Sleeping Environment (01:09:40) Alcohol, THC & Reduced Sleep Quality; CBD, Anxiety & Falling Asleep (01:11:45) Sleep Supplements: Magnesium Threonate, Apigenin & Theanine (01:16:34) Melatonin Supplementation (Caution) (01:17:44) Additional Sleep Supplements: GABA, Glycine, Myo-Inositol & Anxiety (01:20:08) Falling Back Asleep: Reveri App, NSDR, Yoga Nidra (01:22:55) Staying Asleep: Eye Masks, Ear Plugs, Elevating Feet (01:24:58) Tool: Sleep Apnea & Nasal Breathing (01:28:20) Sleep Schedule Consistency, Weekends, Compensatory Sleep & Caffeine (01:31:14) Tools: Temperature Minimum & Jet Lag, Shift Work & Red Lights (01:37:38) Behavioral Tools for 3 Daily Critical Periods (01:39:26) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Huberman Lab Clips, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/8/20221 hour, 39 minutes, 30 seconds
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Dr. Emily Balcetis: Tools for Setting & Achieving Goals

My guest this episode is Dr. Emily Balcetis, PhD, Professor of Psychology at New York University (NYU). Dr. Balcetis’ research focuses on how our perception of the world, particularly our visual perceptions, influences our level and persistence of motivation, how we conceptualize goals, actual goal achievement, and our emotional state as we pursue goals. Dr. Balcetis explains how to best visualize and overcome challenges in pursuit of larger, complex goals. We also discuss the science of how to define goals and intermediate milestones, overcome obstacles, and effectively track progress. This episode highlights science-based, immediately actionable tools that anyone can use to set and achieve physical and/or cognitive goals more effectively. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Emily Balcetis, Visualization of Goals & Motivation (00:03:41) Sponsors: LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:08) Vision & Motivation (00:11:37) Tool: Narrowing Visual Focus & Improving Exercise (00:21:39) Adjusting Visual Attention & Perceived Fatigue (00:25:14) Tool: Visual Focus “Spotlight” (00:27:57) Tool: Goal Gradient Hypothesis, Visual Spotlight to Increase Effort (00:32:23) Sponsor: AG1 (00:35:00) Defining Goals vs. Accomplishing Goals, Dream Boards & Goal Lists  (00:41:28) Tool: How to Setting Better Goals & Identify Obstacles (00:46:38) Vision is Unique, Challenging the Visual System, Realistic Goals & Micro-Goals (00:57:12) Do Fit People View the World Differently?, States of Body & Visual Experiences (01:05:54) Caffeine, Stimulants, Visual Windows & Motivation (01:10:13) Tools: Goal Setting & Cognitive (Non-Physical) Goals, Data Collection (01:21:54) Year in Review & Memory (01:26:32) Visual Tools & Mental Health, Depression & Visual Priming (01:31:33) Focusing Attention & Increasing Visual Detail/Resolution (01:36:12) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter, Momentous Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/1/20221 hour, 35 minutes, 2 seconds
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The Science & Treatment of Bipolar Disorder

In this episode, I explain the biology, symptoms, causes and types of bipolar disorder (sometimes called bipolar depression). I discuss neuroplasticity and how the brain normally regulates mood, energy, and perceptions; then, I contrast that with the biology of bipolar disorder, which is characterized by extremes of energy and mood, e.g., mania and depression. I outline the mechanisms through which bipolar disorder manifests in the brain, including deficits of interoception and reduced connections between the parietal and limbic systems. I also outline how treatment options (such as lithium) work in part through homeostatic plasticity.’ I discuss not only lithium but also the treatment of bipolar with ketamine, different talk therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and nutraceuticals, including Omega-3 and Inositol supplementation. This episode should interest anyone who has or knows someone with bipolar disorder and, more broadly, those interested in how the brain works to create a balance between thoughts, energy levels, focus, and mood. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Bipolar Disorder (00:03:42) Tool: Appetite Suppression & GLP-1, Parallel Pathways, Yerba Mate (00:9:19) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:14:24) Prevalence & Severity of Bipolar Disorder (00:16:30) Bipolar Disorder I, Diagnostic Criteria of Mania (00:28:58) Bipolar Disorder II, Individual Variability (00:33:07) Bipolar I vs. Bipolar II: Manic, Depressive & Symptom-Free States (00:38:20) Consequences of Bipolar Disorder, Heritability (00:46:53) Bipolar Disorder vs. Borderline Personality Disorder (00:51:51) Mania & Depression, Negative Impacts (00:53:06) History of Lithium Treatment (01:02:44) Lithium Treatment & Side-Effects (01:05:05) Effects of Lithium: BDNF, Anti-inflammatory & Neuroprotection (01:10:10) Neural Circuits of Bipolar Disorder, Interoception, Hyper- vs. Hypoactivity (01:17:11) Neural States & Mania, Parietal Lobe & Limbic System (01:22:58) Homeostatic Plasticity, Synaptic Scaling, Lithium & Ketamine (01:36:00) Talk Therapies: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Family-Focused Therapy, Interpersonal & Social Rhythm Therapy (01:43:18) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT), Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) (01:48:01) Psylocibin, Cannabis (01:51:50) Lifestyle Support, Supplements: Inositol & Omega-3 Fatty Acids (02:03:31) Omega-3s, Membrane Fluidity & Neuroplasticity (02:06:44) Mania, Creativity & Occupations (02:15:33) Bipolar Disorder: Diagnosis, Neural Circuits & Treatment (02:17:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/25/20222 hours, 16 minutes, 37 seconds
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Dr. Charles Zuker: The Biology of Taste Perception & Sugar Craving

My guest this episode is Dr. Charles Zuker, PhD, Professor of Biochemistry, Molecular Biophysics and Neuroscience at Columbia University and an Investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Dr. Zuker is the world’s leading expert in the biology of taste, thirst and craving. His laboratory explores the mechanisms of taste perception, focusing on how our conscious and unconscious processing of specific foods and nutrients guide our actions and behaviors. We discuss the neural circuits of taste, the “gut-brain axis,” the basis of food cravings and the key difference between wanting (craving) and liking (perceiving) sugar. We also explore how taste perception relates to specific food satiety, thirst, to our emotions, and expectation. We also consider how sugar containing and highly-processed foods can hijack the natural balance of the taste and digestive systems. Dr. Zuker provides a true masterclass in the biology of taste and perception that ought to be of interest to anyone curious about how the brain works, our motivated behaviors and the neural, chemical perceptual aspects of the mind. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Charles Zuker & Taste Perception (00:03:22) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:35) Sensory Detection vs. Sensory Perception (00:11:48) Individual Variations within Perception, Color (00:16:20) Perceptions & Behaviors (00:20:19) The 5 Taste Modalities (00:26:18) Aversive Taste, Bitter Taste (00:28:00) Survival-Based & Evolutionary Reasons for Taste Modalities, Taste vs. Flavor (00:30:14) Additional Taste Modalities: Fat & Metallic Perception (00:34:02) Tongue “Taste Map,” Taste Buds & Taste Receptors  (00:39:34) Burning Your Tongue & Perception (00:42:54) The “Meaning” of Taste Stimuli, Sweet vs. Bitter, Valence (00:51:55) Positive vs. Negative Neuronal Activation & Behavior (00:56:16) Acquired Tastes, Conditioned Taste Aversion  (01:01:44) Olfaction (Smell) vs. Taste, Changing Tastes over One’s Lifetime (01:09:14) Integration of Odor & Taste, Influence on Behavior & Emotion (01:17:26) Sensitization to Taste, Internal State Modulation, Salt (01:24:05) Taste & Saliva: The Absence of Taste (01:28:10) Sugar & Reward Pleasure Centers; Gut-Brain Axis, Anticipatory Response (01:36:23) Vagus Nerve (01:43:09) Insatiable Sugar Appetite, Liking vs. Wanting, Gut-Brain Axis (01:52:03) Tool: Sugar vs. Artificial Sweeteners, Curbing Appetite (01:54:06) Cravings & Gut-Brain Axis  (01:57:30) Nutrition, Gut-Brain Axis & Changes in Behavior (02:01:53) Fast vs. Slow Signaling & Reinforcement, Highly Processed Foods  (02:10:38) Favorite Foods: Enjoyment, Sensation & Context (02:15:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/18/20222 hours, 14 minutes, 27 seconds
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Optimize & Control Your Brain Chemistry to Improve Health & Performance

In this episode, I explain the biological roles of the four major neuromodulators—dopamine, epinephrine (aka adrenaline), serotonin, and acetylcholine—and describe how these neuromodulators impact a wide variety of mental states and behaviors, including focus, creativity, motivation, drive, learning, alertness, mood, relationships, and feelings of well-being. Then, with that foundational understanding in mind, I describe a potent toolkit of science-supported behavioral, nutrition, and supplementation tools that can be used to increase baseline levels of individual neuromodulators and that can be modified for specific goals. This episode summarizes low-or-no-cost, actionable, science-based tools that can benefit anyone in order to enhance their levels of brain chemicals and improve mental health, physical health, and performance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Optimizing Neurochemicals to Improve Health (00:05:30) Sleep & Maintaining Healthy Metabolism (00:09:52) Tools: How to Wake Up Earlier, Night Owls (00:18:58) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis (00:22:05) Nervous System Overview (00:31:32) How Neuromodulators Work  (00:34:24) Baseline Neuromodulator Levels, 3 Daily Phases (00:42:15) Hormones Modulate Neuromodulators (00:52:12) The 4 Major Types of Neuromodulators (01:01:45) Tool Kit 1: Increase Baseline Dopamine & Focus (01:08:52) Tyrosine-rich Foods & Dopamine (01:10:59) Dopamine Supplementation: Mucuna Pruriens, L-tyrosine & Phenylethylamine (01:16:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure & Dopamine (01:21:12) Tool Kit 2: Additional Tips to Increase Dopamine (01:26:10) Tool Kit 3: Increase Epinephrine (Adrenaline) & Alertness (01:34:34) Tool Kit 4: Increase Acetylcholine & Attention/Learning; Choline-rich Foods (01:37:29) Acetylcholine Supplements: Nicotine, Alpha GPC, Huperzine  (01:44:47) Tool Kit 5: Behavior to Increase Focus & Acetylcholine (01:46:56) Tool Kit 6: Behavior to Increase Serotonin & Feelings of Well-being  (01:50:51) Tools: Tryptophan-Rich Foods & Serotonin (01:53:31) Tools: Serotonin Supplements: Cissus Quadrangularis, 5-HTP, Myo-inositol (02:02:14) Use the Neurochemical Toolkit to Meet Individual Goals (02:06:44) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/11/20222 hours, 5 minutes, 55 seconds
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Jeff Cavaliere: Optimize Your Exercise Program with Science-Based Tools

My guest this episode is Jeff Cavaliere, MSPT CSCS, a world-class physical therapist and Certified Strength & Conditioning Specialist. Jeff has coached athletes ranging from novice to professional and has taught science-based physical training protocols to tens of millions of everyday people via his enormously clear and actionable online programs. Jeff is a true expert on proper resistance and cardiovascular training, injury prevention and rehabilitation and has extensive knowledge on proper form, posture, nutrition and supplementation. We discuss how to best design and optimize a physical training program to achieve your specific goals. We also discuss how to build and leverage mental focus during workouts, when and how to stretch, pain management and enhancing workout recovery and sleep, and how to personalize your training and nutrition program over time. Jeff’s knowledge and science-based approach ought to benefit everyone in reaching their desired fitness, aesthetic and overall health goals. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Jeff Cavaliere, Physical Training (00:04:33) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:38) Tool: A Fitness Plan for General Health (00:13:27) Tool: Optimizing Body Part Training Splits (00:20:12) Two-a-Day Training (00:22:33) Cardiovascular Conditioning, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) & Skills (00:28:24) Tool: Mind-Muscle Connection, The Cavaliere Cramp Contraction Test (00:35:05) “Muscularity” & Resting Tone (00:41:31) Tool: Muscle Recovery & Soreness, Grip Strength (00:50:39) Sleep & Sleep Position (00:57:24) Active (Dynamic) vs. Passive Stretching, Timing & Healing Muscle (01:07:23) Tool: Jumping Rope (01:12:56) Internal & External Rotation, Upright Row vs. High Pull (01:24:27) Back Pain Relief & Medial Glutes, Body Pain & Origins (01:37:39) Tool: Properly Holding Weights & Deepening Grip (01:43:54) Tool: Physical Recovery, Heat & Cold Exposure (01:47:19) Tool: Record Keeping for Training Performance & Rest Time (01:51:47) Nutrition Principles & Consistency, Processed Foods & Sugar (02:00:15) Tool: “Plate Eating”: Protein, Fibrous & Starchy Carbohydrates (02:11:25) Training in Men vs. Women, Training for Kids & Adolescents (02:18:05) Tool: Pre- and Post-Training Nutrition (02:26:30) Intensity & Training Consistency (02:29:53) AthleanX, Jesse Laico & Fitness Journeys (02:38:27) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/4/20222 hours, 38 minutes, 45 seconds
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The Science & Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

In this episode, I explain the biology and psychology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)—a prevalent and debilitating condition. I also discuss the efficacy and mechanisms behind OCD treatments—both behavioral and pharmacologic as well as holistic and combination treatments and new emerging treatments, including directed brain stimulation. I explain the neural circuitry underlying repetitive “thought-action loops” and why in OCD, the compulsive actions merely make the obsessions even stronger. I review cognitive-behavioral therapies like exposure therapy and SSRIs, holistic approaches, and nutraceuticals, detailing the efficacy of each approach and what science says about how to combine and sequence treatments. I describe an often effective approach for treating OCD where clinicians use cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to deliberately bring patients into states of high anxiety while encouraging them to suppress compulsive actions in order to help them learn to overcome repetitious thought/action cycles. This episode should interest anyone with OCD, anyone who knows someone with OCD or OCPD, and more generally, those interested in how the brain works to control thoughts and actions, whether those thoughts are intrusive or not. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) (00:04:06) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:28) What is OCD and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder? (00:11:18) OCD: Major Incidence & Severity (00:15:10) Categories of OCD (00:21:33) Anxiety: Linking Obsessions & Compulsions (00:27:33) OCD & Familial Heredity (00:29:10) Biological Mechanisms of OCD, Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loops (00:39:36) Cortico-Striatal-Thalamic Loop & OCD (00:46:39) Clinical OCD Diagnosis, Y-BOCS Index (00:51:38) OCD & Fear, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) & Exposure Therapy (01:01:56) Unique Characteristics of CBT/Exposure Therapy in OCD Treatment (01:10:18) CBT/Exposure Therapy & Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) (01:22:30) Considerations with SSRIs & Prescription Drug Treatments (01:25:17) Serotonin & Cognitive Flexibility, Psilocybin Studies (01:31:50) Neuroleptics & Neuromodulators (01:36:09) OCD & Cannabis, THC & CBD (01:39:29) Ketamine Treatment (01:41:43) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) (01:46:22) Cannabis CBD & Focus (01:47:50) Thoughts Are Not Actions (01:51:27) Hormones, Cortisol, DHEA, Testosterone & GABA (02:00:55) Holistic Treatments: Mindfulness Meditation & OCD (02:03:28) Nutraceuticals & Supplements: Myo-Inositol, Glycine (02:09:45) OCD vs. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder (02:20:53) Superstitions, Compulsions & Obsessions (02:31:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/27/20222 hours, 31 minutes, 12 seconds
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Ido Portal: The Science & Practice of Movement

My guest is Ido Portal, the world’s foremost expert on human movement. Ido has spent a lifetime studying, combining and evolving elements from an enormous range of martial arts, dance genres, athletic endeavors, and science, to develop a unified theory and practice of movement called “The Ido Portal Method.” Here we discuss all things movement, including the role of the nervous system, reflexive versus deliberate movement patterns, and the link between emotions and awareness in movement. We also discuss learning and neuroplasticity, the mind-body connection and how movement itself can be leveraged toward expanding other types of skills- cognitive, creative and otherwise. As one of the most sought out teachers of movement alive today, the knowledge Ido shares in this conversation can benefit everyone—children, adults, athletes, dancers, clinicians and trainers and the everyday person. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Ido Portal, Movement & Movement Practice (00:03:42) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:49) What is Movement? (00:10:56) Movement & the Body-Mind Connection (00:14:47) Entry Points to Movement (00:18:08) Early Education in Movement: Awareness, Play & Examination (00:21:19) Stillness, Movement & the Environment, Playfulness (00:31:34) Unique Postures, Types of Movement, Contents vs. Containers (00:40:50) Discomfort: Marker of Movement, Failures & Learning (00:47:05) Movement Diversity, Squat Challenge, Injury, Movement Evolution (00:56:36) Animal & Human Movements, Gain & Change (01:02:04) Core Movement, Emotion & Memory, Spinal Waves, Evolution (01:12:39) Song, Dance & Complex Language, Movement as Language, Consilience (01:21:39) Movement Culture, Community, Collective Knowledge, Wild & Wise (01:26:36) Potential for Movement, “Humming” (01:32:18) Instructiveness vs Permissiveness, Degrees of Freedom (01:35:50) Variety, Diversity & Virtuosity (01:38:06) Vision & Movement, Focus & Awareness, Panoramic Awareness (01:48:28) Hearing & Movement (01:52:43) Walking Gaits (01:56:55) Playful Variability & Evolution, Improvisation & Openness (02:03:05) Reactivity & Personal Space, Touch & Proximity to Others, Play & Discomfort (02:18:13) Visualization & Experience, Feedback (02:20:14) Linear Movement & Movement Investigation, Examination (02:31:45) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/20/20222 hours, 32 minutes, 34 seconds
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Improve Flexibility with Research-Supported Stretching Protocols

In this episode, I explain the science behind limb range of motion and flexibility and how to increase them by using science-supported protocols. Flexibility is crucial for physical movements and can help prevent injuries, decrease inflammation, modulate physical and mental pain, impact exercise recovery speed and even potentially slow the progression of certain diseases. I explain the biology of flexibility, including the specific neural mechanisms that sense stretch and load (i.e., tension) on the muscles and limbs, as well as how specific brain regions like the insula combine those signals to ultimately control limb range of movement. I also provide science-based stretching and “micro-stretching” protocols that reliably improve limb flexibility with the minimum necessary time investment. I review all the details of those stretching protocols: how often to do them, for how long, their timing relative to other exercises, sets, the time between sets, measuring progress and more. All people, physically active or not, should benefit from the information and tools described in this episode. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Flexibility & Stretching (00:02:57) Sponsors (00:07:22) Innate Flexibility (00:09:23) Movement: Nervous System, Connective Tissue & Muscle; Range of Motion (00:17:51) Golgi Tendon Organs (GTOs) & Load Sensing Mechanisms (00:20:20) Decreased Flexibility & Aging (00:22:38) Insula, Body Discomfort & Choice (00:30:02) von Economo Neurons, Parasympathetic Activation & Relaxation (00:42:00) Muscle Anatomy & Cellular ‘Lengthening,’ Range of Motion (00:47:16) Tool: Protocol - Antagonistic Muscles, Pushing vs. Pulling Exercises (00:51:57) Types of Stretching: Dynamic, Ballistic, Static & PNF (Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation) (00:59:36) Tool: Increasing Range of Motion, Static Stretching Protocol, Duration (01:05:56) Tool: Static Stretching Protocol & Frequency (01:13:55) Tool: Effective Stretching Protocol (01:17:12) Tool: Warming Up & Stretching (01:19:17) Limb Range of Motion & General Health Benefits (01:25:30) PNF Stretching, Golgi Tendon Organs & Autogenic Inhibition (01:31:23) Tool: Anderson Protocol & End Range of Motion, Feeling the Stretch (01:32:50) Tool: Effectiveness, Low Intensity Stretching, “Micro-Stretching” (01:41:33) Tool: Should you Stretch Before or After Other Exercises? (01:45:41) Stretching, Relaxation, Inflammation & Disease (01:51:37) Insula & Discomfort, Pain Tolerance & Yoga (02:00:36) Tools: Summary of Stretching Protocols (02:03:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/13/20222 hours, 4 minutes, 33 seconds
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Dr. Paul Conti: Therapy, Treating Trauma & Other Life Challenges

My guest this episode is Dr. Paul Conti, M.D., a psychiatrist and expert in treating trauma, personality disorders and psychiatric illnesses and challenges of various kinds. Dr. Conti earned his MD at Stanford and did his residency at Harvard Medical School. He now runs the Pacific Premiere Group—a clinical practice helping people heal and grow from trauma and other life challenges. We discuss trauma: what it is and its far-reaching effects on the mind and body, as well as the best treatment approaches for trauma. We also explore how to choose a therapist and how to get the most out of therapy, as well as how to do self-directed therapy. We discuss the positive and negative effects of antidepressants, ADHD medications, alcohol, cannabis, and the therapeutic potential of psychedelics (e.g., psilocybin and LSD), ketamine and MDMA. This episode is must listen for anyone seeking or already doing therapy, processing trauma, and/or considering psychoactive medication. Both patients and practitioners ought to benefit from the information. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Paul Conti, Trauma & Recovery  (00:02:48) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:00) Defining Trauma  (00:14:05) Guilt & Shame, Origins of Negative Emotions (00:21:38) Repeating Trauma, the Repetition Compulsion  (00:28:23) How to Deal with Trauma & Negative Emotions/Arousal  (00:37:17) Processing Trauma, Do You Always Need a Therapist? (00:45:30) Internal Self-talk, Punishing Narratives & Negative Fantasies  (00:51:10) Short-Term Coping Mechanisms vs. Long-Term Change (00:53:22) Tools: Processing Trauma on Your Own, Journaling  (00:57:00) Sublimination of Traumatic Experiences  (01:02:34) Tool: Finding a Good Therapist  (01:07:20) Optimizing the Therapy Process, Frequency, Intensity   (01:14:51) Tool: Self-Awareness of Therapy Needs, Mismatch of Needs (01:16:35) Self-talk & Journaling, Talking to Trusted Individuals  (01:19:00) Prescription Drugs & Treating Trauma, Antidepressants, Treating Core Issues   (01:28:35) Short-term vs. Long-Term Use of Prescription Drugs, Antidepressants (01:32:18) Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & Prescription Drugs  (01:37:31) Negative Effects of ADHD Prescription Drugs  (01:40:37) Alcohol, Cannabis – Positive & Negative Effects (01:44:53) Psychedelics: Psylocibin & LSD, Therapeutic Uses, Trauma Recovery     (01:54:32) Sentience, Language, Animals   (01:55:48) Psychedelic Hallucinations, Trauma Recovery  (02:00:01) MDMA (Therapeutic Uses) (02:04:47) Clinical Aspects of MDMA (02:07:28) Language, Processing Trauma, Social Media, Societal Divisions  (02:15:09) Defining “Taking Care of Oneself” (02:21:13) Dr. Conti, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/6/20222 hours, 22 minutes, 31 seconds
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The Science & Process of Healing from Grief

This episode, I discuss grief and the challenges of processing losses of different kinds. I explain the biological mechanisms of grief, including how neural circuits for emotional and factual memory combine with those for love and attachment, to create feelings of absence and yearning. I discuss how grief is distinct from depression, yet why they can feel so similar. I also provide science-based tools to assist with the grieving process, including how to reframe and remap the relationship with those we have lost while still maintaining a strong emotional connection to them. I also explain the importance of having and building strong foundational psychological and biological states so that we can better cope with grief when it happens. Finally, I describe tools to adjust those states, including those for accessing sleep, managing stress and emotional swings. This episode is for those suffering from grief but also for everyone, given that we all experience grief at some point in our lives. We recorded this episode before the recent mass shooting tragedies in the United States. While we hope the information in this episode will be of use to anyone suffering from grief of any kind and at any time, we are also careful to acknowledge that many people require additional support and resources. For that reason, we include mention of such resources and we generally hope people will access them if needed. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Grief & Bereavement  (00:04:02) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:35) Grief vs. Depression, Complicated Grief  (00:12:20) Stages of Grief, Individual Variation for Grieving  (00:16:05) Grief: Lack & Motivation, Dopamine (00:23:15) Three Dimensions of Relationships (00:29:52) Tool: Remapping Relationships (00:37:15) Grief, Maintaining Emotional Closeness & Remapping  (00:44:40) Memories of Loved Ones & Remapping Attachments  (00:48:04) Yearning for Loved Ones: Memories vs. Reality, Episodic Memory  (00:51:40) Tools: Adaptively Processing Grief, Counterfactual Thinking, Phantom Limbs (01:00:32) Tool: Remembering Emotional Connection & Processing Grief (01:04:03) Memories, Hippocampal Trace Cells & Feeling An Absence  (01:10:14) Yearning & Oxytocin, Individualized Grief Cycles  (01:18:24) Tool: Complicated Grief & Adrenaline (Epinephrine) (01:24:37) Sentimental Attachment to Objects   (01:26:13) Why do Some People Grieve More Quickly? Individual Attachment Capacity  (01:29:42) “Vagal Tone,” Heart Rate, Breathwork & Grief Recovery  (01:42:32) Complicated Grief & Cortisol Patterns (01:48:50) Tool: Improving Sleep & Grieving  (01:54:28) Tools: Grief Processing & Adaptive Recovery  (02:03:36) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/30/20222 hours, 4 minutes, 28 seconds
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Dr. Wendy Suzuki: Boost Attention & Memory with Science-Based Tools

My guest is Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Ph.D., Professor of Neural Science and Psychology and (soon) Dean of New York University, whose research focuses on memory, attention, brain plasticity and simple, daily habits that can be leveraged to improve learning, focus, memory and cognitive ability. We discuss the role of cardiovascular exercise, weight training, deliberate cold exposure, meditation, verbal affirmations, sleep, and other behavioral practices for enhancing learning, mood and stress management, and increasing attention span. Dr. Suzuki shares the mechanisms by which these practices change our brain in order to improve cognitive function fast and reduce age-related cognitive decline. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Wendy Suzuki, Learning & Memory (00:03:02) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:27) How Memories Form  (00:10:14) Hippocampus: Memory, Association & Imagination  (00:16:20) Encoding Long-Term Memory (00:18:48) One-Trial Memory (00:21:56) Tool: Foundational Habits to Enhance Brain Performance  (00:30:39) Exercise & Improved Memory, Making a “Big, Fat, Fluffy Hippocampus”  (00:39:35) Cardiovascular Exercise, BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor)  (00:48:48) Neurogenesis (New Neuron Production) in Adults (00:51:50) Effects of Exercise on Memory  (00:56:31) Tool: Timing Daily Exercise, Cortisol  (01:00:02) Age-Related Memory Loss, Daily Exercise  (01:05:33) Tool: Exercise Protocol for Improving Cognition  (01:12:17) Anticipating Exercise, Daily Habits & Behaviors   (01:17:09) “Every Drop of Sweat Counts” – Exercise & Cognitive Function  (01:20:58) Positive Affirmations & Mood  (01:27:28) Meditation & Cognitive Performance  (01:32:27) How Meditation Works, Focusing on the Present (01:37:14) Tool: Strategies to Increase Attention  (01:42:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/23/20221 hour, 44 minutes, 29 seconds
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Understand & Improve Memory Using Science-Based Tools

This episode I explain the mechanisms by which different types of memories are established in our brain and how to leverage the amount and timing of key neurochemicals and hormones, such as adrenaline (aka epinephrine) and cortisol, to improve your learning and memory abilities. I describe multiple science-based protocols to do this, including repetition, caffeine, emotional states, deliberate cold exposure, sleep, meditation, and the role of vision, including taking “mental snapshots.” I also describe how exercise and an associated hormone, osteocalcin, can improve cognitive ability and memory formation. I also describe unique aspects and forms of memory such as photographic memory, extreme facial recognition (aka super recognition), and the phenomenon known as déjà vu. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Memory, Improving Memory   (00:03:09) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:54) Sensory Stimuli, Nervous System & Encoding Memory  (00:11:12) Context & Memory Formation  (00:13:46) Tool: Repetition, Improving Learning & Memory  (00:17:11) Co-Activation and intensity Neuron Activation   (00:20:50) Different Types of Memory (00:25:40) Memory Formation in the Brain, Hippocampus  (00:28:00) Hippocampus, Role in Memory & Learning, Explicit vs. Implicit Memory (00:31:49) Emotion & Memory Enhancement  (00:36:44) Tool: Emotion Saliency & Improved Memory (00:41:42) Conditioned-Placed Avoidance/Preference, Adrenaline  (00:47:14) Adrenaline & Cortisol   (00:49:35) Accelerating the Repetition Curve & Adrenaline  (00:53:03) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Caffeine, Alpha-GPC & Stimulant Timing (01:00:50) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Sleep, Non-Sleep Deep Rest (NSDR) (01:04:48) Tool: Enhancing Learning & Memory - Deliberate Cold Exposure, Adrenaline (01:08:42) Timing of Adrenaline Release & Memory Formation  (01:12:36) Chronically High Adrenaline & Cortisol, Impact on Learning & Memory  (01:15:12) Adrenaline Linked with Learning: Not a New Principle  (01:17:25) Amygdala, Adrenaline & Memory Formation, Generalization of Memories (01:22:20) Tool: Cardiovascular Exercise & Neurogenesis  (01:27:00) Cardiovascular Exercise, Osteocalcin & Improved Hippocampal Function (01:29:59) Load-Bearing Exercise, Osteocalcin & Cognitive Ability  (01:34:41) Tool: Timing of Exercise, Learning & Memory Enhancement (01:37:29) Photographic Memory (01:38:49) “Super Recognizers,” Facial Recognition    (01:41:46) Tool: Mental Snapshots, Photographs & Memory Enhancement (01:49:12) Déjà Vu (01:53:24) Tool: Meditation, Daily Timing of Meditation (02:02:21) How to Enhance Memory  (02:05:51) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/16/20222 hours, 7 minutes, 6 seconds
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Understanding & Controlling Aggression

This episode I describe the neural mechanisms that activate and control aggressive states and behaviors and the role of hormones—estrogen and testosterone—in mediating violent and and/or competive aggression. I also describe tools that can be used to modulate the factors that have been shown to ‘prime’ an individual for aggression, including sunlight, estrogen sensitivity, competition within social settings, and overall stress levels, and the hormone cortisol. I discuss how substances such as caffeine and alcohol can impact impulsive behaviors, and how nutrition and supplementation can be used to regulate mood and aggression.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Aggression, Types of Aggression (00:03:51) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:29) Neural Circuits for Aggression, “Hydraulic Pressure Model”  (00:15:50) Brain Regions Controlling Aggression, Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)  (00:22:14) Psychiatric Disorders & Aggression  (00:23:36) Stimulation of the VMH, Estrogen Receptors & Aggression (00:31:57) Neural Circuits Mediating Physical Acts of Aggression, Biting (0:35:56) Testosterone & Competitiveness/Estrogen & Aggression  (00:43:00) Sunlight, Melatonin & Aggression  (00:45:46) Cortisol, Serotonin & Aggressive Behaviors  (00:51:56) Tool: Omega-3 Supplementation & Mood  (00:54:18) Tool: Sunlight, Sauna & Cortisol Reduction (00:55:54) Tool: Ashwagandha & Cortisol Reduction (00:57:06) Tool: Seasonality/Sunlight, Genetic Variation in Estrogen Sensitivity (01:00:37) Testosterone & Aggression, Competitive Work Environments (01:05:07) Testosterone, Amygdala, Challenge & Effort  (01:09:27) Caffeine, Alcohol & Impulsivity  (01:13:15) Tool: Caffeinated Alcohol Beverages, Impulsivity & Aggression  (01:17:18) Tool: ADHD, Acetyl-L Carnitine & Aggressive Behavior  (01:24:10) Factors Affecting the “Hydraulic Pressure Model” of Aggression  (01:25:44) Book by Dr. David Anderson, Aggression & Social Relationships  (01:27:35) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/9/20221 hour, 28 minutes, 27 seconds
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Dr. Rhonda Patrick: Micronutrients for Health & Longevity

My guest is Rhonda Patrick, Ph.D. She earned her doctoral degree in biomedical science from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center and has become one of the leading public health educators on the brain and general health, aging, cancer, and nutrition. We discuss the four major categories of micronutrients that regulate cellular and organ stress and antioxidants, inflammation, hormone regulation, immune system, and longevity. Dr. Patrick provides actionable protocols for obtaining key micronutrients from food and/or supplement-based sources. Additionally, Dr. Patrick outlines protocols for deliberate cold and deliberate heat exposure to benefit metabolism, cardiorespiratory fitness, mental health, and lifespan.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Rhonda Patrick – Micronutrients, Cold & Heat Exposure  (00:03:12) Momentous Supplements (00:04:44) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:42) Stress Response Pathways, Hormesis (00:16:38) Plants, Polyphenols, Sulforaphane (00:21:12) Tools 1: Sulforaphane - Broccoli Sprouts, Broccoli, Mustard Seed  (00:23:50) Tool 2: Moringa & Nrf2 Antioxidant Response (00:25:25) Sulforaphane: Antioxidants (Glutathione) & Air Pollution (Benzene Elimination)  (00:27:10) Plants & Stress Response Pathways, Intermittent Challenges  (00:29:35) Traumatic Brain Injury, Sulforaphane, Nrf2  (00:35:08) Tools 3: Omega-3 Fatty Acids (ALA, EPA & DHA), Fish Oil, Oxidation  (00:48:40) EPA Omega-3s & Depression  (00:52:02) Krill Oil vs. Fish Oil Supplements?  (00:54:23) Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Index & Life Expectancy  (00:59:24) Tool 4: Food Sources of EPA Omega-3s  (01:06:07) Omega-3 Supplementation, Omega-3 Index Testing (01:10:22) Benefits of Omega-3s  (01:14:40) Tool 5: Food Sources of DHA Omega-3s (01:17:07) Vitamin D & Sun Skin Exposure  (01:22:18) Role of Vitamin D, Gene Regulation  (01:25:30) Tool 6: Vitamin D Testing & Vitamin D3 Supplementation  (01:33:15) Tool 7: Skin Surface Area & Sun Exposure, Vitamin D  (01:34:23) Vitamin D & Longevity (01:36:46) Sun Exposure & Sunscreen (01:40:30) Role of Magnesium, Magnesium Sources, Dark Leafy Green Vegetables (01:44:50) Tool 8: Magnesium Supplements: Citrate, Threonate, Malate, Bisglycinate  (01:50:57) Tool 9: Deliberate Cold Exposure Protocol & Mood/Anxiety (01:59:22) Tool 10: Cold Exposure, Mitochondria UCP1 & Heat Generation (02:02:30) Tool 11: Cold & Fat ‘Browning’, PGC-1alpha, Metabolism (02:05:08) Cold Exposure & High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT), PGC-1alpha, Muscle  (02:08:04) Tools 12: Exercise, HIIT, Tabata & Sauna  (02:13:30) Tool 13: Sauna, Endorphins/Dynorphins, Mood  (02:17:45) Tool 14: Mild Stress, Adrenaline & Memory (02:19:53) Sauna, Vasodilation & Alzheimer’s and Dementia Risk  (02:25:30) Sauna Benefits, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs)  (02:31:29) Insulin signaling, FOXO3 & Longevity  (02:33:22) Tools 16: Sauna Protocols, Hot Baths & Fertility  (02:37:41) Tool 17: Exercise & Longevity, Osteocalcin  (02:41:37) Tools 18: Red Light Sauna? Infrared Sauna? Sauna & Sweating of Heavy Metals (02:47:20) FoundMyFitness Podcast, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Huberman Lab on Instagram & Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/2/20222 hours, 46 minutes, 29 seconds
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The Science & Health Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure

I describe the mechanisms by which deliberate heat exposure impacts body temperature, metabolism, heart health, hormone production, exercise recovery, cognition, mood, and longevity. I detail specific protocols for deliberate heat exposure, including exposure times, temperature ranges to consider, time of day, and delivery mechanisms (sauna vs. hot bath vs. open air heat, etc.) in order to achieve different specific outcomes, including dramatic growth hormone releases, or reduction in cortisol levels. I also discuss the ability of locally applied heat to heal or otherwise improve various bodily tissues and new data on how local application of heat may induce the conversion of metabolically sluggish white fat to metabolically robust beige fat. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Heat & Health (00:03:37) Momentous Supplements (00:05:09) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:31) Body Shell Temperature vs. Body Core Temperature (00:13:28) Thermal Regulation, Hyperthermia (00:17:36) Heat Removal Circuits, Pre-Optic Hypothalamus (POA) (00:26:30) Protocols & Benefits of Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:33:37) Tools & Conditions for Deliberate Heat Exposure (00:38:47) Deliberate Heat Exposure, Cortisol & Cardiovascular Health (00:44:50) Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs), Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Regulation (00:47:56) Longevity & Heat Exposure, FOXO3 (00:52:30) Deliberate Cold & Heat Exposure & Metabolism (00:54:48) Deliberate Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:04:32) Parameters for Heat & Cold Exposure (01:08:26) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature, Cold & Heat Exposure (01:12:00) Heat Exposure & Growth Hormone (01:16:20) Tool: Hydration & Sauna (01:17:10) Heat, Endorphins & Dynorphins, Mood (01:28:44) Tool: Glabrous Skin To Heat or Cool (01:35:33) Local Hyperthermia, Converting White Fat to Beige Fat, Metabolism (01:47:00) Hormesis/Mitohormesis & Heat/Cold Exposure (01:49:11) Benefits of Heat Exposure (01:51:10) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Momentous Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/25/20221 hour, 50 minutes, 46 seconds
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Using Light (Sunlight, Blue Light & Red Light) to Optimize Health

I describe the mechanisms by which different wavelengths of light impact the cells, tissues and organs of the human body, and how specifically timed light exposure of specific wavelengths can be used to improve sleep, enhance alertness, modulate hormone levels, and improve mood. I also explain the use of ultraviolet and infrared phototherapies to relieve pain increase testosterone and estrogen levels; improve skin health, appearance and wound healing; and how red light can be used to offset age-related vision loss and provide neuroprotection. Throughout the episode, I describe the mechanisms of light-based therapies and actionable tools that people can use positively impact mental and physical health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Using Light to Improve Health (00:04:49) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:56) Physics of Light, Electromagnetic Energy (00:12:23) Wavelengths of Light (00:15:38) How Light Penetrates Tissues (00:20:13) Light & the Body: Direct & Indirect Signals (00:28:35) Light, Seasonality & Melatonin (00:33:40) Melatonin: Regulatory & Protective Effects (00:38:49) Tools: Optimizing Melatonin Levels (00:44:49) Sun (UVB light) Exposure, Mating Behavior, Testosterone & Estrogen (00:58:09) Seasonality, Romantic Passion & Testosterone (01:02:13) Tool: Skin Sun Exposure & Testosterone (01:06:13) Light & Improved Pain Tolerance (01:11:55) Protocol: Sun Exposure & Chronic Pain (01:12:48) Tools: Sunlight (UVB), Blue-Light Blockers, Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) (01:19:44) Light & Enhanced Immune Function (01:23:30) Tool: Light During Winter Months (01:26:18) Light Therapies: Local vs. Systemic Exposure (01:28:54) Tool: Improving Mood, Timing of Natural & Artificial Light (01:32:44) Light Conditions & Sleep Optimization (01:39:00) Infrared Light, Skin & Wound Healing (01:46:00) Infrared Light Therapy & Skin, Low-Level Laser (Light) Therapy (LLLT) (01:49:20) Infrared Light & Age-Related Vision Loss (01:59:36) Tools: Infrared Panels, Morning Exposure (02:05:22) Infrared Light at Night, Shift Work (02:08:35) Light Flicker Phototherapy & Neuroprotection (02:19:07) Phototherapies for Health (02:20:50) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/18/20222 hours, 19 minutes, 33 seconds
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Dr. Kyle Gillett: How to Optimize Your Hormones for Health & Vitality

My guest is Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, a dual board-certified physician in family medicine and obesity medicine and an expert in optimizing hormone levels to improve overall health and well-being in both men and women. We discuss how to improve hormones using behavioral, nutritional, and exercise-based tools and safely and rationally approach supplementation and hormone therapies. We discuss testosterone and estrogen and how those hormones relate to fertility, mood, aging, relationships, disease pathologies, thyroid hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, dopamine and peptides that impact physical and mental health and vitality across the lifespan. The episode is rich with scientific mechanisms and tools for people to consider. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Kyle Gillett, MD, Hormone Optimization    (00:03:28) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:24) Preventative Medicine & Hormone Health  (00:14:17) The Six Pillars of Hormone Health Optimization (00:17:14) Diet for Hormone Health, Blood Testing (00:20:21) Exercise for Hormone Health  (00:21:06) Caloric Restriction, Obesity & Testosterone  (00:23:55) Intermittent Fasting, Growth Hormone (GH), IGF-1 (00:29:08) Sleep Quality & Hormones (00:35:03) Testosterone in Women (00:38:55) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT), Hair Loss  (00:43:46) DHT in Men and Women, Turmeric/Curcumin, Creatine (00:50:10) 5-Alpha Reductase, Finasteride, Saw Palmetto  (00:52:30) Hair loss, DHT, Creatine Monohydrate (00:55:07) Hair Regrowth, Male Pattern Baldness (00:58:12) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Inositol, DIM (01:04:00) Oral Contraception, Perceived Attractiveness, Fertility  (01:10:31) Testosterone & Marijuana or Alcohol (01:14:27) Sleep Supplement Frequency (01:15:34) Testosterone Supplementation & Prostate Cancer  (01:20:24) Prostate Health, Dietary Fiber, Saw Palmetto, C-Reactive Protein   (01:24:05) Prostate Health & Pelvic Floor, Viagra, Tadalafil  (01:30:54) Testosterone Replacement Therapy (TRT) (01:35:17) Estrogen & Aromatase Inhibitors, Calcium D-Glucarate, DIM  (01:39:28) Lifestyle Factors to Increase Testosterone/Estrogen Levels, Dietary Fats  (01:45:34) Aromatase Supplements: Ecdysterone, Turkesterone (01:47:04) Tongkat Ali (Long Jack), Estrogen/Testosterone levels  (01:52:25) Fadogia Agrestis, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Frequency (01:56:44) Boron, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) (01:58:13) Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), Fertility (02:04:18) Prolactin & Dopamine, Pituitary Damage  (02:08:34) Augmenting Dopamine Levels: Casein, Gluten, Vitamin E, Vitamin B6 (P5P) (02:12:30) L-Carnitine & Fertility, TMAO & Allicin (Garlic)  (02:18:19) Blood Test Frequency  (02:19:41) Long-Term Relationships & Effects on Hormones (02:25:33) Nesting Instincts: Prolactin, Childbirth & Relationships (02:29:05) Cold & Hot Exposure, Hormones & Fertility (02:32:34) Peptide Hormones: Insulin, Tesamorelin, Ghrelin  (02:37:24) Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptides (GHRPs) (02:39:38) BPC-157 & Injury, Dosing Frequency (02:45:23) Uses for Melanotan  (02:48:21) Spiritual Health Impact on Mental & Physical Health  (02:54:18) Caffeine & Hormones  (02:56:19) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Review, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/11/20222 hours, 56 minutes, 30 seconds
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Using Deliberate Cold Exposure for Health and Performance

I describe mechanisms by which deliberate cold exposure can enhance mental health, physical health, and performance. I detail specific protocols to safely engage in deliberate cold exposure, including minimal exposure times, time-of-day effects, determining optimal temperatures, recovery, mindset, and movement during cold exposure. I discuss how cold exposure can be used to safely stress the body to improve attention, mood, and cognitive focus and boost metabolism and reduce inflammation. Also, I explain how cold exposure on specific regions of the body (called glabrous skin surfaces) can be leveraged to enhance endurance and weight training and increase work output. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Health Warning (00:04:23) Tool: Moderate Exercise & Cognitive Work (00:11:04) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:15:37) Circadian Rhythm & Body Temperature (00:18:41) Tool: Quickly Decrease Core Body Temperature, Glabrous Skin (00:25:26) Mental Effects of Cold Exposure (00:29:02) Physical Effects of Cold Exposure (00:30:11) How Cold Should the Temperature Be? (00:34:53) Cold Showers vs. Cold Water Immersion (00:38:27) Protocols for Cold Exposure (00:50:57) Optimal Mindset(s) During Cold Exposure (00:55:26) Tool: Using Movement During Cold Exposure (00:57:51) Optimal Frequency of Cold Exposure (01:00:22) Cold Exposure for Dopamine, Mood & Focus (01:12:55) Cold Exposure & Metabolism, Brown Fat (01:25:55) Tool: Caffeine, Dopamine & Cold Exposure (01:29:14) Tools: Increasing Metabolism w/Cold – The Søberg Principle, Shivering (01:34:15) Norepinephrine & Fat Cells (01:36:22) Cold, Physical Performance, Inflammation (01:47:36) Hyperthermia & Glabrous Skin Cooling (01:53:27) Tool: Palmar Cooling & Endurance (02:03:18) Cold Exposure to Groin, Increasing Testosterone (02:07:50) Tool: Optimal Timing for Daily Cold Exposure (02:11:16) Neural Network Newsletter, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify Reviews, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/4/20222 hours, 11 minutes, 36 seconds
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Dr. Andy Galpin: How to Build Strength, Muscle Size & Endurance

My guest is Dr. Andy Galpin, Professor of Kinesiology at California State University, Fullerton, and one of the foremost experts in the world on the science and application of methods to increase strength, hypertrophy and endurance performance. We discuss fundamental principles of strength and hypertrophy training and building endurance, the mechanisms underlying them and we review specific protocols to optimize training and recovery. We also discuss hydration, sleep, nutrition, supplements, and mental tools that can be leveraged to accelerate adaptations leading to enhanced strength, muscle growth and/or endurance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Andy Galpin, Strength & Endurance Training   (00:03:23) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:20) Adaptations of Exercise, Progressive Overload  (00:14:40) Modifiable Variables, One-Rep Max, Muscle Soreness (00:27:30) Modifiable Variables of Strength Training, Supersets   (00:43:50) How to Select Training Frequency: Strength vs. Hypertrophy  (00:58:45) Hypertrophy Training, Repetition Ranges, Blood Flow Restriction  (01:08:50) Tools: Protocols for Strength Training, the 3 by 5 Concept  (01:10:48) Mind-Muscle Connection  (01:16:16) Mental Awareness  (01:27:57) Breathing Tools for Resistance Training & Post-Training  (01:37:25) Endurance Training & Combining with Strength (01:51:20) Tools: Protocols for Endurance Training (02:08:15) Muscular Endurance, Fast vs. Slow Twitch Muscle  (02:16:35) Hydration & the Galpin Equation, Sodium, Fasting    (02:35:57) Cold Exposure & Training   (02:43:15) Heat Exposure & Training  (02:53:47) Recovery   (03:04:02) Tool: Sodium Bicarbonate (03:17:26) Tool: Creatine Monohydrate (03:20:08) Absolute Rest (03:29:08) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/28/20223 hours, 27 minutes, 47 seconds
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Controlling Sugar Cravings & Metabolism with Science-Based Tools

I explain how to blunt sugar cravings through fundamental knowledge of how sugar is sensed, metabolized, and utilized within the body. I explain how sugar is processed through the digestive tract and nervous system and how both the taste and nutritive components of sugar can lead to specific appetite changes and cravings. I discuss the connection between sugar, dopamine, and cravings and outline many tools to curb sugar cravings, specifically craving highly processed refined sugars. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Sugar & Physiology (00:02:41) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:40) Sugar & the Brain (00:10:06) Appetite & Hormones: Ghrelin & Insulin (00:14:17) Glucose & Brain Function (00:24:19) Glucose & Physical Activity (00:26:16) Fructose vs. Glucose (00:32:41) When to Eat High-Sugar Foods? (00:35:01) Sugar’s Taste vs. Nutritive Pathways, Sugar Cravings (00:41:46) Tool: Sugar & the Dopamine, Pleasure – Pain Dichotomy (00:48:43) Subconscious Sugar Circuits, Hidden Sugars in Food (00:58:03) Glucose Metabolism in the Brain (01:03:00) Tool: Glycemic Index, Blunting Sugar Cravings (01:12:08) Sugary Drinks, Highly Refined Sugars (01:14:33) Artificial Sweeteners (01:22:36) ADHD, Omega-3s (01:30:18) Tools: Reduce Sugar Cravings with EPA Omega-3s & Glutamine (01:35:15) Tool: Blunt Sugar Peaks & Craving with Lemon Juice (01:43:09) Tool: Reduce Sugar Cravings & Spikes with Cinnamon (01:45:10) Berberine, Sustained Low Blood Glucose Levels (01:51:24) Tool: Sleep & Sugar Cravings (01:56:33) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/21/20221 hour, 55 minutes, 12 seconds
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Using Salt to Optimize Mental & Physical Performance

I discuss the role of salt (sodium) in the nervous system and the key role that it plays in mental performance, physical performance and health. I explain how the brain senses salt levels in our body and how that relates to our feelings of thirst. I cover the physiology of the renal system and the hormones that control sodium and water balance in our body. I also explore how salt interacts with stress and our immune systems and its crucial role in neuron function. Additionally, I examine research findings suggesting that some individuals might benefit from increased intake of sodium and other electrolytes (magnesium and potassium) to enhance mental performance, lessen anxiety, and offset dizziness. Yet, other people may need less sodium. I discuss how you can determine your optimal sodium intake and why sodium intake levels need to be uniquely tailored to an individual’s lifestyle. Finally, I explain how salt creates ‘hidden’ sugars in many processed foods and the problems that can create. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed findings outlining salt’s essential role in overall health and describe general recommendations and tools anyone can use to find their optimal salt balance and thereby enhance their brain and body’s performance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Role of Salt  (00:02:57) Neuropod Cells, Artificial Sweeteners & ‘Hidden’ Cravings  (00:10:36) Sponsors: AG1, Thesis, LMNT, Momentous (00:15:06) Salt Regulation  (00:17:13) How the Brain Senses Salt (00:24:15) Salt & Thirst  (00:29:27) Blood Pressure & Thirst  (00:33:47) Kidneys & Urine Regulation (00:39:08) Vasopressin: Roles in Libido & Urination  (00:45:46) How Much Salt Do You Need?  (00:56:45) Should You Increase Your Salt Intake?  (01:02:19) Tools: Determining Your Individual Salt Intake (01:14:02) Iodine, Sea Salt  (01:17:13) Salt: Roles in Stress & Anxiety  (01:24:20) Other Electrolytes: Magnesium & Potassium  (01:27:57) Tools: Effects of Low-carbohydrate Diets & Caffeine  (01:32:28) General Recommendations for Salt Intake  (01:36:34) Perception of Salt & Sugar Taste, Processed Foods  (01:47:13) Role of Sodium in Neuronal Function, Action Potentials  (01:53:13) Dehydration  (01:55:36) What Salt Intake is Best for You?  (02:00:58) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube Feedback, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/14/20222 hours, 1 minute, 37 seconds
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Dr. Justin Sonnenburg: How to Build, Maintain & Repair Gut Health

My guest this episode is Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Stanford University. Dr. Sonnenburg’s research focuses on how microbes in our gut impact our mental and physical health and how diet and your environment shape your gut microbiome. We discuss the architecture of the gut microbiome and microbiota variability in different regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and how these can change in response to diet, environment or genetics. We explore the early establishment of your microbiome and how your mode of delivery into the world (C-section or not) shapes your gut. We also discuss lifestyle factors that can alter your microbiome and the integral role the gut microbiome plays in communicating to other organs, including your brain. Dr. Sonnenburg details his recent clinical study, which found that diets rich in fermented foods (but not fiber) increase microbiota diversity and reduce signals of inflammation. Additionally, we examine how foods typical in Western Diets (e.g., high fat, low fiber, processed foods) can negatively impact the gut microbiome. Throughout the episode, we discuss actionable tools from peer-reviewed clinical findings that anyone can implement, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their gut microbiome and health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Justin Sonnenburg, Gut Microbiome (00:03:11) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:30) What is the Gut Microbiome? (00:12:49) Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract & Microbiota Variability (00:16:00) Breast Feeding, C-Sections & Pets (00:21:56) The Human Microbiome Project at Stanford (00:26:30) Traditional vs. Industrialized Populations (00:28:58) Resilience of the Microbiome (00:35:10) Regional Differences Along Your GI Tract (00:42:04) Fasting, Cleanses & Gut Health (00:51:19) Dietary Differences (01:01:24) Simple vs. Complex Carbohydrates, Processed Foods (01:07:03) Artificial & Plant-based Sweeteners (01:12:44) Cleanses: Useful? Harmful? (01:14:50) Your Microbiome & Your Immune System (01:20:17) Dietary Fiber & Fermented Foods (01:32:13) High-Fiber vs. High-Fermented Diet; Inflammation (01:41:33) Ripple Effects of a Healthy Diet (01:45:00) Does a High-Fiber Diet Make Inflammation Worse? (01:47:22) Over Sterilized Environments (01:50:15) The Gut Microbiome’s Effect on Physiology (01:56:45) Gut-Brain Connection (01:59:30) Probiotics: Benefits & Risks (02:04:20) Prebiotics: Essential? (02:07:00) Tools for Enhancing Your Gut Microbiota (02:11:12) Dr. Sonnenburg’s Research, Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/7/20222 hours, 10 minutes, 21 seconds
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How to Enhance Your Gut Microbiome for Brain & Overall Health

In this episode, I discuss the profound effect the gut has on the nervous system. I cover the structure and function of the gut-brain axis and the role of the gut microbiome in the brain and overall health. I describe how the gut controls hunger or satiety by affecting neurons in our brain. I also contrast the many pathways by which the gut influences the brain: direct vs. indirect pathways, chemical vs. mechanical, and fast vs. slow signaling. Additionally, I discuss what defines a healthy microbiome and how your lifestyle impacts the gut microbiome, including the effects of stress, fasting, antibiotics, pets, environment, prebiotics and probiotics. I address how different foods shape the gut microbiome, in particular, the emerging data that fermented foods can increase the diversity of healthy gut microbiota. Throughout the episode, I explain peer-reviewed and textbook findings that reveal the critical role of the gut microbiome in supporting mental and physical health and I outline simple tools that anyone can use in order to enhance their gut microbiome health. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Gut Microbiome  (00:03:19) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:55) Your Gut-Brain Axis  (00:09:44) Gut-Brain Anatomy (00:15:32) Microbiota vs. Gut Microbiome  (00:20:01) Roles of Gut Microbiome  (00:23:03) Neuropod Cells: (Subconscious) Tasting with Your Stomach  (00:34:13) Ghrelin: Slow Modulation of Your Brain in Hunger (00:38:02) Glucagon Like Peptide 1; GLP-1  (00:42:22) Tools: ‘Free Will’ & Food Cravings  (00:44:46) Mechanical Cues from Gut to Brain (00:49:05) Dopamines, Vomiting  (00:52:06) Indirect Signals from Gut Microbiota (00:59:30) Gut Microbiome “Critical Periods”  (01:03:08) How Gut Health Controls Overall Health  (01:12:25) What is a Healthy Gut Microbiome? (01:15:00) Tools: Enhance Your Gut Microbiome (01:23:49) Foods to Enhance Microbiota Diversity; Fermented Foods  (01:37:07) High-Fiber Diets & Inflammation (01:40:58) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners  (01:44:27) Structure & Function of Gut-Brain Axis  (01:49:47) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify, Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Neural Network Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/28/20221 hour, 49 minutes, 43 seconds
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Dr. David Spiegel: Using Hypnosis to Enhance Mental & Physical Health & Performance

My guest is Dr. David Spiegel MD, Associate Chair of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Director of the Center on Stress and Health and Director of the Center for Integrative Medicine at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Spiegel has more than 40 years of clinical and research experience with hypnosis, stress physiology, and psychotherapy. In this episode, we examine the role of clinical hypnosis for the treatment of trauma, chronic pain, anxiety and more. Dr. Spiegel explains how to determine your level of ‘hypnotizability’ and provides case studies of incredible successes with hypnosis to treat a variety of ailments. We also discuss how breathing, vision and directed mental focus can modulate internal states and enhance performance. Additionally, we discuss how the adoption of self-hypnosis techniques can reduce stress and enhance sleep in anyone. Dr. Spiegel teaches us how hypnosis works at the neural circuit level to enhance cognitive flexibility. Throughout the episode, Dr. Spiegel summarizes key clinical trials and peer-reviewed findings and resources to work with a trained clinical professional or to do guided self-hypnosis.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Spiegel MD, Hypnosis (00:04:20) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:09) Clinical Hypnosis (00:16:45) Stage Hypnosis (00:20:25) Neurobiology of Hypnosis (00:26:04) ADHD (00:28:22) Hypnosis for Stress & Sleep (00:32:12) Hypnosis to Strengthen Neural Connections (00:37:19) Restructuring Trauma Narratives (00:45:14) Ketamine Therapy (00:50:07) Self-directed Hypnosis, Reveri (00:56:53) Eliminating Obsessive Thoughts, Superstitions (01:01:50) ‘Hypnotizability’, the Spiegel Eye-roll Test (01:15:36) EMDR (Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing) (01:21:43) Confronting Stress & Trauma (01:27:56) The Mind-Body Connection (01:31:35) Dealing with Grief (01:35:45) Hypnosis in Children & Groups (01:40:06) Drug Therapies & Hypnosis (01:42:39) Breathing Patterns, Peak Performance (01:50:00) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify & Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/21/20221 hour, 48 minutes, 56 seconds
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The Science of Love, Desire and Attachment

In this episode, I discuss the psychology and biology of desire, love and attachment. I explain how childhood attachment types are thought to inform adult attachment styles to romantic partners, and I describe some of the major theories of human mate selection, relationships and infidelity. Additionally, I explore the neurobiology and proposed subconscious processing underlying desire, love and attachment, including the roles of empathy and “positive delusion." I outline how self-awareness can shift one’s relationship attachment style towards securely bonded partnerships. Finally, I describe specific tools and supplements that have been researched to increase libido and sex drive. Throughout the episode, I explain the science and key mechanisms underlying romantic love and outline tools for those seeking to find a strong, healthy relationship, or for those wanting to strengthen an existing relationship.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Desire, Love & Attachment  (00:02:59) Odor, Perceived Attractiveness & Birth Control (00:08:21) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:14:13) Romance: Balancing Love & Desire (00:19:00) Animal Studies, Vasopressin & Monogamy  (00:22:06) Strange Situation Task, Childhood Attachment Styles (00:32:52) Adult Attachment Styles (00:38:50) Secure Attachment  (00:41:23) Autonomic Arousal: The “See-Saw” (00:50:39) Tool: Self-Awareness, Healthy Interdependence (00:53:11) Neurobiology of Desire, Love & Attachment   (00:58:02) Empathy & Mating & the Autonomic Nervous System (01:10:02) Positive Delusion, Touch (01:15:20) Relationship Stability  (01:21:22) Selecting Mates, Recognition of Autonomic Tone (01:38:28) Neural Mechanisms of Romantic Attachment  (01:47:43) Autonomic Coordination in Relationships  (01:56:13) Infidelity & Cheating (02:08:56) “Chemistry”, Subconscious Processes (02:12:44) Tools: Libido & Sex Drive  (02:20:20) Maca (Maca root)   (02:25:58) Tongkat Ali (Longjack)  (02:28:56) Tribulus terrestris  (02:33:14) Zero-Cost Support, YouTube, Spotify/Apple Reviews, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/14/20222 hours, 30 minutes, 36 seconds
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Using Play to Rewire & Improve Your Brain

In this episode, I discuss the transformative nature of play—how it changes our feelings, thoughts and actions and indeed, how it can rewire our brain to function better in all contexts. I explain the role of play in childhood, as well as adulthood in skill and social development and describe key characteristics of the mind and body during play. Additionally, I explore how play allows the brain to test contingencies in different roles/environments. Throughout, I discuss the underlying neurobiology of play. I also describe how low-stakes play, and tinkering can broaden and shape your future capabilities. Finally, I discuss how our childhood ‘personal play identity’ informs our adult personality. Throughout the episode, I use the science of play to outline recommendations for using play as a means to enhance neuroplasticity and explore novel situations, regardless of age. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Power of Play (00:02:23) Tool: Reading on Smart Phones, Sighing & Learning (00:09:33) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:13:57) Homeostatic Regulation of Play (00:23:53) Childhood Play & Mindsets (00:29:21) Contingency Testing (00:32:17) The (Power of) Playful Mindset (00:36:13) Body Postures (00:44:03) Rule Testing & Breaking (00:48:24) Role Play (00:50:39) Neurobiology of Low-stakes Play (00:54:22) Expanding Capabilities through Tinkering (01:00:03) Play Is THE Portal to Neuroplasticity (01:04:44) Adulthood Play (01:10:14) Fire Together, Wire Together (01:18:03) Trauma & Play Deficits & Recovery (01:23:25) Competition & Dynamic Movement (01:27:36) Chess, Mental Roles, Novelty (01:32:52) Personal Play Identity (01:37:24) Play Transforms Your Future Self (01:40:55) Recommendations for Play (01:44:25) Zero-Cost Support, Spotify/Apple Reviews, YouTube, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/7/20221 hour, 43 minutes, 23 seconds
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Optimizing Workspace for Productivity, Focus, & Creativity

In this episode, I discuss ways to set up your workspace to optimize productivity, focus and creativity. I discuss how to adjust light, physically arrange your work environment, and leverage body posture to enhance productivity. Additionally, I explore how to shift your work environment for particular types of tasks. Moreover, I review the role of body movement in the workspace. I also discuss sound-based tools that can either enhance or diminish cognitive functioning (the ability to focus on deep work). I describe a particular frequency of binaural beats that studies show can be used to enhance memory and recall. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed findings practical tools anyone can use, regardless of budget, in order to optimize their workspace to achieve heightened levels of productivity, increased alertness and focus, and creativity. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Arranging Environment for Focus (00:02:44) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:55) How to Increase Focus (00:10:02) Lighting Your Work in Phase 1 (00:16:00) Lighting Your Work in Phase 2 (00:19:45) Lighting Your Work in Phase 3 (00:24:17) Where to Look While You Work (00:28:02) Arranging Your Environment (00:31:24) Body Posture (00:34:22) How Long to Do Deep Work (00:36:50) Set the Right Visual Window Size (00:42:15) 45 min / 5 min Rule (00:44:23) The Cathedral Effect: Analytic vs Creative Work (00:55:50) Leveraging Background Noise (01:02:20) Binaural Beats for Work (01:06:38) The Best Binaural Frequency for Work (01:11:17) How Binaural Beats Increase Focus (01:13:56) Minimizing Interruptions (01:20:01) Sit or Stand, or Both? (01:25:18) Movement in the Workspace (01:31:00) Summary & Shifting Work Environments (01:39:36) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/31/20221 hour, 37 minutes, 48 seconds
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Dr. Alia Crum: Science of Mindsets for Health & Performance

My guest is Dr. Alia Crum, Associate (tenured) Professor of Psychology at Stanford University and Director of the Stanford Mind & Body Lab. Dr. Crum is a world expert on mindsets and beliefs and how they shape our responses to stress, exercise, and even to the foods we eat. We discuss how our mindset about the nutritional content of food changes whether it is satisfying to us at a physiological (hormonal and metabolic) level. She also tells how mindsets about exercise can dramatically alter the effects of exercise on weight loss, blood pressure, and other health metrics. Dr. Crum teaches us how to think about stress in ways that allow stress to grow us and bring out our best rather than diminish our health and performance. Throughout the episode, Dr. Crum provides descriptions of high-quality peer-reviewed scientific findings that we can all leverage toward better health and performance in our lives. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Alia Crum from Stanford University (00:03:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:26) What Is a Mindset & What Does It Do?  (00:14:45) Mindsets Change Our Biological Responses to Food (00:22:28) Beliefs About Our Food Matter (00:25:57) Placebo vs Beliefs vs Nocebo Effects (00:28:57) Mindset (Dramatically) Impacts the Effects of Exercise (00:33:44) Motivational Messaging & Mindset About Fitness (00:39:30) The Power of a ‘Potency & Indulgence’ Mindset (00:42:03) Mindsets About Sleep, Tracking Sleep  (00:45:00) Making Stress Work For (or Against) You (01:01:50) Mindsets Link Our Conscious & Subconscious (01:04:50) 3 Best Ways to Leverage Stress (01:10:40) 4 Things That Shape Mindsets, Influencers & Mindsets (01:19:40) Mindsets About Medicines & Side Effects (01:26:25) How to Teach Mindsets (01:31:47) Dr. Crum’s Research, Clinical & Athletic Backgrounds (01:36:20) The Stanford Mind & Body Lab, Resources for Stress (01:38:30) Synthesis, Participating in Research (01:39:04) Subscribe, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/24/20221 hour, 37 minutes, 29 seconds
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The Science of Setting & Achieving Goals

In this episode, I discuss the science of setting, assessing, and pursuing goals. I explain the neural (brain) circuits that underlie goal setting and pursuit. Then I describe nine science-supported tools anyone can apply toward their goals. I explain when and how to use goal visualization, when to use multitasking and how to use specific rewards to improve the likelihood of reaching your goals. I also explain why envisioning failures and their consequences are effective and how to set goals of the appropriate level of challenge. I also explain how the molecule dopamine is used to gauge our progress toward milestones and long-term overarching goals and how to leverage dopamine for goal pursuit. Finally, I explain a unique tool called 'space-time bridging' that can be used to support all aspects of goal setting, assessment, and pursuit. This episode ought to be useful for anyone seeking to improve their performance in work, school, exercise, athletics, or personal development. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Neuroscience of Goals (00:01:56) Tool 1: Learn Fast(er) by the 85% Rule  (00:06:18) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:13:55) Brain Circuits for Setting & Pursuing Goals (00:21:52) Determining the Value of Goals  (00:24:33) Psychology of Goal Setting: Assessing Value, Action Steps (00:30:29) Peripersonal Space vs. Extrapersonal Space (00:35:39) Visually Focusing on a Goal Line Improves Performance (00:43:50) How Vision Improves Performance: Blood Pressure (00:51:55) Tool 2: Use Focal Vision to Initiate Goal Pursuit (00:54:40) Tool 3: Use Aged Self-Images to Self-Motivate  (00:59:33) Tool 4: Visualization of Goals is Only Helpful at the Start  (01:02:05) Tool 5: Visualizing Failure is the Best Ongoing Motivator (01:07:26) Tool 6: Make Goals Moderately Lofty  (01:13:05) Tool 7: Avoid Goal Distraction; Focus on 1-2 Major Goals Per Year (01:15:57) Tool 8: Ensure Specificity of Goals, Weekly Assessment (01:19:57) Dopamine, Motivation & Pleasure in Seeking Goals (01:22:43) Dopamine Reward Prediction Error, Controlling Dopamine (01:34:26) How Dopamine Influences Vision & Vice Versa (01:38:10) Interim Summary of Goal-Pursuit Steps (01:39:50) Tool 9: Space-Time Bridging  (01:49:59) Summary (01:51:50) Subscribe, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter, Newsletter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/17/20221 hour, 48 minutes, 5 seconds
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Dr. Jack Feldman: Breathing for Mental & Physical Health & Performance

This episode my guest is Dr. Jack Feldman, Distinguished Professor of Neurobiology at the University of California, Los Angeles and a pioneering world expert in the science of respiration (breathing). We discuss how and why humans breathe the way we do, the function of the diaphragm and how it serves to increase oxygenation of the brain and body. We discuss how breathing influences mental state, fear, memory, reaction time, and more. And we discuss specific breathing protocols such as box-breathing, cyclic hyperventilation (similar to Wim Hof breathing), nasal versus mouth breathing, unilateral breathing, and how these each affect the brain and body. We discuss physiological sighs, peptides expressed by specific neurons controlling breathing, and magnesium compounds that can improve cognitive ability and how they work. This conversation serves as a sort of "Master Class" on the science of breathing and breathing-related tools for health and performance.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Our Breath Collective https://www.ourbreathcollective.com/huberman  Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Jack Feldman (00:03:20) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:10:35) Why We Breathe  (00:14:35) Neural Control of Breathing: “Pre-Botzinger Complex” (00:16:20) Nose vs Mouth Breathing (00:18:18) Skeletal vs. Smooth Muscles: Diaphragm, Intracostals & Airway Muscles (00:20:11) Two Breathing Oscillators: Pre-Botzinger Complex & Parafacial Nucleus (00:26:20) How We Breathe Is Special (Compared to Non-Mammals) (00:33:40) Stomach & Chest Movements During Breathing (00:36:23) Physiological Sighs, Alveoli Re-Filling, Bombesin (00:49:39) If We Don’t Sigh, Our Lung (& General) Health Suffers (01:00:42) Breathing, Brain States & Emotions  (01:05:34) Meditating Mice, Eliminating Fear  (01:11:00) Brain States, Amygdala, Locked-In Syndrome, Laughing (01:16:25) Facial Expressions (01:19:00) Locus Coeruleus & Alertness (01:29:40) Breath Holds, Apnea, Episodic Hypoxia, Hypercapnia (01:35:22) Stroke, Muscle Strength, TBI (01:38:08) Cyclic Hyperventilation (01:39:50) Hyperbaric Chambers (01:40:41) Nasal Breathing, Memory, Right vs. Left Nostril (01:44:50) Breathing Coordinates Everything: Reaction Time, Fear, etc. (01:57:13) Dr. Feldman’s Breathwork Protocols, Post-Lunch  (02:02:05) Deliberately Variable Breathwork: The Feldman Protocol (02:06:29) Magnesium Threonate & Cognition & Memory  (02:18:27) Gratitude for Dr. Feldman’s Highly Impactful Work (02:20:53) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Instagram, Twitter, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/10/20222 hours, 18 minutes, 29 seconds
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The Science of Making & Breaking Habits

In this episode, I review the science of habit formation and habit elimination and how the process of neuroplasticity (brain rewiring) underlies these processes. I describe two new systems for habit formation. The first system is grounded in the neuroscience of brain states and our ability to perform (and to avoid) certain tasks at different phases of the 24-hour day. The second system focuses on 21-day habit formation and consolidation. I also discuss "task bracketing" as an approach to enhancing habit formation and eliminating unwanted habits and the neural circuits that underlie task bracketing in the basal ganglia (a brain region for generating and stopping behaviors). I also review the science of dopamine rewards and how to apply that knowledge to shaping habits. The science and tools in this episode ought to be helpful for anyone looking to build better habits and eliminate unwanted habits for school, work, fitness, relationships, creative endeavors, and more—indeed for any person or situation where behavioral changes are needed. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Habits; New Programs (00:02:46) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:52) Habits versus Reflexes, Learning, Neuroplasticity (00:08:51) Goal-Based Habits vs. Identity-Based Habits (00:11:40) How Long It (Really) Takes to Form a Habit; Limbic-Friction (00:16:07) Linchpin Habits  (00:18:55) Mapping Your Habits; Habit Strength, Context-Dependence (00:22:55) Automaticity (00:24:03) Tool 1: Applying Procedural Memory Visualizations (00:27:48) Hebbian Learning, NMDA receptors (00:31:00) Tool 2: Task Bracketing; Dorsolateral Striatum (00:37:08) States of Mind, Not Scheduling Time Predicts Habit Strength (00:38:16) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 1 (00:46:29) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 2 (00:55:24) Tool 3: Phase-Based Habit Plan: Phase 3 (01:01:34) Habit Flexibility (01:04:57) Should We Reward Ourselves? How? When? When NOT to. (01:10:30) Tool 4: “Dopamine Spotlighting” & Task Bracketing (01:18:22) Tool 5: The 21-Day Habit Installation & Testing System (01:28:26) Breaking Habits: Long-Term (Synaptic) Depression (01:35:49) Notifications Don’t Work (01:37:50) Tool 6: Break Bad Habits with Post-Bad-Habit “Positive Cargo” (01:44:26) Addictions as Habits: https://hubermanlab.com/dr-anna-lembke-understanding-and-treating-addiction (01:45:28) Conclusion & Synthesis  (01:48:27) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/3/20221 hour, 47 minutes, 40 seconds
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Dr. David Sinclair: The Biology of Slowing & Reversing Aging

In this episode, I am joined by Dr. David Sinclair, tenured Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and an expert researcher in the field of longevity. Dr. Sinclair is also the author of the book Lifespan: Why We Age & Why We Don't Have To, and the host of the Lifespan Podcast, which launches January 5, 2022.  In this interview, we discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and what we all can do to slow or reverse the aging process. We discuss fasting and supplementation with resveratrol, NAD, metformin, and NMN. We also discuss the use of caffeine, exercise, cold exposure, and why excessive iron load is bad for us. We discuss food choices for offsetting aging and promoting autophagy (clearance of dead cells). And we discuss the key blood markers everyone should monitor to determine your biological versus chronological age. We also discuss the future of longevity research and technology. This episode includes lots of basic science and specific, actionable protocols, right down to the details of what to do and when. By the end, you will have in-depth knowledge of the biology of aging and how to offset it. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Sinclair, Harvard Medical School (00:03:45) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:45) “Aging as a Disease” vs. Longevity & Anti-Aging (00:10:23) What Causes Aging? The Epigenome (00:15:53) Cosmetic Aging  (00:17:15) Development Never Stops, Horvath Clock (00:20:12) Puberty Rate as a Determinant of Aging Rate (00:23:00) Fasting, Hunger & Food Choices (00:32:44) Fasting Schedules, Long Fasts, (Macro)Autophagy (00:34:50) Caffeine, Electrolytes  (00:35:56) Blood Glucose & the Sirtuins; mTOR (00:37:55) Amino Acids: Leucine, “Pulsing” (00:44:35) Metformin, Berberine (00:50:29) Resveratrol, Wine (00:53:20) What Breaks a Fast? (00:56:45) Resveratrol, NAD, NMN, NR; Dosage, Timing (01:09:10) Are Artificial Sweeteners Bad for Us? (01:12:04) Iron Load & Aging (01:15:05) Blood Work Analysis (01:19:37) C-Reactive Protein, Cholesterol: Serum & Dietary (01:26:02) Amino Acids, Plants, Antioxidants (01:33:45) Behaviors That Extend Lifespan, Testosterone, Estrogen (01:40:35) Neuroplasticity & Neural Repair (01:46:19) Ice Baths, Cold Showers, “Metabolic Winter” (01:48:07) Obesity & How It Accelerates Aging, GnRH  (01:52:10) Methylation, Methylene Blue, Cigarettes  (01:56:17) X-Rays   (01:59:00) Public Science Education, Personal Health (02:05:40) The Sinclair Test You Can Take: www.doctorsinclair.com (02:08:13) Zero-Cost Support & Resources, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/27/20212 hours, 7 minutes, 56 seconds
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Science of Social Bonding in Family, Friendship & Romantic Love

This episode I discuss the science of social bonding- the process by which we form attachments. I explain the neural and hormonal basis for "social homeostasis" (our drive for a given amount of socializing) which reveals why we get lonely, why we seek out connection with others and how power dynamics (hierarchies) shape those connections. I also discuss the neurochemical basis of introversion and extroversion, of trust and how shared experiences that promote similar physiological states in two or more individuals, leads to more rapid bonding. I also discuss how food and oxytocin play key roles in social bonding. This episode covers quality peer-reviewed science and practical tools for anyone seeking to find, build or end relationships. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Social Bonding: Child-Parent, Romantic, Friendship, Breakups (00:03:10) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:08) Social Bonding as a Biological Process (00:10:03) Social Isolation (00:13:32) Social Homeostasis & Neural Circuits for Social Drive  (00:18:55) Brain Areas & (Neuro)Chemistry of Social Drive  (00:22:48) What is Social Homeostasis & Dopamine (00:27:00) When We Lack Social Interactions: Short- Versus Long-Term (00:28:10) Introverts & Extroverts (00:31:00) “Good” Versus “Bad” Social Interactions & Hierarchies (00:33:54) Loneliness & Dorsal Raphe Nucleus & Social Hunger  (00:37:33) Tools (00:38:05) Socializing & Food Appetite: Crossover Craving (00:42:45) Falling in Love (00:45:05) Tools for Social Bonds: Merging Physiologies; Story (00:53:54) Childhood Attachment Patterns in Adulthood (01:03:45) Attachment Styles: Autonomic Versus Intellectual Attachment (01:06:10) Emotional Empathy & Cognitive Empathy, Arguing (01:09:45) Allan N. Schore & “Right Brain Psychotherapy” (01:10:40) Oxytocin & Trust, In Males Versus Females, Hormonal Glue (01:16:10) Repairing Broken Bonds to Self & Others (01:18:56) Social (Media) Butterflies: Biological Basis (01:24:08) Key Points for Bonding & Understanding Social Bonds (01:27:07) Breaking Up (01:28:36) Synthesis  (01:31:17) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/20/20211 hour, 30 minutes, 34 seconds
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Dr. David Berson: Understanding Your Brain's Logic & Function

In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Berson, Professor & Chairman of Neuroscience at Brown University. Dr. Berson discovered the neurons in your eye that set your biological rhythms for sleep, wakefulness, mood and appetite. He is also a world-renowned teacher of basic and advanced neuroscience, having taught thousands of university lectures on this topic. Many of his students have become world-leading neuroscientists and teachers themselves.  Here Dr. Berson takes us on a structured journey into and around the nervous system, explaining: how we perceive the world and our internal landscape, how we balance, see, and remember. Also, how we learn and perform reflexive and deliberate actions, how we visualize and imagine in our mind, and how the various circuits of the brain coordinate all these incredible feats.  We discuss practical and real-life examples of neural circuit function across the lifespan. Dr. Berson gives us a masterclass in the nervous system—one that, in just less than two hours, will teach you an entire course's worth about the brain and how yours works. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. David Berson  (00:03:11) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:02) How We See  (00:10:02) Color Vision  (00:13:47) “Strange” Vision (00:16:56) How You Orient In Time (00:25:45) Body Rhythms, Pineal function, Light & Melatonin, Blueblockers (00:34:45) Spending Times Outdoors Improves Eyesight  (00:36:20) Sensation, Mood, & Self-Image (00:41:03) Sense of Balance (00:50:43) Why Pigeons Bob Their Heads, Motion Sickness  (01:00:03) Popping Ears (01:02:35) Midbrain & Blindsight  (01:10:44) Why Tilted Motion Feels Good  (01:13:24) Reflexes vs. Deliberate Actions (01:16:35) Basal Ganglia & the “2 Marshmallow Test” (01:24:40) Suppressing Reflexes: Cortex  (01:33:33) Neuroplasticity  (01:36:27) What is a Connectome? (01:45:20) How to Learn (More About the Brain) (01:49:04) Book Suggestion, my Berson Appreciation (01:50:20) Zero-Cost ways to Support the HLP, Guest Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/13/20211 hour, 49 minutes, 4 seconds
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Erasing Fears & Traumas Based on the Modern Neuroscience of Fear

In this episode, I discuss fear and trauma, including the neural circuits involved in the "threat reflex" and how specific experiences and memories come to activate that system. I also discuss how our body is involved in trauma and fear. First, I describe the logic of fear mechanisms and how "top-down" processing-- meaning connections from the parts of the brain that assign meaning to our feelings, are involved in fear and erasing fears and traumas. Then I discuss what successful fear and trauma treatment must include and consider various treatments for whether they meet that standard, such as EMDR, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Ketamine, other drug-assisted therapies, and more. I also review new data on how 5 minutes per day of deliberate, self-imposed stress can erase fear and depression. And I review the role that social connection plays in erasing or maintaining fears by activating specific molecular pathways in the brain and body. Finally, I review supplementation with over-the-counter compounds for their effects on anxiety and fear and when to take them, if at all.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Fear, Trauma & Trauma  (00:02:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:49) What is Fear?  (00:11:45) Autonomic Arousal: “Alertness” vs. “Calmness” (00:13:44) Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPA axis) (00:17:36) “The Threat Reflex”: Neural Circuits for Fear (00:28:24) Controlling Fear: Top-Down Processing (00:32:27) Narratives: “Protective or Dangerous” (00:35:58) Attaching Fear to Events: Classical Conditioning & Memory (00:41:45) How Fear Learning Occurs: Long Term Potentiation, NMDA (00:46:10) Extinguishing (Reducing) Fears (00:50:25) Cognitive (Narrative) Therapies for Fear (00:57:56) Repetition of Narrative, Overwriting Bad Experiences with Good (01:05:28) EMDR: Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing (01:14:00) Social Connection & Isolation Are Chemically Powerful (01:18:23) Trans-Generational Trauma (01:25:00) PTSD Treatments: Ketamine, MDMA, oxytocin (01:39:25) How Do You Know If You Are Traumatized?  (01:46:16) Deliberate Brief Stress Can Erase Fears & Trauma (01:49:50) Erasing Fears & Traumas In 5 Minutes Per Day (01:59:42) Nutrition, Sleep, & Other General Support Erasing Fear & Trauma (02:02:30) Supplements for Anxiety, Fear: Saffron, Inositol, Kava (02:10:00) Synthesis  (02:11:46) Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram, Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
12/6/20212 hours, 10 minutes, 33 seconds
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Dr. David Buss: How Humans Select & Keep Romantic Partners in Short & Long Term

In this episode, my guest is Dr. David Buss, Professor of Psychology at the University of Texas, Austin, and one of the founding members of the field of evolutionary psychology. Dr. Buss describes his work on how people select mates for short and long-term relationships, the dynamics of human courtship, and mate value assessment — meaning how people measure up as potential partners. We also discuss the causes of infidelity and differences for infidelity in men and women. He explains how people evaluate and try to alter other people’s mate value as a means to secure and even poach mates. We discuss monogamous and non-monogamous relationships in humans. And we discuss what Dr. Buss calls “the dark triad”— features common in stalkers and narcissists that relate to sexual and psychological violence in relationships. This episode is sure to be of interest to anyone single or in a relationship who seeks to know how people select mates and anyone who is interested in forming and maintaining healthy romantic partnerships.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. David Buss (00:04:27) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:33) Choosing a Mate (00:13:40) Long Term Mates: Universal Desires (00:18:31) What Women & Men Seek in Long-Term Mates (00:25:10) Age Differences & Mating History  (00:32:20) Deception in Courtship (00:37:30) Emotional Stability (00:38:40) Lying About Long-Term Interest (00:41:56) Short-Term Mating Criteria, Sliding Standards & Context Effects (00:46:25) Sexual Infidelity: Variety Seeking & (Un)happiness & Mate Switching (00:54:25) Genetic Cuckolds, How Ovulation Impacts Mate Preference (00:57:00) Long-Term vs. Short-Term Cheating, Concealment (00:59:15) Emotional & Financial Infidelity (01:04:35) Contraception  (01:06:22) Status & Mating Success (01:10:10) Jealousy, Mate Value Discrepancies, Vigilance, Violence (01:24:13) Specificity of Intimate Partner Violence   (01:25:12) Mate Retention Tactics: Denigration, Guilt, Etc. (01:27:33) Narcissism, Machiavellianism, Psychopathy (01:33:25) Stalking (01:39:15) Influence of Children on Mate Value Assessments  (01:43:24) Attachment Styles, Mate Choice & Infidelity (01:46:40) Non-Monogamy, Unconventional Relationships   (01:54:00) Mate Value Self Evaluation, Anxiety About the Truth (02:02:12) Self Deception (02:05:35) The Future of Evolutionary Psychology & Neuroscience   (02:06:56) Books: When Men Behave Badly; The Evolution of Desire, Textbooks (02:10:42) Concluding Statements, Zero-Cost Support: Subscribe, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/29/20212 hours, 10 minutes, 4 seconds
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The Science of Gratitude & How to Build a Gratitude Practice

In this episode, I discuss the science of gratitude, which has been shown in peer-reviewed studies to have tremendous positive effects on mental and physical health. I explain, however, that most commonly used gratitude practices are ineffective (such as gratitude lists). The key elements of highly effective gratitude practices are described, including the essential need for story (narrative), receiving or perceiving gratitude rather than giving it, and the role that theory of mind plays in this context. I also discuss why we can't simply make up feelings of gratitude and how reluctance undermines the process. I also explain the neural circuit mechanisms that underlie the reductions in fear and increases in motivation and lowering of inflammatory chemicals that effective narrative-based gratitude can trigger. Throughout the episode, I use the science of gratitude to design a brief but highly effective protocol.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Gratitude Science & Surprises (00:01:50) Controlling Heart Rate with Story (00:04:48) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:11) Major, Long-Lasting Benefits of Gratitude Practice (00:12:20) Prosocial vs. Defensive Thinking, Behaviors, & Neural Circuits  (00:17:50) Why We All Need an Effective Gratitude Practice (00:21:22) Neurochemistry & Neural Circuits of Gratitude (00:25:10) Prefrontal Cortex Set Context (00:30:10) Ineffective Gratitude Practices; Autonomic Variables (00:34:55) Key Features of Effective Gratitude Practices: Receiving Thanks & Story (00:42:30) Theory of Mind Is Key (00:45:50) Building Effective Gratitude Practices: Adopting Narratives, Duration (00:52:28) Narratives That Shift Brain-Body Circuits  (00:56:150 You Can’t Lie About Liking Something; Reluctance In Giving (00:59:55) How Gratitude Changes Your Brain: Reduces Anxiety, Increases Motivation (01:03:00) 5 Minutes (Is More Than Enough), 3X Weekly, Timing Each Day  (01:05:44) Empathy & Anterior Cingulate Cortex (01:07:35) Reducing Inflammation & Fear with Gratitude (01:10:56) Serotonin, Kanna/Zembrin  (01:16:00) Neuroplasticity, Pharmacology, Brain Machine Interfaces (01:18:50) The Best Gratitude Practices: & How To, My Protocol (01:24:25) Subscribe & Feedback, Supporting Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/22/20211 hour, 22 minutes, 50 seconds
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Time Perception & Entrainment by Dopamine, Serotonin & Hormones

In this episode, I discuss how our brain and body track time and the role that neurochemicals, in particular dopamine and serotonin, but also hormones such as melatonin, allow us to orient ourselves in time. I review the three types of time perception: of the past, of the present, and the future, and how dopamine and serotonin adjust both our perception of the speed of the passage of time and our memory of how long previous experiences lasted. I also discuss circannual entrainment, which is the process by which our brain and body are matched to the seasons, and circadian (24 hours) entrainment, both of which subconsciously adjust our perceived measurement of time. I explain the mechanisms of that subconscious control. And I cover the ultradian (90 minutes) rhythms that govern our ability to focus, including how to track when these 90-minute rhythms begin and end for the sake of work and productivity. I include ten tools based on the science of time perception that you can apply to enhance productivity, creativity, and relationships in various contexts.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Time Perception, Note on Fasting & Supplements (00:05:28) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:25) Entrainment, Circannual Entrainment, Melatonin (00:13:20) Seasonal Oscillations in Testosterone & Estrogen, Tool 1 (00:16:06) Circadian Timing, Tools 1, 2, 3 (for Circadian Entrainment) (00:21:13) Tool 4: Timing Physical Activity; Tool 5: Timing Eating Window (00:23:00) When Circadian Entrainment is Disrupted, Time Perception Suffers (00:25:00) Tool 6: Ultradian (90min) Cycles & Focus (00:31:42) Our Sense of the Passage of Time: Present, Prospective, Retrospective (00:34:40) Dopamine (& Nor/epinephrine) Lead to Time Overestimation; Frame Rate  (00:37:18) Serotonin & Time Underestimation; Decreased Frame Rate (00:39:10) Dopamine vs. Serotonin Across the Day; Tool 7: When to Do Rigid vs. Creative Work (00:42:38) Example of Tool 7 (00:43:38) How Sleep Deprivation Degrades Performance (00:44:38) Trauma, “Over-clocking” & Memories; Adjusting Rates of Experience (00:50:04) Why Trauma Involves Dopamine & Epinephrine, Arousal (00:51:03) Dopamine, Spontaneous Blinking & Time Perception; Tool 8 (00:53:38) Deliberate Cold Exposure, Dopamine, Tool 9: Adjusting Frame Rate in Discomfort (00:56:30) Fun “Feels Fast” BUT Is Remembered as Slow; Boring Stuff “Feels Slow,” Recall As Fast (01:00:54) Retrospective Time, Context Variation & Enhanced Bonding with Places & People (01:03:00) Dopamine Release Resets the Start of Each Time Bin on Our Experience (01:07:40) Habits & Time Perception; Tool 10 (Setting Functional Units of Each Day) (01:11:58) Synthesis & Book Suggestion (Your Brain Is a Time Machine by D. Buonomano) (01:12:27) Supporting the HLP: Subscribe, Instagram, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/15/20211 hour, 11 minutes, 30 seconds
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Dr. Duncan French: How to Exercise for Strength Gains & Hormone Optimization

In this episode, I talk to Dr. Duncan French, Ph.D., the Vice President of Performance at the UFC Performance Institute and a world-class performance specialist. We discuss specific resistance (weight) training regimens for increasing testosterone in men and women and how to vary mechanical loads and rest between sets and workouts to optimize hormone output and training results. We also discuss how stress-induced "catecholamines" can increase testosterone or decrease it, depending on duration and mindset. And we discuss specific cold- and heat- therapies for increasing resilience, reducing inflammation, heat shock proteins and more. We discuss nutrition for training and how to match nutrition to training goals and metabolic flexibility. We discuss mental focus and how long to train for skill development. Finally, we discuss how mixed martial arts and the UFC Performance Institute are a template for exploring human performance more generally. This episode is intended for anyone interested in athletic and mental performance: athletes, students, and recreational exercisers and includes both science and many practical tools people can apply in their own training.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Duncan French  (00:02:44) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:44) Duncan’s Background in Exercise Science (00:11:45) How Certain Exercises Increase Testosterone (00:16:22) What Kind of Training Increases Testosterone & Growth Hormone? (00:20:19) Intensity: Mechanical Load; Volume: Metabolic Load; Inter-set Rest Periods (00:25:25) Training Frequency & Combining Workout Goals   (00:29:35) How Stress Can Increase or Decrease Testosterone  (00:36:55) Using Cold Exposure for Mindset, Anti-Inflammation, Muscle-Growth (00:46:55) Skill Development (00:50:05) Why Hard Exercise Creates Brain Fog: Role of Nutrition  (00:53:55) Low-Carbohydrate Versus All-Macronutrient Diets on Performance (00:56:15) Ketones & Brain Energy, Offsetting Brain Injury; Spiking Glucose During Ketosis (00:59:13) Metabolic Efficiency, Matching Nutrition to Training, “Needs Based Eating” (01:05:00) Duncan’s Work with Olympic Athletes, NCAA, UFC (Ultimate Fighting Championship) (01:08:00) Why UFC & MMA (Mixed-Martial Arts) Are So Valuable for Advancing Performance (01:12:40) Voluntarily Switching Between Different States of Arousal (01:14:30) Heat, Getting Better at Sweating, Heat Shock Proteins, Sauna (01:20:12) Using Rotating 12-Week Training Programs; Logging Objective & Subjective Data (01:24:07) Surprising & Unknown Aspects of The UFC and UFC Performance Institute (01:27:45) Conclusions, Zero-Cost Support, Sponsors, Supplements, Instagram Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/8/20211 hour, 28 minutes, 2 seconds
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Using Your Nervous System to Enhance Your Immune System

This episode teaches you a lot about the immune system, immune-brain interactions and offers 12 potential tools for enhancing immune system function. I discuss how our immune system works and science-supported tools we can use to enhance our immune system. I discuss the innate and adaptive immune systems and our various microbiomes-- not just in our gut but also in our nose, eyes and mouth and how to keep them healthy. And I review how specific patterns of breathing and foods maintain a healthy mucosal barrier that is crucial for fighting infections. I discuss how certain neurochemicals called catecholamines enhance our immune system function and how to use specific breathing protocols, types and timing of heat and cold exposure, and, if appropriate, supplementation to activate catecholamines. I also discuss the role and use of serotonin for the sake of accessing the specific types of sleep for recovering from illness, and I discuss how to increase glymphatic "washout" of brain debris during sleep. I also review fever, the vagus nerve and the use of atypical yet highly effective compounds for rhinitis (nasal inflammation). For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) The Mind & Immune System, New Findings: Acupuncture & Fascia (00:03:16) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:41) Foundational Tools & Practices for a Healthy Immune System (00:11:20) Immune System Basics: Skin/Mucous, Innate & Adaptive Immune System (00:17:08) Killer Cells, Complement Proteins (“Eat Me!” Signals), Cytokines (“Help Me!” Signals) (00:21:06) The Adaptive Immune System: Antibodies (00:28:00) Tool 1: Nasal Microbiome and “Scrubbing” Bacteria & Viruses; Nasal Breathing (00:30:33) Tools 2 & 3: (Not) Touching Your Eyes; Gut Microbiome & Fermented Foods (00:34:20) Some Interleukins Are Anti-Inflammatory (00:34:56) Sickness Behavior (00:39:08) Some People Seek Care When Sick, Others Want to be Alone (00:42:00) Sickness Behavior & Depression: Cytokines (00:43:40) Reduced Appetites When Sick: Protein, Iron, Libido (00:46:45) Vagus-Nerve Stimulation: Fever, Photophobia, Sleepiness (00:53:03) Humoral (Blood-Borne) Factors, & Choroid Change Your Brain State (00:55:04) Tools 4, 5: Reducing Sickness: Glymphatic Clearance, Pre-Sleep Serotonin, 5HTP (01:07:03) Tool 6: Hot Showers, Saunas, Baths & Cortisol, Heath-Cold Contrast (01:10:53) Feed a Fever & Starve a Cold (?), Adrenaline (01:12:36) Tool 7: Activating Your Immune System w/Cyclic-Hyperventilation, Alkalinity (01:29:10) Brain Chemicals & Cyclic-Hyperventilation; Catecholamines, Dopamine (01:32:10) Mindsets & Immune Function; Yes, You Can Worry Yourself Sick (01:37:00) Tool 8: Healthy Mindsets, Hope, Dopamine; Tool 9: Tyrosine; Tool 10: Cold Exposure (01:42:05) Once You’re Already Sick: Accelerating Recovery; Tool 11: Spirulina, Rhinitis (01:46:09) Histamines, Mast Cells (01:49:22) Tool 12: Acupuncture: Mechanism for How It Reduces Inflammation; Fascia, Rolfing  (01:53:40) Mechanistic Science & Ancient Practices (01:58:00) Synthesis, Ways to Support Us (Zero-Cost), Sponsors, Supplements, Social Media Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
11/1/20211 hour, 57 minutes, 9 seconds
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Dr. Samer Hattar: Timing Your Light, Food, & Exercise for Optimal Sleep, Energy & Mood

In this episode, I host Dr. Samer Hattar, Chief of the Section on Light and Circadian Rhythms at the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Hattar is a world-renowned expert on how viewing light at particular times adjusts our mood, ability to learn, stress and hormone levels, appetite, and mental health. We discuss how to determine and use your individual light sensitivity to determine the optimal sleep-wake cycle for you. We also discuss how to combine your light viewing and waking time with the timing of your food intake and exercise in order to maximize mental and physical functioning. Dr. Hattar is credited with co-discovering the neurons in the eye that set our circadian clocks and regulate mood and appetite. He explains why even a small shift in daylight savings leads to outsized effects on our biking because of the way that our cells and circadian clocks integrate across many days. And he offers precise tools to rapidly adjust to jetlag, shift work, and reset your clock after a late night of work or socializing. This episode is filled with cutting-edge data on the biological mechanisms of human physiology and practical tools for people of all ages.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Samer Hattar, Ph.D. (00:02:33) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:15) Light, Circadian (24 hour) & Circannual (365 day) “Photoentrainment”  (00:14:30) Neurons in Our Eyes That Set Our Body Clocks: Similar to Frog Skin (00:18:55) What Blind People See  (00:20:15) When, How & How Long to View Light for Optimal Sleep & Wakefulness (00:30:20) Sunlight Simulators, Afternoon Light Viewing, Naps (00:33:48) Are You Jetlagged at Home? Chronotypes & Why Early Risers Succeed  (00:38:33) How to Decide Your Best Sleep-Wake Schedule; Minimal Light Test (00:42:16) Viewing Light in Middle of Day: Mood & “Light Hunger” (00:44:55) Evening Sunlight; Blueblocker Warning (00:48:57) Blue Light Is Not the Issue; Samer’s Cave; Complete Darkness (00:53:58) Screens at Night (00:56:03) Dangers of Bright Light Between 10 pm and 4 am: Mood & Learning (01:01:05) The Tripartite Model: Circadian, Sleep Drive, Feeding Schedules (01:05:05) Using Light to Enhance Your Mood; & The Hattar-Hernandez Nucleus (01:07:19) Why Do We Sleep? (01:08:17) Effects of Light on Appetite; Regular Light & Meal Times (01:18:08) Samer’s Experience with Adjusting Meal Timing (01:22:51) Using Light to Align Sleep, Mood, Feeding, Exercise & Cognition (01:30:15) Age-Related Changes in Timing of Mental & Physical Vigor   (01:31:44) “Chrono-Attraction” in Relationships; Social-Rhythms (01:33:40) Re-setting Our Clock Schedule; Screen Devices Revisited (01:37:50) How Samer Got into the Study of Light  (01:39:33) Clock Gene mRNAs & More Accurate Biomarkers (01:41:08) Light as Medicine (01:42:48) ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)  (01:43:35) How to Beat Jetlag: Light, Temperature, Eating (01:50:44) Vigor: The Consequence of Proper Timing  (01:52:15) Waking in the Middle of the Night: When Your Nightly Sleep Becomes a Nap (01:54:10) Melatonin, Pineal Calcification (01:55:25) Our Seasonal Rhythms: Mood, Depression, Lethargy & Reproduction (01:59:08) Daylight Savings: Much Worse Than It Might Seem  (02:05:27) Eye Color & Sensitivity to Light, Bipolar Disorder (02:09:28) Spicy Food, Genetic Variations in Sensory Sensitivity  (02:10:52) Synthesizing This Information, Samer on Twitter, Instagram (02:13:00) Conclusions, Ways To Support the Huberman Lab Podcast & Research Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/25/20212 hours, 12 minutes, 51 seconds
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Nutrients For Brain Health & Performance

This episode I describe science-supported nutrients for brain and performance (cognition) and for nervous system health generally. I describe 10 tools for this purpose, including specific amounts and sources for Omega-3 fatty acids which make up the "structural fat" of neurons (nerve cells) and allow them to function across our lifespan. I also review data on creatine, phosphatidylserine, anthocyanins, choline, glutamine and how they each impact brain function in healthy people seeking to reinforce and improve their cognition and in those combatting cognitive decline. I describe both food-based and supplement-based sources for these compounds, and their effective dose ranges based on peer-reviewed literature. Then I review the 3 factors: gut-brain signaling, perceived taste, and learned associations that combine with the metabolic and blood-sugar-elevating effects of food to determine what foods we seek and prefer. Amazingly, it's not just about what tastes good to us. Next, I explore how we can leverage the neural circuits of learned food preference toward seeking and enjoying the right foods for brain health and performance. I also review new data on non-caloric sweeteners and why consuming them with glucose-elevating foods can be detrimental, in some cases rapidly leading to insulin dysregulation. This episode covers more than 10 actionable tools for those seeking to improve and/or maintain brain function, and it explains modern neuroscience underlying of our sense of taste, our food seeking preferences and brain metabolism. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Food & Brain Function Introduction (00:02:08) Summary: Critical Aspects of Time Restricted Feeding/Fasting (00:04:36) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:24) Neuroplasticity Super Protocol (Zero-Cost Tools) Online (00:09:22) Eating to Enhance Brain Function & Foundational Aspects of Brain Health  (00:13:00) Eating Fats for Brain Health, EFAs Phospholipids (Tool 1: 1-3g EPA Omega-3/day)  (00:20:35) Phosphatidylserine (Tool 2: 300mg/day) (00:22:15) Choline, Egg Yolks (Tool 3: 1-2g/day Threshold) (00:28:26) Hydration & Electrolytes (Tool 4) (00:29:50) Liquid Fish Oil/Capsules (2-3g EPA per day; 300mg Alpha GPC 2-4X/week) (00:32:22) Creatine for Cognition (Tool 5: 5g/day)  (00:36:28) Anthocyanins, Dark Skin Berries (Tool 6-10mg/day (Extract), 1-2 cups Berries)  (00:41:19) L-Glutamine (Tool: 1-10g/day) & Offsetting Apnea & Inflammation (00:49:23) Neural Basis of Food Preference, Yum, Yuck, Meh; Taste, Guts, & Beliefs (00:55:25) Taste is 100% In your Head (00:59:50) Gut Neurons Controlling Food Preference: Neuropod Cells; (Tool 7: Fermented Foods)  (01:06:14) Capsule Probiotics, Brain Fog  (01:07:16) Learning to Like Specific Tastes: Sweetness & Brain Metabolism (01:12:11) Hard-Wiring & Soft-Wiring (01:13:25) Artificial & Non-Caloric Sweeteners: Safe or Harmful Depends on (Glucose) Context (01:18:15) Non-Caloric Sweetener & Insulin; (Tool 8: Don’t Have w/Glucose Elevating Foods) (01:22:17) Beliefs & Thoughts; The Insula; (Tool 9: Pairing-Based Reshaping Food Preferences)  (01:30:42) Liking Neuro-Healthy Foods & Bettering Brain Metabolism (Tool 10); Food Wars (01:36:05) Food Reward & Diabetes, Obesity; Important Review Article (See Caption) (01:38:28) Synthesis, Zero-Cost Support, Future Topic Suggestions, Sponsors, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/18/20211 hour, 37 minutes, 43 seconds
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Effects of Fasting & Time Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health

This episode I discuss the science and practice of fasting also called time-restricted feeding. I review the data on how limiting food intake to specific portions of every 24-hour cycle (or fasting longer) impacts weight loss, fat loss specifically, liver health, mental focus, muscle, longevity and more. I explain how "fasted" is contextual, and relates to blood glucose levels and their downstream effects, and how the depth of fasting can be adjusted with behaviors such as different types of exercise, or with glucose disposal agents. I also discuss the optimal fasting protocol: and both the absolute (non-negotiable) and variable (contextual) features of a fasting/time-restricted-feeding protocol that will allow you to get the most benefits. I also discuss what does and does not break a fast, the effects of fasting on hormones like testosterone and cortisol and on fertility. I also review how different feeding windows of 8 or 10 or 4 hours differentially impact the effects of fasting, and why the classic 8 hour feeding window came to be but also might be ideal. I discuss mechanisms and offer tools to discern the optimal fasting duration and timing for you.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction, Blood Glucose & Mortality, Mice Vs. Humans (00:06:18) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:42) Neuroplasticity Protocols & Online Lecture (00:11:20) Feeding, Fasting, Performance (00:13:50) Calories-In, Calories-Out (CICO); Perfect Diets (00:19:48) Feeding-Induced Health Conditions  (00:25:33) Time Restricted Eating: When We Eat Is Vital (00:29:45) The Eight Hour Feeding Window  (00:31:26) Feeding Deep Into the Night Is Bad (In Humans) (00:36:33) Liver Health (00:39:45) Time Restricted Feeding Protocol: Rules (00:41:35) When to Start & Stop Eating (00:45:38) Gastric Clearance, Linking Fasting to Sleep (00:52:35) Effects of Specific Categories of Food (00:55:40) Precision In Fasting: Protocol Build (00:59:30) 4-6 Hour Feeding Windows (01:03:08) Protein Consumption & Timing for Muscle (01:08:13) How to Shift Your Eating Window (01:13:20) Glucose Clearing, Exercise & Compounds (01:22:37) Blood Glucose: Monitoring, mTOR & Related Pathways (01:27:40) Gut Health: Fasting, Clock Genes and Microbiota (01:29:15) Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver  (01:32:00) Effects of Fasting on Hormones: Testosterone, Cortisol (01:38:40) Fertility (01:41:50) 8-Hour Feeding Window: Weight Loss Without Calorie Counting (01:43:20) Eating Every-Other-Day  (01:45:29) Adherence (01:47:15) Mental Focus & Clarity (01:49:12) Enhancing Weight Loss from Body Fat: Hepatic Lipase (01:53:15) What Breaks a Fast? Rules & Context (01:58:50) Artificial Sweeteners, Plant-Based Sweeteners (02:01:42) Glucose Clearing II, Cinnamon, Acidity, Salt (02:06:42) My Circadian Clock, Zero-App  (02:08:20) Odd (But Common) Questions (02:09:23) Effects of Sauna & Dehydration on Blood Glucose (02:11:12) The Ideal Fasting Protocol  (02:24:00) More Resources, Ways to Support Us, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/11/20212 hours, 22 minutes, 25 seconds
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Dr. Craig Heller: Using Temperature To Optimize Performance, Brain & Body Health

This episode I am joined by Dr. Craig Heller, Professor of Biology at Stanford University and world expert on the science of temperature regulation. We discuss how the body and brain maintain temperature under different conditions and how most everyone uses the wrong approach to cool off or heat up. Dr. Heller teaches us the best ways and in doing so, explains how to offset hyperthermia and hypothermia. He also explains how we can use the precise timing and location of cooling on our body to greatly enhance endurance and weight training performance. He describes how cooling technology discovered and engineered in his laboratory has led to a tripling of anaerobic (weight training) performance and allowed endurance athletes to run further and faster, as well as to eliminate delayed onset muscle soreness. Dr. Heller explains how heat impairs muscular and mental performance, and how to cool the brain to reduce inflammation and to enhance sleep and cognition. We discuss how anyone can apply these principles for themselves, even their dogs! Our conversation includes both many practical tools and mechanistic science. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Craig Heller, Physiology & Performance (00:02:20) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:45) Cold Showers, Ice Baths, Cryotherapy (00:10:45) Boundary Layers  (00:11:55) Cooling Before Aerobic Activity to Enhance Performance (00:14:45) Anaerobic Activity Locally Increases Muscle Heat (00:16:45) Temperature Gates Our Energy Use  (00:19:00) Local Versus Systemic Fatigue: Heat Is Why We Fail (00:22:10) Cooling Off: Most Methods are Counterproductive (00:26:43) Exercise-Induced Brain Fog (00:27:45) Hyperthermia (00:31:50) Best Body Sites for Cooling: Palms, Foot Pads, Upper Face  (00:38:00) Cooling Your Brain via The Upper Face; Concussion (00:41:25) Extraordinary (Tripling!) Performance by Cooling the Palms (00:45:35) Enhancing Recovery, Eliminating Soreness w/Intra-workout Cooling (00:50:00) Multiple Sclerosis: Heat Sensitivity & Amelioration with Cooling (00:51:00) Enhancing Endurance with Proper Cooling (00:53:00) Cool Mitt, Ice-Cold Is Too Cold, 3 Minutes Cooling (00:58:20) How You Can Use Palmer Cooling to Enhance Performance (01:01:15) Radiation, Convection, Heat-Transfer, Role of Surface Area (01:04:40) Hypothermia Story, Ideal Re-Heating Strategy (01:11:40) Paw-lmer Cooling for Dog Health & Performance (01:12:45) Warming Up, & Varying Temperature Around the Body (01:17:35) Cooling-Enhanced Performance Is Permanent (01:19:55) Anabolic Steroids versus Palmer Cooling (01:24:00) Female Athletic Performance  (01:25:18) Shivering & Cold, Metabolism (01:26:55) Studies of Bears & Hibernation, Brown Fat (01:31:10) Brown Fat Distribution & Activation In Humans (01:34:18) Brain Freeze, Ice Headache: Blood Pressure, Headache (01:37:50) Fidgeters, Non-Exercise Induced Thermogenesis (01:39:44) How Pre-Workout Drinks, & Caffeine May Inhibit Performance (01:43:42) Sleep, Cold, Warm Baths, Screens, & Socks (01:48:44) Synthesis (01:49:30) Supporting the Podcast & Scientific Research  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
10/4/20211 hour, 48 minutes, 34 seconds
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Controlling Your Dopamine For Motivation, Focus & Satisfaction

This episode serves as a sort of “Dopamine Masterclass”. I discuss the immensely powerful chemical that we all make in our brain and body: dopamine. I describe what it does and the neural circuits involved. I explain dopamine peaks and baselines, and the cell biology of dopamine depletion. I include 14 tools for how to control your dopamine release for sake of motivation, focus, avoiding and combating addiction and depression, and I explain why dopamine stacking with chemicals and behaviors inevitably leads to states of underwhelm and poor performance. I explain how to achieve sustained increases in baseline dopamine, compounds that injure and protect dopamine neurons including caffeine from specific sources. I describe non-prescription supplements for increasing dopamine—both their benefits and risks—and synergy of pro-dopamine supplements with those that increase acetylcholine.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction & Tool 1 to Induce Lasting Dopamine (00:05:04) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:09:10) Upcoming (Zero-Cost) Neuroplasticity Seminar for Educators (00:09:58) What Dopamine (Really) Does (00:15:30) Two Main Neural Circuits for Dopamine  (00:18:14) How Dopamine Is Released: Locally and Broadly (00:22:03) Fast and Slow Effects of Dopamine (00:25:03) Dopamine Neurons Co-Release Glutamate (00:28:00) Your Dopamine History Really Matters  (00:30:30) Parkinson’s & Drugs That Kill Dopamine Neurons. My Dopamine Experience  (00:36:58) Tool 3 Controlling Dopamine Peaks & Baselines (00:40:06) Chocolate, Sex (Pursuit & Behavior), Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine, Exercise (00:46:46) Tool 4 Caffeine Increases Dopamine Receptors (00:49:54) Pursuit, Excitement & Your “Dopamine Setpoint” (00:56:46) Your Pleasure-Pain Balance & Defining “Pain” (01:00:00) Addiction, Dopamine Depletion, & Replenishing Dopamine (01:07:50) Tool 5 Ensure Your Best (Healthy) Dopamine Release (01:15:28) Smart Phones: How They Alter Our Dopamine Circuits (01:19:45) Stimulants & Spiking Dopamine: Counterproductive for Work, Exercise & Attention (01:22:20) Caffeine Sources Matter: Yerba Mate & Dopamine Neuron Protection (01:24:20) Caffeine & Neurotoxicity of MDMA (01:26:15) Amphetamine, Cocaine & Detrimental Rewiring of Dopamine Circuits (01:27:57) Ritalin, Adderall, (Ar)Modafinil: ADHD versus non-Prescription Uses (01:28:45) Tool 6 Stimulating Long-Lasting Increases in Baseline Dopamine  (01:37:55) Tool 7 Tuning Your Dopamine for Ongoing Motivation (01:47:40) Tool 8 Intermittent Fasting: Effects on Dopamine  (01:53:09) Validation of Your Pre-Existing Beliefs Increases Dopamine (01:53:50) Tool 9 Quitting Sugar & Highly Palatable Foods: 48 Hours (01:55:36) Pornography (01:56:50) Wellbutrin & Depression & Anxiety (01:58:30) Tool 10 Mucuna Pruriens, Prolactin, Sperm, Crash Warning (02:01:45) Tool 11 L-Tyrosine: Dosages, Duration of Effects & Specificity (02:05:20) Tool 12 Avoiding Melatonin Supplementation, & Avoiding Light 10pm-4am (02:07:00) Tool 13 Phenylethylamine (with Alpha-GPC) For Dopamine Focus/Energy (02:08:20) Tool 14 Huperzine A (02:10:02) Social Connections, Oxytocin & Dopamine Release (02:12:20) Direct & Indirect Effects: e.g., Maca; Synthesis & Application (02:14:22) Zero-Cost & Other Ways To Support Podcast & Research Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/27/20212 hours, 13 minutes, 40 seconds
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Dr. Matthew Johnson: Psychedelics for Treating Mental Disorders

This episode I discuss medical research on psychedelic compounds with Dr. Matthew Johnson, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. We discuss the biology and medical clinical-trial uses of psilocybin, MDMA, ayahuasca, DMT, and LSD. Dr. Johnson teaches us what the clinical trials in his lab are revealing about the potential these compounds hold for the treatment of depression, addiction, trauma, eating disorders, ADHD, and other disorders of the mind. Dr. Johnson describes a typical psychedelic experiment in his laboratory, start to finish, including the conditions for optimal clinical outcomes. And he explains some of the potential hazards and common misconceptions and pitfalls related to psychedelic medicine. Dr. Johnson explains flashbacks, the heightened risks of certain people and age groups using psychedelics and the ever evolving legal and pharmaceutical industry landscape surrounding psychedelics. Dr. Johnson also explains how the scientific study of psychedelics is likely to set the trajectory of psychiatric medicine in the years to come. Dr. Johnson is among a small handful of researchers who have pioneered the clinical study of these powerful compounds. He has unprecedented insight into how they can be woven into other psychiatric treatments, changing ones sense of self and of reality. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Matthew Johnson (00:02:27) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:40) ‘Psychedelics’ Defined (00:14:09) Hallucinations, Synesthesia, Altered Space-Time Perception (00:19:56) Serotonin & Dopamine  (00:23:50) Ketamine & Glutamate  (00:28:00) An Example Psychedelic Experiment (00:37:30) ‘Letting Go’ with Psychedelics (00:44:10) Our Mind’s Eye (00:48:00) Redefining Your Sense of Self  (00:58:56) Exporting Psychedelic Learnings to Daily Life (01:04:36) Flashbacks (01:12:10) Ayahuasca, & ASMR, Kundalini Breathing (01:15:54) MDMA, DMT (01:26:00) Dangers of Psychedelics, Bad Trips, Long-Lasting Psychosis (01:38:15) Micro-Dosing (01:56:45) Risks for Kids, Adolescents & Teenagers; Future Clinical Trials (02:03:40) Legal Status: Decriminalization vs. Legalization vs. Regulation (02:18:35) Psychedelics for Treating Concussion & Traumatic Brain Injury  (02:27:45) Shifting Trends in Psychedelic Research, Academic Culture (02:44:23) Participating in a Clinical Trial, Online Survey Studies, Breathwork  (02:50:38) Conclusions, Subscribing & Supporting the HLP, Supplements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/20/20212 hours, 49 minutes, 19 seconds
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ADHD & How Anyone Can Improve Their Focus

In this episode, I discuss ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): what it is, the common myths, and the biology and psychology of ADHD. I discuss both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments for ADHD, and brain-machine interface tools. I also discuss behavioral training protocols that can improve focus in people with ADHD and those without ADHD, and for people of different ages. I discuss the role of dopamine in coordinating 'default-mode' and 'task-related' neural networks, attentional "blinks" (lapses of attention) and how to overcome them, and the role of actual blinks in time perception and attention. Finally, I review some of the prescription and over-the-counter compounds for increasing focus such as Adderall, Ritalin, Modafinil and Armodafinil, the racetams, Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylserine and the role of diet for managing ADHD (and the controversies of diet for ADHD). The role of cell phones/technology in ADHD and ADHD-like challenges with focus are also discussed. Throughout, both basic science and clinical scenarios, as well as applicable tools and resources are covered. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction & Note About Diagnosis (00:03:44) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:56) ADHD vs. ADD: Genetics, IQ, Rates in Kids & Adults (00:13:00) Attention & Focus, Impulse Control (00:14:57) Hyper-focus  (00:16:45) Time Perception (00:18:25) The Pile System (00:20:00) Working Memory (00:24:10) Hyper-Focus & Dopamine  (00:26:40) Neural Circuits In ADHD: Default Mode Network & Task-Related Networks  (00:32:57) Low Dopamine in ADHD & Stimulant Use & Abuse (00:37:10) Sugar, Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil & Armodafinil  (00:47:00) Non-Prescribed Adderall, Caffeine, Nicotine (00:49:18) How Stimulants “Teach” the Brains of ADHD Children to Focus (00:52:00) When To Medicate: A Highly Informed (Anecdotal) Case Study (00:56:35) Elimination Diets & Allergies In ADHD (01:04:46) Omega-3 Fatty Acids: EPAs & DHAs  (01:07:00) Modulation vs Mediation of Biological Processes (01:10:50) Attentional Blinks  (01:16:56) Open Monitoring & 17minute Focus Enhancement  (01:22:50) Blinking, Dopamine & Time Perception; & Focus Training  (01:30:10) Reverberatory Neural & Physical Activity (01:33:40) Adderall, Ritalin & Blink Frequency (01:35:00) Cannabis  (01:37:30) Interoceptive Awareness  (01:41:15) Ritalin, Adderall, Modafinil, Armodafinil; Smart Drugs & Caffeine: Dangers (01:48:05) DHA Fatty Acids, Phosphatidylserine (0:1:50:54) Ginko Biloba  (01:51:45) Modafinil & Armodafanil: Dopamine Action & Orexin (01:56:19) Acetylcholine: Circuits Underlying Focus; Alpha-GPC (01:59:04) L-Tyrosine, (PEA) Phenylethylamine  (02:01:23) Racetams, Noopept  (02:05:15) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation; Combining Technology & Pharmacology  (02:09:14) Smart Phones & ADHD & Sub-Clinical Focus Issues In Adults & Kids (02:14:30) Synthesis/Summary (02:16:10) Support for Podcast & Research, Supplement Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/13/20212 hours, 15 minutes, 7 seconds
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Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders - Anorexia, Bulimia, Binging

In this episode, I discuss what drives hunger and satiety, and the role our brain, stomach, fat and hormones play in regulating hunger and turning off the desire to eat more. I also address how protein is assimilated better early in the day than it is later in the day, and why those using intermittent fasting might want to shift their feeding window to earlier in the day. Then I delve into the topic of disorders of eating: Anorexia Nervosa, where people starve themselves and Bulimia Nervosa where people binge and purge their food. I discuss some common myths about Anorexia such as the role of media images increasing the rates of anorexia and the myth of the "perfectionist" anorexic. I also review the symptoms, and the brain and chemical systems disrupted in this condition. I explain how anorexics become hyperaware of the fat content of foods and develop reflexive habits of fat-hyperawareness. Then I discuss the most effective treatments ranging from family-based models to those that target the habitual nature of low-fat/calorie food choices. I also discuss new more experimental clinical trials on MDMA, Psilocybin and Ibogaine for Anorexia, and both their promise and risks I review the latest work on binge eating disorder and brain stimulation, drug treatments and thyroid disruption in Bulimia and why the treatments for Bulimia are so similar to those for ADHD. Finally, I discuss "cheat days," body dysmorphia and the growing list of novel forms of eating disorders start to finish. As always, science and science-based tools are discussed. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Fasting, & Defining Healthy Eating (00:08:55) Morning Protein Is Important  (00:22:21) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:26:29) Defining & Diagnosing Eating Disorders (00:29:00) Anorexia Nervosa (Overview & Myths) (00:33:44) Bulimia (Overview & Myths) (00:37:35) Binge Eating Disorders, EDNOS, OSFEDS, Pica (00:39:44) What is Hunger? What is Satiety? (00:42:00) Neuronal & Hormonal “Accelerators & Brakes” on Eating (00:46:17) Fat, Leptin & Fertility & Metabolic Dysfunctions in Obesity (00:50:30) Why We Overeat (00:55:30) Homeostasis & Reward Systems/Decisions  (00:59:58) Anorexia (01:04:28) The Cholesterol Paradox (01:06:13) Psychological vs. Biological/Genetic Factors in Anorexia (01:09:44) Chemical Imbalances, Serotonergic Treatments (01:12:56) Altered Habits & Rewards in Anorexia: Hyperacuity for Fat Content (01:18:28) Brain Areas for Reward Based Decision Making vs. Habits (01:24:06) Habit-Reward Circuits Are Flipped in Anorexics: Reward for Deprivation (01:28:30) How Do You Break a Habit?  (01:33:23) Family Based Models, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (01:35:39) MDMA, Psilocybin, Clinical Trials, Ibogaine  (01:40:35) Anabolic vs. Catabolic Exercise, Spontaneous Movements, NEAT (01:43:23) Distorted Self Image in Anorexia  (01:47:54) Bulimia & Binge-Eating, “Cheat Days”, Thyroid Hormone (01:53:05) Inhibitory Control, Impulsivity, Adderall, Wellbutrin (01:58:00) Direct Brain Stimulation: Nucleus Accumbens (02:04:28) Anorexia/Reward. vs Bulimia/Binging   (02:05:45) Healthy Eating Revisited (02:10:55) Synthesis, Body Dysmorphias (02:14:15) Support: Podcast, & Research Studies Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
9/6/20212 hours, 13 minutes, 24 seconds
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Dr. Robert Sapolsky: Science of Stress, Testosterone & Free Will

In this episode, I interview Dr. Robert Sapolsky, Ph.D., Professor of Biology, Neurology & Neurosurgery at Stanford University. We discuss stress, what defines short-term versus long-term stress, and how stress can be beneficial or detrimental, depending on the context. We also discuss stress mitigation and how our sense of control over stress mitigation techniques, including exercise, determine health outcomes. Dr. Sapolsky explains some of the key effects of the hormone testosterone — how it can amplify pre-existing tendencies for aggression or sexual behavior, but that it does not produce those behaviors per se. He also explains how testosterone impacts our social hierarchies, sense of confidence, and willingness to embrace challenges of different kinds. He also explains how our behaviors and perceptions shape testosterone levels. And we discuss estrogen and the powerful role it plays in brain development, health and longevity. Finally, we discuss free will, what it means to have free will, and if we have any free will, including how knowledge alone might allow us to make better decisions for ourselves and society.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Dr. Robert Sapolsky  (00:02:25) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:30) Stress: Short & Long-Term, Good & Bad  (00:09:11) Valence & Amygdala  (00:11:00) Testosterone: Common Myths vs. Actual Truths  (00:15:15) Behaviors that Affect Testosterone   (00:17:20) Mindsets & Contexts that Affect Testosterone (00:20:28) How Finger Length Ratios Reflect Prenatal Hormone Levels   (00:22:30) Aggression: Male-Female, Female-Male, & Female-Female  (00:24:05) Testosterone: The Challenge Hypothesis  (00:29:20) How Dopamine Impacts Testosterone & Motivation  (00:32:32) Estrogen: Improves Brain & Longevity BUT TIMING IS KEY  (00:39:40) Are Testosterone & Sperm Counts in Males Really Dropping?  (00:42:15) Stress Mitigation & Our Sense of Control  (00:51:35) How Best to Buffer Stress  (00:57:04) Power of Perception, Choice & Individual Differences  (01:00:32) Context-Setting, Prefrontal Cortex & Hierarchy  (01:11:20) How Dr. Sapolsky Accomplishes Deep Thinking   (01:13:17) Do We Have Free Will?  (01:20:50) How to Apply Knowledge & Learning   (01:23:44) Robert’s New Book: “Determined: The Science of Life Without Free Will”  (01:28:27) Reflections, Support of Podcast, & Supporting Stress Research  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/30/20211 hour, 28 minutes, 23 seconds
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Understanding & Conquering Depression

This episode, I explain what major depression is at the biological and psychological level and the various treatments that peer-reviewed studies have revealed can help prevent and treat depression. I explain the three major chemical systems that are altered in depression: norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine. I discuss genetic predispositions to depression and how stress, thyroid hormone and cortisol play a role in many forms of depression. I also discuss inflammation as a common feature of many depression symptoms. I review 8 specific science-supported protocols for treating and avoiding depression, including EPA fatty acids (which have been shown to rival certain prescription treatments), how exercise protects against depression, studies of creatine, adjusting dopamine balance and more. I also discuss the results of ongoing clinical trials for ketamine and psilocybin for depression, how these compounds work and finally, I review how ketogenic diets can help in certain cases of depression, especially treatment-resistant major depression. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Mood Disorders & Maintaining Mental Health (Protocol 1) (00:07:25) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:11:15) Major Depression (00:18:40) “Anti-Self” Confabulation (00:21:42) Autonomic (Vegetative) Symptoms of Depression (00:26:58) Norepinephrine, Dopamine & Serotonin (00:31:50) SSRIs (Prozac, Zoloft, etc.): Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (00:37:00) Epinephrine/Motor Functions, Dopamine/Motivation & Craving, Serotonin/Emotions (00:39:33) Physical & Emotional Pain are Linked: Substance P (00:41:50) Hormones & Depression: Thyroid & Cortisol  (00:46:50) Genetic Susceptibility to Depression: Impact of Stress  (00:50:50) Understanding Biological Mechanism Is Key: Recipes versus Skills (00:52:50) Tools for Dealing with Depression: Logic & Implementation (Protocol 2) (00:56:25) Brain Inflammation & Mental State: Cytokines, Prostaglandins, etc. (00:59:20) Protocol 3: Essential Fatty Acids (Omega-3, EPAs: Eicosapentaenoic Acid)* (01:02:50) How EPAs Help Offset Depression: Serotonin Synthesis, Kynurenine, Quinolinic Acid (01:05:25) Protocol 4: How Exercise Offsets Depression  (01:11:44) Protocol 5: Creatine Monohydrate, Forebrain Function & NMDA receptors* (01:20:30) Protocol 6*: Ketamine, PCP (*Prescription-Only), & NMDA-Receptor Function (01:33:08) Protocol 7*: Psychedelics (*In Clinical Trials) for Major Depression: Psilocybin* (01:47:00) Protocol 8: Ketogenic Diet, GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid) (01:54:50) Summary of Protocols Covered (02:00:10) Support & Additional Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/23/20211 hour, 59 minutes, 34 seconds
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Dr. Anna Lembke: Understanding & Treating Addiction

This episode I interview Dr. Anna Lembke, MD, Chief of the Stanford Addiction Medicine Dual Diagnosis Clinic at Stanford University School of Medicine. Dr. Lembke is a psychiatrist expert in treating addictions of all kinds: drugs, alcohol, food, sex, video games, gambling, food, medication, etc. Dr. Lembke is also an expert in the opioid crisis, and the author of Dopamine Nation: Finding Balance in the Age of Indulgence. We discuss the biology and psychology of why people become addicted to certain substances and behaviors and the key role that our "dopamine balance" plays in creating addiction. We also discuss the science and practice of how to conquer addictions, why people relapse and how to avoid relapsing. Dr. Lembke also shares her expertise on topics closely related to addiction such as community, shame and lying and she explains why telling the truth—even about the most basic things in daily life, adjusts dopamine levels in our brain. This episode is an important one for anyone struggling with addictions of any kind, for their friends and families and for health care professionals. It is also for anyone who has defeated addiction and is determined to stay clean. Last but not least, it helps explain why all humans do what we do, and how we can all maintain a healthy sense of pleasure seeking in life. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Dr. Anna Lembke, Addiction Expert (00:02:42) Disclaimer & Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:00) Dopamine, Happiness & Impulsivity  (00:15:56) What Is Pleasure?  (00:18:20) Addiction, Boredom & Passion for Life (00:24:00) Pain-Pleasure Balance Controls Addiction (00:29:10) Dopamine Deficits, Anhedonia (00:30:47) Are All Addictions the Same? (00:35:38) Boredom & Anxiety Lead to Creativity  (00:40:35) Finding Your Passion Starts with Boredom & Action Steps  (00:50:05) How to Break an Addiction (00:55:25) Relapse, Craving & Triggers (01:07:40) Can People Get Addicted To “Sobriety”?  (01:11:45) Are We All Wired for Addiction?  (01:15:57) Bizarre Addiction (01:18:14) Recovered Addicts Are Heroes (01:20:10) Lying, Truth Telling, Guilt & Shame (01:30:40) Clinical Applications of: Ibogaine, Ayahuasca, Psilocybin & MDMA  (01:40:20) Social Media Addiction  (01:51:25) Narcissism  (01:53:30) Goal Seeking, Success & Surprise (01:58:10) Reciprocity (02:01:15) Closing Comments, Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/16/20212 hours, 1 minute, 53 seconds
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How to Control Your Sense of Pain & Pleasure

This episode I discuss our sense of pain and pleasure: where and how they each arise in our mind and body and various ways to control their intensity. I discuss the science of behavioral tools like acupuncture and hypnosis and directed pressure, including the neural circuits they each activate to modulate our experience of pain or pleasure. I also discuss whole body pain, pain "syndromes" and novel pain relief compounds such as Acetyl-L-Carnitine, SAMe and Agmatine. I discuss neuroplasticity of the pain system and the key role that visual perception plays in pain modulation. Finally, I address the link between dopamine, serotonin, and oxytocin, with arousal, pleasure and pain. As always, both basic science and various protocols are described. Note: The description of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) was intentionally simplified and does not include mention of dorsal horn spinal relay neurons, etc. For an excellent full text review of this anatomy and circuits for touch sensing, please see: https://bit.ly/3jH9CPf For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Skin, Pain, Pleasure  (00:01:50) Protocol 1: Maximizing Motivation (with Dopamine & Pleasure) (00:07:29) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:12:04) Pleasure & Pain, & Skin Sensors  (00:18:13) Sensing Touch with Your Brain: Magnification of Feet, Hands, Lips, Face, Genitals (00:22:16) Two-Point Discrimination, Dermatomes (00:28:11) Thoughts & Genes That Make Physical Pain Worse (00:33:45) Expectations, Anxiety, & Pain Threshold (00:40:27) Protocol 2: Cold Sensing Is Relative; Getting Into Cold Water (00:45:22) Protocol 3: Heat Is Absolute (00:48:10) Injury & Pain (00:52:04) Protocol 4: Plasticity of Pain: Key Role of Vision  (00:58:08) Sensing Disparate Body Parts As Merged (01:01:00) Pain “Syndromes”, Psychogenic Fever, “Psychosomatics” (01:04:40) Fibromyalgia, Naltrexone, Protocol 5: Acetyl-L-Carnitine  (01:12:24) Protocol 6: Agmatine, S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate* (01:17:27) Acupuncture: Mechanism, Non-Responders, Itch & Inflammation (01:28:20) Laser Photobiomodulation, Protocol 7: Hypnosis (reveri.com)  (01:30:00) Protocol 8: Pressure-Based Pain Relief, “Gate Theory of Pain (Relief)” (01:37:53) Redheads & Pain Thresholds, Endogenous Opioids  (01:44:02) Protocol 8: Love & Pain, Dopamine (01:49:23) Pleasure & Reproduction, Dopamine & Serotonin, Oxytocin (01:51:40) Protocol 9: PEA, L-Phenylalanine (Precursor to Tyrosine) (01:55:40) Contextual Control of Pleasure by Autonomic Arousal, Dopamine Baselines (01:59:40) Pleasure-Pain Balance (02:01:24) Protocol 10: Controlling Pleasure, Dopamine & Motivation Over Time (02:06:40) Protocol 11: Immediate, Non-Goal-Directed Pleasure, PAG  (02:08:40) Direction of Touch: Pleasure Versus Pain, Arousal & Touch “Sensitivity”  (02:13:00) Synthesis & How to Conceptualize Pain and Pleasure, Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/9/20212 hours, 12 minutes, 52 seconds
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Dr. Matthew Walker: The Science & Practice of Perfecting Your Sleep

In this episode, my guest is Dr. Matt Walker, Professor of Neuroscience and Psychology and the Founder & Director of the Center for Human Sleep Science at the University of California, Berkeley. He is also the author of the international best-selling book Why We Sleep and the host of "The Matt Walker Podcast." We discuss the biology of sleep, including its various stages and what specifically happens to those stages when we don't get enough sleep. We also discuss the effects of sunlight, caffeine, alcohol, naps, hormones, exercise, marijuana, sexual activity, and various supplements on sleep. The episode consists of both basic science information and many science-supported actionable tools.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introducing Dr. Matt Walker (00:02:16) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:00) What Is Sleep? (00:10:20) REM (Rapid Eye Movement) aka 'Paradoxical Sleep' (00:16:15) Slow Wave Sleep aka 'Deep Sleep' (00:24:00) Compensating For Lost Sleep (00:32:20) Waking in the Middle Of The Night  (00:39:48) Uberman (Not Huberman!) Sleep Schedule (00:42:48) Viewing Morning SUNLight (00:49:20) Caffeine (01:07:54) Alcohol (01:14:30) Growth Hormone & Testosterone (01:16:14) Emotions, Mental Health & Longevity (01:20:40) Books vs. Podcasts (01:21:20) Lunchtime Alcohol (01:25:00) Marijuana/CBD  (01:36:00) Melatonin (01:54:14) Magnesium (01:58:10) Valerian, Kiwi, Tart Cherry, Apigenin (02:15:00) Tryptophan & Serotonin (02:19:24) Naps & Non-Sleep-Deep-Rest (NSDR) (02:28:23) Is It Possible To Get Too Much Sleep? (02:34:35) Sex, Orgasm, Masturbation, Oxytocin, Relationships (02:47:30) Unconventional Yet Powerful Sleep Tips  (02:59:10) Connecting to & Learning More from Dr. Walker (03:04:42) The New Dr. Matt Walker Podcast, Reviews & Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
8/2/20213 hours, 3 minutes, 29 seconds
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How to Optimize Your Brain-Body Function & Health

This episode I describe how the organs of the body influence the function and health of our brain and how our brain controls our bodily organs. The conscious awareness of this brain-body dialogue is called interoception. I describe how two factors- mechanical forces (e.g., pressure, pain, volume, etc.) and chemical factors (e.g., gut acidity, microbiome diversity, etc.) combine to influence our moods, control inflammation, immune system, recovery from injury and more. I explain how specific actions of our lungs, heart, spleen, and diaphragm, control our brain via the vagus nerve and other neural pathways. I describe 11 science-supported protocols for enhancing brain-body health and the logic behind them. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Your Sense of Self: Interoception (00:01:25) Protocol 1: Fermented Foods, Not Fiber, to Reduce Inflammation  (00:03:45) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:22) Main Drivers of Feelings & Performance (00:11:45) Brain-Body: A Mechanical & Chemical Dialogue  (00:17:50) LDB (Lung-Diaphragm-Brain) Dialogue   (00:21:00) Protocols 2, 3, 4: Control Heart Rate With Breathing (00:29:08) Sensing Lung Pressure: Piezo Receptors (00:30:54) Carbon Dioxide, From Air to Blood (00:34:02) Protocol 5: Alert While Calm (00:40:50) Baroreceptors: Hering-Breuer Reflex (00:42:47) Gut Volume & The Desire to Open Your Mouth  (00:48:18) Protocol 6: Enhancing Gut-To-Brain Communication, Fasting  (00:51:50) Intestines, Fatty Acids, Amino Acids & Sugar (00:57:00) Protocol 7: Reducing Sugar Cravings with Specific Amino Acid Nutrients  (00:58:58) Gut Acidity (Is Good) (01:02:20) Improving Nasal Microbiome  (01:04:13) Inflammation & Microbiome: Fiber vs. Fermented  (01:11:15) Protocol 8: Reducing Inflammation & Enhancing Brain Function w/Fermented Foods (01:13:10) Leaking Guts, Auto-Immune function & Glutamine (01:15:50) Gut Acidity: HCl (hydrochloric acid), Pepsin (01:18:30) Probiotics & Brain Fog (01:21:45) Nausea: Happens in Your Brain; Area Postrema (01:28:25) Protocol 9: Reducing Nausea: Ginger, Peppermint, CBD, etc. (01:30:40) Fever: Triggers and Control Knobs: OVLT (01:37:00) Protocol 10: Cooling the Blood Properly (01:38:53) Sensing Feelings, Vagus Nerve, Stress (01:41:50) Mental Emotions Reflect Bodily Conditions (01:45:00) Sensing Other People’s Emotions via the Body (01:46:00) Protocol 11: Increasing Interoception, Sensing Heartbeat  (01:50:40) Conclusions & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/26/20211 hour, 49 minutes, 22 seconds
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Dr. Lex Fridman: Machines, Creativity & Love

Dr. Lex Fridman PhD, is a scientist at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), working on robotics, artificial intelligence, autonomous vehicles and human-robot interactions. He is also the host of the Lex Fridman Podcast where he holds conversations with academics, entrepreneurs, athletes and creatives. Here we discuss humans, robots, and the capacity they hold for friendship and love. Dr. Fridman also shares with us his unique dream for a world where robots guide humans to be the best versions of themselves, and his efforts to make that dream a reality.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Lex Fridman (00:02:29) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:35) What is Artificial Intelligence? (00:26:46) Machine & Human Learning (00:32:21) Curiosity (00:36:55) Story Telling Robots (00:40:48) What Defines a Robot? (00:44:30) Magic & Surprise (00:47:37) How Robots Change Us (00:49:35) Relationships Defined (01:02:29) Lex’s Dream for Humanity (01:11:33) Improving Social Media (01:16:57) Challenges of Creativity (01:21:49) Suits & Dresses  (01:22:22) Loneliness (01:30:09) Empathy (01:35:12) Power Dynamics In Relationships (01:39:11) Robot Rights  (01:40:20) Dogs: Homer & Costello (01:52:41) Friendship (01:59:47) Russians & Suffering (02:05:38) Public vs. Private Life (02:14:04) How To Treat a Robot (02:17:12) The Value of Friendship (02:20:33) Martial Arts (02:31:34) Body-Mind Interactions (02:33:22) Romantic Love (02:42:51) The Lex Fridman Podcast (02:55:54) The Hedgehog (03:01:17) Concluding Statements Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/19/20213 hours, 18 seconds
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Maximizing Productivity, Physical & Mental Health with Daily Tools

In this episode, I discuss science-supported tools for enhancing focus, learning, creativity, sleep, physical strength and endurance and brain and body health. I explain each protocol in detail, the rationale behind it, and how the protocol can be adjusted depending on individual needs. I set these tools in the context of a 24-hour day as a way of framing how one might incorporate these tools and protocols into their own daily routine. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction: Protocols for sleep, mood, focus, exercise creativity (00:04:23) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:08:50) Protocol 1: Record Your Daily Waking Time & Temperature Minimum  (00:12:07) Protocol 2: Self-Generate Forward Motion (Outdoors)  (00:17:00) Protocol 3: View Natural Light For 10-30min Every Morning (00:22:43) What To Do If You Can’t View The Sun: Blue Light  (00:26:50) Protocol 4: Hydrate Correctly  (00:28:00) Protocol 5: Delay Caffeine 90-120m After Waking (00:30:48) Protocol 6: Fast (or Fat-Fast) Until Noon (00:32:30) What Actually Breaks A Fast & What Doesn’t? (00:34:30) Fat Loss & Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 (GLP1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea (00:37:30) Protocol 7: Optimize Deep Work: Visual Elevation, Ultradian Cycles, White Noise (00:48:30) Optimal Time of Day To Do Hard Mental Work  (00:52:07) Protocol 8: Optimal Exercise; 3:2 Ratio (01:03:54) Tools for Training & Mental Focus: Fasting, Salt, Stimulants, Alpha-GPC  (01:10:00) Protocol 9: Eat For Brain Function & Mood (01:17:39) Protocol 10: Get Your Testosterone & Estrogen In An Ideal Range (01:24:00) Protocol 11: Reset the Mind & Body, Enhance Neuroplasticity, Reveri.com (01:31:15) Protocol 12: Hydrate Correctly, Nap Rules (01:33:29) Protocol 13: View Late Afternoon/Evening Light To Support Sleep & Dopamine (01:39:00) Protocol 14: Eat Dinner That Promotes Serotonin, Calm Sleep (01:44:27) Protocol 15: Optimize Falling & Staying Asleep; Tools & Supplements That Work (01:55:00) Protocol 16: Preventing Middle of the Night Waking (01:59:10) Protocol 17: Weekends, Recovering From A Poor Nights Sleep (02:05:20) Neural Network, Supplement Sources, Sponsors Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/12/20212 hours, 4 minutes, 8 seconds
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The Science of Hearing, Balance & Accelerated Learning

This episode I describe how our ears and nervous system decode sound waves and gravity to allow us to hear and make sense of sounds. I also describe protocols for rapid learning of sound and other types of information. I discuss sound localization, doppler effects (sound motion), pitch perception and how we isolate sounds in noisy environments. I also review the scientific findings on binaural beats and white noise and how they can improve learning. Other topics and protocols include tinnitus, sea sickness, ear movement, ear growth and the science-supported ways we can all accelerate learning using "gap effects". For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Overview of Topics (00:02:20) Protocol: New Data for Rapid Learning  (00:09:10) Introduction: Hearing & Balance  (00:09:30) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:13:53) How We Perceive Sounds (00:21:56) Your Hearing Brain (Areas)   (00:23:48) Localizing Sounds (00:28:00) Ear Movement: What It Means  (00:33:00) Your Ears (Likely) Make Sounds: Role of Hormones, Sexual Orientation  (00:35:30) Binaural Beats: Do They Work?  (00:43:54) White Noise Can Enhance Learning & Dopamine (00:51:00) Headphones (00:55:51) White Noise During Development: Possibly Harmful (01:03:25) Remembering Information, & The Cocktail Party Effect (01:12:55) How to Learn Information You Hear (01:18:10) Doppler (01:22:43) Tinnitus: What Has Been Found To Help? (01:30:40) Aging: How Big Are Your Ears? (01:35:00) Balance: Semi-Circular Canals (01:40:35) A Vestibular Experiment (01:43:15) Improve Your Sense of Balance (01:48:55) Accelerating Balance (01:51:55) Self-Generated Forward Motion (01:56:25) Dizzy versus Light-Headed (01:58:38) Motion Sickness Solution (02:01:23) Synthesis Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
7/5/20212 hours, 43 seconds
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Dr. Karl Deisseroth: Understanding & Healing the Mind

Dr. Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, is a Clinical Psychiatrist and scientist who directs a bioengineering research laboratory at Stanford University School of Medicine. His work aims to understand and develop treatments for disorders of the mind such as depression, attention deficit disorders (ADHD & ADD), autism, schizophrenia, anxiety, eating disorders, borderline personality and obsessive-compulsive disorder. We discuss his experience treating his patients and his laboratory’s mission to find and develop cures for mental disease and tools for probing how the brain works.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:03:47) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:41) Using Language to Understand the Mind (00:12:19) Blood Tests For Mental Disease (00:13:38) The Largest Challenges Facing Treatment of Mental Health (00:20:21) Predicting Depression & Suicide (00:22:47) Drugs That Work for Brain Illness (00:27:01) What Would A Cure For the Broken Mind Look Like? (00:32:23) Channelopsins: Tools For Understanding & Treating the Mind (00:39:10) Curing Blindness with Channelopsins (00:41:58) Why Karl Became a Scientist (00:47:10) Vagus Nerve In Depression (00:54:12) Challenges To Overcome for Treating Mental Illness with Channelopsins (00:58:34) Using the Dialogue with Patients to Guide Treatment (01:00:52) How Our Eyes Reveal Our Mental Health (01:06:04) Controlling Structures Deep In the Brain (01:08:23) The Most Effective Drugs Often Have the Most Side Effects (01:09:50) Do Psychiatrists Take the Drugs They Prescribe (01:14:15) Moving From Experimental Tools To Novel Treatments (01:16:00) Brain-Machine Interfaces & Neuralink (01:19:30) ADHD & Dr. Deissroth’s Approach To Focusing His Mind (01:26:36) How Dr. Deisseroth Balances A Career In Medicine, Science & Family (01:35:41) New Ways of Exploring Brains: CLARITY (01:38:49) What Is Special About the Human Brain? (01:46:03) Psychedelics (01:54:12) MDMA (01:57:15) Dr. Deisseroth’s New Book “Projections: A Story of Emotions” (01:59:42) Connecting with Dr. Deisseroth on Twitter Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/28/20212 hours, 23 seconds
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How Smell, Taste & Pheromone-Like Chemicals Control You

This episode explains how we sense chemicals through smell, taste, and pheromones. How things smell and taste and chemicals in the tears, breath, and on the skin of others have a profound effect on how we feel, what we do, and our hormones. I explain the 3 types of responses to smell, the 5 types of tastes, the possible existence of sixth taste sense, and how the act of sniffing can make us learn and focus better. I explain how smell and taste reflect brain health and can assess and even promote brain regeneration. I discuss how eating specific categories of foods makes us crave more of those foods, including how to make sour things taste sweet and develop a heightened sense of smell and taste.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/21/20211 hour, 55 minutes, 31 seconds
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The Science of Vision, Eye Health & Seeing Better

This episode I describe how we see, meaning how our eyes focus, convert light information into electricity the rest of the brain can understand and how our brain creates the incredible thing we experience as “sight”. I also describe how we can train and support our visual system to improve at any age. I describe more than a dozen protocols to support depth perception, offset near-sightedness, improve mood, sleep, and our ability to focus (both visual focus and our mental focus generally). I also explain how to use eyesight to improve our levels of alertness and why visual hallucinations, lazy eyes and colorblindness occur. I also describe various compounds that may assist in supporting visual health and possibly improve our vision. Many simple, zero-cost protocols and a lot of scientific mechanisms are covered in this episode in clear language anyone can understand-- it is for anyone that values their brain and whether eyesight, young, adult-age or advanced age. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors: AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:04:51) Protocol: Concurrent Training For Endurance, Strength, Hypertrophy (00:07:24) The Senses, Vision, Seeing & What We Should All Do To See Better (00:10:35) Our Eyes: What They Really Do, & How They Work (00:14:30) Converting Light Into Electricity Language: Photoreceptors, Retinal Ganglion Cells (00:17:00) We Don’t See Anything Directly: It Is All A Comparison Of Reflected Light (00:19:35) Dogs, Cats, Snakes, Squirrels, Shrimps, Diving Birds, & You(r View Of The World) (00:24:05) Everything You See Is A Best Guess, Blind Spots (00:25:50) Depth Perception (00:28:00) Subconscious Vision: Light, Mood, Metabolism, Dopamine; Frog’s Skin In Your Eyes (00:32:00) Blue-Yellow Light, Sunlight; & Protocol 1 For Better Biology & Psychology; (00:35:00) Protocol 2: Prevent & Offset Near-Sightedness (Myopia): Outdoors 2 Hours Per Day (00:42:00) Improving Focus: Visual & Mental; Accommodation, Your Pupils & Your Bendy Lens (00:48:50) Protocol 3: Distance Viewing For 20min For Every 90 Minutes of “Close Viewing” (00:52:20) Protocol 4: Self-Generated Optic Flow; Move Yourself Through Space Daily (00:54:26) Protocol 5: Be More Alert; Eyelids, Eye Size, Chin Position, Looking Up Versus Down (00:59:21) Protocol 6: Sleep In A Very Dark Room To Prevent Myopia (Nearsightedness) (01:02:55) Color Vision, Colorblindness, Use Magentas Not Reds, (01:04:32) Protocol 7: Keeping Your Vision Sharp With Distance Viewing Every Day (01:06:05) Protocol 8: Smooth Pursuit (01:08:48) Protocol 9: Near-Far Visual Training 2-3 Minutes 3-4 Times a Week (01:13:33) Protocol 10: Red Light, Emerging Protocol To Improve Photoreceptors & Vision (01:16:20) Dry Eyes; Blinking, Protocol 11 (01:18:40) Lazy Eye, Binocular Vision, Amblyopia; Triggering Rapid Brain Plasticity; Protocol 12 (01:24:48) Protocol 12: Determine Your Dominant Eye; Near-Far Training (01:27:57) Visual Hallucinations: The Consequence of An Under-Active Visual Brain (01:29:47) Protocol 13: Snellen Chart: A Simple, Cost-Free Way To Test & Maintain Vision (01:33:00) Vitamin A, Lutein, Idebenone, Zeaxanthine, Astaxanthin, Blood Flow (01:44:20) Summary of Protocols, Vital Point About Blood & Oxygen For Vision (01:46:00) Episode Length, Captions, Zero-Cost Support, Instagram, Searching Topics Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/14/20211 hour, 46 minutes, 26 seconds
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How To Build Endurance In Your Brain & Body

This episode I discuss endurance: our ability to perform effort over extended amounts of time. I describe the four kinds of endurance: muscular endurance, long duration (single-set) efforts, and the two kinds of high intensity interval training (HIIT). I discuss efficiency of effort and maximizing quality of effort, and a hydration formula. I review how our heart literally gets stronger when we oxygenate muscles properly. I also discuss motivation for long bouts of work and the visual physiological basis of the "extra gear" we all can leverage for effort. Finally, I review how accelerating as we fatigue can allow us to access untapped energetic resources. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors: AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
6/7/20212 hours, 1 minute, 1 second
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Science & Tools For Muscle Growth, Increasing Strength & Muscular Recovery

In this episode, I describe how our brain and nervous system control muscle tissue and how to leverage that for muscle maintenance, growth (hypertrophy) and recovery. I explain how neurons control muscle contractions and limb movements. I explain muscle metabolism and muscle fiber recruitment. I detail protocols for increasing muscular growth and for neuro-muscular recovery. I explain the effects of deliberate cold, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-histamines on training progress. I describe science-supported protocols using certain weight load ranges, total sets per week, training intensity, frequency, and in-between set activities if one's goal is to increase muscle growth, strength or endurance. I review three foundational compounds and nutrients and three optimization compounds and nutrients that have been shown to improve neuro-muscular performance. Finally, I explain how to leverage exercise and weight training to enhance cognitive function. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Disclaimer
5/31/20212 hours, 21 seconds
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How to Lose Fat with Science-Based Tools

This episode I describe the science of fat loss, including how fat is mobilized and oxidized (burned) and how to increase fat burning by leveraging the nervous system. Most people don't realize it, but our neurons connect to our fat and release epinephrine/adrenaline to facilitate fat oxidation. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction  (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:00) Fat Loss: The Key Role of Neurons  (00:08:44) The First Law of Fat Loss  (00:11:00) Neurons Connect To Fat! (& That Really Matters)  (00:13:38) 5 Pillars of Metabolism: Sleep, Essential Fatty Acids, Glutamine, Microbiome, Thyroid  (00:19:20) Mindset Truly Matters: Amazing Examples of Beliefs on Fat Loss  (00:23:08) Our Brain Talks To Our Fat (00:25:00) The Most Incredible & Dangerous Fat Loss Agent  (00:27:28) Losing Fat Is a Two-Part Process: Mobilization and Oxidation   (00:32:25) The Critical Role of Adrenaline/Epinephrine, But NOT from Adrenal Glands  (00:34:45) Fidgeting & Shivering: A Powerful Science-Supported Method For Fat Loss  (00:41:24) How Fidgeting Works: Promotes Epinephrine Release into Fat. “N-E-A-T”  (00:44:55) Two Ways of Using Shivering To Accelerate Fat Loss   (00:47:30) White, Brown & Beige Fat; & Using Cold-Induced Shiver To Burn Fat  (00:50:25) How To Use Cold Properly To Stimulate Fat Loss: Succinate Release Is Key/Shiver  (00:52:26) Exact Protocols: (1-5X per week); Don’t Adapt! Submerge and Exit “Sets & Reps”  (00:56:15) thecoldplunge.com see “protocols” tab Cold-Shiver-Fat-Loss Tool (cost free)  (00:58:03) If Fat-Loss Is Your Goal, Avoid Cold Adaptation: Remember Polar Bear Swimmers   (00:58:17) Irisin: Underwhelming; Succinate Is The Real Deal  (01:00:00) Brown Fat, Why Babies Can’t Shiver and Becoming a Hotter Furnace, Adding Heat  (01:01:55) Ice On Back of The Neck, Cold Underpants: Not A Great Idea For Fat Loss  (01:04:00) A Key Paper For the Aficionados: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826518/  (01:05:00) Spot Reduction: There May Be Hope After All. Targeting Specific Fat Pads.  (01:09:20) Exercising For Fat Loss: What Is Best? High Intensity, Sprinting, Moderate Intensity?   (01:13:30) Exercising Fasted: Does It Truly Accelerate Fat Loss/Oxidation.   (01:16:30) The 90 Minute Rule: After 90 Minutes, The Fasted Exercisers Start To Burn More Fat  (01:18:15) If High-Intensity Training Is Done First, The Benefits of Fasting Arrive Before 90min.  (01:22:44) Post-Exercise Metabolic Increases: How To Bias This Toward Fat Oxidation  (01:26:05) A Protocol For Exercise-Induced Fat Loss; Adrenalin Is The Effector  (01:28:50) Supplements/Compounds For Fat Loss Part: Caffeine Fidgeting, & Caffeine Adaptation  (01:34:30) Ephedrine, Fenfluramine: Removed From Market Due to Safety Concerns  (01:35:22) GLP1 (Glucagon-Like Peptide 1), Yerba Mate, Guayusa Tea, Semaglutide   (01:40:30) Berberine, Metformin: Glucose/Insulin Reduction, Increase Fat Oxidation: But Caution  (01:41:28) Gardner Lab Results: What You Eat May Not Matter, But Adherence Is Key Tool  (01:43:00) examine.com & Enter “Yerba Mate”: Lowers Heart Rate Even Though Is a Stimulant  (01:44:35) Acetly-L-Carnitine: Facilitates Fat Oxidation  (01:48:00) Summary List of Tools & How Nervous System Controls Fat Loss  (01:51:20) Cost Free & Other Ways To Support Our Podcast, Making Sure We See Feedback  Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/24/20211 hour, 49 minutes, 44 seconds
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How to Learn Skills Faster

This episode I discuss the science and practice of learning physical skills: what it involves at a biological level, and what to focus on during skill learning at each stage to maximize learning speed and depth. I also describe what to do immediately after a training session (note: this is different than the optimal protocol for cognitive skill training) and as you progress to more advanced levels of performance. I also cover the science of skill-based visualization which does have benefits, but only if done correctly and at the correct times. I discuss auto-replay of skill learning in the brain during sleep and the value of adding in post-training ‘deliberately idle’ sessions. I cover how to immediately improve limb-range-of-motion by leveraging cerebellum function, error generation, optimal repetition numbers for learning and more. As always, scientific mechanism, peer-reviewed studies and science-based protocols are discussed.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:28) Skill Acquisition: Mental & Physical (00:08:40) Clarification About Cold, Heat & Caffeine (00:12:45) Tool: How To Quickly Eliminate the Side-Stitch ‘Cramp’ & BoostHRV Entrainment (00:16:08) Physical Skills: Open-Loop Versus Closed-Loop (00:18:50) Three Key Components To Any Skill (00:21:00) Sources of Control for Movement: 1) CPGs Govern Rhythmic Learned Behavior (00:23:30) Upper Motor Neurons for Deliberate Movement & Learning (00:25:00) Lower Motor Neurons Control Action Execution (00:25:26) What To Focus On While Learning (00:27:10) The Reality of Skill Learning & the 10,000 Hours Myth (00:28:30) Repetitions & The Super Mario Effect: Error Signals vs. Error Signals + Punishment (00:34:00) Learning To Win, Every Time (00:39:26) Errors Solve the Problem of What Focus On While Trying to Learn Skills (00:43:00) Why Increasing Baseline Levels of Dopamine Prior To Learning Is Bad (00:44:40) The Framing Effect (& Protocol Defined) (00:46:10) A Note & Warning To Coaches (00:48:30) What To Do Immediately After Your Physical Skill Learning Practice (00:53:48) Leveraging Uncertainty (00:56:59) What to Pay Attention To While Striving To Improve (01:04:45) Protocol Synthesis Part One (01:07:10) Super-Slow-Motion Learning Training: Only Useful After Some Proficiency Is Attained (01:11:06) How To Move From Intermediate To Advanced Skill Execution faster: Metronomes (01:16:44) Increasing Speed Even If It Means More Errors: Training Central Pattern Generators (01:19:12) Integrated Learning: Leveraging Your Cerebellum (“Mini-Brain”) (01:22:02) Protocol For Increasing Limb Range of Motion, Immediately (01:28:30) Visualization/Mental Rehearsal: How To Do It Correctly (01:33:50) Results From 15 Minutes Per Day, 5 Days Per Week Visualization (vs. Actual Training) (01:35:34) Imagining Something Is Very Different Than Actually Experiencing It (01:37:58) Cadence Training & Learning “Carryover” (01:39:00) Ingestible Compounds That Support Skill Learning: Motivation, Repetitions, Alpha-GPC (01:43:39) Summary & Sequencing Tools: Reps, Fails, Idle Time, Sleep, Metronome, Visualization (01:46:20) Density Training: Comparing Ultradian- & Non-Ultradian Training Sessions (01:49:24) Cost-Free Ways to Support Us, Sponsors & Alternate Channels, Closing Remarks Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/17/20211 hour, 47 minutes, 1 second
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Supercharge Exercise Performance & Recovery with Cooling

This episode I explain the science of heating and cooling the body, a process called thermoregulation-- and how to apply that knowledge to significantly improve physical performance. I describe the three areas of our body that can remove heat (or bring heat into the body) faster than anywhere else, why that is so, and how proper cooling of these areas with specific protocols can allow people to perform 200-600% more volume and repetitions of resistance exercises at the same weight loads, or to run, cycle or swim significantly further. I also describe how to use directed cooling of so-called glabrous skin: the bottoms of feet, palms and face, to significantly enhance recovery times from exercise. Also, why the common practices of trying to heat up or cool the body via the torso or whole-body submersion in cold can be inefficient and/or dangerous-- and the better alternatives. Finally, I discuss the temperature-effects of caffeine, alcohol and anti-inflammatory compounds. The information in this episode is focused on mechanisms and tools for increasing athletic or exercise performance. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:08) Physical Performance & Skill Learning (00:06:40) Optimal Learning Protocol (Recap): 4 Steps (00:08:31) Variables Impacting Physical Performance (00:10:00) Temperature Is the Dominant Variable (00:12:08) Understanding Mechanism Is Key (00:13:42) Heat: The Enemy of All Performance (& Why) (00:16:30) Blood Flow & Sweating & Piloerection (00:22:35) Heat Is What Limits Effort: Even If You Feel Fine/Motivated (00:25:29) Proper Cooling Can Double, Triple, Quadruple (Or More) Your Ability (00:26:42) Heat Induced Confusion & Death (00:30:02) The Three Body Parts Best For Heating & Cooling Your Whole Body (00:31:38) Face, Palms, Bottoms of Feet; Glabrous Skin (00:33:00) Arterio-Venous Anastamoses (AVAs) Are Super Cool(ing)! (00:37:15) Palmar Cooling Can Supercharge Your Athletic Performance (00:38:35) ATP, Pyruvate Kinase & Heat (00:40:55) Palmer Cooling Outperforms Anabolic Steroids Several-Fold (00:43:45) Increasing Endurance, Willpower & Persistence (00:46:33) Cardiac Drift, & Moving the ”I Quit” Point (00:50:44) Deliberate Heating: Myths and Better Protocols (00:53:20) Protocols For Self-Directed Cooling To Vastly Improve Performance (00:59:23) How To Use Cold To Recover Faster & More Thoroughly (01:02:05) Ice Baths & Cold Showers Can Prevent Training Progress: mTOR, etc. (01:06:29) Alcohol, Caffeine, NSAIDs: Their Temperature Effects Matter (01:09:44) Are Stimulants Counter Productive For Performance? It Depends. (01:12:00) The Caffeine Rule & “Caffeine Adaptation” (01:14:20) NSAIDs for Training: Performance Enhancements & Risks (01:17:00) The Best Way to Explore Your Own “Parameter Space” (01:18:35) Tools: How To Try (01:21:35) Cost-Free Support, & Additional Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/10/20211 hour, 20 minutes, 21 seconds
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Boost Your Energy & Immune System with Cortisol & Adrenaline

This episode I describe the biology of two essential hormones we all make: cortisol and adrenaline (also called epinephrine). Cortisol and adrenaline powerfully regulate our levels of energy, focus and immune system function. I describe various science-supported tools and practices to increase or decrease cortisol and/or adrenaline, depending on one's specific needs and goals. I also describe the biology of nootropics, and how cortisol and adrenaline can improve or degrade learning. Finally, I review the scientific data and tools for timing the release of these hormones to improve memory, energy and immune system function. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:41) Energy & Your Immune System, & Learning Faster (00:08:34) Why & How Intermittent Fasting Increases Growth Hormone (00:11:56) Why Your Stomach Growls (00:13:09) Hot Baths & Hormones (00:14:35) Energy, Adrenaline (Epinephrine), & Cortisol (00:15:48) Cortisol & Cholesterol, Competition With Testosterone & Estrogen (00:17:54) Adrenaline (Epinephrine) Is Your (Immune Systems) Best Friend (00:18:48) Cortisol Basics In Two (Actually 1) Minute/s (00:19:48) Adrenaline Basics In Two Minutes (00:21:32) Tool: Time Your Cortisol Peak To Waking Using Specific Light Intensities (00:27:20) Brief Increases In Cortisol & Adrenaline Boost Energy, Focus & Immunity (00:30:04) Ways To Increase Adrenaline, Epinephrine & Cortisol & Why That Is Good (00:35:00) Does Mindset During Stress Matter? (00:36:15) Protocols: Adrenaline Breathing Described (00:39:00) Practices To Increase Energy Without Increasing Stress (00:45:00) Using Stressors to ENHANCE Our Immune System: Science & Tools (00:55:11) Timing Thyroid Release For Energy (00:57:02) Adrenaline/Stress Increase Performance & Memory. IF They Are After Learning (01:02:45) An Optimal Learning Protocol (01:03:20) Coffee Changes Your Brain & Increases Connectivity Of “Anxiety Circuits” (01:05:43) Nootropics: Two Kinds, & How & Why They Work, “Neural Energy” (01:09:00) Biology of Comfort Foods: From Negative to Positive Feedback Loops (01:14:00) Bombesin: Energy Without Eating (01:15:00) How Stress Makes Our Hair Gray, & How To Prevent Stress-Induced-Graying (01:18:05) Blunting Chronic Cortisol, Including: Ashwagandha & Science Of (01:25:50) Licorice Increases Cortisol & Blood Pressure, & Reduces Testosterone (by Glycyrrhizin) (01:28:50) Apigenin: Anti-Cortisol (01:29:53) Protocols For Optimizing Energy & Immune System Function (& Learning) (01:37:00) When Fasting, Exercise, Cold & Intense Breathing Become Detrimental (01:39:00) Prescription Compounds (01:39:47) Tools For Accessing Alert & Calm States of “Energy”: Separating The Brain & Body (01:42:11) Ways To Apply Knowledge Presented Today (01:43:20) No-Cost Ways To Support Us, Feedback, Sponsors, Patreon, Partners, “Office Hours” Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
5/3/20211 hour, 42 minutes, 47 seconds
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How to Control Your Metabolism by Thyroid & Growth Hormone

This episode discusses metabolism and how our thyroid hormone and growth hormone control our metabolism. I also clarify that metabolism isn't just about burning energy, it’s about converting energy from different sources into fuels for building and repairing our tissues such as muscle, brain, and tendons and mobilizing energy from body fat storage. I discuss the role of iodine, selenium, and salt for thyroid health, and how specific exercise protocols, amino acids and temperature can dramatically shift levels of growth hormone release in waking and in sleep. I also describe the current landscape of prescription compounds, peptides and other factors for changing levels of thyroid and growth hormone, and some of their risks. Throughout the episode, mechanisms and tools grounded in specific mechanisms are discussed. Thank you to our sponsors Four Sigmatic: https://foursigmatic.com/huberman Blinkist: https://blinkist.com/huberman Munk Pack: https://munkpack.com - Use code: huberman Supplements from Thorne https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:06:05) Thyroid & Growth Hormone (00:08:44) Food Shapes: Do They Matter? (00:11:43) Stevia: Naming & Impact (00:13:30) Metabolism 101: Your Brain the Furnace (00:17:33) Releasing Hormones From Your Brain, Stimulating Hormones from Your Pituitary (00:21:04) Thyroid Hormone’s Real Effects: Growth, Repair and Energy Consumption of Tissues (00:22:45) Iodine, L-Tyrosine & Selenium: The Trio Essential For Thyroid Function (00:26:05) How Much Iodine Do We Need? By Food, Supplement or Ocean Air (00:28:09) Selenium For Thyroid: Brazil Nuts & Other Valuable Sources (00:33:05) Selenium For Pregnancy, Prostate Cancer Risk, Acne (00:35:20) “Clean Eating” Downsides: Cruciferous Vegetables, Leeching Iodine (00:39:00) Other Benefits of Iodine: Reducing Inflammation (00:41:00) Why & How Increased Thyroid Increases Metabolism (00:42:12) What To Eat To Support Your Brain (00:43:00) Hyperthyroidism (Too Much) & Hypothyroidism (Too Little) (00:44:35) Menstruation: Thyroid Carbohydrate & Sugar Craving (00:45:33) Ketogenic Diet & Its Effects On Thyroid, Rebound Weight Gain (00:48:39) Growth Hormone: What, Why & How (00:51:18) Growth Hormone (GH) Changes Across The Lifespan & Risks of GH Therapy (00:53:40) How To Powerfully Increase Growth Hormone: Know The Natural Triggers (00:54:49) Not Eating Within 2hrs of Sleep: Keep Blood Glucose Low(ish) At Sleep (00:55:43) Delta Wave Brain Activity Is the Trigger For Growth Hormone Release (00:58:25) LOW Doses of Melatonin Supplementation For Increasing GH Release (01:01:00) Book: Altered Traits, Binaural Beats? Delta Waves Access (01:04:35) Specific Types & Duration of Exercise That Stimulate Growth Hormone & Warmups (01:08:40) Keeping Low Blood Glucose & Ensuring A Cool Down For Two Phase GH Release (01:10:36) Sex Differences For WHEN During Exercise Growth Hormone and IGF-1 Release Occurs: Males Have To Last Longer (01:14:10) Supplements That Increase Growth Hormone 100-400% (or more): Arginine, Ornithine (01:18:20) Arginine & Exercise Together Can Be Counter-Productive (01:19:50) L-Citrulline Better For Arginine Than Arginine Itself (?!); & Blood Pressure Caution (01:23:09) Growth Hormone Changes Across The Lifespan: No One Escapes (01:26:00) Heat (& Cold) for Triggering Extremely Large Increases In Growth Hormone (01:29:20) Specific Heat Protocols For Increasing Growth Hormone: Up To 16-Fold (?!) (01:34:30) 2021 (New) Study: Heat Increases GH, & Lowers Cortisol, No Effects On Testosterone, DHEA Or Prolactin (01:36:00) Prescription Growth Hormone, & Emerging Peptides Therapeutics, Secretagogues Etc. (01:42:25) Synthesis, Summary Of Actionable Steps For Increasing GH and Thyroid Hormone (01:44:00) Zero Cost & Other Ways to Support Our Podcast; & Thank You!
4/26/20211 hour, 46 minutes
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How Hormones Control Hunger, Eating & Satiety

This episode I discuss how hormones from our gut, liver, pancreas and brain control our appetite--and the specific tools we can use to adjust those hormones in order to achieve specific goals. I explain the brain areas that control our desire to eat, and our desire to stop eating. I discuss a hormone we all can make that is regulated by UV-rays from sunlight that reduces our appetite. I also explain that when we eat controls our appetite and not the other way around (and how to leverage that fact). I describe how we are basically always eating until we reach a threshold level of fatty acids and amino acids in our gut and the factors that can alter that signaling and make us eat far more than we need. I also explain how insulin, glucose and glucagon work, why cholesterol is so key for ovary, adrenal, liver and testes function and how the ketogenic diet impacts glucose and thyroid levels. As always, I describe many tools: specific supplements, prescription compounds, specific types (and timing) of exercise to regulate hormones, specific timing and types of eating, ways to reduce sugar cravings by triggering release of the hormone CCK, and more. Note: A future episode will cover Thyroid hormone. Also, I mis-spoke when explaining POMC neurons. I said “P-M-O-C” but should have said “POMC”. Apologies. The name I gave for what POMC is, however, was correct: "proopiomelanocortin". Thank you to our sponsors InsideTracker: https://insidetracker.com/huberman Athletic Greens (AG1): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman Munk Pack: https://munkpack.com - Code: huberman Supplements from Thorne https://www.thorne.com/u/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:06:59) Hunger: Neural & Hormonal Control (00:08:32) Chewing & Hunger (00:11:05) Siamese Rats Reveal the Importance of Hormones In Hunger (00:13:08) Neurons That Powerfully Control Hunger by Releasing Specific Hormones (00:16:28) Anorexia & Extreme Overeating (00:16:57) Why Sunlight Suppresses Hunger: a-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (a -MSH) (00:20:03) Blue-blockers, Injecting a-MSH: Instant Tan & Priapism (00:22:30) Ghrelin: A Hormone That Determines When You Get Hungry, & That You Can Control (00:24:40) Meal Timing Determines Hunger, Not the Other Way Around (00:27:20) Satchin Panda, Circadian Eating & Intermittent(ish) Fasting (00:29:35) How To Rationally Adjust Meal Schedules: The 45min Per Day Rule (00:33:02) CCK (Cholecystokinin): A Hormone In Your Gut That Says “No Mas!” (00:34:55) Eating For Amino Acids, Fatty Acids & Sugar (00:39:05) L-Glutamine: Stimulates the Immune System & Reduces Sugar Cravings (00:43:42) Things To Avoid: Emulsifiers; Alter Gut Mucosa & Nutrient Sensing (00:49:32) “A Calorie Is NOT A Calorie” After All (00:52:36) Insulin & Glucose: Hyperglycemia, Euglycemia, & Hypogylcemia (00:56:12) The Order Your Eat Foods Matters: Managing Your Blood Glucose & Glucagon (01:02:40) Movement, Exercise & GLUT-4 (01:04:50) Why Sugar Stimulates Your Appetite (01:05:40) Keeping Blood Sugar Stable With Specific Exercises, The Power Of Insulin Sensitivity (01:07:55) High-Intensity Exercise, Glycogen & Metabolism (01:10:28) Cholesterol, HDL, LDL & Glucose Management: Ovaries, Testes, Liver, Adrenals (01:15:00) Prescription Compounds That Reduce Blood Glucose: Metformin (01:16:45) Berberine: A Potent Glucose Buffer That Also Adjusts Cholesterol Levels, Canker Sores (01:22:05) Chromium, L-Carnitine, Ginseng, Caffeine, Magnesium, Stevia, Vitamin B3, & Zinc (01:24:34) Acids: Vinegar, Lemons & Limes & False Alkalinity (01:26:40) Ketogenic Diets (In Brief): Effects On Blood Glucose, Thyroid Hormones (01:28:10) Diabetes, Filtering Blood, Sweet Urine (01:31:08) The Power of GLP-1 & Yerba Mate For Controlling Appetite, Electrolytes (01:35:19) Summary & Notes About Thyroid, Estrogen, Testosterone (01:37:20) Zero Cost & Sponsor-Based Ways To Support The Huberman Lab Podcast
4/19/20211 hour, 39 minutes, 43 seconds
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How to Optimize Testosterone & Estrogen

In this episode, I discuss testosterone and estrogen hormones and how they impact the brain, body, and behavior after puberty. I also discuss how various behaviors such as exercise (resistance and endurance training) and sex or observing sex impact these hormones and their levels. I ask: "what specifically is it about such activities that impact testosterone and estrogen?"; the resounding theme is that when our nervous system is activated in particular ways, it drives our endocrine system and vascular system to activate or repress certain hormone networks in predictable ways. I also discuss peer-reviewed studies and protocols addressing (at a mechanistic level) how light, cold and heat, and respiration (breathing) can positively or negatively impact testosterone and estrogen. We discuss specific supplements and compounds that peer-reviewed studies illustrate can adjust testosterone and estrogen levels by changing their binding to other proteins, raising them directly, or changing other hormones released from the brain and pituitary. I discuss optimization in the normal reference ranges for these hormones, and I discuss pheromones, apnea, menstrual cycles, menopause and andropause. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:26) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:50) Hormone Optimization (00:07:00) Salutogenesis: A Powerful Way to Conceptualize Health (00:10:03) Estrogen and Testosterone: Sources, Levels and Ratios (00:15:46) The Power of Competition, Plus: Anxiety, Persistence and Dopamine (00:20:58) Testosterone and Libido Pre-Ovulation (00:21:48) Estrogen and Sexual Receptivity; Libido In Males (00:23:10) How Sex Behavior Impacts Testosterone: Observing vs. Actual vs. Abstinence (00:26:46) Testosterone and Prolactin: Sex Seeking vs Pair Bonding (00:27:30) DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone): Effects on Levels/Ratios (00:28:45) Behaviors That Decrease Testosterone (and Cortisol): Parenting and Prolactin (00:31:24) How Illness Impacts Testosterone and Estrogen: Cytokines, e.g., IL-6 (00:33:20) How Exactly Do Behaviors Change Hormones? (00:34:18) Pheromones: Miscarriage, Menstrual Cycles, Puberty Onset, and Mate Recognition (00:43:33) Apnea: A Powerful Bi-Directional Influence On Estrogen and Testosterone (00:47:44) Mouth vs. Nose Breathing and Hormone Levels: Effects Via Sleep and Direct Effects (00:51:11) How Sleep Adjusts Cortisol/Testosterone and Cortisol/Estrogen Ratios (00:53:49) 02:CO2 Ratios, Nasal Breathing During Exercise (00:56:30) Light Viewing Patterns and Hormones: Dopamine, GnRH (00:57:44) Spring Fever: Tyrosinase, Hair Color, Mating Frequency (01:04:39) Specificity of Hormone Effects (01:06:03) Temperature: Cold and Hot Gonads (01:14:10) How To Exercise: Types, Effort Level, Sequencing (01:21:42) Cardio/Endurance vs. Resistance Training (First or Last?) Yes, It Matters (01:24:41) Estrogen and Menopause: Compounds That May Ameliorate/Reverse Symptoms (01:33:18) Nutrients That Optimize The Foundation For Hormones (01:36:00) Opioids as Severe Hormone Disruptors (01:37:23) Testes, Antlers and Ovaries (01:38:50) Creatine and Increasing DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) (01:40:14) Free and Bound Testosterone: SHBG (Sex Hormone Binding Globulin), Tongat Ali (01:43:23) Nettles, Prostate, Boron, and Blood Brain Barrier (01:45:27) Hormone Related Cancers: Sometimes Reducing Estrogen and Testosterone Is Optimal (01:47:43) Ecdysteroids: Mimic Mammalian Hormones (01:51:50) Optimizing Brain Hormones: Chorionic Gonadotropin, Fadogia Agrestis (01:57:18) Additional Compounds, Liver Toxicity, Overall Milieu (01:59:17) Summary: And Note About Additional Related Topic Coverage Coming Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/12/20211 hour, 58 minutes, 38 seconds
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The Science of Sexual Development

In this episode, I discuss how hormones such as testosterone and estrogen and their derivatives impact the early development of the brain and body and their maturation. I review published data on environmental factors shown to powerfully alter hormone pathways in animals and humans and the effects of cannabis, alcohol and cell phones on testes, sperm, ovaries and hormones. I describe the predictable relationship between genes, beard growth and balding patterns, and the importance of estrogen for brain development in people of all chromosomal sexes. Finally, I discuss how the hormones we are exposed to in the womb shape the relative length of our finger digits, the sounds our ears make (yes you read that correctly), and how those correlate with people's self-reports of their sexual preferences. As always, basic information and tools are discussed. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:30) AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:47) Announcement: Mood Meter App Works Again (00:08:00) Maximizing Learning from the Podcast (00:10:00) New Non-Sleep Deep Rest Protocol, Spanish Subtitles (00:11:35) Sexual Differentiation: Hormones, Neurons & Behavior (00:14:15) Hormones Basics (00:15:26) Sperm Meets Egg, Chromosomal Sex, Gonadal Sex, (00:17:50) Y Chromosome Inhibition of Feminization (00:19:00) Placenta Is An Endocrine (Hormone-Producing) Organ, Adrenal Testosterone (00:19:45) Hormonal Sex, Morphological Sex (00:21:04) Hormones Fast & Slow, Sex Steroids Can Turn On Genes (00:23:06) Masculinization, Feminization, Demasculinization, Defeminization (00:23:42) Primary Sexual Characteristics: DHT Drives Penis Development (00:27:03) Secondary Sexual Characteristics (00:27:43) Penis Sprouting: Guevedoces (00:31:25) Estrogen, NOT Testosterone, Masculinizes The Brain (00:33:15) Breast Development In Males: Aromatase; Puberty, & Steroids in Athletes (00:34:50) Estrogen Powerfully Controls Brain Development In All Individuals (00:35:19) Avoiding Hormonal Disruption In Children & Adults: Specific Oils, Creams, Etc. (00:39:00) Environmental Endocrine Disruptors, Sperm Count Decline, Vincloziline (00:44:20) Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Hormones Need Receptors, SARMS (00:48:41) Estrogen Establishes “Masculine” Brain Circuits, Testosterone (00:49:42) Cannabis, Alcohol: In Babies, Puberty & Adults (00:56:25) Cell Phone Technology: Effects On Hormones, Ovaries, & Testicles (01:02:33) Beards & Baldness Patterns Around the World, DHT, 5-alpha-reductase (01:06:39) Creatine & DHT/Hair Loss (01:08:20) Predicting Aging Rates By Pubertal Rates (01:10:04) Hyenas, Baseball, & Jumbo Clitorises: Androstenedione (01:14:26) Intersex Moles (01:15:40) Marijuana Plants, Pollens: Plant-To-Animal “Warfare” (01:20:08) Finger Length Ratios, Prenatal Hormone Exposure & Sexual Orientation (01:29:13) Brain Dimorphisms with Sexual Orientation (01:32:00) “Older Brother Effects”: Male Fetuses Might Change Mothers & Subsequent Brothers (01:35:06) The Path Forward & A Warning (01:35:55) Support & Your Questions Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
4/5/20211 hour, 34 minutes, 50 seconds
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The Science of Emotions & Relationships

In this episode, I discuss the biology of emotions and moods in the context of relationships. I focus on the science of how early infant-caregiver attachment, combined with adolescence and puberty shape our adult patterns of attachment. I explain the three universal aspects of emotions, the reality of right-brain versus left-brain personalities, and how the roots of adult attachment are also grounded in specific aspects of puberty. I review what factors determine when puberty starts and ends, and the role of oxytocin and other chemicals in controlling how we perceive and remember others. As always, I refer to various practical tools including new tools for understanding and predicting our emotions before they occur, and neurochemicals that shape human connection. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:32) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:10) Announcing New Cost-Free Resources: Captions, NSDR Link (00:07:40) Emotions: Subjective Yet Tractable (00:10:53) To Understand Your Emotions: Look At Infancy & Puberty (00:15:21) Your First Feeling Was Anxiety (00:17:36) What Are “Healthy Emotions”? (00:19:03) Digital Tool For Predicting Your Emotions: Mood Meter App (00:21:08) The Architecture Of A Feeling: (At Least) 3 Key Questions To Ask Yourself (00:24:00) You Are An Infant: Bonds & Predictions (00:27:57) Attachment Style Hinges On How You Handle Disappointment (00:32:40) “Glue Points” Of Emotional Bonds: Gaze, Voice, Affect, Touch, (& Written) (00:36:34) “Emotional Health”: Awareness of the Interoceptive-Exteroceptive Dynamic (00:37:50) An Exercise: Controlling Interoceptive-Exteroceptive Bias (00:42:19) Getting Out Of Your Head: The Attentional Aperture (00:46:59) Puberty: Biology & Emotions On Deliberate Overdrive (00:47:58) Bodyfat & Puberty: The Leptin Connection (00:50:34) Pheromones: Mates, Timing Puberty, Spontaneous Miscarriage (00:54:37) Kisspeptin: Robust Trigger Of Puberty & Performance Enhancing Agent (00:58:26) Neuroplasticity Of Emotions: Becoming Specialists & Testing Emotional Bonds (01:00:25) Testing Driving Brain Circuits For Emotion: Dispersal (01:07:48) Science-Based Recommendations for Adolescents and Teens: The Autonomy Buffet (01:11:05) “Right-Brain Versus Left-Brain People”: Facts Versus Lies (01:14:18) Left Brain = Language, Right Brain = Spatial Awareness (01:16:15) How To Recognize “Right Brain Activity” In Speech: Prosody (01:18:32) Oxytocin: The Molecule of Synchronizing States (01:20:09) Mirror Neurons: Are Not For “Empathy”, Maybe For Predicting Behavior (01:23:00) Promoting Trust & Monogamy (01:27:00) Ways To Increase Oxytocin (01:28:34) Vasopressin: Aphrodisiac, Non-Monogamy and Anti-Bed-Wetting Qualities (01:30:43) Bonding Bodies, Not Just Minds: Vagus Nerve, Depression Relief Via the Body (01:35:18) A Powerful Tool For Enhancing Range & Depth of Emotional Experience (01:30:43) MDMA and Other Psychedelic Compounds: Building A Framework (01:38:54) Roundup, Various Forms of Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/29/20211 hour, 37 minutes, 42 seconds
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How To Increase Motivation & Drive

This episode explains the science of motivation and drive. I describe how dopamine-- a chemical we all make in our brain, underlies our desire for and pursuit of our goals, as well as our capacity to move and experience pleasure. I describe how we can leverage specific behaviors, reward schedules and dopamine-prolactin balance to help ensure we can maintain motivation and capacity for pleasure over the long term. I also discuss dopamine in the context of ADHD, craving and addiction, and some absolutely amazing results about specificity of drug effects based purely on belief. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:30) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:04:22) Announcement: Spanish Subtitles (00:05:06) Emotions, Addiction & Mindset (00:06:22) Motivation & Movement: The Dopamine Connection (00:07:29) A Double-Edged Dopamine Blade (00:08:56) Dopamine Fundamentals: Precursor to Adrenalin (00:10:15) The Reward Pathway: An Accelerator & A Brake (00:12:10) Motivation= Pleasure Plus Pain (00:14:14) The Dopamine Staircase: Food, Sex, Nicotine, Cocaine, Amphetamine (00:16:15) Subjective Control of Dopamine Release (00:17:40) Social Media and Video Games (00:18:15) Addiction & Dopamine: Progressively Diminishing Returns (00:18:48) Novelty, Sensation-Seeking & Anticipation (00:20:15) Craving: Part Pain, Part Pleasure & Pain Always Prevails (00:23:11) Desire Scales With Pain: The Yearning Function (00:24:43) The Croissant Craving Circuit (00:25:45) “Here and Now” Molecules: Serotonin, Bliss & Raphe Nucleus (00:26:26) In Your Skin Or Out In the World (00:27:25) Cannabinoids Lethargy & Forgetfulness (00:28:15) The Almond Meditation (00:29:30) Drugs That Shift Exteroception Versus Interoception (00:30:36) Emotional Balance, Active & Passive Manipulation (00:32:36) Procrastination: Leveraging Stress, Breathing, Caffeine, L-Tyrosine, Prescription Drugs (00:37:04) When Enough Is Never Enough; How Dopamine Undermines Itself (00:38:58) Dopamine-Prolactin Dynamics: Sex, Reproduction & Refractory Periods (00:40:30) The Coolidge Effect: Novelty-Induced Suppression of Prolactin (00:42:22) Vitamin B6, Zinc As Mild Prolactin Inhibitors (00:43:25) Schizophrenia, Dopamine Hyperactivity and Side Effects of Anti-Dopaminergic Drugs (00:45:08) Prolactin, Post-Satisfaction “Lows” & Extending the Arc of Dopamine (00:48:00) The Chemistry of “I Won, But Now What?” (00:49:00) Healthy Emotional Development: Child and Parent (00:50:03) Never Say “Maybe” (Reward Prediction Error) (00:52:02) Surprise! (00:52:59) Are You Suppressing Your Drive and Motivation By Working Too Late? (00:54:50) Disambiguating Pleasure and Drive: Dopamine Makes Us Anti-Lazy (00:58:00) Beta-Phenylethylamine (PEA), & Acetyl L-Carnitine (01:00:00) Attention Deficit Disorders, Cal Newport Books, Impulsivity & Obesity (01:03:55) Leveraging Dopamine Schedules (01:05:22) Subjective Control of Dopamine and Drug Effects: The “Adderall” Experiment (01:09:03) Caffeine May Protect Dopamine Neurons, Methamphetamine Kills Them (01:10:57) Nicotine: Dopamine, Possible Neuroprotection, Prolactin Increase (01:11:53) Gambling, Intermittent Reinforcement, & Persistent Goal Seeking (Bad and Good) (01:14:14) Intermittent Halting of Celebration; Enjoy Your Wins, But Not All of Them (01:18:38) A Story Example of Intermittent Reward to Maintain Long-Term Drive and Motivation (01:21:25) Corrections & Notes About Spanish Captions & Other Languages Soon (01:24:00) Synthesis & Framework, Zero-Cost Support & A Note About Sponsors Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/22/20211 hour, 25 minutes, 29 seconds
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How Foods and Nutrients Control Our Moods

This episode explains the brain-body connections that allow the specific foods we eat to control our moods and motivation. I discuss the vagus nerve and its role in dopamine and serotonin release in the brain. I review Omega-3 fatty acids and the key role of the gut microbiome in supporting (or hindering) our mental and emotional states. Many actionable tools are reviewed and discussed related to fasting, ketogenic and plant-based diets, probiotics, fermented foods, fish oils, artificial sweeteners, specific supplements that promote dopamine and serotonin, and some remarkable behavioral (and belief) effects. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:00) Emotions: Aligning Mind & Body (00:06:41) Nutrients, Neurochemicals and Mood (00:08:39) Primitive Expressions and Actions (00:12:30) The Vagus Nerve: Truth, Fiction, Function (00:15:45) “Vagus Stimulation”: A Terrible Concept (00:16:35) Polyvagal Theory (00:18:27) Vagus Senses Many Things, & Moves Our Organs (00:19:35) Sugar Sensing Without Perception of Sweetness (00:23:00) Eating-Induced Anxiety (00:27:30) We Eat Until Our Brain Perceives “Amino Acid Threshold” (00:29:45) Reward Prediction Error: Buildup, Letdown and Wanting More (00:32:01) L-Tyrosine, Dopamine, Motivation, Mood, & Movement (00:34:04) Supplementing L-Tyrosine, Drugs of Abuse, Wellbutrin (00:38:29) Serotonin: Gut, Brain, Satiety and Prozac (00:43:38) Eating to Promote Dopamine (Daytime) & Serotonin (Night Time) (00:44:30) Supplementing Serotonin: Sleep, & Caution About Sleep Disruptions (00:46:40) Examine.com An Amazing Cost-Free Resource with Links to Science Papers (00:48:05) Mucuna Pruriens: The Dopamine Bean with a Serotonin Outer Shell (00:51:00) Emotional Context and Book Recommendation: “How Emotions Are Made” (00:54:55) Exercise: Powerful Mood Enhancer, But Lacks Specificity (00:56:45) Omega-3: Omega-6 Ratios, Fish Oil and Alleviating Depression (01:01:00) Fish Oil as Antidepressant (01:02:40) EPAs May Improve Mood via Heart Rate Variability: Gut-Heart-Brain (01:07:24) Alternatives to Fish Oil to Obtain Sufficient Omega-3/EPAs (01:09:05) L-Carnitine for Mood, Sperm and Ovary Quality, Autism, Fibromyalgia, Migraine (01:16:29) Gut-Microbiome: Myths, Truths & the Tubes Within Us (01:21:55) Probiotics, Brain Fog, Autism, Fermentation (01:25:20) Artificial Sweeteners & the Gut Microbiome: NOT All Bad; It Depends! (01:28:00) Ketogenic, Vegan, & Processed Food Effects, Individual Differences (01:33:20) Fasting-Based Depletion of Our Microbiome (01:35:20) How Mindset Effects Our Responses to Foods: Amazing (Ghrelin) Effects! (01:38:30) How Mindset Controls Our Metabolism (01:41:03) Closing Comments, Thanks, Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/15/20211 hour, 40 minutes, 34 seconds
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Master Stress: Tools for Managing Stress & Anxiety

This episode explains what stress is, and how it recruits our brain and body to react in specific ways. I describe the three main types of stress, and how two of them actually enhance the function of our immune system making us less vulnerable to infections. I review tools that allow us to control our stress in real-time, as well as tools to prevent long-term stress, burnout and stress-induced illness and anxiety. As always, we cover behavioral tools and supplements that can assist or hinder stress control. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:04:41) Emotions: A Logical Framework of Brain-Body Loops (00:10:29) Stress: The (Falsely Narrow) Animal Attack Narrative (00:14:31) The Stress RESPONSE: Generic, Channels blood, Biases Action (00:21:08) Tools to Actually Control Stress: Reduce Alertness or Increase Calm (00:24:15) The Fastest Way to Reduce Stress In Real Time: “Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia” (00:29:45) The Fastlane to Calm (00:34:53) Important Notes About Heart Rate Deceleration: Vaso-vagal Lag (00:36:50) Cyclic Sighing For Calm and Sleep Induction (00:37:57) Nasal Breathing For Cosmetic, Immune and Performance Enhancement (00:38:46) Two Breathing Centers In The Brain (00:39:45) Breathing For Speaking Clearly (00:40:39) The 3 Types of Stress: Short, Medium and Long-Term (00:42:10) Positive Effects of Short-Term Stress: Immunity and Focus (00:45:32) Adrenalin (Epinephrine) Deploys Killer Immune Cells (00:46:40) Cyclic Deep Breathing IS Stress: Wim Hof, Tummo & Super-Oxygenation (00:50:58) Inflammation Is Useful and Good, In the Short Term (00:52:02) Procrastination and Self-Manufactured Nootropics (00:53:00) Relaxation Can Causes Illness (00:54:30) Immune Activation Protocol (00:55:20) Medium Term Stress: A Clear Definition (00:56:07) Stress Threshold (00:57:10) Stress Inoculation Tools: Separating Mind & Body, On Purpose (00:59:50) Use Vision to Calm the Mind When the Body Is Agitated (01:02:36) Beyond NSDR (01:04:36) Long Term Stress: Definition, Measurement, Cardiovascular Risks (01:06:30) Tools for Dealing With Long Term Stress (01:08:20) The Oxytocin Myth (01:09:15) Serotonin: Satiety, Safety (01:12:00) Delight and Flexibility (01:13:30) Chemical Irritants We Make But Can Control: Tackykinin (01:15:40) Impactful Gratitude (01:16:25) Non-Prescription Chemical Compounds For Additional Anti-Stress Support (01:18:04) Melatonin: Cautionary Note About Adrenal Suppression (01:19:15) Adrenal Burnout Is A Myth… But Why You Need to Know About It Anyway (01:21:10) L-Theanine For Stress Reduction and Task Completion Anxiety (01:23:00) Beware Taurine and Energy Drinks With Taurine (01:23:30) Ashwagandha: Can Powerfully Lower Anxiety And Cortisol (01:25:50) Examine.com Is An Amazing Free Resource (01:26:20) How This All Relates to Emotions: State Versus Demand = Valence (01:32:00) Modulating Reactivity, Mindfulness, & Functionality With Objective Tools (01:34:00) Next Steps (01:35:40) Topic Suggestions, Subscriptions and Reviews Please (01:37:40) Additional Resources, Synthesis Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/8/20211 hour, 35 minutes, 8 seconds
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Control Pain & Heal Faster with Your Brain

In this episode, I describe the science of how and why pain arises in the body and brain, and how we can actively control our experience of pain. I discuss inflammation, stress, acupuncture, limb damage and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). I review protocols that leverage the lymphatic and nervous system to accelerate pain relief and healing in a variety of situations. Other topics discussed include how heat versus cold impacts neurons and wounds, red-light, sunlight, stem cells and more.  For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction/Avenues for Support (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:04:58) Deliberate Unlearning (00:06:43) Pain, Injury and Regeneration (00:09:17) A System of Touch (Somatosensation) (00:11:42) Pain and Injury are Dissociable (00:15:19) Objective versus Subjective Control of Experience (00:16:15) Plasticity of Perception (00:16:41) Lack of Pain Is Self-Destructive; So Is Excessive Pain (00:18:42) Homoculous, Ratonculous, Dogunculus (00:19:05) “Sensitivity” explained (00:21:30) Inflammation (00:22:24) Phantom Limb Pain (00:24:00) Top-down Relief of Pain by Vision (00:26:41) From Deaf to Hearing Sounds (00:28:10) Pain Is In The Mind & Body (00:29:44) Recovering Movement Faster After Injury (00:35:00) Don’t Over Compensate (00:37:34) Concussion, TBI & Brain Ageing (00:40:49) The Brain’s Sewage Treatment System: Glymphatic Clearance (00:43:05) Body Position & Angle During Sleep (00:44:30) Types of Exercise For Restoring & Maintaining Brain Health (00:47:33) Ambulance Cells in The Brain (00:49:20) True Pain Control by Belief and Context (00:51:45) Romantic Love and Pain (00:55:05) Dopaminergic Control of Pain (00:57:15) Acupuncture: Rigorous Scientific Assessment (01:07:32) Vagus Activation and Autonomic Control of Pain (01:08:30) Inflammation, Turmeric, Lead and DHT (01:11:40) Adrenalin: Wim Hof, Tummo, “Super-Oxygenation” Breathing (01:14:53) Protocols For Accelerating Tissue Repair & Managing Pain (01:17:55) Ice Is Not Always Nice (For Pain and Injury): Sludging, Fascia, Etc. (01:22:02) Chronic and/or Whole Body Pain; Red-Light Therapy, Sunlight (01:26:10) Glymphatics and Sleep (01:26:29) Stem Cells, Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP: Shams, Shoulds and Should Nots (01:31:38) Young Blood: Actual Science (01:35:44) Synthesis, Support & Resources Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
3/1/20211 hour, 35 minutes, 24 seconds
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Optimize Your Brain with Science-based Tools

In this episode, I describe how to access focused learning bouts, creative states, and the underlying neural circuitry involved. I frame this in the context of our daily 24-hour cycle in order to make it practical, clear and precise about timing. I review the role of fasting, meal timing and specific types of nutrients for promoting certain states of mind. I also review various other tools and biological factors that directly or indirectly gate brain function and that we can control. I answer commonly asked questions about the science of psychedelics, binaural beats, and visualization. Thank you for your interest in science! For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:30) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:04:53) The Daily (Learning) Routine (00:07:13) Plasticity Is NOT the Goal (00:09:26) No Obligation To Change (00:09:59) Practical Plasticity Language (00:13:37) Pillars of Neuroplasticity (00:15:16) My Daily Routine: Chronotype Management (00:17:20) Plasticity of the Wake-Sleep Circuit: Morning Light (00:19:09) Delay Caffeine! (00:21:19) Light, Black Coffee, Hydrate (00:22:57) High Alertness, Linear Tasks/Learning (00:25:12) Background Music/Noise: Yay or Nay? (00:26:52) “GO” versus “NO-GO”: The Basal Ganglia & Dopamine (00:28:37) Leveraging GO, NO-GO (00:30:08) Non-Specific Action (00:32:06) Clear, Calm, Focused: The GO, NO-GO Sweet Spot (00:33:48) When Very Alert, Work In Silence; When Tired, Include Background Noise (00:35:28) Temperaments Vary: And So Should This (00:36:01) The 3 Hour-Long Post Waking Block (00:36:20) Early Morning Exercise and GO Networks (00:38:05) Fasting, Ketogenic Diets, & Food Volume (00:39:41) Sodium/Electrolytes (00:40:57) Avoiding Hot Lunch, Food Pre-Occupation (00:42:01) Post Lunch Low/No Cognitive Load (00:42:56) Hydration, NSDR, Nap (00:44:54) Creativity Work (00:46:26) Creativity Is A Two-Part Phenomenon (00:51:15) Psychedelics (00:58:20) Afternoon Light As Insurance (01:00:26) Evening Nutrition (01:01:21) Repacking Glycogen: Hormonal Factors (01:04:11) Pre-Sleep Anxiety: Normal and Easy To Solve (01:07:08) The Power of Objective Tools (01:08:14) Visualization (01:11:34) Mini-Synthesis (01:13:31) Resetting Your Clock (01:15:55) Don’t Trust the Mind Now (01:16:59) Two, (Maybe 3) Optimization Bouts Per Day (01:18:33) Organizational Logic (01:20:22) Wim Hof Breathing, Binaural Beats, Ice Baths, Etc. (01:24:42) Variation Among People, and Dogs (01:25:49) Accurate Versus Exhaustive (01:27:57) Familiar and New Ways To Support Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/22/20211 hour, 27 minutes
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How to Learn Faster by Using Failures, Movement & Balance

In this episode, I discuss how we can use specific types of behavior to change our brain, both for sake of learning the movements themselves and for allowing us to learn non-movement-based information as well. I describe the key role that errors play in triggering our brains to change and how the vestibular (balance) system can activate and amplify neuroplasticity. As always, I cover science and science-based practical tools. Thank you in advance for your questions and for your interest in science! For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:29) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:20) Nerves and Muscles (00:12:00) Exercise alone won’t change your brain (00:12:58) Behavior will change your brain (00:13:30) Remembering the wrong things (00:15:00) Behavior as the gate to plasticity (00:15:45) Types of Plasticity (00:17:32) Errors Not Flow Trigger Plasticity (00:21:30) Mechanisms of Plasticity (00:22:30) What to learn when you are young (00:23:50) Alignment of your brain maps: neuron sandwiches 00:26:00: Wearing Prisms On Your Face (00:29:10) The KEY Trigger Plasticity (00:32:20) Frustration Is the Feeling to Follow (Further into Learning) (00:33:10) Incremental Learning (00:35:30) Huberman Free Throws (00:38:50) Failure Specificity Triggers Specific Plastic Changes (00:40:20) Triggering Rapid, Massive Plasticity Made Possible (00:43:25) Addiction (00:45:25) An Example of Ultradian-Incremental Learning 00:49:42: Bad Events (00:51:55) Surprise! (00:52:00) Making Dopamine Work For You (Not The Other Way Around) (00:53:20) HOW to release dopamine (00:55:00) (Mental) Performance Enhancing Drugs (00:56:00) Timing Your Learning (00:57:36) (Chem)Trails of Neuroplasticity (00:58:57) The Three Key Levers To Accelerate Plasticity (00:59:15) Limbic Friction: Finding Clear, Calm and Focused (01:04:25) The First Question To Ask Yourself Before Learning (01:05:00) Balance (01:07:45) Cerebellum (01:10:00) Flow States Are Not The Path To Learning (01:11:18) Novelty and Instability Are Key (01:14:55) How to Arrive At Learning (01:15:45) The Other Reason Kids Learn Faster Than Adults (01:19:25) Learning French and Other Things Faster (01:22:00) Yoga versus Science (01:32:00) Closing Remarks Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/15/20211 hour, 25 minutes, 19 seconds
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How to Focus to Change Your Brain

This episode introduces neuroplasticity—which is how our brain and nervous system learn and acquire new capabilities. I describe the differences between childhood and adult neuroplasticity, the chemicals involved and how anyone can increase their rate and depth of learning by leveraging the science of focus. I describe specific tools for increasing focus and learning. The next two episodes will cover the ideal protocols for specific types of learning and how to make learning new information more reflexive. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:32) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:03:50) Plasticity: What Is it, & What Is It For? (00:06:30) Babies and Potato Bugs (00:08:00) Customizing Your Brain (00:08:50) Hard-Wired Versus Plastic Brains (00:10:25) Everything Changes At 25 (00:12:29) Costello and Your Hearing (00:13:10) The New Neuron Myth (00:14:10) Anosmia: Losing Smell (00:15:13) Neuronal Birthdays Near Our Death Day (00:16:45) Circumstances for Brain Change (00:17:21) Brain Space (00:18:30) No Nose, Eyes, Or Ears (00:19:30) Enhanced Hearing and Touch In The Blind (00:20:20) Brain Maps of The Body Plan (00:21:00) The Kennard Principle (Margaret Kennard) (00:21:36) Maps of Meaning (00:23:00) Awareness Cues Brain Change (00:25:20) The Chemistry of Change (00:26:15) A Giant Lie In The Universe 00:27:10) Fathers of Neuroplasticity/Critical Periods 00:29:30) Competition Is The Route to Plasticity 00:32:30) Correcting The Errors of History 00:33:29) Adult Brain Change: Bumps and Beeps (00:36:25) What It Takes to Learn (00:38:15) Adrenalin and Alertness (00:40:18) The Acetylcholine Spotlight (00:42:26) The Chemical Trio For Massive Brain Change (00:44:10) Ways To Change Your Brain (00:46:16) Love, Hate, & Shame: all the same chemical (00:47:30) The Dopamine Trap (00:49:40) Nicotine for Focus (00:52:30) Sprinting (00:53:30) How to Focus (00:55:22) Adderall: Use & Abuse (00:56:40) Seeing Your Way To Mental Focus (01:02:59) Blinking (01:05:30) And Ear Toward Learning (01:06:14) The Best Listeners In The World (01:07:20) Agitation is Key (01:07:40) ADHD & ADD: Attention Deficit (Hyperactivity) Disorder (01:12:00) Ultra(dian) Focus (01:13:30) When Real Change Occurs (01:16:20) How Much Learning Is Enough? (01:16:50) Learning In (Optic) Flow/Mind Drift (01:18:16) Synthesis/Summary (01:25:15) Learning With Repetition, Forming Habits As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/8/20211 hour, 27 minutes, 43 seconds
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Understanding and Using Dreams to Learn and to Forget

This episode is all about the two major kinds of dreams and the sorts of learning and unlearning they are used for. I discuss REM-associated dreams that control emotional learning and their similarity to various trauma treatments such as ketamine and EMDR. I also discuss Non-REM dreams and their role in motor learning and learning of detailed, non-emotionally-laden information. I relate this to science-backed tools for accessing more of the types of sleep and learning people may want. Other topics are listed in the time stamps below. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:30) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:03:00) The Dream Mask (00:06:00) Cycling Sleep (00:08:10) Chemical Cocktails of Sleep (00:13:00) Motor Learning (00:16:30) High Performance with Less Sleep (00:17:45) Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (00:20:30) Paralysis & Hallucinations (00:23:35) Nightmares (00:24:45) When REM & Waking Collide (00:25:00) Sleeping While Awake (00:26:45) Alien Abductions (00:29:00) Irritability (00:30:00) Sleep to Delete (00:32:25) Creating Meaning (00:34:10) Adults Acting Like Children (00:36:20) Trauma & REM (00:37:15) EMDR (00:39:10) Demo (00:44:25) Ketamine / PCP (00:45:45) Soup, Explosions, & NMDA (00:48:55) Self Therapy (00:50:30) Note About Hormones (00:51:40) Measuring REM / SWS (00:53:15) Sleep Consistency (00:56:00) Bed Wetting (00:58:00) Serotonin (00:59:00) Increasing SWS (00:59:50) Lucidity (01:02:15) Booze / Weed (01:03:50) Scripting Dreams (01:04:35) Theory of Mind (01:07:55) Synthesis (01:10:00) Intermittent Sleep Deprivation (01:11:10) Snoring Disclaimer (01:11:40) New Topic (01:15:50) Corrections (01:17:25) Closing Remarks As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
2/1/20211 hour, 16 minutes, 48 seconds
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Find Your "Temperature Minimum" to Defeat Jetlag, Shift Work & Sleeplessness

In this episode, I discuss a simple and reliable measurement called your "temperature minimum" that you can use to rapidly adjust to new time zones when traveling and to offset the bad effects of nocturnal shift work. I also discuss tools for adjusting sleep and waking rhythms in babies, teens, new parents and the elderly. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:30) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:04:15) The bedrock of sleep-rest cycles (00:07:05) Night owls and morning larks (00:08:22) “The perfect schedule” (00:11:04) The 100K Lux per morning goal (00:15:15) Keeping your biological clock set (00:16:15) Reset your cortisol (00:21:22) Jetlag, death and lifespan (00:23:00) Going East versus West (00:28:45) The key to clock control (00:31:01) Your Temperature Minimum (00:36:30) Temperature and Exercise (00:41:20) Eating (00:42:50) Go West (00:44:15) Pineal myths and realities (00:51:13) The Heat-Cold Paradox (00:53:45) Staying on track (00:55:30) Nightshades (00:57:00) Emergency resets (00:57:30) Psychosis by light (00:58:05) Shift work (01:02:40) The Temperature-Light Rule (01:04:20) Up all night: watch the sunrise? (01:06:45) Error correction is good (01:08:20) NSDR protocols/implementation (01:10:44) The frog skin in your eye (not a joke) (01:16:39) Why stress turns your hair white (01:17:24) Ovaries or testes? (01:18:25) Babies and bright light (01:21:40) Polyphasic sleep (01:25:25) Ultradian cycles in children (01:27:38) Teens and puberty (01:29:50) Light before waking for better sleep (01:31:20) Older people and circadian rhythms (01:33:48) Sleepy Supplements (01:42:00) Red Pills & Acupuncture (01:43:50) Highlights (01:48:30) Feedback and Support As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/25/20211 hour, 49 minutes, 22 seconds
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Using Science to Optimize Sleep, Learning & Metabolism

“Office Hours” — In this episode, I answer your most commonly asked questions about science-supported tools for accessing more alertness, better learning, and quality sleep. I also cover when to exercise, time meals, and how to systematically vary your temperature to achieve specific effects on your nervous system. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:00:31) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:05:50) Moonlight & Fire (09:25:00) Red Light: Good & Bad (00:15:45) Why Blue-Blockers Are Unscientific (00:19:20) Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses & Windows (00:22:05) Adding Up Your Lights (00:24:30) “Netflix Inoculation” With Light (00:25:25) How The Planet Controls Your Energy (00:27:00) A Season For Breeding (?) (00:31:15) Melatonin / Serotonin (00:33:50) Epinephrine vs Adrenaline: Same? Different? (00:35:00) Exercise & Your Sleep (00:40:30) Neuroplasticity & Food/Chemicals/NSDR (00:44:10) Using Sound & Smell To Learn Faster (00:46:45) Dream Meaning & Remembering (00:48:15) Waking Up Paralyzed (00:49:40) Nap/Focus Ratios For Accelerated Learning (00:52:45) Hypnotizing Yourself (00:54:05) Smart Drugs (01:01:10) Magnesium: Yay, Nay, or Meh? (01:02:10) How Apigenin Works (01:04:30) Serotonin: Slippery Slope (01:05:35) The Frog Experiment (01:08:35) Temperature (01:10:30) Morning Chills (01:28:00) Eating For Heating (01:30:30) Vagal Pathways For Gut-Brain Dialogue (01:31:50) Sex Differences (01:33:50) Self Experimentation As always, thank you for your interest in science! Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/18/20211 hour, 41 minutes, 7 seconds
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Master Your Sleep & Be More Alert When Awake

Today's episode provides a host of information on what makes us sleepy, sleep soundly, and feel awake and alert. It covers a broad range of tools for anyone wishing to improve their sleep and wakeful state. The science and logic for each tool are described. For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:01:23) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:06:54) What Is Sleep Really For? (00:09:33) Sleep Hunger (00:11:09) Caffeine: Devil & Angel (00:15:34) Timing Your Sleep Properly (00:17:30) Release Your Hormones (At The Right Times) (00:18:45) (Pineal) Melatonin Waring (00:24:30) Strange Vision Is Good Vision (00:32:50) Blue Light Is Great! (00:37:00) The Real Problem With Smartphones (00:38:30) Blind / Low Vision People (00:39:45) Using Exercise & Food To Set Your Clock (00:42:00) The Power of Sunset (00:45:43) The Healthy Holes In Your Skull (00:48:15) Bad Light (00:51:11) Light Location (00:53:00) Fire / Candlelight (00:54:00) When To Eat (00:54:40) How To Wake Up Earlier (01:08:00) Using The Body To Control The Mind (01:10:00) Drugs & Supplements (01:18:00) Sleep Walking (01:20:00) Office Hours Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer
1/11/20211 hour, 21 minutes, 31 seconds
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How Your Brain Works & Changes

Today’s episode provides an introduction to how the nervous system works to create sensations, perceptions, emotions, thoughts and behaviors, as well as how we can change our nervous system—a phenomenon known as neuroplasticity. The information sets the stage for all Huberman Lab podcast episodes that follow by covering neurons, synapses, brain chemicals and the rhythms that control our ability to focus, learn and sleep… and more. Thank you for your interest in science. We'll see you next week! For the full show notes, visit hubermanlab.com. Thank you to our sponsors AG1 (Athletic Greens): https://athleticgreens.com/huberman LMNT: https://drinklmnt.com/huberman Thesis: https://takethesis.com/huberman Supplements from Momentous https://www.livemomentous.com/huberman Timestamps (00:00:00) Introduction (00:02:25) Sponsors: AG1, LMNT, Thesis, Momentous (00:07:57) What is the Nervous System (00:7:25) Deja Vu (00:08:09) How War, Guns & Soap Shaped Our Understanding of the Brain (00:10:47) Jennifer Aniston Neurons (00:11:58) Sensations (00:13:30) Magnetic Sensing & Mating (00:14:51) Perceptions & The Spotlight of Attention (00:16:33) Multi-Tasking Is Real (00:17:45) Bottom-Up vs. Top-Down Control of Behavior (00:18:38) Focusing the Mind (00:21:47) Antidepressants (00:25:01) Thoughts & Thought Control (00:25:56) Actions (00:30:40) How We Control Our Impulses (00:33:44) Neuroplasticity: The Holy Grail of Neuroscience (00:38:34) The Portal to Neuroplasticity (00:43:53) Accelerating Learning in Sleep (00:47:29) The Pillar of Plasticity (00:52:22) Leveraging Ultradian Cycles & Self Experimentation (00:57:17) Summary (00:58:03) Zero-Cost Support, Feedback, Reviews Title Card Photo Credit: Mike Blabac Disclaimer