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Emergency Medical Minute Profile

Emergency Medical Minute

English, Health / Medicine, 1 season, 1055 episodes, 5 days, 21 hours, 39 minutes
About
Our near daily podcasts move quickly to reflect current events, are inspired by real patient care, and speak to the true nature of what it’s like to work in the Emergency Room or Pre-Hospital Setting. Each medical minute is recorded in a real emergency department, by the emergency physician or clinical pharmacist on duty – the ER is our studio and everything is live.
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Episode 908: Sympathomimetic Drugs

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls: Overview: Sympathomimetic drugs mimic the fight or flight response, affecting monoamines such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine Limited therapeutic use, often abused. Types: Amphetamines: Methamphetamine, Adderall, Ritalin, Vyvanse MDMA (Ecstasy) Cocaine (Both hydrochloride salt & free based crack cocaine) Theophylline (Asthma treatment) Ephedrine (For low blood pressure) BZP, Oxymetazoline (Afrin), Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed) MAO Inhibitors (treatment-resistant depression) Mechanisms: Act on adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors. Cocaine blocks dopamine and serotonin reuptake. Methamphetamines increase stimulatory neurotransmitter release MAO Inhibitors prevent neurotransmitter breakdown. Symptoms: Agitation, tachycardia, hypertension, hyperactive bowel sounds, diuresis, hyperthermia. Severe cases: Angina, seizures, cardiovascular collapse. Diagnosis: Clinical examination and history. Differentiate from anticholinergic toxidrome by diaphoresis and hyperactive bowel sounds. Tests: EKG, cardiac biomarkers, chest X-ray, blood gas, BMP, CK, coagulation studies, U-tox screen. Treatment: Stabilize ABCs, IV hydration, temperature monitoring, benzodiazepines. Avoid beta-blockers due to unopposed alpha agonism. Whole bowel irrigation for body packers; surgical removal if packets rupture. IV hydration for high CK levels. Observation period often necessary. Recap: Mimic sympathetic nervous system. Key symptoms: Diaphoresis, hyperactive bowel sounds. Treatment: Supportive care, benzodiazepines. Use poison control as a resource. References: Costa VM, Grazziotin Rossato Grando L, Milandri E, Nardi J, Teixeira P, Mladěnka P, Remião F. Natural Sympathomimetic Drugs: From Pharmacology to Toxicology. Biomolecules. 2022;12(12):1793. doi:10.3390/biom12121793 Kolecki P. Sympathomimetic Toxicity From Emergency Medicine. Medscape. Updated March 11, 2024. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/818583-overview Williams RH, Erickson T, Broussard LA. Evaluating Sympathomimetic Intoxication in an Emergency Setting. Lab Med. 2000;31(9):497-508. https://doi.org/10.1309/WVX1-6FPV-E2LC-B6YG Summarized by Steven Fujaros | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSIII  
6/17/20247 minutes, 54 seconds
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Episode 907: Wide-Complex Tachycardia

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Wide-complex tachycardia is defined as a heart rate > 100 BPM with a QRS width > 120 milliseconds Wide-complex tachycardia of supraventricular origin is known as SVT with aberrancy Aberrancy is due to bundle branch blocks Mostly benign Treated with adenosine or diltiazem Wide-complex tachycardia of ventricular origin is also known as VTach Originates from ventricular myocytes, which are poor inherent pacemakers Dangerous rhythm that can lead to death Treated with amiodarone or lidocaine 80% of wide-complex tachycardias are VTach 90% likelihood for patients with a history of coronary artery disease In assessing a wide-complex tachycardia, it is best to treat it as a presumed ventricular tachycardia Treating SVT with amiodarone or lidocaine does no harm  However, treating VTach with adenosine or diltiazem may worsen the condition References 1. Littmann L, Olson EG, Gibbs MA. Initial evaluation and management of wide-complex tachycardia: A simplified and practical approach. Am J Emerg Med. 2019;37(7):1340-1345. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.04.027 2. Viskin S, Chorin E, Viskin D, Hochstadt A, Schwartz AL, Rosso R. Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia: Terminology, Mechanism, Diagnosis, and Emergency Therapy. Circulation. 2021;144(10):823-839. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.055783 3. Williams SE, O’Neill M, Kotadia ID. Supraventricular tachycardia: An overview of diagnosis and management. Clin Med J R Coll Physicians London. 2020;20(1):43-47. doi:10.7861/clinmed.cme.20.1.3 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSIII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit
6/12/20243 minutes, 46 seconds
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Episode 906: Case Study of Hypernatremia

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: The case: A gentleman came in from a nursing home with symptoms concerning for sepsis. He was hypotensive, hypoxic, febrile, and mentally altered. His past medical history included previous strokes which had left him with deficits for which he required a feeding tube. Initial workup included some point of care labs which revealed a sodium of 165 mEq/L (normal range 135-145) Hypernatremia What causes it? Dehydration, from insufficient fluid intake. This might happen in individuals who cannot drink water independently, such as infants, elderly, or disabled people, as was the case for this patient. Other causes of dehydration/hypernatremia include excessive sweating; diabetes insipidus; diuretic use; kidney dysfunction; and severe burns which can lead to fluid loss through the damaged skin. How do you correct it? Need to correct slowly, not more than 10 to 12 meq/L in 24 hours Can do normal saline (0.9%) or half saline (0.45%) and D5, at 150-200 mL per hour. Check the sodium frequently (every 2-3 hours) Will likely need ICU-level monitoring What happens if you correct it too quickly? Cerebral edema Seizures Bonus fact: Correction of hyponatremia too quickly causes osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). References Chauhan, K., Pattharanitima, P., Patel, N., Duffy, A., Saha, A., Chaudhary, K., Debnath, N., Van Vleck, T., Chan, L., Nadkarni, G. N., & Coca, S. G. (2019). Rate of Correction of Hypernatremia and Health Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients. Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN, 14(5), 656–663. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.10640918 Lindner, G., & Funk, G. C. (2013). Hypernatremia in critically ill patients. Journal of critical care, 28(2), 216.e11–216.e2.16E20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2012.05.001 Muhsin, S. A., & Mount, D. B. (2016). Diagnosis and treatment of hypernatremia. Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism, 30(2), 189–203. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2016.02.014 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSIII
6/3/20243 minutes, 46 seconds
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Episode 905: Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) for Influenza

Contributor: Aaron Lessem MD Educational Pearls:  Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) is an antiviral medication used commonly to treat influenza Trials show that the medication reduces the duration of illness by less than 1 day (~16 hours in one systematic review) Benefit only occurs if taken within 48 hours of symptom onset Must be taken for 5 days A 2024 meta-analysis reviewed 15 randomized-controlled trials for the risk of hospitalization No reduction in hospitalizations with oseltamivir in patients over the age of 12 No difference in high-risk patients over the age of 65 or those with comorbidities The authors note that the confidence interval in these populations is wide, indicating a need for subsequent studies in high-risk populations Oseltamivir is associated with adverse effects including nausea, vomiting, and neurologic symptoms The risk of adverse effects may outweigh the benefits of a small reduction in the duration of illness References 1. Hanula R, Bortolussi-Courval É, Mendel A, Ward BJ, Lee TC, McDonald EG. Evaluation of Oseltamivir Used to Prevent Hospitalization in Outpatients with Influenza: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2024;184(1):18-27. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.0699 2. Jefferson T, Jones M, Doshi P, Spencer EA, Onakpoya I, Heneghan CJ. Oseltamivir for influenza in adults and children: Systematic review of clinical study reports and summary of regulatory comments. BMJ. 2014;348(April):1-18. doi:10.1136/bmj.g2545 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
5/27/20242 minutes, 37 seconds
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Episode 904: Cardiovascular Risks of Epinephrine

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Epinephrine is essential in the treatment of anaphylaxis, but is epinephrine dangerous from a cardiovascular perspective? A 2024 study in the Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians Open sought to answer this question. Methods: Retrospective observational study at a Tennessee quaternary care academic ED that analyzed ED visits from 2017 to 2021 involving anaphylaxis treated with IM epinephrine. The primary outcome was cardiotoxicity Results: Out of 338 patients, 16 (4.7%) experienced cardiotoxicity. Events included ischemic EKG changes (2.4%), elevated troponin (1.8%), atrial arrhythmias (1.5%), ventricular arrhythmia (0.3%), and depressed ejection fraction (0.3%). Affected patients were older, had more comorbidities, and often received multiple epinephrine doses. Bottom line: All adults presenting with anaphylaxis should be rapidly treated with epinephrine but monitored closely for cardiotoxicity, especially in patients with a history of hypertension and those who receive multiple doses. These results are supported by a 2017 study that found that 9% (4/44) of older patients who received epinephrine for anaphylaxis had cardiovascular complications. References Kawano, T., Scheuermeyer, F. X., Stenstrom, R., Rowe, B. H., Grafstein, E., & Grunau, B. (2017). Epinephrine use in older patients with anaphylaxis: Clinical outcomes and cardiovascular complications. Resuscitation, 112, 53–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.12.020 Pauw, E. K., Stubblefield, W. B., Wrenn, J. O., Brown, S. K., Cosse, M. S., Curry, Z. S., Darcy, T. P., James, T. E., Koetter, P. E., Nicholson, C. E., Parisi, F. N., Shepherd, L. G., Soppet, S. L., Stocker, M. D., Walston, B. M., Self, W. H., Han, J. H., & Ward, M. J. (2024). Frequency of cardiotoxicity following intramuscular administration of epinephrine in emergency department patients with anaphylaxis. Journal of the American College of Emergency Physicians open, 5(1), e13095. https://doi.org/10.1002/emp2.13095 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit OMS II
5/20/20242 minutes, 11 seconds
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Episode 903: Treating Precipitated Opioid Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Opioid overdoses that are reversed with naloxone (Narcan), a mu-opioid antagonist, can precipitate acute withdrawal in some patients Treatment of opioid use disorder with buprenorphine can also precipitate withdrawal Opioid withdrawal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and agitation Buprenorphine works as a partial agonist at mu-opioid receptors, which may alleviate withdrawal symptoms The preferred dose of buprenorphine is 16 mg Treatment of buprenorphine-induced opioid withdrawal is additional buprenorphine Adjunctive treatments may be used for other opioid withdrawal symptoms Nausea with ondansetron Diarrhea with loperamide Agitation with hydroxyzine References 1. Quattlebaum THN, Kiyokawa M, Murata KA. A case of buprenorphine-precipitated withdrawal managed with high-dose buprenorphine. Fam Pract. 2022;39(2):292-294. doi:10.1093/fampra/cmab073 2. Spadaro A, Long B, Koyfman A, Perrone J. Buprenorphine precipitated opioid withdrawal: Prevention and management in the ED setting. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;58:22-26. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2022.05.013 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
5/13/20242 minutes, 47 seconds
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Episode 902: Liver Failure and Cirrhosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: How do you differentiate between compensated and decompensated cirrhosis? Use the acronym VIBE to look for signs of being decompensated. V-Volume Cirrhosis can cause volume overload through a variety of mechanisms such as by increasing pressure in the portal vein system and the decreased production of albumin. Look for pulmonary edema (dyspnea, orthopnea, wheezing/crackles, coughing up frothy pink sputum, etc.) or a tense abdomen. I-Infection The ascitic fluid can become infected with bacteria, a complication called Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP). Look for abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and tachycardia. Diagnosis is made with ascitic fluid cell analyses (polymorphonuclear neutrophils >250/mm3) B-Bleeding Another consequence of increased portal pressure is that blood backs up into smaller blood vessels, including those in the esophagus. Over time, this increased pressure can result in the development of dilated, fragile veins called esophageal varices, which are prone to bleeding. Look for hematemesis, melena, lightheadedness, and pale skin. E-Encephalopathy A failing liver also does not clear toxins which can affect the brain. Look for asterixis (flapping motion of the hands when you tell the patient to hold their hands up like they are going to stop a bus) Other complications to look out for. Hepatorenal syndrome Hepatopulmonary syndrome References Engelmann, C., Clària, J., Szabo, G., Bosch, J., & Bernardi, M. (2021). Pathophysiology of decompensated cirrhosis: Portal hypertension, circulatory dysfunction, inflammation, metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction. Journal of hepatology, 75 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), S49–S66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.01.002 Enomoto, H., Inoue, S., Matsuhisa, A., & Nishiguchi, S. (2014). Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and an in situ hybridization approach to detect an "unidentified" pathogen. International journal of hepatology, 2014, 634617. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/634617 Mansour, D., & McPherson, S. (2018). Management of decompensated cirrhosis. Clinical medicine (London, England), 18(Suppl 2), s60–s65. https://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.18-2-s60 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMS II  
5/6/20243 minutes, 13 seconds
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Episode 901: Underdosing in Status Epilepticus

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Lorazepam (Ativan) is dosed at 0.1 mg/kg up to a maximum of 4 mg in status epilepticus Some ED protocols only give 2 mg initially The maximum recommended dose of levetiracetam (Keppra) is 60 mg/kg or 4.5 g In one retrospective study, only 50% of patients received the correct dose of lorazepam For levetiracetam, it was only 35% of patients Underdosing leads to complications Higher rates of intubations More likely to progress to refractory status epilepticus References 1. Cetnarowski A, Cunningham B, Mullen C, Fowler M. Evaluation of intravenous lorazepam dosing strategies and the incidence of refractory status epilepticus. Epilepsy Res. 2023;190(November 2022):107067. doi:10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2022.107067 2. Sathe AG, Tillman H, Coles LD, et al. Underdosing of Benzodiazepines in Patients With Status Epilepticus Enrolled in Established Status Epilepticus Treatment Trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2019;26(8):940-943. doi:10.1111/acem.13811 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
4/29/20242 minutes, 43 seconds
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Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence that a lower dose of 0.1-0.15 mg/kg can be just as effective. Dissociative dose To use ketamine as an induction agent for intubation or for procedural sedation administer 1 mg/kg IV over 1-2 minutes. IM for acute agitation If a patient is out of control and a danger to themselves or others, administer 3 mg/kg intramuscularly (max 500 mg). If you are giving IM ketamine it has to be in the concentrated 100 mg/ml vial. Additional pearls Pushing ketamine too quickly can cause laryngospasm. Between .3 and 1 mg/kg is known as the recreational dose. You want to avoid this range because this is where ketamine starts to pick up its dissociative effects and can cause unpleasant and intense hallucinations. This is colloquially known as being in the “k-hole”. References Gao, M., Rejaei, D., & Liu, H. (2016). Ketamine use in current clinical practice. Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 37(7), 865–872. https://doi.org/10.1038/aps.2016.5 Lin, J., Figuerado, Y., Montgomery, A., Lee, J., Cannis, M., Norton, V. C., Calvo, R., & Sikand, H. (2021). Efficacy of ketamine for initial control of acute agitation in the emergency department: A randomized study. The American journal of emergency medicine, 44, 306–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.013 Stirling, J., & McCoy, L. (2010). Quantifying the psychological effects of ketamine: from euphoria to the k-Hole. Substance use & misuse, 45(14), 2428–2443. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826081003793912 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMS II
4/22/20242 minutes, 35 seconds
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Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin will reliably increase the INR Current use of Direct thrombin inhibitor or Factor Xa inhibitor  aPTT/PT/INR are insufficient to assess the degree of anticoagulant effect of Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto)  Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months Intracranial neoplasms or arteriovenous malformations also increase the risk of bleeding Current intracranial or subarachnoid hemorrhage History of intracranial hemorrhage from thrombolytic therapy also contraindicates tPA/TNK Recent (within 21 days) or active gastrointestinal bleed Hypertension BP >185 systolic or >110 diastolic Administer labetalol before thrombolytics to lower blood pressure Timing of symptoms Onset > 4.5 hours contraindicates tPA Platelet count BGL Potential alternative explanation for stroke-like symptoms obviating need for thrombolytics References 1. Fugate JE, Rabinstein AA. Absolute and Relative Contraindications to IV rt-PA for Acute Ischemic Stroke. The Neurohospitalist. 2015;5(3):110-121. doi:10.1177/1941874415578532 2. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke a Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Vol 50.; 2019. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000211 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Jorge Chalit
4/15/20243 minutes, 51 seconds
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Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The stress can lead to a surge of catecholamines which affects the heart (multivessel spasm/paralysed myocardium). The name "Takotsubo" comes from the Japanese term for a type of octopus trap, as the left ventricle takes on a distinctive shape resembling this trap during systole. The LV is dilated and part of the wall becomes akenetic. These changes can be seen on ultrasound. The population most at risk for Takotsubo are post-menopausal women. Coronary angiography is one of the only ways to differentiate Takotsubo from other acute coronary syndromes. Most people with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy recover fully. References Amin, H. Z., Amin, L. Z., & Pradipta, A. (2020). Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Brief Review. Journal of medicine and life, 13(1), 3–7. https://doi.org/10.25122/jml-2018-0067 Bossone, E., Savarese, G., Ferrara, F., Citro, R., Mosca, S., Musella, F., Limongelli, G., Manfredini, R., Cittadini, A., & Perrone Filardi, P. (2013). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: overview. Heart failure clinics, 9(2), 249–x. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hfc.2012.12.015 Dawson D. K. (2018). Acute stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy. Heart (British Cardiac Society), 104(2), 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311579 Kida, K., Akashi, Y. J., Fazio, G., & Novo, S. (2010). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Current pharmaceutical design, 16(26), 2910–2917. https://doi.org/10.2174/138161210793176509 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII
4/10/20243 minutes, 44 seconds
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Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison's Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs) at the renal tubules Water follows sodium and generates a hypovolemic state Glucocorticoid deficiency contributes further to hypotension and hyponatremia Decreased vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II Increased secretion of vasopressin (ADH) from the posterior pituitary An adrenal crisis is defined as a sudden worsening of adrenal insufficiency Presents with non-specific symptoms including nausea, vomiting, fatigue, confusion, and fevers Fevers may be the result of underlying infection Work-up in the ED includes labs looking for infection and adding cortisol + ACTH levels Emergent treatment is required 100 mg hydrocortisone bolus followed by 50 mg every 6 hours Immediate IV fluid repletion with 1L normal saline The most common cause of an adrenal crisis is an acute infection in patients with baseline adrenal insufficiency Often due to a gastrointestinal infection References 1. Bancos I, Hahner S, Tomlinson J, Arlt W. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(3):216-226. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70142-1 2. Bornstein SR, Allolio B, Arlt W, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(2):364-389. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-1710 3. Cronin CC, Callaghan N, Kearney PJ, Murnaghan DJ, Shanahan F. Addison disease in patients treated with glucocorticoid therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(4):456-458. 4. Feldman RD, Gros R. Vascular effects of aldosterone: sorting out the receptors and the ligands. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2013;40(12):916-921. doi:10.1111/1440-1681.12157 5. Hahner S, Loeffler M, Bleicken B, et al. Epidemiology of adrenal crisis in chronic adrenal insufficiency: the need for new prevention strategies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162(3):597-602. doi:10.1530/EJE-09-0884  Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
4/1/20244 minutes, 33 seconds
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Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism, stroke, superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, and cardiac tamponade. Metabolic Cancer can affect the metabolic system in a variety of ways. For example, certain cancers like bone cancers can stimulate the bones to release large amounts of calcium leading to hypercalcemia. Tumor lysis syndrome is another consideration in which either spontaneously or due to treatment, tumor cells will release large amounts of electrolytes into the bloodstream causing hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. Medication side effect Immunomodulators can have strange side effects. A common one to know is Keytruda (pembrolizumab), which can cause inflammation in any organ. So if you have a cancer patient on immunomodulators with any inflammatory changes (cystitis, colitis, pneumonitis, etc), talk to oncology about whether steroids are indicated. Chemotherapy can cause tumor lysis syndrome (see above), and multiple chemotherapeutics are known to cause heart failure (doxorubicin, trastuzumab), kidney failure (cisplatin), and pulmonary toxicity (bleomycin). References Campello, E., Ilich, A., Simioni, P., & Key, N. S. (2019). The relationship between pancreatic cancer and hypercoagulability: a comprehensive review on epidemiological and biological issues. British journal of cancer, 121(5), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0510-x Gyamfi, J., Kim, J., & Choi, J. (2022). Cancer as a Metabolic Disorder. International journal of molecular sciences, 23(3), 1155. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031155 Kwok, G., Yau, T. C., Chiu, J. W., Tse, E., & Kwong, Y. L. (2016). Pembrolizumab (Keytruda). Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 12(11), 2777–2789. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2016.1199310 Wang, S. J., Dougan, S. K., & Dougan, M. (2023). Immune mechanisms of toxicity from checkpoint inhibitors. Trends in cancer, 9(7), 543–553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2023.04.002 Zimmer, A. J., & Freifeld, A. G. (2019). Optimal Management of Neutropenic Fever in Patients With Cancer. Journal of oncology practice, 15(1), 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1200/JOP.18.00269 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
3/25/20242 minutes, 30 seconds
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Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics Hepatorenal syndrome Cirrhosis of the liver causes the release of endogenous vasodilators The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) fails systemically but maintains vasoconstriction at the kidneys, leading to decreased renal perfusion IV albumin expands plasma volume and prevents failure of the RAAS Large volume paracentesis Large-volume removal may lead to circulatory dysfunction IV albumin is associated with a reduced risk of paracentesis-associated circulatory dysfunction There are many other FDA-approved conditions for which to use exogenous albumin but the data are conflicted about the benefits on mortality References 1. Arroyo V, Fernandez J. Pathophysiological basis of albumin use in cirrhosis. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10(SUPPL. 1):S6-S14. doi:10.1016/s1665-2681(19)31600-x 2. Bai Z, Wang L, Wang R, et al. Use of human albumin infusion in cirrhotic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hepatol Int. 2022;16(6):1468-1483. doi:10.1007/s12072-022-10374-z 3. Batool S, Waheed MD, Vuthaluru K, et al. Efficacy of Intravenous Albumin for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Infection Among Patients With Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials. Cureus. 2022;14(12). doi:10.7759/cureus.33124 4. Kwok CS, Krupa L, Mahtani A, et al. Albumin reduces paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction and reduces death and renal impairment among patients with cirrhosis and infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013. doi:10.1155/2013/295153 5. Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, et al. Effect of Intravenous Albumin on Renal Impairment and Mortality in Patients with Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(6):403-409. Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
3/18/20242 minutes, 28 seconds
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Episode 894: DKA and HHS

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. This leads to increased metabolism of free fatty acids and the increased production of ketones. The buildup of ketones causes acidosis. The kidneys attempt to compensate for the acidosis by increasing diuresis. These patients present as dry and altered, with sweet-smelling breath and Kussmaul (fast and deep) respirations. HSS More common in type 2 diabetes. In this condition there is still enough circulating insulin to avoid the breakdown of fats for energy but not enough insulin to prevent hyperglycemia. Serum glucose levels are very high – around 600 to 1200 mg/dl. Also presents similarly to DKA with the patient being dry and altered. Important labs to monitor Serum glucose Potassium Phosphorus Magnesium Anion gap (Na - Cl - HCO3) Renal function (Creatinine and BUN) ABG/VBG for pH Urinalysis and urine ketones by dipstick Treatment Identify the cause, i.e. Has the patient stopped taking their insulin? Aggressive hydration with isotonic fluids. Normal Saline (NS) vs Lactated Ringers (LR)? LR might resolve the DKA/HHS faster with less risk of hypernatremia. Should you bolus with insulin? No, just start a drip. 0.1-0.14 units per kg of insulin. Make sure you have your potassium back before starting insulin as the insulin can shift the potassium into the cells and lead to dangerous hypokalemia. Should you treat hyponatremia? Make sure to correct for hyperglycemia before treating. This artificially depresses the sodium. Should you give bicarb? Replace if the pH Don’t intubate, if the patient is breathing fast it is because they are compensating for their acidosis. References Andrade-Castellanos, C. A., Colunga-Lozano, L. E., Delgado-Figueroa, N., & Gonzalez-Padilla, D. A. (2016). Subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues for diabetic ketoacidosis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2016(1), CD011281. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011281.pub2 Chaithongdi, N., Subauste, J. S., Koch, C. A., & Geraci, S. A. (2011). Diagnosis and management of hyperglycemic emergencies. Hormones (Athens, Greece), 10(4), 250–260. https://doi.org/10.14310/horm.2002.1316 Dhatariya, K. K., Glaser, N. S., Codner, E., & Umpierrez, G. E. (2020). Diabetic ketoacidosis. Nature reviews. Disease primers, 6(1), 40. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0165-1 Duhon, B., Attridge, R. L., Franco-Martinez, A. C., Maxwell, P. R., & Hughes, D. W. (2013). Intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy in severely acidotic diabetic ketoacidosis. The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 47(7-8), 970–975. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1S014 Modi, A., Agrawal, A., & Morgan, F. (2017). Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Review. Current diabetes reviews, 13(3), 315–321. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573399812666160421121307 Self, W. H., Evans, C. S., Jenkins, C. A., Brown, R. M., Casey, J. D., Collins, S. P., Coston, T. D., Felbinger, M., Flemmons, L. N., Hellervik, S. M., Lindsell, C. J., Liu, D., McCoin, N. S., Niswender, K. D., Slovis, C. M., Stollings, J. L., Wang, L., Rice, T. W., Semler, M. W., & Pragmatic Critical Care Research Group (2020). Clinical Effects of Balanced Crystalloids vs Saline in Adults With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Subgroup Analysis of Cluster Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA network open, 3(11), e2024596. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24596 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
3/11/20247 minutes, 45 seconds
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Episode 893: Home Treatments for Button Battery Ingestion

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Button batteries cause alkaline corrosion and erosion of the esophagus when swallowed Children swallow button batteries, which create a medical emergency as they can perforate the esophagus A recent study compared various home remedies as first-aid therapy for button battery ingestion Honey, jam, normal saline, Coca-Cola, orange juice, milk, and yogurt The study used a porcine esophageal model to assess resistance to alkalinization with the different home remedies Honey and jam demonstrated a significantly lower esophageal tissue pH compared with normal saline Histologic changes in the tissue samples appeared 60 minutes later with honey and jam compared with normal saline These treatments do not preclude medical intervention and battery removal References 1. Chiew AL, Lin CS, Nguyen DT, Sinclair FAW, Chan BS, Solinas A. Home Therapies to Neutralize Button Battery Injury in a Porcine Esophageal Model. Ann Emerg Med. 2023:1-9. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.08.018 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
3/4/20242 minutes, 34 seconds
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Episode 892: Tourniquets

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What can you do to control bleeding in a penetrating wound? Apply direct pinpoint pressure on the wound as well as proximal to the wound. Build a compression dressing. How do you build a compression dressing? Think about building an upside-down pyramid with the gauze. Consider coagulation agents such as an absorbent gelatin sponge material, microporous polysaccharide hemispheres, oxidized cellulose, fibrin sealants, topical thrombin, or tranexamic acid. What are the indications to use a tourniquet? The Stop The Bleed campaign recommends looking for the following features of “life-threatening” bleeding. Pulsatile bleeding. Blood is pooling on the ground. The overlying clothes are soaked. Bandages are ineffective. Partial or full amputation. And if the patient is in shock. How do you put on a tourniquet? If using a Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T) tourniquet, apply it proximal to the wound, then rotate the plastic rod until the bleeding stops. Then secure the plastic rod with a clip and make sure the Velcro is in place. Mark the time - generally, there is a spot on the tourniquet to write. Have a plan for the next steps. Does the patient need emergent surgery? Do they need to be transfered? How long can you leave a tourniquet on? Less than 90 minutes. What are the risks? Nerve injury. Ischemia. References Latina R, Iacorossi L, Fauci AJ, Biffi A, Castellini G, Coclite D, D'Angelo D, Gianola S, Mari V, Napoletano A, Porcu G, Ruggeri M, Iannone P, Chiara O, On Behalf Of Inih-Major Trauma. Effectiveness of Pre-Hospital Tourniquet in Emergency Patients with Major Trauma and Uncontrolled Haemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Dec 6;18(23):12861. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182312861. PMID: 34886586; PMCID: PMC8657739. Martinson J, Park H, Butler FK Jr, Hammesfahr R, DuBose JJ, Scalea TM. Tourniquets USA: A Review of the Current Literature for Commercially Available Alternative Tourniquets for Use in the Prehospital Civilian Environment. J Spec Oper Med. 2020 Summer;20(2):116-122. doi: 10.55460/CT9D-TMZE. PMID: 32573747. Resources poster booklet. (n.d.). Stop the Bleed. https://www.stopthebleed.org/resources-poster-booklet/ Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
2/27/20245 minutes, 7 seconds
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Pharmacy Phriday #11: Riddles, Medical Jargon, NNT, and Time Travel

Contributors: Kali Olson PharmD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode of Pharmacy Phriday, Dr. Kali Olson joins Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson in studio to discuss a variety of interesting topics in the form of a segment show. Dr. Kali Olson earned her Doctorate of Pharmacy from the University of Colorado, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and completed a PGY1 residency at Detroit Receiving Hospital and a PGY2 residency in Emergency Medicine at Denver Health. She now works as an Emergency Medicine Pharmacist at Denver Health.  In segment one of the show, Kali and Travis answer the Get-To-Know-You questionnaire. In segment two, they work together to answer a series of pharmacy-based riddles. In segment three they play a “Balderdash” like game in which they guess the definitions of medical jargon. In segment four they play the Number Needed to Treat game, invented by the AFP podcast. And in segment five they work together to answer a question about a far-out scenario involving medications and time travel!   References ·       American Family Physician Podcast, https://www.aafp.org/pubs/afp/multimedia/podcast.html ·       Gragnolati, A. (2022, May 5). The Yuzpe method of emergency contraception. GoodRx. https://www.goodrx.com/conditions/emergency-contraceptive/yuzpe-method ·       Manikandan S, Vani NI. Holiday reading: Learning medicine through riddles. CMAJ. 2010 Dec 14;182(18):E863-4. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.100466. PMID: 21149530; PMCID: PMC3001539. ·       Riddle Me This: Mixing Medicine, https://peimpact.com/riddle-me-this-mixing-medicine/ ·       https://thennt.com/nnt/corticosteroids-treatment-kawasaki-disease-children/ ·       https://thennt.com/nnt/aspirin-acute-ischemic-stroke/ ·       https://thennt.com/nnt/tranexamic-acid-treatment-epistaxis/ ·       https://thennt.com/nnt/antibiotics-culture%e2%80%90positive-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-pregnant-women/   Produced, Hosted, Edited, and Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Additional editing by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
2/23/202443 minutes, 28 seconds
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Episode 891: Hypothermia

Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature less than 35 degrees Celsius or less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit  Mild Hypothermia: 32-35 degrees Celsius Presentation: alert, shivering, tachycardic, and cold diuresis Management: Passive rewarming i.e. remove wet clothing and cover the patient with blankets or other insulation Moderate Hypothermia: 28-32 degrees Celsius Presentation: Drowsiness, lack of shivering, bradycardia, hypotension Management: Active external rewarming Severe Hypothermia: 24-28 degrees Celsius Presentation: Heart block, cardiogenic shock, no shivering Management: Active external and internal rewarming Less than 24 degrees Celsius Presentation: Pulseless, ventricular arrhythmia Active External Rewarming Warm fluids are insufficient for warming due to a minimal temperature difference (warmed fluids are maintained at 40 degrees vs. a patient at 30 degrees is not a large enough thermodynamic difference) External: Bear hugger, warm blankets Active Internal Rewarming Thoracic lavage (preferably on the patient’s right side) Place 2 chest tubes (anteriorly and posteriorly); infuse warm IVF anteriorly and hook up the posterior tube to a Pleur-evac Warms the patient 3-6 Celsius per hour Bladder lavage Continuous bladder irrigation with 3-way foley or 300 cc warm fluid Less effective than thoracic lavage due to less surface area Pulseless patients ACLS does not work until patients are rewarmed to 30 degrees High-quality CPR until 30 degrees (longest CPR in a hypothermic patient was 6 hours and 30 minutes) Give epinephrine once you reach 35 degrees, spaced out every 6 minutes ECMO is the best way to warm these patients up (10 degrees per hour) Pronouncing death must occur at 32 degrees or must have potassium > 12 References 1. 2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care - Part 1: Introduction. Circulation. 2005;112(24 SUPPL.). doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.166550 2. Brown DJA, Burgger H, Boyd J, Paal P. Accidental Hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1930-1938. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5543.51-c 3. Dow J, Giesbrecht GG, Danzl DF, et al. Wilderness Medical Society Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia: 2019 Update. Wilderness Environ Med. 2019;30(4S):S47-S69. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2019.10.002 4. Kjærgaard B, Bach P. Warming of patients with accidental hypothermia using warm water pleural lavage. Resuscitation. 2006;68(2):203-207. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2005.06.019 5. Lott C, Truhlář A, Alfonzo A, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: Cardiac arrest in special circumstances. Resuscitation. 2021;161:152-219. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.02.011 6. Plaisier BR. Thoracic lavage in accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest - Report of a case and review of the literature. Resuscitation. 2005;66(1):99-104. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2004.12.024 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
2/19/20244 minutes, 55 seconds
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Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, which often leads to a distinctive barking cough. A common treatment for croup is the powerful steroid dexamethasone, but it can take up to 30 minutes to start working. A folk remedy for croup is to take the afflicted child outside in the cold to help them breathe better, but does it really work? A 2023 study in Switzerland, published in the Journal of Pediatrics, investigated whether a 30-minute exposure to outdoor cold air could improve mild to moderate croup symptoms before the onset of steroid effects. The randomized controlled trial included children aged 3 months to 10 years with croup. After receiving a single-dose oral dexamethasone, participants were exposed to either outdoor cold air or indoor room air. The primary outcome was a decrease in the Westley Croup Score (WCS) by at least 2 points at 30 minutes. The results indicated that exposure to outdoor cold air, in addition to dexamethasone, significantly reduced symptoms in children with croup, especially in those with moderate cases. References Siebert JN, Salomon C, Taddeo I, Gervaix A, Combescure C, Lacroix L. Outdoor Cold Air Versus Room Temperature Exposure for Croup Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics. 2023 Sep 1;152(3):e2023061365. doi: 10.1542/peds.2023-061365. PMID: 37525974. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
2/14/20244 minutes, 6 seconds
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Podcast 889: Blood Pressure Cuff Size

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Does the size of a blood pressure (BP) cuff matter? A recent randomized crossover trial revealed that, indeed, cuff size can affect blood pressure readings Design 195 adults with varying mid-upper arm circumferences were randomized to the order of BP cuff application: Appropriate Too small Too large Individuals had their mid-upper arm circumference measured to determine the appropriate cuff size Participants underwent 4 sets of triplicate blood pressure measurements, the last of which was always with the appropriately sized cuff Results In individuals requiring a small cuff, the use of a regular cuff resulted in blood pressure readings 3.6 mm Hg lower than with the small cuff In individuals requiring large cuffs, the use of a regular cuff resulted in pressures 4.8 mm Hg higher than with the large cuffs In individuals requiring extra-large cuffs, the use of a regular cuff resulted in pressures 19.5 mm Hg higher than with extra-large cuffs Conclusion Miscuffing results in significantly inaccurate blood pressure measurements It is important to emphasize individualized BP cuff selection References 1. Ishigami J, Charleston J, Miller ER, Matsushita K, Appel LJ, Brady TM. Effects of Cuff Size on the Accuracy of Blood Pressure Readings: The Cuff(SZ) Randomized Crossover Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2023;183(10):1061-1068. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.3264 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Jorge Chalit  
2/5/20241 minute, 51 seconds
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Podcast 888: Low GCS and Intubation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Is the adage, “GCS of 8, you’ve got to intubate” accurate? A recent study published in the November 2023 issue of JAMA attempted to answer this question. Design Multicenter, randomized trial, in France from 2021 to 2023. 225 patients experiencing comatose in the setting of acute poisoning were randomly assigned to either a conservative airway strategy of withholding intubation or “routine practice” of much more frequent intubation. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint including in-hospital death, length of intensive care unit stay, and length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included adverse events from intubation and pneumonia within 48 hours. Results Results showed that in the intervention group (with intubation withholding), only 16% of patients were intubated, compared to 58% in the control group. No in-hospital deaths occurred in either group. The intervention group demonstrated a significant clinical benefit for the primary endpoint, with a win ratio of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.33 to 2.58). The conservative airway management strategy also saw a statistically significant decrease in adverse events from intubation and pneumonia. Conclusion Among comatose patients with suspected acute poisoning, a conservative strategy of withholding intubation was associated with a greater clinical benefit. This suggests that a judicious approach to intubation is appropriate in many other settings and clinicians should rely on more than the GCS to make this decision. References Freund Y, Viglino D, Cachanado M, Cassard C, Montassier E, Douay B, Guenezan J, Le Borgne P, Yordanov Y, Severin A, Roussel M, Daniel M, Marteau A, Peschanski N, Teissandier D, Macrez R, Morere J, Chouihed T, Roux D, Adnet F, Bloom B, Chauvin A, Simon T. Effect of Noninvasive Airway Management of Comatose Patients With Acute Poisoning: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023 Dec 19;330(23):2267-2274. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.24391. PMID: 38019968; PMCID: PMC10687712. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
1/29/20242 minutes, 41 seconds
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Podcast 887: Family Presence in Cardiac Resuscitation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A 2013 study randomized families of those in cardiac arrest into two groups: Actively offered patients’ families the opportunity to observe CPR Follow standard practice regarding family presence (control group) Of the 266 relatives that received offers to observe CPR, 211 (79%) accepted vs. 43% in the control group observed CPR The study assessed a primary end-point of PTSD-related symptoms 90 days after the event Secondary end-points included depression, anxiety, medicolegal claims, medical efforts at resuscitation, and the well-being of the healthcare team The frequency of PTSD-related symptoms was significantly higher in the control group Lower rates of anxiety and depression for the families who witnessed CPR There were no effects on resuscitation efforts, patient survival, medicolegal claims, or stress on the healthcare team If families choose to witness CPR, it’s beneficial to have someone with the family to explain the process References 1. Jabre P, Belpomme V, Azoulay E, et al. Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(11):1008-1018. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1203366 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Jorge Chalit  
1/22/20242 minutes, 46 seconds
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Podcast 886: Cough in Kids

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Croup Caused by: Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, RSV, Enterovirus (big right now) Age range: 6 months to 3 years Symptoms: Barky cough Inspiratory stridor (Severe = stidor at rest) Use the Westley Croup Score to gauge the severity Treatment: High flow, humidified, cool oxygen Dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg oral, max 16mg Severe: Racemic Epinephrine 0.5 mL/kg Consider heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen Very severe: be ready to intubate Bronchiolitis Caused by: RSV, Rhinovirus Symptoms are driven by secretions Symptoms: Cough Wheezing Dehydration (often the symptom that makes them look the worst) Age range: 2 to 6 months Treatment: Suctioning Oxygen IV fluids Nebulized hypertonic saline DuoNebs? No. Asthma Caused by: Environmental factors Viral illness with a predisposition Treatment: Beta agonists Steroids Ipratropium Magnesium (relaxes smooth muscle) References Dalziel SR, Haskell L, O'Brien S, Borland ML, Plint AC, Babl FE, Oakley E. Bronchiolitis. Lancet. 2022 Jul 30;400(10349):392-406. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01016-9. Epub 2022 Jul 1. PMID: 35785792. Hoch HE, Houin PR, Stillwell PC. Asthma in Children: A Brief Review for Primary Care Providers. Pediatr Ann. 2019 Mar 1;48(3):e103-e109. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20190219-01. PMID: 30874817. Midulla F, Petrarca L, Frassanito A, Di Mattia G, Zicari AM, Nenna R. Bronchiolitis clinics and medical treatment. Minerva Pediatr. 2018 Dec;70(6):600-611. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05334-3. Epub 2018 Oct 18. PMID: 30334624. Smith DK, McDermott AJ, Sullivan JF. Croup: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2018 May 1;97(9):575-580. PMID: 29763253. Westley CR, Cotton EK, Brooks JG. Nebulized racemic epinephrine by IPPB for the treatment of croup: a double-blind study. Am J Dis Child. 1978 May;132(5):484-7. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1978.02120300044008. PMID: 347921. https://www.mdcalc.com/calc/677/westley-croup-score Summarized by Jeffrey Olson | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
1/15/20246 minutes, 42 seconds
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Podcast 885: Penetrating Neck Injuries

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Three zones of the neck with different structures and risks for injuries: Zone 1 is the most caudal region from the clavicle to the cricoid cartilage Zone 2 is from the cricoid cartilage to the angle of the mandible Zone 3 is superior to the angle of the mandible Zone 1 contains the thoracic outlet vasculature (subclavian arteries and veins, internal jugular veins), carotid arteries, vertebral artery, apices of the lungs, trachea, esophagus, spinal cord, thoracic duct, thyroid gland, jugular veins, and the vagus nerve.  Zone 2 contains the common carotid arteries, internal and external branches of carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, jugular veins, trachea, esophagus, larynx, pharynx, spinal cord, and vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves Lower risk than Zone 1 or Zone 3 Zone 3 contains the distal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, jugular veins, pharynx, spinal cord, cranial nerves IX, X, XI, XII, the sympathetic chain, and the salivary and parotid glands Hard signs that indicate direct transfer to OR: Airway compromise  Active, brisk bleeding Pulsatile hematomas Hematemesis Massive subcutaneous emphysema  Soft signs that may obtain imaging to determine further interventions: Hemoptysis Oropharyngeal bleeding Dysphagia Dysphonia Expanding hematomas Soft sign management includes ABCs, type & screen, and airway interventions followed by imaging of the head & neck area Patients with dysphonia or dysphagia with subsequent negative CTAs may get further work-up via swallow studies References Asensio JA, Chahwan S, Forno W, et al. Penetrating esophageal injuries: multicenter study of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 2001;50(2):289-296. doi:10.1097/00005373-200102000-00015 Azuaje RE, Jacobson LE, Glover J, et al. Reliability of physical examination as a predictor of vascular injury after penetrating neck trauma. Am Surg. 2003;69(9):804-807. Ibraheem K, Wong S, Smith A, et al. Computed tomography angiography in the "no-zone" approach era for penetrating neck trauma: A systematic review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020;89(6):1233-1238. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000002919 Nowicki JL, Stew B, Ooi E. Penetrating neck injuries: A guide to evaluation and managementx. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2018;100(1):6-11. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2017.0191 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
1/8/20243 minutes, 59 seconds
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Laboring Under Pressure Episode 2: Postpartum Hemorrhage with Dr. Kiersten Williams

Contributor: Kiersten Williams MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss a clip from Dr. Williams’ talk at the “Laboring Under Pressure, Managing Obstetric Emergencies in a Global Setting” event from May 2023. This event was hosted at the University of Denver and was organized with the help of Joe Parker as a fundraiser for the organization Health Outreach Latin America (HOLA). Dr. Kiersten Williams completed her OBGYN residency at Bay State Medical Center and practices as an Obstetric Hospitalist at Presbyterian/St. Luke’s Medical Center in Denver, Colorado. During her talk, Dr. Williams walks the audience through the common causes and treatments for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). Some important take-away points from this talk are: The most common causes of PPH can be remembered by the 4 T’s. Tone (atony), Trauma, Tissue (retained placenta), and Thrombin (coagulopathies). AV malformations of the uterus are probably underdiagnosed. Quantitative blood loss is much more accurate than estimated blood loss (EBL). The ideal fibrinogen for an obstetric patient about to deliver is above 400 mg/dl - under 200 is certain to cause bleeding. Do not deliver oxytocin via IV push dose, it can cause significant hypotension. Tranexamic Acid is available in both IV and PO and can be administered in the field. The dose is 1 gram and can be run over 10 minutes if administered via IV. It is best if used within 3 hours of delivery. When performing a uterine massage, place one hand inside the vagina and one hand on the lower abdomen. Then rub the lower abdomen like mad. A new option for treating PPH is called the JADA System which is slimmer than a Bakri  Balloon and uses vacuum suction to help the uterus clamp down.* Another option for a small uterus is to insert a 60 cc Foley catheter. In an operating room, a B-Lynch suture can be put in place, uterine artery ligation can be performed, and as a last resort, a hysterectomy can be done. *EMM is not sponsored by JADA system or the Bakri balloon. References Andrikopoulou M, D'Alton ME. Postpartum hemorrhage: early identification challenges. Semin Perinatol. 2019 Feb;43(1):11-17. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30503400. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 183: Postpartum Hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Oct;130(4):e168-e186. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002351. PMID: 28937571. Federspiel JJ, Eke AC, Eppes CS. Postpartum hemorrhage protocols and benchmarks: improving care through standardization. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2023 Feb;5(2S):100740. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100740. Epub 2022 Sep 2. PMID: 36058518; PMCID: PMC9941009. Health Outreach for Latin America Foundation - HOLA Foundation. (n.d.). http://www.hola-foundation.org/ Kumaraswami S, Butwick A. Latest advances in postpartum hemorrhage management. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2022 May;36(1):123-134. doi: 10.1016/j.bpa.2022.02.004. Epub 2022 Feb 24. PMID: 35659949. Pacheco LD, Saade GR, Hankins GDV. Medical management of postpartum hemorrhage: An update. Semin Perinatol. 2019 Feb;43(1):22-26. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2018.11.005. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30503399. Produced by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jeffrey Olson and Jorge Chalit, OMSII
1/8/202425 minutes, 23 seconds
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Podcast 884: Nerve Blocks

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is a nerve block? A nerve block is the medical procedure of injecting anesthetic into the area around a nerve to block pain signals.  They are typically done with ultrasound guidance. Are nerve blocks effective? Most of the information we have about nerve blocks is extrapolated from fascia iliaca blocks. This nerve block targets the fascia iliaca compartment, which contains the femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, and obturator nerves. These blocks are commonly done for hip fractures to help stabilize the patient while awaiting surgical repair. The data for these types of injections is strong. They decrease pain, they decrease total morphine equivalents needed while a patient is in the hospital, they help mobilize patients earlier and start physical therapy earlier, and they help patients leave the hospital about a day earlier. What is an example of an agent that can be used? Bupivacaine. A long acting amide-type local anesthetic. It works best when paired with epinephrine which causes local vasoconstriction and allows the bupivaciaine to bathe the nerve for longer. It gives 5-15 hours of anesthesia (complete sensation loss), and up to 30 hours of analgesia (pain loss). What’s an example of another block that can be done? An Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) block is performed in the paraspinal fascial plane in the back. This can be used for pain around the ribs and before a variety of medical procedures including a Nuss procedure, thoracotomies, percutaneous nephrolithotomies, ventral hernia repairs, and even lumbar fusions. What is one potential complication of a nerve block? Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST). There are three ways this can happen: 1) Using too much total anesthetic (Maximum dose of bupivacaine is 2.5 mg/kg). 2) Too much anesthetic is injected into a confined space which then gets absorbed into the venous system. 3) Injecting directly into the vasculature by mistake. What are the signs that this complication has occurred? Perioral tingling Stupor Coma Seizures What can that cause? Cardiovascular collapse How is that treated? Intralipid AKA Soybean Oil, or “lipid emulsion” should be given as a bolus followed by a drip. These patients need to be admitted. Bolus 1.5 ml/kg (lean body mass) intravenously over 1 min (max ~100 ml). Continuous infusion at 0.25 mL/kg/min. Max dosing in the first 30 minutes is around 100 ml/kg. Fun fact: Patients being treated for LAST with intralipid cannot undergo general anesthesia because the intralipid will impact the anesthesia drugs. References Long B, Chavez S, Gottlieb M, Montrief T, Brady WJ. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: A narrative review for emergency clinicians. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Sep;59:42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.06.017. Epub 2022 Jun 13. PMID: 35777259. Carvalho Júnior LH, Temponi EF, Paganini VO, Costa LP, Soares LF, Gonçalves MB. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2015 Jan-Feb;61(1):40-3. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.61.01.040. Epub 2015 Jan 1. PMID: 25909207. Jain N, Kotulski C, Al-Hilli A, Yeung-Lai-Wah P, Pluta J, Heegeman D. Fascia Iliaca Block in Hip and Femur Fractures to Reduce Opioid Use. J Emerg Med. 2022 Jul;63(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.04.018. Epub 2022 Aug 4. PMID: 35933265. Kot P, Rodriguez P, Granell M, Cano B, Rovira L, Morales J, Broseta A, Andrés J. The erector spinae plane block: a narrative review. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2019 Jun;72(3):209-220. doi: 10.4097/kja.d.19.00012. Epub 2019 Mar 19. PMID: 30886130; PMCID: PMC6547235. Lee SH, Sohn JT. Mechanisms underlying lipid emulsion resuscitation for drug toxicity: a narrative review. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2023 Jun;76(3):171-182. doi: 10.4097/kja.23031. Epub 2023 Jan 26. PMID: 36704816; PMCID: PMC10244607. Weinberg, Guy. LipidRescue™ Resuscitation. http://www.lipidrescue.org/ Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
1/1/20246 minutes, 57 seconds
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Podcast 883: Migraine Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease

Contributor: Jorge Chalit, OMS II Educational Pearls: Migraine pathophysiology Primarily mediated through the trigeminovascular system Serotonin, dopamine, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) Trigeminovascular system is linked to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which relays pain to the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex One effective treatment for acute migraines is -triptan medications 5-HT1D/1B agonists such as sumatriptan Often combined with NSAIDs and dopamine antagonists (as antiemetics) in migraine cocktails Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) was shown to be ineffective in a randomized controlled trial comparing it with placebo and a dopamine antagonist antiemetic.  The -triptan medications carry significant risk for peripheral vasoconstriction and are therefore avoided in cardiovascular disease One serotonin agonist specifically approved for use in vascular disease Lasmiditan - 5-HT1F agonist Slightly different mechanism of action avoids peripheral vasoconstriction CGRP antagonists are also used in patients who are unresponsive to -triptans References 1. Friedman WB, Cabral L, Adewunmi V, et al. Diphenhydramine as adjuvant therapy for acute migraine. An ED-based randomized clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2016;67(1):32-39.e3. doi:doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2015.07.495 2. Lasmiditan (Reyvow) and ubrogepant (Ubrelvy) for acute treatment of migraine. (2020). The Medical letter on drugs and therapeutics, 62(1593), 35–39. 3. Robbins MS. Diagnosis and Management of Headache: A Review. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2021;325(18):1874-1885. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1640 4. Vanderpluym JH, Halker Singh RB, Urtecho M, et al. Acute Treatments for Episodic Migraine in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2021;325(23):2357-2369. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.7939 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
12/25/20233 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 882: Thrombolytics for Minor Strokes

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: How is the severity of a stroke assessed? Strokes are assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), this scale has different tasks, such as asking the person to repeat words, move their arms, or follow simple instructions. The maximum score is 42 but any score over 21 is considered severe. What would qualify as a minor storke? NIH This could be achieved with minor symptoms such as numbness Should patients with minor strokes be given thrombolytics? A new study in JAMA published in June of 2023 sought to answer this question. This study compares the effectiveness of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with intravenous thrombolysis in patients with minor non-disabling acute ischemic stroke. The research involved 760 participants in China, and the primary measure was an excellent functional outcome at 90 days. The results showed that DAPT was non-inferior to intravenous alteplase, with 93.8% of patients in the DAPT group and 91.4% in the alteplase group achieving an excellent functional outcome. The study suggests that DAPT could be a viable alternative to intravenous thrombolysis for patients with minor non-disabling strokes within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. Additionally, the incidence of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage was low in both groups. References 1. Chen HS, Cui Y, Zhou ZH, Zhang H, Wang LX, Wang WZ, Shen LY, Guo LY, Wang EQ, Wang RX, Han J, Dong YL, Li J, Lin YZ, Yang QC, Zhang L, Li JY, Wang J, Xia L, Ma GB, Lu J, Jiang CH, Huang SM, Wan LS, Piao XY, Li Z, Li YS, Yang KH, Wang DL, Nguyen TN; ARAMIS Investigators. Dual Antiplatelet Therapy vs Alteplase for Patients With Minor Nondisabling Acute Ischemic Stroke: The ARAMIS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023 Jun 27;329(24):2135-2144. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.7827. PMID: 37367978; PMCID: PMC10300686. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
12/20/20232 minutes, 20 seconds
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Podcast 881: Pediatric Readmissions

Contributor: Nick Tsipis MD Educational Pearls: The review article assessed 16.3 million patients across six states to identify those at high-risk for critical revisit Criteria for critical revisit was ICU admission or death within three days of discharge from the ED Critical revisits are extremely rare  0.1% of patients have a critical revisit after discharge 0.00001% die after revisit Of the patients that do experience critical revisits, the two major risk factors are Asthma - relative risk 2.24 Chronic medical conditions - incidence rate ratio 11.03  Of the top ten diagnoses that lead to critical revisits, 5 are respiratory Others include cellulitis, seizures, gastrointestinal disease, appendectomy, and sickle cell crisis.  References 1. Cavallaro SC, Michelson KA, D’Ambrosi G, Monuteaux MC, Li J. Critical Revisits Among Children After Emergency Department Discharge. Ann Emerg Med. 2023;82(5):575-582. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.06.006 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
12/12/20233 minutes, 29 seconds
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Podcast 880: OB Delivery in the ED

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Pearls about labor: Labor is split into 3 stages. Stage 1 starts when the first persistent contractions are felt and goes up until the cervix is fully dilated and the mother starts pushing. Stage 1 is split into two phases: the latent phase (cervix is dilated from 0-4 cm), and the active phase (cervix dilates from 4-10 cm). The latent phase can take between 6 and 12 hours with contractions happening every 5 to 15 minutes. The active phase usually lasts 4-8 hours with contractions occurring as close as every 3 minutes. Stage 2 is the birth itself, lasting between 20 minutes and 2 hours. Stage 3 is the delivery of the placenta and typically takes 30 minutes.  37 weeks gestational age is the cutoff for preterm. Placenta previa: Condition when the placenta overlies the cervix. Classically presents as painless vaginal bleeding in the 3rd trimester. If suspected placenta previa, avoid a speculum exam. Placenta previa can be confirmed on ultrasound.  If the baby is crowning in the ER then the baby should be delivered in the ER. The ideal presentation on crowning is head first (Vertex), specifically ‘left occiput anterior’. In this position, the baby is head first and the head is facing towards the gurney at a slight angle. If the baby is coming out in a breech position then the provider should “elevate the presenting part” by maintaining pressure on the baby as the mother is wheeled to the OR for an emergency C-section. If a vertex-presenting baby is being delivered vaginally, after the head has been delivered an event called ‘restitution’ must occur to align the baby’s shoulders properly. During this event, the baby goes from facing down towards the gurney to facing sideways. After restitution, the anterior shoulder should be delivered, followed by the posterior. After complete delivery, the cord should be clamped (after a 1-3 minute delay), with something sterile. Gentle downward traction on the cord helps to deliver the placenta. You can place pressure above the pubic bone to prevent the uterus from involuting during this process. This is not the same as a fundal massage which happens after the delivery of the placenta to help the uterus clamp down and prevent postpartum hemorrhage. References Hutchison J, Mahdy H, Hutchison J. Stages of Labor. 2023 Jan 30. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 31335010. Lavery JP. Placenta previa. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Sep;33(3):414-21. doi: 10.1097/00003081-199009000-00005. PMID: 2225572. Qian Y, Ying X, Wang P, Lu Z, Hua Y. Early versus delayed umbilical cord clamping on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019 Sep;300(3):531-543. doi: 10.1007/s00404-019-05215-8. Epub 2019 Jun 15. PMID: 31203386; PMCID: PMC6694086. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
12/4/20238 minutes, 6 seconds
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Podcast 879: A Case of Pediatric Anaphylactic Shock

Contributor: Dr. Taylor Lynch Educational Pearls: Time of arrival until intubation was 26 minutes but nobody tried anterior neck access like a cricothyrotomy until his dad arrived Traditional ACLS protocol is not enough for anaphylactic respiratory arrest Circulating O2 from compressions alone is not enough to sustain the brain Patients need a definitive airway and endotracheal tube is the best method BVM ventilation is not enough to get patients the oxygen they need Time to anoxic brain injury during a respiratory arrest is 4 minutes Definition of anaphylactic shock: Acute laryngeal involvement with bronchospasms after known exposure to an allergen Do not need to have skin symptoms like the classic wheal and flare Must also have either hypotension (from vasodilation or end-organ hypoperfusion) or severe GI symptoms (crampy abdominal pain or repetitive vomiting) Treatment of anaphylactic shock: Push-dose IV epinephrine is better than IM epinephrine because IM epinephrine takes 4 minutes to circulate and get to the lungs Ketamine has broncho-dilating properties so it can be used as an induction agent for intubation Albuterol and ipratropium as continuous bronchodilators Magnesium and IV steroids AMAX4 acronym Adrenaline, Muscle relaxant, Airway, Xtra (bronchodilators, ventilation, vasopressors, and consideration of pneumothorax), 4 minutes to anoxic brain injury References Commins SP. Outpatient Emergencies: Anaphylaxis. Med Clin North Am. 2017;101(3):521-536. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2016.12.003 Ring J, Beyer K, Biedermann T, Bircher A, Duda D FJ et al. Guideline for acute therapy and management of anaphylaxis. S2 guideline of DGAKI, AeDA, GPA, DAAU, BVKJ, ÖGAI, SGAI, DGAI, DGP, DGPM, AGATE and DAAB. Allergo J Int. 2014;23(23):96-112. McKenzie B. AMAX4: Every Second Counts. Accessed Sunday, November 26, 2023. https://www.amax4.org/ Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
11/27/20235 minutes, 53 seconds
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Podcast 878: Opioids for Low Back and Neck Pain

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Should we use opioids to treat low back and neck pain? The OPAL Trial, published in The Lancet, in June 2023, attempted to answer this very question. Objective: Investigate the efficacy and safety of a short course of opioid analgesic (oxycodone-naloxone) for acute low back pain and neck pain. Trial Design: Triple-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial, conducted in Emergency and Primary Care in Sydney, Australia, involving adults with 12 weeks or less of low back or neck pain. Participants: 347 recruited adults (174 in the opioid group, 173 in the placebo group) with at least moderate pain severity. Intervention: Participants were assigned to receive either an opioid or a placebo for up to 6 weeks. Primary Outcome: Pain severity at 6 weeks measured with the pain severity subscale of the Brief Pain Inventory (10-point scale). Results: No significant difference in pain severity at 6 weeks between the opioid group (mean score 2.78) and placebo group (mean score 2.25). Adverse events were reported by 35% in the opioid group and 30% in the placebo group, with more opioid-related adverse events in the opioid group (e.g., constipation). Conclusion: Opioids should not be recommended for acute non-specific low back pain or neck pain, as there was no significant difference in pain severity compared with the placebo. The study calls for a change in the frequent use of opioids for these conditions. Pharmacy Pearl: Why was naloxone mixed with oxycodone? Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist, meaning it can block the effects of opioids. When combined with oxycodone, naloxone's presence discourages certain forms of opioid misuse. Additionally, naloxone can bind to opioid receptors in the gut and improve symptoms of Opioid Induced Constipation (OIC). This is the same idea behind Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone).   References Jones CMP, Day RO, Koes BW, Latimer J, Maher CG, McLachlan AJ, Billot L, Shan S, Lin CC; OPAL Investigators Coordinators. Opioid analgesia for acute low back pain and neck pain (the OPAL trial): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2023 Jul 22;402(10398):304-312. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00404-X. Epub 2023 Jun 28. Erratum in: Lancet. 2023 Aug 19;402(10402):612. PMID: 37392748. Camilleri M, Lembo A, Katzka DA. Opioids in Gastroenterology: Treating Adverse Effects and Creating Therapeutic Benefits. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Sep;15(9):1338-1349. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.05.014. Epub 2017 May 19. PMID: 28529168; PMCID: PMC5565678. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
11/20/20233 minutes, 36 seconds
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Podcast 877: Viral Respiratory Infections in Children

Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls A recently published study assessed the burden of respiratory viruses in a longitudinal cohort of children from 0 to 2 years of age The children in the study received nasal swab PCR testing weekly to determine infectivity They were also monitored for symptoms via weekly text surveys The study differentiated between infection and illness by defining an acute respiratory illness (ARI) as fever ≥38°C or cough.  The median infectivity rate was 9.4 viral infections per child per year The median illness rate was 3.3 ARIs per child per year The most common etiological viruses isolated from the nasal samples were rhinovirus and enterovirus Most infections were asymptomatic or mild References Teoh, Z., Conrey, S., McNeal, M., Burrell, A., Burke, R. M., Mattison, C., McMorrow, M., Payne, D. C., Morrow, A. L., & Staat, M. A. (2023). Burden of Respiratory Viruses in Children Less Than 2 Years Old in a Community-based Longitudinal US Birth Cohort. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(6), 901–909. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad289 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
11/13/20233 minutes, 9 seconds
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Podcast 876: Sedation Pearls

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Common sedatives used in the Emergency Department and a few pearls for each. Propofol Type: Non-barbiturate sedative hypnotic agonizing GABA receptors. Benefit: Quick on and quick off (duration of action is approximately 2-7 minutes), helpful for suspected neurologic injury so the patient can wake up and be re-evaluated. Also has the benefit of reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). Downsides: Hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression. What should you do if a patient is getting hypotensive on propofol? Do not stop the propofol. Start pressors. May have to reduce the propofol dose if delay in pressors. Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) Type: Alpha 2 agonist - causes central sedation Uses: Patients are more alert and responsive and therefore can be on BiPAP instead of being intubated. Does not cause respiratory depression. Downsides: Hypotension and Bradycardia. Caution in using this for head injuries, its side effects can mask the Cushing reflex and make it more difficult to spot acute elevations in ICP and uncal herniation. Ketamine Type: NMDA antagonist and dissociative anesthetic, among other mechanisms. Benefits: Quick Onset (but slower than propofol). Does not cause hypotension, but can even increase HR and BP (Thought to potentially cause hypotension if patient is catecholamine-depleted (ie. sepsis, delayed trauma)). Dosing ketamine can be challenging. Typically low doses (0.1-0.3mg/kg (max ~30mg)) can give good pain relief. Higher doses (for intubation/procedural sedation) are generally thought to have a higher risk of dissociation. Downsides: Emergence reactions which include hallucinations, vivid dreams, and agitation. Increased secretions. Benzos Type: GABA agonists. Benefits: Seizure, alcohol withdrawal, agitation due to toxic overdoses.  Push doses are useful because doses can stack. Longer half-life than propofol.   Downsides: Respiratory depression. Longer half-life can make neuro assessments difficult to complete. Etomidate MOA: Displaces endogenous GABA inhibitors. Useful as a one-time dose for quick procedures (cardioversion, intubation). Often drug of choice for intubation since it is thought to have no hemodynamic effects.  Downsides; If used without paralytic - myoclonus. Though to have some adrenal suppression. Fentanyl Type: Opioid analgesic. Not traditional sedative. Benefits: There are many instances in emergency medicine in which sedation can be avoided by prioritizing proper analgesia. Fentanyl can even be used to maintain intubated patients without needing to keep them constantly sedated. Downsides: Respiratory depression. Patients may have tolerance. References Chawla N, Boateng A, Deshpande R. Procedural sedation in the ICU and emergency department. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2017 Aug;30(4):507-512. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000487. PMID: 28562388. Keating GM. Dexmedetomidine: A Review of Its Use for Sedation in the Intensive Care Setting. Drugs. 2015 Jul;75(10):1119-30. doi: 10.1007/s40265-015-0419-5. PMID: 26063213. Lundström S, Twycross R, Mihalyo M, Wilcock A. Propofol. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Sep;40(3):466-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.07.001. PMID: 20816571. Matchett G, Gasanova I, Riccio CA, Nasir D, Sunna MC, Bravenec BJ, Azizad O, Farrell B, Minhajuddin A, Stewart JW, Liang LW, Moon TS, Fox PE, Ebeling CG, Smith MN, Trousdale D, Ogunnaike BO; EvK Clinical Trial Collaborators. Etomidate versus ketamine for emergency endotracheal intubation: a randomized clinical trial. Intensive Care Med. 2022 Jan;48(1):78-91. doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06577-x. Epub 2021 Dec 14. PMID: 34904190. Mihaljević S, Pavlović M, Reiner K, Ćaćić M. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Ketamine. Psychiatr Danub. 2020 Autumn-Winter;32(3-4):325-333. doi: 10.24869/psyd.2020.325. PMID: 33370729. Nakauchi C, Miyata M, Kamino S, Funato Y, Manabe M, Kojima A, Kawai Y, Uchida H, Fujino M, Boda H. Dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl for sedation in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Int. 2023 Jan-Dec;65(1):e15581. doi: 10.1111/ped.15581. PMID: 37428855. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
11/6/20235 minutes, 6 seconds
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Podcast 875: A Pediatric Case of Myopericarditis

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac, which can arise from infectious or non-infectious etiologies Myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, which may accompany pericarditis Pericarditis clinical findings include: Diffuse concave ST elevation, classic for acute pericarditis with myocardial involvement. More common in younger male patients Elevated high-sensitivity troponin - higher levels may occur in young healthy patients Ultrasound may show pericardial effusions POCUS may be helpful in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) via E-point septal separation (EPSS) Elevation in EPSS correlates with decreased LVEF Treatments: Anti-inflammatories including NSAIDs and colchicine Monitor inflammation Repeat ultrasounds Risk factors in this patient’s case: mRNA COVID vaccine - the risk of myocarditis from vaccination is significantly lower than that from COVID-19 infection Preceding infection References 1. Gao J, Feng L, Li Y, et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Myocarditis or Pericarditis. Am J Prev Med. 2023;64(2):275-284. 2. Imazio M, Gaita F, LeWinter M. Evaluation and treatment of pericarditis: A systematic review. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2015;314(14):1498-1506. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.12763 3. Mckaigney CJ, Krantz MJ, La Rocque CL, Hurst ND, Buchanan MS, Kendall JL. E-point septal separation: A bedside tool for emergency physician assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction. Am J Emerg Med. 2014;32(6):493-497. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2014.01.045 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
10/30/20236 minutes, 39 seconds
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Episode 874: Bradyarrhythmias

Contributor: Dylan Luyten MD Educational Pearls: What is a Bradyarrhythmia? Also known as a bradyarrhythmia, it is an irregular heart rate that is also slow (below 60 beats per minute). What can cause it? Complete heart block AKA third-degree AV block; identified on ECG by a wide QRS, and complete dissociation between the atrial and ventricular rhythms with the ventricular being much slower. Treat with a pacemaker. Medication overdose, especially beta blockers. Many other drugs can slow the heart as well including: opioids, clonidine, digitalis, amiodarone, diltiazem, and verapamil to name a few. Electrolyte abnormalities, specifically hyperkalemia. Hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia can also cause bradyarrhythmias. Myocardial infarction. Either by damaging the AV node or the conduction system itself or by triggering a process called Reperfusion Bradycardia. Hypothermia. Bradycardia is generally a sign of severe or advanced hypothermia. References Jurkovicová O, Cagán S. Reperfúzne arytmie [Reperfusion arrhythmias]. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1998 Mar-Apr;99(3-4):162-71. Slovak. PMID: 9919746. Simmons T, Blazar E. Synergistic Bradycardia from Beta Blockers, Hyperkalemia, and Renal Failure. J Emerg Med. 2019 Aug;57(2):e41-e44. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.03.039. Epub 2019 May 30. PMID: 31155316. Wung SF. Bradyarrhythmias: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2016 Sep;28(3):297-308. doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 Jun 22. PMID: 27484658. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
10/23/20232 minutes, 40 seconds
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Podcast 873: Intravesical Tranexamic Acid for Gross Hematuria

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a common medication to achieve hemostasis in a variety of conditions Patients visiting the ED for gross hematuria (between March 2022 and September 2022) were treated with intravesical TXA 1 g tranexamic acid in 100 mL NS via Foley catheter Clamped Foley for 15 minutes Subsequent continuous bladder irrigation, as is standard in most EDs Compared with a cohort of patients visiting the ED for a similar concern between March 2021 and September 2021, the TXA patients had: A shorter median length of stay in the ED (274 min vs. 411 mins, P A shorter median duration of Foley catheter placement (145 min vs. 308 mins, P Fewer revisits after ED discharge (2.3% vs. 12.3%, P = 0.031) References 1. Choi H, Kim DW, Jung E, et al. Impact of intravesical administration of tranexamic acid on gross hematuria in the emergency department: A before-and-after study. Am J Emerg Med. 2023;68:68-72. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2023.03.020 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
10/16/20232 minutes, 23 seconds
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Podcast 872: Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is Cellulitis? A common and potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Caused by various types of bacteria, with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species being the most common. What is Preseptal Cellulitis and why is it more serious than facial cellulitis? Preseptal Cellulitis, also known as Periorbital Cellulitis, is a bacterial infection of the soft tissues in the eyelid and the surrounding area. This requires prompt and aggressive treatment to avoid progression into Orbital Cellulitis. How is Preseptal Cellulitis treated? Oral antibiotics for five to seven days. In the setting of trauma (scratching bug bites) Clindamycin or TMP-SMX (for MRSA coverage) and Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or Cefpodoxime or Cefdinir. If there is no trauma, monotherapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is appropriate. Check immunization status against H.influenzae and adjust appropriately. What is Orbital Cellulitis, how is it diagnosed, and why is it more serious than Preseptal Cellulitis? Orbital cellulitis involves the tissues behind the eyeball and within the eye socket itself. Key features include: Eye pain. Proptosis (Bulging of the eye out of its normal position). Impaired eye movement. Blurred or double vision. This can lead to three very serious complications: Orbital Compartment Syndrome. This can push eye forward, stretch optic nerve, and threaten vision. Meningitis given that the meninges of the brain are continuous with optic nerve. Endophthalmitis, which is inflammation of the inner coats of the eye. This can also threaten vision. If suspected, get a CT of the orbits and/or an MRI to look for an abscess behind the eyes. How is Orbital Cellulitis treated? IV antibiotics. Cover for meningitis with Ceftriaxone and Vancomycin. Add Metronidazole until intracranial involvement has been ruled out. Drain the abscess surgically. Usually this is performed by an ophthalmologist or an otolaryngologist. Admit to the hospital. References Bae C, Bourget D. Periorbital Cellulitis. 2023 Jul 17. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 29261970. Chaudhry IA, Shamsi FA, Elzaridi E, Al-Rashed W, Al-Amri A, Al-Anezi F, Arat YO, Holck DE. Outcome of treated orbital cellulitis in a tertiary eye care center in the middle East. Ophthalmology. 2007 Feb;114(2):345-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.07.059. PMID: 17270683. Seltz LB, Smith J, Durairaj VD, Enzenauer R, Todd J. Microbiology and antibiotic management of orbital cellulitis. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e566-72. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2117. Epub 2011 Feb 14. PMID: 21321025. Wong SJ, Levi J. Management of pediatric orbital cellulitis: A systematic review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 Jul;110:123-129. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.05.006. Epub 2018 May 8. PMID: 29859573. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
10/9/20234 minutes, 40 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #17: Mania

Contributors: Andrew White MD - Outpatient Psychiatrist; Fellowship Trained in Addiction Psychiatry; Denver Health Travis Barlock MD - Emergency Medicine Physician; Swedish Medical Center Summary In this episode of Mental Health Monthly, Dr. Travis Barlock hosts Dr. Andrew White to discuss the elements of mania that may be encountered in the emergency department. The discussion includes a helpful mnemonic to assess mania, work-up and treatment in the ED, underlying causes of mania, mental health holds, inpatient treatment, and the role of sleep in mania. Educational Pearls Initial assessment of suspected mania can be done via DIGFAST: Distractibility - Individual that is unable to carry a linear, goal-directed conversation Impulsivity - Executive functioning is impaired and patients are unable to control their behaviors Grandiosity - Elevated mood and sense of self to delusions of grandeur Flight of ideas - Usually described as racing thoughts Agitation - Increase in psychomotor activity; start several projects of which they have little previous knowledge  Sleep decrease - Typically, manic episodes start with insomnia and can devolve into multiday sleeplessness Talkativeness - More talkative than usual with pressured speech and a tangential thought process Interviewing patients requires an understanding of mood-based mania vs. psychosis-based mania An individual with mood-based mania will more likely be restless, whereas a patient with psychosis-based mania will be more relaxed from a psychomotor standpoint Treatment of manic patients in the ED includes the use of antipsychotics to manage acute symptomatology Management can be informed and directed by the patient’s history i.e. known medications that have worked for the patient ED management of manic patients involves a work-up for a broad differential including agitated delirium, substance-induced mania, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Some individuals experience manic episodes from marijuana and other illicit substances Antidepressants used in bipolar patients for suspected depression may induce mania Important to avoid using antidepressants as first-line therapy Mental health holds can be beneficial in patients with grave disabilities from mania Oftentimes, undertreatment of manic episodes leads to re-hospitalization Inpatient treatment: Environment is important - ensure that patients get solo rooms if possible to minimize stimulation Antipsychotics, including risperidone and olanzapine, with or without a benzodiazepine, are useful for short-term agitation Long-term treatment involves coupled pharmacological treatments with non-pharmacological treatments Sleep Fractured sleep is one of the earliest warning signs that someone has an imminent manic episode Poor sleep can be an inciting factor for mania, which then turns into a cycle that further propagates a patient’s manic episode Summarized and edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Studio production by Jeffrey Olson, MS2  
10/5/202340 minutes, 43 seconds
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Podcast 871: Increased Intracranial Pressure and the Cushing Reflex

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Education Pearls: The Cushing Reflex is a physiologic response to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) Cushing’s Triad: widened pulse pressure (systolic hypertension), bradycardia, and irregular respirations Increased ICP results from systolic hypertension, which causes a parasympathetic reflex to drop heart rate, leading to Cushing’s Triad.  The Cushing Reflex is a sign of herniation Treatment includes: Hypertonic saline is comparable to mannitol and preferable in patients with hypovolemia or hyponatremia Give 250-500mL of 3%NaCl 20% Mannitol - given at a dose of 0.5-1 g/kg Each additional dose of 0.1 g/kg reduces ICP by 1 mm Hg 23.4% hypertonic saline is more often given in the neuro ICU 8.4% Sodium bicarbonate lowers ICP for 6 hours without causing metabolic acidosis Non-pharmacological interventions: Raise the head of the bed to 30-45 degrees Remove the c-collar to improve blood flow to the head Hyperventilation induces hypocapnia, which will vasoconsrict the cerebral arterioles You hyperventilate on the way to the OR. Otherwise, maintain normocapnia. References Alnemari AM, Krafcik BM, Mansour TR, Gaudin D. A Comparison of Pharmacologic Therapeutic Agents Used for the Reduction of Intracranial Pressure After Traumatic Brain Injury. World Neurosurg. 2017;106:509-528. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2017.07.009 Bourdeaux C, Brown J. Sodium bicarbonate lowers intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2010;13(1):24-28. doi:10.1007/s12028-010-9368-8 Dinallo S, Waseem M. Cushing Reflex. [Updated 2023 Mar 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK549801/ Godoy DA, Seifi A, Garza D, Lubillo-Montenegro S, Murillo-Cabezas F. Hyperventilation therapy for control of posttraumatic intracranial hypertension. Front Neurol. 2017;8(JUL):1-13. doi:10.3389/fneur.2017.00250 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
10/2/20233 minutes, 42 seconds
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On The Streets #15: Hydrofluoric Acid Case Review

Contributors: Kalen Abbott, MD - EM Physician and Medical Director for AirLife Denver Brendan Reiss - Flight Nurse AirLife Denver Matt Spoon - Flight Paramedic AirLife Denver Jordan Ourada - EMS Coordinator at Swedish Medical Center and Paramedic Summary: In this episode, hosted by Jordan Ourada, Brendan Reiss and Matt Spoon present a first-hand experience case of hydrofluoric acid exposure in a pediatric patient. Commentary and educational pearls are provided by EM Physician, Kalen Abbott. The case:  The patient was a male infant who had spilled a large amount of heavy-duty acid aluminum wheel cleaner on himself while playing in his parent's garage. Unclear if he had ingested any fluid. The cleaning fluid contained a large percentage of hydrofluoric acid. He was brought by EMS to his local hospital, who quickly decided to transport the infant by helicopter to a large Denver hospital. Initial labs were unremarkable and the EKG was normal. Heart rate was in the 140s. Blood pressure was 110/73. Respirations were around 30 and non-labored. Chest and abdominal x-rays were unremarkable. The patient had received a water-based decontamination and 1 gram of calcium gluconate IV. Complications: Immediately before leaving a nurse informed Brendan and Matt that the serum calcium was 6.8 mg/dl (normal range: 8.5 to 10.2). During the flight, the patient went into cardiac arrest. The patient achieved ROSC after CPR was administered in the helicopter. Once on the ground, an I/O line was started and calcium chloride, sodium bicarb, and normal saline were administered. Within the first 2 hours that patient received the equivalent of 310 mg/kg of calcium (the pediatric dose is 20 mg/kg) Care resolution: The patient ended up having a several-week stay in the pediatric ICU. There were some complications such as pulmonary hemorrhage. Calcium gluconate was continued via nebulization for several days. Ultimately, the child was weaned off the ventilator and spontaneous respirations resumed. They were able to wean the child off vasopressors and sedation over the course of several days. A gastric lavage with calcium gluconate was completed as well during the inpatient stay. The child was able to leave the hospital, neurologically intact after about 14 days.  Pearls: Lower concentrations of acids can be more dangerous because they don’t immediately burn but rather can be absorbed systemically through the skin. Calcium is the antidote to hydrofluoric acid exposure. Calcium chloride has 3 times the elemental calcium as calcium gluconate. The maximum infusion rate of calcium chloride through a peripheral line is 1 gram every 10 minutes, calcium gluconate can be infused at 1 gram every 5 minutes. When intubating a patient with acid exposure, avoid succinylcholine because of the risk of hyperkalemia. References Caravati EM. Acute hydrofluoric acid exposure. Am J Emerg Med. 1988 Mar;6(2):143-50. doi: 10.1016/0735-6757(88)90053-8. PMID: 3281684. Pepe J, Colangelo L, Biamonte F, Sonato C, Danese VC, Cecchetti V, Occhiuto M, Piazzolla V, De Martino V, Ferrone F, Minisola S, Cipriani C. Diagnosis and management of hypocalcemia. Endocrine. 2020 Sep;69(3):485-495. doi: 10.1007/s12020-020-02324-2. Epub 2020 May 4. PMID: 32367335. Strayer RJ. Succinylcholine, rocuronium, and hyperkalemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2016 Aug;34(8):1705-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2016.05.039. Epub 2016 May 19. PMID: 27241569. Vallentin MF, Granfeldt A, Meilandt C, Povlsen AL, Sindberg B, Holmberg MJ, Iversen BN, Mærkedahl R, Mortensen LR, Nyboe R, Vandborg MP, Tarpgaard M, Runge C, Christiansen CF, Dissing TH, Terkelsen CJ, Christensen S, Kirkegaard H, Andersen LW. Effect of Intravenous or Intraosseous Calcium vs Saline on Return of Spontaneous Circulation in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021 Dec 14;326(22):2268-2276. doi: 10.1001/jama.2021.20929. PMID: 34847226; PMCID: PMC8634154. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jeffrey Olson, Meg Joyce, & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
9/29/202341 minutes, 11 seconds
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Episode 870: Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS)

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is ATLS? Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) is a systematic and comprehensive approach to the evaluation and management of trauma patients It was developed by the American College of Surgeons (ACS) The key components include the Primary Survey ("ABCDE"), the Secondary Survey, Definitive Care, and Special Considerations What are the issues with ATLS? ATLS relies on many algorithms and rules-of-thumb, which might be helpful for individuals with basic skills and training but might actually present obstacles for those with higher levels of training. Dr. Hurley cites several examples. Example 1: ABC approach to trauma patients ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation but focusing on the airway first is not always the best decision. Immediate attention may need to be applied to massive hemorrhage. Intubating a patient that is hemodynamically unstable may cause cardiac arrest. A more helpful phrase might be “Resuscitate before you intubate.” Example 2: C-spine precautions Cervical collars may impede the likelihood of first-pass success when intubating. The risk of complications from a failed airway may often outweigh the risk of causing a spinal cord injury. Example 3:Cutting clothes off. The E of ABCDE stands for exposure which means fully undressing the patient to look for missing injuries. This often involves cutting their clothes off. This practice might be too broadly applied and leave low-risk trauma patients without any clothes to wear when discharged home. Example 4: Digital rectal exam A rectal exam can be a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with abdominal or pelvic injuries. It can help screen for rectal bleeding, pelvic fractures, and neurological function However, the rectal exam is not a sensitive test. A retrospective study from the Indian Journal of Surgery found that a rectal exam missed 100% of urethra injuries, 92% of spinal cord injuries, 93% of small bowel injuries, 100% of colon injuries, and 67% of rectal injuries in trauma patients. Example 6: Pushing on pelvis for pelvic injuries Pushing on the pelvis to check for instability can cause further damage to an unstable pelvis. Imaging the pelvis is far more important than pressing on it if a pelvic fracture is suspected.  Example 7: FAST exam A FAST exam, which stands for "Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma," is a rapid ultrasound examination used to assess trauma patients for signs of internal bleeding or organ damage in the abdomen and chest. These can be very useful as an initial test to tell a trauma surgeon where to start looking for internal bleeding in an unstable blunt traumatic injury If a patient is stable and likely going to get a CT scan whether the FAST is positive or negative then the test is unnecessary References ATLS Subcommittee; American College of Surgeons’ Committee on Trauma; International ATLS working group. Advanced trauma life support (ATLS®): the ninth edition. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 May;74(5):1363-6. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e31828b82f5. PMID: 23609291. Bloom BA, Gibbons RC. Focused Assessment With Sonography for Trauma. 2023 Jul 24. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 29261902. Brown R. Oxygenate and Resuscitate Before You Intubate. Common pitfalls to avoid when managing the crashing airway. EMS World. 2016 Jan;45(1):48-50, 52, 54-5. PMID: 26852546. Chrimes N, Marshall SD. Attempt XYZ: airway management at the opposite end of the alphabet. Anaesthesia. 2018 Dec;73(12):1464-1468. doi: 10.1111/anae.14361. Epub 2018 Jul 11. PMID: 29998563. Docimo S Jr, Diggs L, Crankshaw L, Lee Y, Vinces F. No Evidence Supporting the Routine Use of Digital Rectal Examinations in Trauma Patients. Indian J Surg. 2015 Aug;77(4):265-9. doi: 10.1007/s12262-015-1283-y. Epub 2015 May 19. PMID: 26702232; PMCID: PMC4688269. Groeneveld A, McKenzie ML, Williams D. Logrolling: establishing consistent practice. Orthop Nurs. 2001 Mar-Apr;20(2):45-9. doi: 10.1097/00006416-200103000-00011. PMID: 12024634. Morgenstern, J. The FAST exam: overused and overrated?, First10EM, August 30, 2021. Rodrigues IFDC. To log-roll or not to log-roll - That is the question! A review of the use of the log-roll for patients with pelvic fractures. Int J Orthop Trauma Nurs. 2017 Nov;27:36-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ijotn.2017.05.001. Epub 2017 May 10. PMID: 28797555. Sapsford W. Should the 'C' in 'ABCDE' be altered to reflect the trend towards hypotensive resuscitation? Scand J Surg. 2008;97(1):4-11; discussion 12-3. doi: 10.1177/145749690809700102. PMID: 18450202. Sundstrøm T, Asbjørnsen H, Habiba S, Sunde GA, Wester K. Prehospital use of cervical collars in trauma patients: a critical review. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Mar 15;31(6):531-40. doi: 10.1089/neu.2013.3094. Epub 2013 Nov 6. PMID: 23962031; PMCID: PMC3949434. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
9/25/20237 minutes, 27 seconds
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Podcast 869: Shift Work

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Shift work is defined as anything that takes place outside of a 9-5 schedule, not exempting day-shift medical workers Various ill effects of shift work on overall health: Increased all-cause mortality Increased number of accidents Glucose metabolism dysregulation Increased BMI Fertility impacts for men and women Increased breast cancer risk Decreased cognitive functioning Mitigation strategies Work at the same time every day Anchor Sleep - always try to be asleep at the same time of day Progressive shifts: day- into swing- into night shift instead of the other way around Three days off after a stretch of nights can help reset sleep schedule Shorter night shifts Morning shifts should start no earlier than 8 AM Sleep hygiene Ensure an ideal sleep environment; cool, dark, and damp Avoid bright lights when going to sleep Exposure to bright lights when waking up Hydration throughout your shift Stop caffeine at midnight if you are working a night shift Eat healthy meals and avoid junk food Avoid eating 2-3 hours before going to sleep References Boivin, D. B., Boudreau, P., & Kosmadopoulos, A. (2022). Disturbance of the Circadian System in Shift Work and Its Health Impact. Journal of biological rhythms, 37(1), 3–28. https://doi.org/10.1177/07487304211064218 Jang TW. Work-Fitness Evaluation for Shift Work Disorder. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(3):1294. Published 2021 Feb 1. doi:10.3390/ijerph18031294 Minors DS, Waterhouse JM. Anchor sleep as a synchronizer of rhythms on abnormal routines. Int J Chronobiol. 1981;7(3):165-188. Reinganum MI, Thomas J. Shift Work Hazards. [Updated 2023 Jan 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK589670/ Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
9/18/20234 minutes, 28 seconds
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Episode 868: Airway Management in Obesity

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Why is airway management more difficult in obesity? Larger body habitus causes the chest to be above the head when the patient is lying supine, creating difficult angles for intubation. Reduced Functional Residual Capacity (FRC) causes these patients to deoxygenate much more quickly, reducing the amount of time during which the intubation can take place. What special considerations need to be made? Positioning. The auditory canal and sternal notch should be aligned in a horizontal plane. Do this by stacking blankets to lift the neck and head. Also, try to make the head itself parallel to the ceiling. Pre-oxygenation. Use Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP) with Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) or a Bag-Valve-Mask (BVM) with a PEEP valve. PEEP helps prevent alveoli from collapsing after every breath and improves oxygenation. Dosing of paralytics. Succinylcholine is dosed on total body weight so the dose will be much larger for the obese patient. Rocuronium is dosed on ideal body weight, but adjusted body weight may also be used in obese cases.  References De Jong A, Wrigge H, Hedenstierna G, Gattinoni L, Chiumello D, Frat JP, Ball L, Schetz M, Pickkers P, Jaber S. How to ventilate obese patients in the ICU. Intensive Care Med. 2020 Dec;46(12):2423-2435. doi: 10.1007/s00134-020-06286-x. Epub 2020 Oct 23. PMID: 33095284; PMCID: PMC7582031. Langeron O, Birenbaum A, Le Saché F, Raux M. Airway management in obese patient. Minerva Anestesiol. 2014 Mar;80(3):382-92. Epub 2013 Oct 14. PMID: 24122033. Sharma S, Arora L. Anesthesia for the Morbidly Obese Patient. Anesthesiol Clin. 2020 Mar;38(1):197-212. doi: 10.1016/j.anclin.2019.10.008. Epub 2020 Jan 2. PMID: 32008653. Singer BD, Corbridge TC. Basic invasive mechanical ventilation. South Med J. 2009 Dec;102(12):1238-45. doi: 10.1097/SMJ.0b013e3181bfac4f. PMID: 20016432. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
9/11/20233 minutes, 42 seconds
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Episode 867: Occult Scaphoid Fractures

Contributor: Nick Tsipis MD Educational Pearls: The scaphoid bone is the most proximal carpal bone just distal to the radius Fractures of the scaphoid bone are sometimes missed by plain X-rays A 2020 review found a 21.8% incidence of missed scaphoid fractures later diagnosed by advanced imaging modalities Only MRI has a sensitivity above 90% for diagnosing scaphoid fractures Sensitivity of plain-film radiography is low unless it is a displaced fracture Physical examination techniques fail to definitively rule out scaphoid fractures A 2023 systematic review assessed the sensitivity and specificity of several common physical exam maneuvers: Tenderness of the anatomical snuffbox has a sensitivity of 92.1% and specificity of 48.4%; i.e. absence reduces the likelihood of an occult scaphoid fracture but does not rule it out Another common physical exam maneuver is pain with ulnar deviation, which carries a sensitivity of 55.2% and specificity of 76.4%. Elicitation of pain with supination against resistance demonstrated a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 97.9% in the study, so the authors recommend externally validating this method Patients should be counseled on the importance of follow-up given that a fracture may not show up on imaging unless an MRI or repeat XR is done References 1. Bäcker HC, Wu CH, Strauch RJ. Systematic Review of Diagnosis of Clinically Suspected Scaphoid Fractures. J Wrist Surg. 2020;09(01):081-089. doi:10.1055/s-0039-1693147 2. Coventry L, Oldrini I, Dean B, Novak A, Duckworth A, Metcalfe D. Which clinical features best predict occult scaphoid fractures? A systematic review of diagnostic test accuracy studies. Emerg Med J. 2023;40(8):576 LP - 582. doi:10.1136/emermed-2023-213119 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
9/4/20234 minutes, 9 seconds
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Podcast 866: Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Overdose

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is Carbamazepine (Tegretol)? Carbamazepine is an anti-epileptic drug with mood-stabilizing properties that is used to treat bipolar disorder, epilepsy, and neuropathic pain. It functions primarily by blocking sodium channels which can prevent repetitive action potential firing. What are the symptoms of an overdose? Common initial signs include diminished conscious state, nystagmus, ataxia, hyperreflexia, CNS depression, dystonia, and tachycardia Severe toxicity can cause seizures, respiratory depression, decreased myocardial contractility, pulmonary edema, hypotension, and dysrhythmias. How is an overdose treated? An overdose is treated with large doses of activated charcoal and correction of electrolyte disturbances. Be ready to intubate given the potential for respiratory depression. Carbamazepine is moderately dialyzable and dialysis is recommended in severe overdoses. Additional educational pearl: Individuals in correctional facilities can occasionally self-administer medications which means that medication overdose should still be on the differential for any of these individuals. References Epilepsies in children, Young People and adults: NICE guideline [NG217]. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. (2022, April 27). https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng217  Ghannoum M, Yates C, Galvao TF, Sowinski KM, Vo TH, Coogan A, Gosselin S, Lavergne V, Nolin TD, Hoffman RS; EXTRIP workgroup. Extracorporeal treatment for carbamazepine poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2014 Dec;52(10):993-1004. doi: 10.3109/15563650.2014.973572. Epub 2014 Oct 30. PMID: 25355482; PMCID: PMC4782683. Seymour JF. Carbamazepine overdose. Features of 33 cases. Drug Saf. 1993 Jan;8(1):81-8. doi: 10.2165/00002018-199308010-00010. PMID: 8471190. Spiller HA. Management of carbamazepine overdose. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001 Dec;17(6):452-6. doi: 10.1097/00006565-200112000-00015. PMID: 11753195. Tran NT, Pralong D, Secrétan AD, Renaud A, Mary G, Nicholas A, Mouton E, Rubio C, Dubost C, Meach F, Bréchet-Bachmann AC, Wolff H. Access to treatment in prison: an inventory of medication preparation and distribution approaches. F1000Res. 2020 May 13;9:357. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.23640.3. PMID: 33123347; PMCID: PMC7570324. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
8/28/20232 minutes, 46 seconds
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Laboring Under Pressure- Episode 1. ACLS in Pregnancy with Dr. Jason Papazian

Contributor: Jason Papazian MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss several clips from Dr. Jason Papazian’s talk at the event “Laboring Under Pressure, Managing Obstetric Emergencies in a Global Setting” from May 2023. This event was hosted at the University of Denver and was organized with the help of Joe Parker as a fundraiser for the organization Health Outreach Latin America (HOLA).   Dr. Jason Papazian practices Obstetric Anesthesiology for the Maternal Fetal Care Unit at Children's Hospital Colorado. He is the Assistant Program Director of Didactics for the Anesthesiology Residency at the University of Colorado, as well as the Faculty Advisor to Residents and Obstetric Anesthesiology Fellows.   During his talk, Dr. Papazian walks the audience through the steps of a maternal cardiac arrest from initial rapid response, to intubation, CPR, ACLS, and eventually emergency cesarean section.   Some important take-away points from this talk are: The basics save lives. Focus on oxygenating the patient and providing high quality CPR In order to maximize blood return during CPR on an obstetric patient, manually retract the gravid uterus to the left If an arresting mother does not obtain return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) by 4 minutes, the most qualified person should perform a rapid 1-minute bedside cesarean section. This has mortality benefits for both the mother and the infant.   Other medical topics discussed include changes in the obstetric patient’s physiology, roles during a rapid response, steps of intubation, causes of cardiac arrest, management of cardiac arrest, and how pregnancy does (and doesn’t) change ACLS.   References Bennett TA, Katz VL, Zelop CM. Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation Unique to Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2016 Dec;43(4):809-819. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2016.07.011. PMID: 27816162. Campbell TA, Sanson TG. Cardiac arrest and pregnancy. J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2009 Jan;2(1):34-42. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.43586. PMID: 19561954; PMCID: PMC2700584. Health Outreach for Latin America Foundation - HOLA Foundation. (n.d.). http://www.hola-foundation.org/ Kikuchi J, Deering S. Cardiac arrest in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol. 2018 Feb;42(1):33-38. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2017.11.007. Epub 2017 Dec 13. PMID: 29246735. Produced by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jeffrey Olson and Jorge Chalit, OMSII *********************  
8/24/202332 minutes, 1 second
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Podcast 865: Nausea Treatments - Droperidol vs Ondansetron RCT

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A recent randomized controlled trial compared ondansetron 8 mg IV with droperidol 2.5 mg IV for the treatment of nausea & vomiting in the emergency department.  Overall, droperidol and ondansetron had similar primary outcomes in acute nausea control  Symptom improvement in 93% of patients receiving droperidol vs. 87% receiving ondansetron (P = 0.362) Secondary measures were, however, statistically significantly different between groups Patients needed fewer rescue/additional antiemetics in the droperidol group (16%) compared with the ondansetron group (37%); p = 0.016 Similarly, more patients in the droperidol group reported they achieved the desired effect of the medication (85% vs. 63%; p = 0.006) Patients receiving droperidol did experience increased drowsiness 40% in the droperidol group vs. 11% in the ondansetron group The trial did not assess the length of stay in the ED after administering medications, which is a potential avenue for future research. References 1. Philpott L, Clemensen E, Lau GT. Droperidol versus ondansetron for nausea treatment within the emergency department. EMA - Emerg Med Australas. 2023;(December 2022):605-611. doi:10.1111/1742-6723.14174 Summarized & Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
8/21/20232 minutes, 3 seconds
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Podcast 864: Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) vs Venous Blood Gas (VBG)

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: What is measured in an ABG/VBG? Blood values for oxygen tension (pO2), carbon dioxide tension (pCO2), acidity (pH), oxyhemoglobin saturation, and bicarbonate (HCO3) in either arterial or venous blood Other tests can measure methemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin levels, base excess, and lactate What are they used for? Identification of ventilation/acid-base disturbances. For example: if a patient is in septic shock, oxyhemoglobin saturation can be used to guide resuscitation efforts (early goal- directed therapy) What's the difference between an ABG and VBG? One of the main differences is how the blood samples are collected. Venous blood gas is normally collected from existing venous access such as a central venous catheter. Arterial blood gases must be drawn from an artery, such as the radial artery. Arterial blood draws can be difficult, painful, and contraindicated in many situations. ABGs have traditionally provided more accurate measurements for assessing oxygenation, ventilation, and acid-base status. However, several studies have found that VBGs can still be used to accurately assess pH, pCO2, HCO3, lactate, sodium, potassium, chloride, ionized calcium, blood urea nitrogen, base excess, and arterial/alveolar oxygen ratio. This is supported by a recent study in 2023 in the International Journal of Emergency Medicine which specifically studied patients with hypotension and use of VBGs for resuscitation guidance.  Are there other non-invasive methods that can be used to fill in the gaps to avoid ordering an ABG? Oxygenation can be measured by pulse oximetry Arterial carbon dioxide tension can be estimated by end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) Mixed venous blood gases are another alternative for patients who already have a pulmonary artery catheter References Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, Ressler J, Muzzin A, Knoblich B, Peterson E, Tomlanovich M; Early Goal-Directed Therapy Collaborative Group. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1368-77. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa010307. PMID: 11794169. Prasad H, Vempalli N, Agrawal N, Ajun UN, Salam A, Subhra Datta S, Singhal A, Ranjan N, Shabeeba Sherin PP, Sundareshan G. Correlation and agreement between arterial and venous blood gas analysis in patients with hypotension-an emergency department-based cross-sectional study. Int J Emerg Med. 2023 Mar 10;16(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s12245-023-00486-0. PMID: 36899297; PMCID: PMC9999648. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
8/14/20232 minutes, 33 seconds
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Podcast 863: Treatments for Alcohol Use Disorder

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Patients with alcohol use disorder are frequently discharged from the ED without further resources Pharmacological treatments to reduce cravings in AUD exist Naltrexone  Effective at reducing alcohol cravings and heavy drinking  Gabapentin Reduces the percentage of heavy drinking days in AUD Patients being discharged from the ED should be asked if they feel their alcohol use is a problem, which can further direct appropriate pharmacological interventions References 1. Kranzler M.D. HR, Feinn Ph.D. R, Morris B.A. P, Hartwell Ph.D. EE. A Meta-analysis of the Efficacy of Gabapentin for Treating Alcohol Use Disorder Henry. Addiction. 2019;114(9):1547-1555. doi:10.1111/add.14655 2. Maisel NC, Blodgett JC, Wilbourne PL, Humphreys K, Finney JW. Meta-analysis of naltrexone and acamprosate for treating alcohol use disorders: When are these medications most helpful? Addiction. 2013;108(2):275-293. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04054.x 3. Mariani JJ, Pavlicova M, Basaraba C, et al. Pilot randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of high-dose gabapentin for alcohol use disorder. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2021;45(8):1639-1652. doi:10.1111/acer.14648 Summarized & Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
8/7/20232 minutes, 26 seconds
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Podcast 862: How to Apply a Painful Stimulus

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: When might you need to apply a painful stimulus in a medical setting? The main reason is to assess the patient's level of consciousness, such as when they are waking up from anesthesia or have potentially suffered a brain injury. It can be part of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) if patients are not responding to auditory stimuli. Possible levels of consciousness include Alert, Lethargic, Obtunded, and Comatose (ALOC) What are the approved ways to apply a painful stimulus to assess central nervous system function? Trapezius squeeze. Grab the trapezius muscle and twist (contraindicated in clavicle fractures). Supraorbital rim pressure. Find the notch in the supraorbital rim of the patient and push hard with your thumb (contraindicated in facial fractures). Mandibular pressure (not mentioned). Press hard at the angle of the jaw on the mandibular nerve (contraindicated in mandible fractures). Sternal rub. Push down with your knuckles into the patient’s sternum and rub vigorously (contraindicated in chest injury/surgery). Each technique should be done for between 15 and 30 seconds. If skin damage is observed in one location, move to a different location. This is especially true of the sternal rub. Important note: Peripheral techniques such as nail tip pressure should only be used to evaluate spinal nerve reflexes and not as a method of assessing the level of consciousness. References Lower J. Using pain to assess neurologic response. Nursing. 2003 Jun;33(6):56-7. doi: 10.1097/00152193-200306000-00047. PMID: 12799591. Middleton PM. Practical use of the Glasgow Coma Scale; a comprehensive narrative review of GCS methodology. Australas Emerg Nurs J. 2012 Aug;15(3):170-83. doi: 10.1016/j.aenj.2012.06.002. Epub 2012 Aug 3. PMID: 22947690. Mistovich JJ, Krost W, Limmer DD. Beyond the basics: patient assessment. Emerg Med Serv. 2006 Jul;35(7):72-7; quiz 78-9. PMID: 16878751. Naalla R, Chitirala P, Chittaluru P, Atreyapurapu V. Sternal rub causing presternal abrasion in a patient with capsuloganglionic haemorrhage. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Apr 7;2014:bcr2014204028. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2014-204028. PMID: 24711478; PMCID: PMC3987201. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII
7/31/20232 minutes, 29 seconds
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Podcast 861: Alcohol Withdrawal and Delirium Tremens

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Alcohol binds the GABA receptor, which produces an inhibitory response, hence the “depressive” effects of ethanol beverages. Over time, alcohol downregulates the GABA receptors, leading to unopposed glutamate activity. Given that glutamate is excitatory, this can lead to seizures. Alcohol also suppresses REM sleep; in patients with chronically suppressed REM sleep, the brain starves for dream sleep and it spills over into the wakeful state, inducing a dream-like state when someone is awake. The awake dream-like state of delirium tremens (DT) differs from alcohol hallucinosis Alcohol hallucinosis presents with visual hallucinations in a wakeful state DT presents with a generalized clouding of the sensorium and a dream-like state Treatment for DT is better achieved with phenobarbital due to predictable pharmacology Phenobarbital acts on GABA and NMDA receptors References 1. Davies M. The role of GABAA receptors in mediating the effects of alcohol in the central nervous system. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2003;28(4):263-274. 2. Fujimoto J, Lou JJ, Pessegueiro AM. Use of Phenobarbital in Delirium Tremens. J Investig Med High Impact Case Reports. 2017;5(4):4-6. doi:10.1177/2324709617742166 3. Walker, M. Chapter 13: iPads, Factory Whistles, and Nightcaps In: Walker, M, Why We Sleep. Scribner; 2017, pg. 272.  4. Zarcone V. Alcoholism and sleep. Adv Biosci. 1978;21:29-38. Summarized & Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
7/24/20234 minutes, 49 seconds
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Ukraine Brewtalk Featuring Dr. Dave Young

Contributors: David Young MD, John Hesling MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss several clips from the event “Ukraine Brewtalk” from October 2022. This event was hosted by the University of Colorado’s Center for COMBAT Research and Emergency Medical Minute assisted in the audio recording of the speakers. The first clip is of a brief talk by Dr. John Hesling who was presenting some of his research about Pediatric Supermassive Transfusions. The second and third clips are from the keynote speaker, Dr. Dave Young, an Emergency Medicine Physician at the University of Colorado Hospital, talking about his experience of serving with USA’s Team Rubicon providing medical aid in war-torn Ukraine. Medical topics discussed include Pediatric trauma, blood transfusions, tourniquet use, refugee care, and blast injuries. References Hesling JD, Paulson MW, McKay JT, Bebarta VS, Flarity K, Keenan S, Fisher AD, Borgman MA, April MD, Schauer SG. Characterizing pediatric supermassive transfusion and the contributing injury patterns in the combat environment. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Jan;51:139-143. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.10.032. Epub 2021 Oct 24. Erratum in: Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Feb;52:275. PMID: 34739866. UNHCR. (2023, July 11). Ukraine Refugee Situation. Operational Data Portal. https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/ukraine  Ainsley, J. (2023, February 24). U.S. has admitted 271,000 Ukrainian refugees since Russian invasion, far above Biden’s goal of 100,000. NBCNews.com. https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/immigration/us-admits-271000-ukrainian-refugees-russia-invasion-biden-rcna72177  Built to serve. Team Rubicon. https://teamrubiconusa.org/  Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS1 | Edited by Jeffrey Olson MS1 and Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
7/21/202338 minutes, 44 seconds
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Podcast 860: Thyrotoxicosis

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Clinical picture: A patient comes in with altered mental status, tachycardia, fever, elevated T4, and low TSH. What’s the diagnosis?... Thyrotoxicosis secondary to Graves’ Disease. How do you treat thyrotoxicosis? First, give a beta-blocker such as propranolol. This suppresses the elevated adrenergic activity. Second, give a thionamide such as propylthiouracil (PTU) or methimazole. This decreases the synthesis of new thyroid hormone. PTU is preferred because it also blocks the conversion of T4 to T3. Third, give an iodine solution such as potassium iodide. This blocks the release of thyroid hormone through a mechanism called the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Note, this should be given about an hour after the PTU/methimazole to ensure iodine cannot be taken up and used to synthesize more thyroid hormone in individuals with toxic adenoma or toxic multinodular goiter. Fourth, give a glucocorticoid such as hydrocortisone. This will reduce thyroid hormone conversion from T4 to T3 and treat any concurrent adrenal insufficiency. References Abuid J, Larsen PR. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine in hyperthyroidism. Comparison of the acute changes during therapy with antithyroid agents. J Clin Invest. 1974 Jul;54(1):201-8. doi: 10.1172/JCI107744. PMID: 4134836; PMCID: PMC301541. Cooper DS, Saxe VC, Meskell M, Maloof F, Ridgway EC. Acute effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroidal iodide organification and peripheral iodothyronine deiodination: correlation with serum PTU levels measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 Jan;54(1):101-7. doi: 10.1210/jcem-54-1-101. PMID: 6274892. Das G, Krieger M. Treatment of thyrotoxic storm with intravenous administration of propranolol. Ann Intern Med. 1969 May;70(5):985-8. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-70-5-985. PMID: 5769631. Nayak B, Burman K. Thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2006 Dec;35(4):663-86, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2006.09.008. PMID: 17127140. Tsatsoulis A, Johnson EO, Kalogera CH, Seferiadis K, Tsolas O. The effect of thyrotoxicosis on adrenocortical reserve. Eur J Endocrinol. 2000 Mar;142(3):231-5. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1420231. PMID: 10700716. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII
7/20/20232 minutes, 16 seconds
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Podcast 859: Teamwork Really Makes the Dream Work

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: 33 Medical residents and 91 nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital were randomized into two groups: Intervention group: 15 PGY-1 residents assigned to the same medical service floor for a 16-week period (12 weeks after adjustment for COVID-19 restrictions) alongside 43 nurses. Control group: 18 PGY-1 residents assigned to the usual 4-week block rotations across 6 medical floors.  At 6 months, there were no differences in teamwork performance metrics including advanced medical simulations and nurse presence at rounds. The 12-month assessment demonstrated improvement in performance metrics. Increased time together allows individuals to get to know each other better and therefore improve performance metrics that rely on communication. References 1. Iyasere CA, Wing J, Martel JN, Healy MG, Park YS, Finn KM. Effect of Increased Interprofessional Familiarity on Team Performance, Communication, and Psychological Safety on Inpatient Medical Teams: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(11):1190-1198. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.4373 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
7/10/20232 minutes, 34 seconds
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Podcast 858: Whole Blood Pregnancy Test

Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What do you do if you need a stat pregnancy test on an incapacitated patient? You can send a serum quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG), but that might take a while for the lab to process. Another option is to place a drop of whole blood on a urine pregnancy immunoassay. These tests are already verified for urine and serum. 2012 study showed that whole blood was 95.8% sensitive for pregnancy compared to 95.3% for urine. Takes a little bit longer (10 minutes was used in the study) due to the viscosity of blood. Word of caution: This study only looked at a single urine pregnancy kit type. It is possible that other kits would have a different efficacy. There are new finger stick tests coming out for capillary blood. Anecdotally, Dr. Hurley was able to use this technique to support a diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a patient that needed emergent surgery. References Fromm C, Likourezos A, Haines L, Khan AN, Williams J, Berezow J. Substituting whole blood for urine in a bedside pregnancy test. J Emerg Med. 2012 Sep;43(3):478-82. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2011.05.028. Epub 2011 Aug 27. PMID: 21875776. Sowder AM, Yarbrough ML, Nerenz RD, Mitsios JV, Mortensen R, Gronowski AM, Grenache DG. Analytical performance evaluation of the i-STAT Total β-human chorionic gonadotropin immunoassay. Clin Chim Acta. 2015 Jun 15;446:165-70. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2015.04.025. Epub 2015 Apr 25. PMID: 25916696. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
7/3/20234 minutes, 5 seconds
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Podcast 857: Alice in Wonderland Jeopardy

Contributor: Chris Holmes MD Educational Pearls: “It’s a poor sort of memory that only works backwards” - Transient Global Amnesia A syndrome with sudden retrograde memory loss in which patients cannot retain new information Characterized by perseveration in frequent intervals Typically improves within hours MRI is normal initially Alice In Wonderland Syndrome A disorder in which patients experience distortions in their visual perceptions Most often characterized by micropsia and/or macropsia Other symptoms may include illusory movement or wavy lines Alice in Wonderland as a metaphor for birth Traveling down the rabbit hole is conception Alice getting bigger in a confined space is pregnancy Drinking potions is amniotic fluid Escaping to explore a scary world is childbirth References 1. Blom JD. Alice in wonderland syndrome. Alice Wonderl Syndr. 2019;(June):1-221. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-18609-8 2. Ropper M.D. AH. Transient Global Amnesia. N Engl J Med. 2023;(388):635-640. doi:10.1056/NEJMra2213867 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
6/26/20233 minutes, 28 seconds
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Podcast 856: ED Errors and Counterstudy

Contributor: Nicholas Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: What study was Dr. Tsipis talking about? In December of 2022, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) put out a study titled “Diagnostic Errors in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review.” This study triggered many news stories from prominent outlets with headlines such as, “More than 7 million incorrect diagnoses made in US emergency rooms every year, government report finds,” from CNN, and “E.R. Doctors Misdiagnose Patients With Unusual Symptoms,” from the New York Times. What was the response? Matt Bivens, MD from Emergency Medicine News responded to the original study in an article titled, “AHRQ Errors Report was ‘Outright Unconscionable.’” Dr. Bivens points out that AHRQ’s biggest claims – including that 5.7% of patients are misdiagnosed in the ED and 2.0% suffer an adverse event as a result – were based only on three small studies out of Canada, Spain, and Switzerland (combined n=1,758). Spain and Switzerland did not have emergency medicine residency-trained physicians at the time of the studies. The Swiss study looked at when the diagnosis changed significantly between admittance and discharge to which Bivens responded, “Are we describing errors in this study or just an ongoing collaborative process?” The Canadian study looked at 503 high-acuity patients of which one died of a missed aortic dissection. Bivens notes that this is too small of sample size to be generalized to the American ER population which includes a mix of low and high acuity. Moral of the story? Mistakes do happen in the ED and they do negatively impact patients but be careful in how you interpret studies and news articles that report on them. References Newman-Toker DE, Peterson SM, Badihian S, Hassoon A, Nassery N, Parizadeh D, Wilson LM, Jia Y, Omron R, Tharmarajah S, Guerin L, Bastani PB, Fracica EA, Kotwal S, Robinson KA. Diagnostic Errors in the Emergency Department: A Systematic Review. Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 258. (Prepared by the Johns Hopkins University Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 75Q80120D00003.) AHRQ Publication No. 22(23)-EHC043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; December 2022. DOI: 10.23970/AHRQEPCCER258. Kounang, N. (2022, December 16). More than 7 million incorrect diagnoses made in US emergency rooms every year, government report finds. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2022/12/15/health/hospital-misdiagnoses-study/index.html Abelson, R. (2022, December 15). E.R. Doctors Misdiagnose Patients With Unusual Symptoms. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2022/12/15/health/medical-errors-emergency-rooms.html?searchResultPosition=3 Bivens, Matt MD. Evidence-Based Medicine: AHRQ Errors Report was ‘Outright Unconscionable’. Emergency Medicine News 45(3):p 1,21, March 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/01.EEM.0000922716.51556.31  Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
6/19/20234 minutes, 5 seconds
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Podcast 855: QT Intervals

​​Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls The QT interval represents phases 2 and 3 of ventricular plateau and repolarization, respectively. As the QT interval lengthens, more sodium and calcium channels are available and susceptible to action potentials. Prolonged QT interval is more concerning in the setting of bradycardia. This scenario increases the likelihood of R on T phenomenon.  R on T phenomenon occurs due to an early afterdepolarization event in which a premature ventricular contraction (PVC) occurs during the repolarization period (superimposed on the T wave), leading to an aberrant re-entry circuit. The re-entry circuit leads to Torsades de Pointes (polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with prolonged QT) and subsequent ventricular fibrillation. Treatment for Torsades de Pointes is 2g MgSO4. The preferred antiarrhythmic for VTach is IV lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg over 2 minutes. Avoid amiodarone due to risk of further QT prolongation. A heart rate under 80 does not need QT correction Corrected QT interval is used in the setting of tachycardia due to an abnormally small T wave Correction for the QT interval in tachycardia: 472 ms for males vs. 482 ms for females References 1. Banai S, Schuger C, Benhorin J, Tzivoni D. Treatment of torsade de pointes with intravenous magnesium. Am J Cardiol. 1989;63(20):1539-1540. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(89)90033-7 2. Gorgels APM, Van Den Dool A, Hofs A, et al. Comparison of procainamide and lidocaine in terminating sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol. 1996;78(1):43-46. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(96)00224-X 3. Liu MB, Vandersickel N, Panfilov A V., Qu Z. R-From-T as a Common Mechanism of Arrhythmia Initiation in Long QT Syndromes. Circ Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 2019;12(12):1-15. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.119.007571 4. Sagie A, Larson MG, Goldberg RJ, Bengtson JR, Levy D. An improved method for adjusting the QT interval for heart rate (the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol. 1992;70(7):797-801. doi:10.1016/0002-9149(92)90562-D 5. Vandenberk B, Vandael E, Robyns T, et al. Which QT correction formulae to use for QT monitoring? J Am Heart Assoc. 2016;5(6). doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.003264 6. Zipes DP, Camm AJ, Borggrefe M, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death - Executive Summary: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines. Vol 114.; 2006. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.106.178104 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
6/12/20234 minutes
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Mental Health Monthly #16: Psychosis in the ED Part II

Contributors: Andrew White MD & Travis Barlock MD In this follow-up episode Dr. Andrew White, a practicing psychiatrist with an addiction medicine fellowship, and Dr. Travis Barlock, an emergency physician at Swedish Medical Center, discuss mental health holds, psychiatric placement, pharmacologic vs. non-pharmacologic treatments, and outpatient care of psychotic patients. If you missed it, be sure to listen to part I for details on the management of psychotic patients in the ED. Educational Pearls: Mental health holds should be approached on a case-by-case basis; this includes assessing safety risks immediately, over a 24-hour period, and chronically over the last few months. Lastly, collateral information is useful in assessing a mental health hold.   What happens after patients get placed in inpatient psychiatry? Typically an antipsychotic is started; in the absence of metabolic risks, patients will often be started on Zyprexa, especially in oral dissolvable form. Doses of Zyprexa ODT start at 2.5 - 5 mg per day.   If psychotic patients do not pose direct harm to the environment, they do not necessarily need to be medicated. However, patients will often need medication at some point; for example, some people may be calm during their psychosis but unable to feed themselves or perform other ADLs.   The goal of pharmacologic treatment for psychosis is to save the brain; each episode of psychosis damages the brain. Oftentimes, patients will be started on long-acting injectables like aripiprazole or risperidone to give patients 30 days of treatment with one shot.   Non-pharmacologic approaches to psychosis are challenging given the nature of the disease. There have been attempts at therapy for psychosis but not have not been hugely successful. Options for support include PT/OT, family support via organizations like NAMI, and other resources for families of patients with psychosis.   Outpatient care of patients with psychosis includes contextualizing the events. For example, many people who experience brief psychotic episodes do not go on to develop schizophrenia so it is important to identify a prognosis. On the other hand, someone who has worsening symptoms over several months may require more aggressive treatment.   The primary goal of outpatient management of older patients is to reduce the adverse effects of long-term treatments. The CATIE trial in the early 2000s showed that only 25% of people were on antipsychotics by the end of the trial; it is more important to engage patients than focus too much on medications' adverse effects. Summarized and edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Studio production by Jeffrey Olson, MS1  
6/7/202324 minutes, 26 seconds
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Episode 854: Tranq (xylazine) with Heroin

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: What is Tranq? Tranq is the street name for xylazine, a sedative drug typically used in veterinary medicine. Xylazine has recently emerged as a recreational drug, often mixed with heroin or fentanyl.  The mechanism of action of xylazine is similar to dexmedetomidine (Precedex), an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. At toxic levels, either by itself or when combined with opioids, can cause apnea, bradycardia, coma, and hypotension. How is it different from other adulterants, such as fentanyl? Because It is not an opioid, naloxone (Narcan) does not reverse its effects. It may cause local peripheral vasoconstriction leading to necrotic ulcerations at sites of repeated injection. How do you treat a suspected overdose of Tranq +/- an opioid? Consult with a clinical toxicologist. Naloxone should still be used despite its limited effect. At the very least it will not make the situation worse. Be ready to intubate. Provide supportive care. Non-selective alpha antagonists are NOT recommended. References Ruiz-Colón K, Chavez-Arias C, Díaz-Alcalá JE, Martínez MA. Xylazine intoxication in humans and its importance as an emerging adulterant in abused drugs: A comprehensive review of the literature. Forensic Sci Int. 2014 Jul;240:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.03.015. Epub 2014 Mar 26. PMID: 24769343. Ayub S, Parnia S, Poddar K, Bachu AK, Sullivan A, Khan AM, Ahmed S, Jain L. Xylazine in the Opioid Epidemic: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Clinical Implications. Cureus. 2023 Mar 29;15(3):e36864. doi: 10.7759/cureus.36864. PMID: 37009344; PMCID: PMC10063250. Malayala SV, Papudesi BN, Bobb R, Wimbush A. Xylazine-Induced Skin Ulcers in a Person Who Injects Drugs in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Cureus. 2022 Aug 19;14(8):e28160. doi: 10.7759/cureus.28160. PMID: 36148197; PMCID: PMC9482722. United States Drug Enforcement Administration. DEA Reports Widespread Threat of Fentanyl Mixed with Xylazine | DEA.gov. (n.d.). https://www.dea.gov/alert/dea-reports-widespread-threat-fentanyl-mixed-xylazine  Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
6/5/20232 minutes, 56 seconds
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Podcast 853: Critical Care Medications - Vasopressors

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Three categories of pressors: inopressors, pure vasoconstrictors, and inodilators Inopressors:  Epinephrine - nonselective beta- and alpha-adrenergic agonism, leading to increased cardiac contractility, chronotropy (increased heart rate), and peripheral vasoconstriction. Dose 0.1mcg/kg/min. Levophed (norepinephrine) - more vasoconstriction peripherally than inotropy; useful in most cases of shock. Dose 0.1mcg/kg/min. Peripheral vasoconstrictors: Phenylephrine - pure alpha agonist; useful in atrial fibrillation because it avoids cardiac beta receptor activation and also in post-intubation hypotension to counteract the RSI medications. Start at 1mcg/kg/min and increase as needed. Vasopressin - No effect on cardiac contractility. Fixed dose of 0.4 units/min. Inodilators are useful in cardiogenic shock but often not started in the ED since patients mostly have undifferentiated shock Dobutamine - start at 2.5mcg/kg/min. Milrinone - 0.125mcg/kg/min. References 1. Ellender TJ, Skinner JC. The Use of Vasopressors and Inotropes in the Emergency Medical Treatment of Shock. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2008;26(3):759-786. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emc.2008.04.001 2. Hollenberg SM. Vasoactive drugs in circulatory shock. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(7):847-855. doi:10.1164/rccm.201006-0972CI 3. Lampard JG, Lang E. Vasopressors for hypotensive shock. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;61(3):351-352. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.08.028 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
5/29/20235 minutes, 10 seconds
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Podcast 852: Angioedema After Thrombolysis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: What is thrombolysis? Thrombolysis is performed by administration of a medication that promotes the body’s natural ability to break up clots. These medications include Alteplase (tPA) and Tenecteplase (TNK). The main side effect of using such an agent is bleeding which typically occurs at puncture sites but can also occur internally. However, an unusual side effect of thrombolytic agents, which occurs in about 1-5% of cases, is angioedema. What is angioedema? Angioedema is a medical condition that causes swelling beneath the surface of the skin, typically in the face, lips, and throat (orolingual angioedema). Fluid leaks from blood vessels and accumulates in the deeper layers of the skin. How are these two connected? The mechanism by which angioedema occurs after thrombolysis is not well understood, but it is likely connected to how tPA can increase levels of bradykinin and histamine. Swelling can appear suddenly but can also occur up to 24 hours after thrombolysis, and may last for a few hours or several days. In some cases, angioedema can affect the airways, leading to difficulty breathing. What can be done? If this side effect occurs the provider can stop the medication or infusion and treat the patient with anti-histamines, steroids, epinephrine, and airway monitoring. Medications such as Berinert or Icatibant, typically used in hereditary angioedema or ACE-i-induced angioedema, can also be used but have limited evidence for their efficacy. Fun fact tPA-related angioedema is about 4 times more likely in patients on ACE inhibitors. This is likely related to how ACE inhibitors also increase bradykinin and histamine in a patient’s body. References Zhu A, Rajendram P, Tseng E, Coutts SB, Yu AYX. Alteplase or tenecteplase for thrombolysis in ischemic stroke: An illustrated review. Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2022 Sep 20;6(6):e12795. doi: 10.1002/rth2.12795. PMID: 36186106; PMCID: PMC9487449. Pahs L, Droege C, Kneale H, Pancioli A. A Novel Approach to the Treatment of Orolingual Angioedema After Tissue Plasminogen Activator Administration. Ann Emerg Med. 2016 Sep;68(3):345-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2016.02.019. Epub 2016 May 10. PMID: 27174372. Burd M, McPheeters C, Scherrer LA. Orolingual Angioedema After Tissue Plasminogen Activator Administration in Patients Taking Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2019 Jul/Sep;41(3):204-214. doi: 10.1097/TME.0000000000000250. PMID: 31356244. Sczepanski M, Bozyk P. Institutional Incidence of Severe tPA-Induced Angioedema in Ischemic Cerebral Vascular Accidents. Crit Care Res Pract. 2018 Sep 27;2018:9360918. doi: 10.1155/2018/9360918. PMID: 30363665; PMCID: PMC6180929. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMS1
5/22/20232 minutes, 49 seconds
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Podcast 851: High-Dose Nitroglycerin in SCAPE

Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: SCAPE (Sympathetic Crashing Acute Pulmonary Edema), formerly known as flash pulmonary edema, is a life-threatening condition due to a sudden sympathetic surge that leads to hypertensive heart failure, pulmonary edema, hypoxia, and respiratory distress.  The initial treatment for SCAPE stabilization is BiPAP to assist with ventilation. Pharmacological treatment for SCAPE is best achieved with high-dose nitroglycerin (HDN), which induces venodilation and redistributes pulmonary edema. Dosing should be high; boluses of HDN are given at doses of 1-2 mg every 3-5 minutes vs. infusions at 200-400 mcg/min then titrating down. HDN leads to reduced intubations, less need for ICU admission, and shortened length of hospital stay in patients with SCAPE. References Agrawal N, Kumar A, Aggarwal P, Jamshed N. Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2016;20(12):719-723. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.195710 Paone S, Clarkson L, Sin B, Punnapuzha S. Recognition of Sympathetic Crashing Acute Pulmonary Edema (SCAPE) and use of high-dose nitroglycerin infusion. Am J Emerg Med. 2018;36(8):1526.e5-1526.e7. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2018.05.013 Stemple K, DeWitt KM, Porter BA, Sheeser M, Blohm E, Bisanzo M. High-dose nitroglycerin infusion for the management of sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema (SCAPE): A case series. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;44:262-266. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.03.062 Wilson SS, Kwiatkowski GM, Millis SR, Purakal JD, Mahajan AP, Levy PD. Use of nitroglycerin by bolus prevents intensive care unit admission in patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(1):126-131. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2016.10.038 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMS1
5/15/20233 minutes, 8 seconds
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Podcast 850: Cardiac Arrest - Entertainment vs. Reality

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) is defined as when the heart suddenly stops beating. Immediate treatment for SCA includes Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation. This event is commonly depicted in medical dramas as an intense moment but often with the patient surviving and making a full recovery (67-75%). This depiction has likely led the general population astray when it comes to the true survivability of SCA. When surveyed, the general population tends to believe that in excess of 50% of patients requiring CPR survive and return to daily life with no long-term consequences. What percent of patients actually survive cardiac arrest? SCA due to Ventricular Fibrillation (VF): 25-40% SCA due to Pulseless Electrical Activity (PEA): 11% SCA due to noncardiac causes (trauma ect.): 11% SCA when the initially observed rhythm is Asystole: Less than 5%, by some measures as low as 2%. References Diem SJ, Lantos JD, Tulsky JA. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation on television. Miracles and misinformation. N Engl J Med. 1996 Jun 13;334(24):1578-82. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199606133342406. PMID: 8628340. Bitter CC, Patel N, Hinyard L. Depiction of Resuscitation on Medical Dramas: Proposed Effect on Patient Expectations. Cureus. 2021 Apr 11;13(4):e14419. doi: 10.7759/cureus.14419. PMID: 33987068; PMCID: PMC8112599. Engdahl J, Bång A, Lindqvist J, Herlitz J. Can we define patients with no and those with some chance of survival when found in asystole out of hospital? Am J Cardiol. 2000 Sep 15;86(6):610-4. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9149(00)01037-7. PMID: 10980209. Cobb LA, Fahrenbruch CE, Walsh TR, Copass MK, Olsufka M, Breskin M, Hallstrom AP. Influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. JAMA. 1999 Apr 7;281(13):1182-8. doi: 10.1001/jama.281.13.1182. PMID: 10199427. Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Becker LJ, Murray JA, Hearne T. Temporal trends in sudden cardiac arrest: a 25-year emergency medical services perspective. Circulation. 2003 Jun 10;107(22):2780-5. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000070950.17208.2A. Epub 2003 May 19. PMID: 12756155. Panchal AR, Bartos JA, Cabañas JG, Donnino MW, Drennan IR, Hirsch KG, Kudenchuk PJ, Kurz MC, Lavonas EJ, Morley PT, O'Neil BJ, Peberdy MA, Rittenberger JC, Rodriguez AJ, Sawyer KN, Berg KM; Adult Basic and Advanced Life Support Writing Group. Part 3: Adult Basic and Advanced Life Support: 2020 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2020 Oct 20;142(16_suppl_2):S366-S468. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000916. Epub 2020 Oct 21. PMID: 33081529. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMS1  
5/8/20232 minutes, 11 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #15: Psychosis in the ED: Part I

Contributors: Andrew White MD & Travis Barlock MD In this episode of Mental Health Monthly, Dr. Andrew White, a practicing psychiatrist with an addiction medicine fellowship, and Dr. Travis Barlock, an emergency physician at Swedish Medical Center, discuss the various presentations and etiologies of acute psychosis. They explore the medical presentations compared with primary psychiatric manifestations and how to narrow the differential. Furthermore, Dr. Barlock discusses the management of psychotic patients from the ED perspective while Dr. White provides invaluable insight into their respective psychiatric care. Educational Pearls: Auditory hallucinations are more consistent with primary psychiatric psychosis, whereas visual hallucinations are indicative of drug-induced or withdrawal psychosis. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia can be remembered by the four A’s: Alogia, Affect, Ambivalence, and Associations. Typical primary psychosis presents before age 40, except for in perimenopausal and post-partum women, who are at higher risk of psychiatric psychosis. Medical etiology clues: acute and rapid onset, focal neurologic deficits, abnormal vital signs (especially fever), drugs, endocrine sources, autoimmune diseases, infectious disease, and brain lesions. To LP or not to LP? Dr. Barlock discusses indications for LP including fever, rapid onset, and change in level of consciousness.    Summarized by Jorge Chait, OMSI | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSI | Studio production by Jeffrey Olson
5/3/202331 minutes, 40 seconds
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Podcast 849: Large Vessel Occlusions

Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls:  Large Vessel Occlusion (LVO) is a condition where a clot blocks one of the major blood vessels in the brain, leading to a stroke. What are the vessels that can experience an LVO? Middle Cerebral artery (MCA) Internal Carotid Artery (ICA) Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) Posterior Cerebral Arteries (PCA) Basilar Artery (BA) Vertebral Arteries (VA) What are the locations at which a mechanical thrombectomy can be performed as a treatment for an LVO? Distal ICA, M1 or M2 segments of the MCA, A1 or A2 segments of the ACA, and some evidence for the BA. What are the symptoms of LVO? Use the mnemonic FANG-D to remember a few key symptoms: Field Cut (A person loses vision in a portion of their visual field) Aphasia (Difficulty speaking) Neglect (A person may have difficulty paying attention to or acknowledging stimuli on the affected side of their body or in their environment. For example, a person with neglect may deny that their left hand belongs to them) Gaze Deviation (One or both eyes are turned away from the direction of gaze) Dense Hemiparesis (Paralysis affecting one side of the body) What are the treatment windows for treating an LVO? 24 hours for mechanical thrombectomy 0-4.5 hours for tPA/TNK References 1. Brain embolism, Caplan LR, Manning W (Eds), Informa Healthcare, New York 2006. 2. Berkhemer OA, et al. A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 1;372(1):11-20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1411587. Epub 2014 Dec 17. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2015 Jan 22;372(4):394. PMID: 25517348. 3. Herpich, Franziska MD1,2; Rincon, Fred MD, MSc, MB.Ethics, FACP, FCCP, FCCM1,2. Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Critical Care Medicine 48(11):p 1654-1663, November 2020. 4. Warner JJ, Harrington RA, Sacco RL, Elkind MSV. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2019 Dec;50(12):3331-3332. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027708. Epub 2019 Oct 30. PMID: 31662117. 5. Hoglund J, Strong D, Rhoten J, Chang B, Karamchandani R, Dunn C, Yang H, Asimos AW. Test characteristics of a 5-element cortical screen for identifying anterior circulation large vessel occlusion ischemic strokes. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open. 2020 Jul 24;1(5):908-917. doi: 10.1002/emp2.12188. PMID: 33145539; PMCID: PMC7593424. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMS1  
5/1/20233 minutes, 37 seconds
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Podcast 848: Non-Traditional RSI

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls:  Two main reasons to choose non-traditional RSI Anatomically challenging airway Physiologically difficult patients: hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, hemodynamic instability Ketamine may help patients remain hemodynamically stable In critical patients, it is important to consider non-traditional RSI medications to improve outcomes References 1. Lyon RM, Perkins ZB, Chatterjee D, Lockey DJ, Russell MQ. Significant modification of traditional rapid sequence induction improves safety and effectiveness of pre-hospital trauma anaesthesia. Crit Care. 2015;19(1). doi:10.1186/s13054-015-0872-2 2. Merelman AH, Perlmutter MC, Strayer RJ. Alternatives to rapid sequence intubation: Contemporary airway management with ketamine. West J Emerg Med. 2019;20(3):466-471. doi:10.5811/westjem.2019.4.42753   Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMS1 | Edited by Meg Joyce
4/24/20235 minutes, 11 seconds
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Podcast 847: ECMO CPR

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has been attempted as an adjunct to CPR during cardiac arrest but few studies on outcomes exist  One prior small study stopped early when it showed ECMO with CPR (ECPR) was significantly superior to CPR Recent large, multicenter randomized control study in Netherlands evaluated neurologic outcomes in CPR versus ECPR  At 30 days and 6 months no significant difference between the groups was found  More studies are required determine if certain patients may benefit from ECPR References Belohlavek J, Smalcova J, Rob D, et al. Effect of Intra-arrest Transport, Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, and Immediate Invasive Assessment and Treatment on Functional Neurologic Outcome in Refractory Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2022;327(8):737-747. doi:10.1001/jama.2022.1025   Suverein MM, Delnoij TSR, Lorusso R, et al. Early Extracorporeal CPR for Refractory Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. N Engl J Med. 2023;388(4):299-309. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2204511   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.
2/6/20233 minutes, 3 seconds
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Podcast 846: Early Repolarization vs. Anterior STEMI

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Early repolarization a benign EKG pattern that can mimic an anterior STEMI Can be seen in the anterior leads typically in young male patients Can differentiate Early Repolarization vs Anterior STEMI by looking at four variables: Corrected QT interval QRS amplitude in V2 R wave amplitude in V4 ST elevation 60 ms after J point in V3 These four variables can be plugged into a formula (available on MDCalc) Note that a longer QT is more corelated with STEMI   References Macfarlane PW, Antzelevitch C, Haissaguerre M, et al. The Early Repolarization Pattern: A Consensus Paper. J Am Coll Cardiol. Jul 28 2015;66(4):470-7. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2015.05.033 Smith SW, Khalil A, Henry TD, et al. Electrocardiographic differentiation of early repolarization from subtle anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Ann Emerg Med. Jul 2012;60(1):45-56.e2. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2012.02.015   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.
1/30/20232 minutes, 35 seconds
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Podcast 845: Hyperkalemic Cardiac Arrest

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperkalemia may cause cardiac arrest  Treatment of suspected hyperkalemic cardiac arrest begins with typical management of cardiac arrest including high-quality CPR, defibrillation if appropriate, and resuscitation medications  Administer calcium products to stabilize cardiac membrane and potassium shifting medications  If ROSC is achieved, initiate dialysis  There are several case reports of patients being dialyzed while CPR is ongoing, with some success   Dialysis during resuscitation may be an appropriate treatment for some patients  References Jackson MA, Lodwick R, Hutchinson SG. Hyperkalaemic cardiac arrest successfully treated with peritoneal dialysis. BMJ. 1996;312(7041):1289-1290. doi:10.1136/bmj.312.7041.1289 Kao KC, Huang CC, Tsai YH, Lin MC, Tsao TC. Hyperkalemic cardiac arrest successfully reversed by hemodialysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: case report. Chang Gung Med J. 2000;23(9):555-559. Torrecilla C, de la Serna JL. Hyperkalemic cardiac arrest, prolonged heart massage and simultaneous hemodialysis. Intensive Care Med. 1989;15(5):325-326. doi:10.1007/BF00263870 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
1/16/20234 minutes, 27 seconds
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Podcast 844: Dental Infections

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls: Educational Pearls: Dental infections can be categorized into two main groups Infections of the gums Pericoronitis Tooth eruption leading to inflammation/irritation Can progress to an infection Requires pain control, no antibiotics Gingivitis Inflammation of the gums Can lead to an infection requiring antibiotics Abscess (gums) If an infection develops in the gums it can progress to an abscess May require drainage Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) aka Trench Mouth Filmy, grayish discoloration of the gums with “punched out” lesions Extremely painful Can cause teeth to loosen and fall out Treat with IV antibiotics + admission Infections of the teeth Dental caries Causes sensitivity tooth enamel is worn through Can lead to infection Periapical abscess Abscess that extends through the root of the tooth Can develop up elsewhere in tooth/gums/mouth Causes tooth sensitivity when tapped Ludwig angina Infection of the soft tissue under the tongue Can compromise airway as it expands Treat with extensive antibiotics and debridement Antibiotic stewardship Commonly used antibiotics for dental infections Clindamycin Augmentin Amoxicillin Chlorhexidine (Peridex) Antiseptic and disinfectant that is helpful for gingival irritation   References Bridwell R, Gottlieb M, Koyfman A, Long B. Diagnosis and management of Ludwig's angina: An evidence-based review. Am J Emerg Med. Mar 2021;41:1-5. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.12.030  Dufty J, Gkranias N, Donos N. Necrotising Ulcerative Gingivitis: A Literature Review. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2017;15(4):321-327. doi:10.3290/j.ohpd.a38766 Herrera D, Roldán S, Sanz M. The periodontal abscess: a review. J Clin Periodontol. Jun 2000;27(6):377-86. doi:10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027006377.x Kumar S. Evidence-Based Update on Diagnosis and Management of Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Dent Clin North Am. Jan 2019;63(1):69-81. doi:10.1016/j.cden.2018.08.005 Kwon G, Serra M. Pericoronitis. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing Copyright © 2022, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2022.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
1/10/20234 minutes, 54 seconds
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Podcast 843: Commotio Cordis

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Commotio cordis is sudden ventricular fibrillation precipitated by direct impact to the chest  A national registry, US Commotio Cordis Registry, reports an average of 10-20 cases annually  95% of reported cases occur in males, indicating possible genetic component  Average age of patient in registry is 15  Most cases occur during sporting events (baseball in particular), in addition to physical altercations and industrial accidents  Treatment is high quality CPR and early defibrillation  Survival rate is improving but remains around 35%  In recent events, American football player Damar Hamlin survived a Commotio cordis event after being tackled on field and receiving CPR  References Link MS. Commotio cordis: ventricular fibrillation triggered by chest impact-induced abnormalities in repolarization. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2012;5(2):425-432. doi:10.1161/CIRCEP.111.962712 Maron BJ, Poliac LC, Kaplan JA, Mueller FO. Blunt impact to the chest leading to sudden death from cardiac arrest during sports activities. N Engl J Med. 1995;333(6):337-342. doi:10.1056/NEJM199508103330602   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
1/9/20234 minutes, 50 seconds
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Podcast 842: “History of Wound Care”

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Through world history, there have been various interesting approaches to wound care Ancient Egyptians applied honey, lint, and grease which provided antimicrobial, absorptive and moisturizing properties, respectively  Ancient Greeks irrigated wounds with clean water and applied wine and vinegar which may have been antimicrobial  One of the first synthetic topical antimicrobials was a dye researched by scientist Gerhard Domagk and later produced by Bayer under the name Prontosil  Some current wound care methods include wet-to-dry dressings, Dankin’s Solution (sodium hypochlorite) and the use of maggots    References Fleck CA. Why "wet to dry"?. J Am Col Certif Wound Spec. 2009;1(4):109-113. Published 2009 Oct 6. doi:10.1016/j.jcws.2009.09.003 Shah JB. The history of wound care. J Am Col Certif Wound Spec. 2011;3(3):65-66. doi:10.1016/j.jcws.2012.04.002 Ueno CM, Mullens CL, Luh JH, Wooden WA. Historical review of Dakin's solution applications. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2018;71(9):e49-e55. doi:10.1016/j.bjps.2018.05.023   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
1/4/20234 minutes, 25 seconds
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Podcast 841: Wound Care

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Wound care in the emergency department aims to prevent future infection Copious wound irrigation is the important step in preventing wound infection Studies have shown that irrigation with tap water is just as effective, if not superior,  to  irrigation with saline or other solutions Several studies have shown no reduction in wound infection rates when using sterile gloves during wound care Recent study in the Netherlands compared infection rates between patients undergoing wound repair with and without sterile gloves Receiving wound care with nonsterile gloves was noninferior to wound care utilizing sterile gloves References Fernandez R, Griffiths R. Water for wound cleansing. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Feb 15 2012;(2):Cd003861. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003861.pub3 Heckmann N, Simcox T, Kelley D, Marecek GS. Wound Irrigation for Open Fractures. JBJS Rev. Jan 2020;8(1):e0061. doi:10.2106/jbjs.Rvw.19.00061 Zwaans JJM, Raven W, Rosendaal AV, et al. Non-sterile gloves and dressing versus sterile gloves, dressings and drapes for suturing of traumatic wounds in the emergency department: a non-inferiority multicentre randomised controlled trial. Emerg Med J. Sep 2022;39(9):650-654. doi:10.1136/emermed-2021-211540   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
1/3/20233 minutes, 2 seconds
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Podcast 840: Abnormal Pediatric Vitals at Discharge

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Pediatric patients frequently have vital signs considered abnormal for age at discharge Large multicenter study recently evaluated if pediatric patients discharged with abnormal vital signs have worse outcomes  97,824 pediatric discharges were included in the study 18.1% were discharged with vitals considered abnormal for age No significant difference in readmission rates at 48 hours (2.28% in abnormal cohort vs. 2.45% in normal cohort) No significant adverse outcomes in those discharged with abnormal vital signs (4 total PICU admissions with no deaths, CPR, or intubations) When considering discharging pediatric patients, it is important to evaluate how the patient looks rather than just relying on vital signs Consider leaving the child attached to a monitor, leaving the room, and then reevaluating them if they could be agitated by the presence of healthcare providers References Kazmierczak M, Thompson AD, DePiero AD, Selbst SM. Outcomes of patients discharged from the pediatric emergency department with abnormal vital signs. Am J Emerg Med. Jul 2022;57:76-80. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.202 Image from: Vital Signs. MedlinePlus. https://medlineplus.gov/vitalsigns.html. Accessed December 29, 2022. Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
12/29/20223 minutes, 34 seconds
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Podcast 839: Causes of Pancreatitis

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: The causes of pancreatitis can be remembered with the mnemonic: “GET SMASHED”  G: Gallstones (Most common cause of pancreatitis overall)  E: Ethanol (Alcohol consumption is the most common cause of chronic pancreatitis) T: Trauma  S: Steroids M: Malignancy A: Autoimmune  S: Scorpion Sting H: Hypertryglyceridemia  E: ERCP D: Drugs (e.g. Valproate, Antiretrovirals)    References Beyer G, Habtezion A, Werner J, Lerch MM, Mayerle J. Chronic pancreatitis. Lancet. 2020;396(10249):499-512. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31318-0 Lankisch PG, Apte M, Banks PA. Acute pancreatitis [published correction appears in Lancet. 2015 Nov 21;386(10008):2058]. Lancet. 2015;386(9988):85-96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60649-8   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
12/19/20223 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 838: Sternoclavicular Septic Arthritis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint is uncommon accounting for Immunosuppression and IV drug use increases the risk  Can account for up to 17% of septic arthritis cases in patients who use IV drugs Symptoms are typically vague with pain presenting around where the sternum meets the clavicle Consider imaging with CT or MRI and draining/analyzing the fluid if possible Antibiotics are the mainstay of treatment, but surgery may be required to wash out joint and resect infected bone As septic arteritis of the sternoclavicular join is uncommon, remember that patients presenting multiple times for the same complaint require a broader differential and a more extensive workup so that less common conditions are not missed   References Gonçalves RB, Grenho A, Correia J, Reis JE. Sternoclavicular joint septic arthritis in a healthy adult: a rare diagnosis with frequent complications. J Bone Jt Infect. 2021;6(9):389-392. doi:10.5194/jbji-6-389-2021   Thompson MA, Barlotta KS. Septic Arthritis of the Sternoclavicular Joint. J Emerg Med. Jul 2018;55(1):128-129. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2018.02.044   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
12/13/20224 minutes, 34 seconds
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Podcast 837: Snakebites

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls: Venomous snakes in the United States include species from the family Elapidae and subfamily Crotalinae In prehospital setting, elevate the bitten extremity and transport to hospital immediately Do not attempt interventions with the bite site  Monitor for progression of swelling past any joint line, systemic symptoms or lab abnormalities for 8-12 hours  Symptoms may present up to hours after bite   Crotalinae venom has heme toxicity and may present with lab pattern of DIC  Treatment for all symptoms is antivenom If symptoms persist or progress, continue to treat with antivenom  Compartment syndrome is rare with snake bites   References Ruha AM, Kleinschmidt KC, Greene S, et al. The Epidemiology, Clinical Course, and Management of Snakebites in the North American Snakebite Registry. J Med Toxicol. 2017;13(4):309-320. doi:10.1007/s13181-017-0633-5   Aziz H, Rhee P, Pandit V, Tang A, Gries L, Joseph B. The current concepts in management of animal (dog, cat, snake, scorpion) and human bite wounds. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015;78(3):641-648. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000000531   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
12/12/20226 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 836: Humming to get EJ

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Two conventional ways to aid in external jugular vein (EJ) catheter placement are Trendelenburg’s position and Valsalva’s maneuver by patient  One study compared ultrasound visualization of cross sections of EJ and common femoral vein at baseline and with patients in Trendelenburg's position, Valsalva's maneuver, and while humming The study found all three conditions distended the veins from baseline, but there was no significant difference in diameter between the conditions   Humming may be a viable technique in distended EJ for catheter placement, and may be easier for patients to comprehend than Valsalva    References Lewin MR, Stein J, Wang R, et al. Humming is as effective as Valsalva's maneuver and Trendelenburg's position for ultrasonographic visualization of the jugular venous system and common femoral veins. Ann Emerg Med. 2007;50(1):73-77. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.01.024   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
12/6/20223 minutes, 28 seconds
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Podcast 835: Syncope Review

Contributor: Meghan Hurley, MD Educational Pearls: Syncope is defined as a loss of consciousness with an immediate return to baseline Differential is broad Cardiogenic Structural (aortic stenosis, HOCUM, etc.) Electrical (long QT syndrome, Brugada, etc.) Neurogenic/neurovascular (brain bleed, etc.) Seizure Everything else Hypoglycemia, anemia, and bleeding into the abdominal cavity are some potential causes to rule out Vasovagal Diagnosis of exclusion Work Up EKG Good H&P Labs especially Hb and glucose References Morris J. Emergency department management of syncope. Emerg Med Pract. Jun 2021;23(6):1-24. Reed MJ. Approach to syncope in the emergency department. Emerg Med J. Feb 2019;36(2):108-116. doi:10.1136/emermed-2018-207767   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
12/5/20226 minutes, 22 seconds
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Podcast 834: Peds Buckle Fractures

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Torus (Buckle) fractures are a commonly encountered pediatric fracture pattern Typically presents as wrist pain secondary to a child falling on outstretched hand One edge of the bone “buckles” or bends because children’s bones are softer and more pliable Management Older studies have shown that short term immobilization with a velcro splint and primary care follow up is sufficient Recent randomized trial compared immobilization with Velcro splint with as needed wrist support using a gauze wrap No significant differences noted in outcomes between the two cohorts Physicians can consider using an ace or gauze wrap as needed for buckle fracture management along with OTC analgesics for pain management References Asokan A, Kheir N. Pediatric Torus Buckle Fracture. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing Copyright © 2022, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2022.   Kennedy SA, Slobogean GP, Mulpuri K. Does degree of immobilization influence refracture rate in the forearm buckle fracture? J Pediatr Orthop B. Jan 2010;19(1):77-81. doi:10.1097/BPB.0b013e32832f067a   Perry DC, Achten J, Knight R, et al. Immobilisation of torus fractures of the wrist in children (FORCE): a randomised controlled equivalence trial in the UK. Lancet. Jul 2 2022;400(10345):39-47. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(22)01015-7   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/29/20223 minutes, 46 seconds
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Podcast 833: NS vs LR

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Normal Saline (NS) contains 154 mEq of both Sodium (Na) and Chloride (Cl),  and has a pH of 5.5 Normal Na and Cl in adult humans are about 140 mEq/L and 103 mEq/L. respectively   Excess negative charge resulting from hyperchloremia is managed via bicarbonate excretion leading to loss of base Overall, administration of NS drives metabolic acidosis Lactated Ringers (LR) contains 130 mEq of Na and 109 mEq Cl, and has a pH of 6.5   LR components are closer to physiologic levels thus may generally be a more efficacious fluid choice   NS is still frequently given in scenarios where there is concern for increased intracranial pressure or existing hypochloremic alkalosis from emesis.  ReferencesLi H, Sun SR, Yap JQ, Chen JH, Qian Q. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2016;17(3):181-187. doi:10.1631/jzus.B1500201 ​​Lehr AR, Rached-d'Astous S, Barrowman N, et al. Balanced Versus Unbalanced Fluid in Critically Ill Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2022;23(3):181-191. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000002890 Self WH, Semler MW, Wanderer JP, et al. Saline versus balanced crystalloids for intravenous fluid therapy in the emergency department: study protocol for a cluster-randomized, multiple-crossover trial. Trials. 2017;18(1):178. Published 2017 Apr 13. doi:10.1186/s13063-017-1923-6 Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):829-839. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1711584 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/28/20225 minutes, 16 seconds
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CA Bridge Program and Health Disparities in the Opioid Epidemic

Happy Thanksgiving EMM listeners, Mason here wanting to extend a special thank you to all of you for tuning in to our show. Today we are featuring a special episode on health disparities in the opioid epidemic and their intersection with the ER that we produced for the Iowa Healthcare Collaborative’s Compass Opioid Stewardship Program, a national initiative to provide comprehensive education on opioid stewardship and best practices.  In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/23/202251 minutes, 43 seconds
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Podcast 832: STD Checks

Educational Pearls: Most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in North America: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) From the emergency department patients should be connected to follow-up care and educated on vaccine series Most common non-viral STD in North America: Trichomonas Vaginalis   While men may be asymptomatic, they can transmit the disease to women who may experience irritation leading to increased likelihood of PID and contraction of other STDs and HIV Trichomonas is diagnosed via wet preparation with visualization of motile parasites  Similarly, men’s urine can be tested for visualized motile parasites  Expedite lab as parasites are motile for about one hour    PCR test is becoming more available Most common bacterial STD in North America: Chlamydia trachomatis  Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a less common bacterial STD but does have high rates of drug resistance  Empiric STD treatment includes IM Ceftriaxone and PO Doxycycline  Providers should consider adding Flagyl for Trichomonas Vaginalis coverage  ReferencesSexually transmitted disease surveillance, 2020. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/std/statistics/2020/default.htm. Published August 22, 2022. Accessed November 21, 2022.  Workowski KA, Bachmann LH, Chan PA, et al. Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines, 2021. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2021;70(4):1-187. Published 2021 Jul 23. doi:10.15585/mmwr.rr7004a1   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/22/20225 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 831: O2 Targets

Contributor: Aaron Lessen,MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at mechanically ventilated patients in ED and ICU to determine if O2 saturation level impacted patient outcomes 2541 patients randomized to one of three target O2 saturation levels Low: 90% (Range: 88-92%) Intermediate: 94% (Range: 92-96%) High: 98% (Range: 96-100%) Outcome indicators Primary: Number of days alive and ventilator free by day 28 of hospital admission Secondary: Mortality at 28 days No significant difference was seen for either primary or secondary outcomes between all three groups at 28 days This study shows that the target oxygenation level  is not likely to significantly impact outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients in the ED   References Semler MW, Casey JD, Lloyd BD, et al. Oxygen-Saturation Targets for Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation. N Engl J Med. Nov 10 2022;387(19):1759-1769. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2208415   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/21/20223 minutes, 19 seconds
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Podcast 830: Peripheral IV Flow Rates

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Gauge and length of catheter are determinants of flow rate  Smaller gauges produce higher flow rate Longer catheters reduce flow rate   Common IV gauges produce predictable rates of flow:  20 gauge = 60 cc/min 18 gauge = 105 cc/min 16 gauge = 220 cc/min  Central lines typically have two 18 gauge and one 16 gauge lumen, both with long catheters, producing the following slower flow rates:  18 gauge = 26 cc /min  16 gauge = 55 cc/min Sheath Introducers, such as Cordis brand catheters, are wider and shorter than classic central lines. Flow rates are 150 cc/min, or 130 cc/min with pressure bag  Maximal flow allows for one unit of blood to be delivered over one minute  It is important to consider length and gauge of catheter when patients require fluids   References Greene N, Bhananker S, Ramaiah R. Vascular access, fluid resuscitation, and blood transfusion in pediatric trauma. International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science. 2012;2(3):135. doi:10.4103/2229-5151.100890  Khoyratty SI, Gajendragadkar PR, Polisetty K, Ward S, Skinner T, Gajendragadkar PR. Flow rates through intravenous access devices: an in vitro study. J Clin Anesth. 2016;31:101-105. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2016.01.048   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/15/20223 minutes, 6 seconds
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Podcast 829: Monkeypox

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Monkeypox transmission is still occurring  in the United States Transmitted by contact to exposed lesion MSM are a high-risk group for monkeypox infection Symptoms include rash and flu like symptoms Monkeypox lesions are often described as blister-like, firm, clear, and rubbery Most commonly develop on the face and/or anogenital regions Patients with potential monkeypox infection should be moved to isolation to reduce risk of transmission Providers should use full PPE including N95, facial covering, gown, and gloves when interacting with a potential case of monkeypox Diagnosis involves swabbing the lesion and sending it for analysis People at risk for severe disease (i.e. immunocompromised) or who have severe symptoms (i.e. eye involvement) should begin treatment with Tecovirimat (TPOXX) in the ED Infectious Disease (ID) should be consulted, and the patient will need to follow up with ID regardless of symptom severity References Rizk JG, Lippi G, Henry BM, Forthal DN, Rizk Y. Prevention and Treatment of Monkeypox. Drugs. Jun 2022;82(9):957-963. doi:10.1007/s40265-022-01742-y  Thornhill JP, Barkati S, Walmsley S, et al. Monkeypox Virus Infection in Humans across 16 Countries - April-June 2022. N Engl J Med. Aug 25 2022;387(8):679-691. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2207323   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/14/20224 minutes, 4 seconds
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Podcast 828: TXA Dosing Update

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: In the setting of traumatic injury, tranexamic acid (TXA) is given to stabilize clots which minimizes bleeding and decreases risk of hemorrhagic shock   Current TXA dose for trauma is 1 g bolus followed by a 1 g infusion; both doses should be given within 3 hours from time of injury  Due to the split dose and narrow window, patients with complicated care, particularly if they require transfer may miss the infusion dose  Various smaller studies have shown that dosing 2 g initially or 2 g followed by a 1 g infusion produces the same patient outcomes and no additional harm  Receiving hospitals should strive to acquire accurate information regarding previous doses of TXA given and confirm timeline of injury    References Roberts I, Shakur H, Coats T, et al. The CRASH-2 trial: a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of the effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events and transfusion requirement in bleeding trauma patients. Health Technol Assess. 2013;17(10):1-79. doi:10.3310/hta17100   Ramirez RJ, Spinella PC, Bochicchio GV. Tranexamic Acid Update in Trauma. Crit Care Clin. 2017;33(1):85-99. doi:10.1016/j.ccc.2016.08.004   Spinella PC, Thomas KA, Turnbull IR, et al. The Immunologic Effect of Early Intravenous Two and Four Gram Bolus Dosing of Tranexamic Acid Compared to Placebo in Patients With Severe Traumatic Bleeding (TAMPITI): A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Center Trial. Front Immunol. 2020;11:2085. Published 2020 Sep 8. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.02085   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/8/20224 minutes, 12 seconds
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Podcast 827: Allergies in Peds

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study evaluated if early exposure to an allergen impacted the rate of allergy development later in childhood Children were exposed to peanut, milk, wheat, and egg allergens at 3 months of age and then followed for 3 years 2.5-3% of children who were not exposed developed allergies to these allergens 1% of children exposed to the allergens developed allergies to these allerrgens Exposing 63 children to allergens at 3 months would prevent the development of food allergy in one child with no significant adverse events Future recommendations will likely be to gradually introduce allergens to children starting around 3 months References Skjerven HO, Lie A, Vettukattil R, et al. Early food intervention and skin emollients to prevent food allergy in young children (PreventADALL): a factorial, multicentre, cluster-randomised trial. Lancet. Jun 25 2022;399(10344):2398-2411. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(22)00687-0   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/7/20222 minutes, 50 seconds
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Podcast 826: STEMI Equivalents

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: The presence of a STEMI has traditionally been used to determine if a patient with acute chest pain requires urgent cath lab management STEMI indicates an occluded coronary artery, and urgent intervention is needed to restore perfusion to ischemic tissue Patients with occluded coronary arteries can present with EKG findings other than STEMI 2022 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on the Evaluation and Disposition of Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Department was recently published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology Recognizes STEMI equivalents that necessitate cath lab management ST depression in precordial leads Indicates a posterior infarct/possible RCA occlusion LBBB c ST elevation meeting modified Sgarbossa criteria Hyperacute and/or De Winter T wave First indication of coronary artery occlusion Most beneficial time to initiate cath lab because more tissue is salvageable These recommendations will likely alter clinical practice for ED management of acute chest pain   References Kontos MC, de Lemos JA, Deitelzweig SB, et al. 2022 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway on the Evaluation and Disposition of Acute Chest Pain in the Emergency Department: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Solution Set Oversight Committee. J Am Coll Cardiol. Oct 6 2022;doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2022.08.750 Meyers HP, Bracey A, Lee D, et al. Comparison of the ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) vs. NSTEMI and Occlusion MI (OMI) vs. NOMI Paradigms of Acute MI. J Emerg Med. Mar 2021;60(3):273-284. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2020.10.026  Tziakas D, Chalikias G, Al-Lamee R, Kaski JC. Total coronary occlusion in non ST elevation myocardial infarction: Time to change our practice? Int J Cardiol. Apr 15 2021;329:1-8. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.12.082   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
11/1/20224 minutes
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Podcast 825: ALS vs PD Transport

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: In urban settings, it is becoming more common for police to transport critical patients from scene to hospital A 2022 multicenter observational study compared mortality rates in patients with penetrating injury to torso and/or proximal extremity when transported by EMS versus police Approximately 18% of patients were transported by police  Overall mortality was approximately 15% in both groups  In patients with more severe injury, mortality was still similar at approximately 36% and 38% respectively  References Taghavi S, Maher Z, Goldberg AJ, et al. An analysis of police transport in an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter trial examining prehospital procedures in penetrating trauma patients. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2022;93(2):265-272. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000003563 Jacoby SF, Branas CC, Holena DN, Kaufman EJ. Beyond survival: the broader consequences of prehospital transport by police for penetrating trauma. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2020;5(1):e000541. Published 2020 Nov 26. doi:10.1136/tsaco-2020-000541 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/31/20222 minutes, 59 seconds
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Podcast 824: Catheter-Related Blood Infections

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Catheter related blood infections were thought to be caused by skin flora seeding the catheter. Thus, significant effort is applied to sterility and skin preparation.   However, studies have shown that bacteria growing on the tip of the catheter is not consistent with growth on cultures of skin.   Staphylococcus epidermidis is commonly found on cultures of catheter sites. It has also been found in the gut flora of >50% of ICU patients. Rates of catheter related blood infections have been decreased through oral decontamination and early feeding.  These findings suggest enteral bacterial translation as a major source of blood stream infection. References O'Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(9):e162-e193. doi:10.1093/cid/cir257 von Eiff C, Becker K, Machka K, Stammer H, Peters G. Nasal carriage as a source of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(1):11-16. doi:10.1056/NEJM200101043440102 ALTEMEIER WA, HUMMEL RP, HILL EO. Staphylococcal enterocolitis following antibiotic therapy. Ann Surg. 1963;157(6):847-858. doi:10.1097/00000658-196306000-00003 Marshall JC, Christou NV, Horn R, Meakins JL. The microbiology of multiple organ failure. The proximal gastrointestinal tract as an occult reservoir of pathogens. Arch Surg. 1988;123(3):309-315. doi:10.1001/archsurg.1988.01400270043006 Mrozek N, Lautrette A, Aumeran C, et al. Bloodstream infection after positive catheter cultures: what are the risks in the intensive care unit when catheters are routinely cultured on removal?. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(6):1301-1305. doi:10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182120190 Atela I, Coll P, Rello J, et al. Serial surveillance cultures of skin and catheter hub specimens from critically ill patients with central venous catheters: molecular epidemiology of infection and implications for clinical management and research. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35(7):1784-1790. doi:10.1128/jcm.35.7.1784-1790.1997 Tani T, Hanasawa K, Endo Y, et al. Bacterial translocation as a cause of septic shock in humans: a report of two cases. Surg Today. 1997;27(5):447-449. doi:10.1007/BF02385710   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/25/20223 minutes
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Podcast 823: Immediate Resuscitative Thoracotomy

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Immediate resuscitative thoracotomy can be performed in the ED to gain rapid access to the thoracic cavity in cases of traumatic cardiac arrest Western Trauma Association Society Criteria for ED thoracotomy Blunt trauma + Penetrating trauma to torso + Penetrating trauma to the neck/extremity + Signs of life with refractory shock can consider resuscitative thoracotomy Outcomes in immediate resuscitative thoracotomy are poor but are improving A recent study evaluated over 2,000 patients meeting inclusion criteria for immediate resuscitative thoracotomy  Overall survival rate of 20% 26% survival rate in penetrating trauma  7% survival rate in blunt trauma Predictors for poor outcomes Patient age > 60 years Blunt trauma mechanism of injury A prehospital or ED HR Absent signs of life at time of ED arrival When criteria are met, immediate resuscitative thoracotomy should rapidly be performed in the ED References Burlew CC, Moore EE, Moore FA, et al. Western Trauma Association critical decisions in trauma: resuscitative thoracotomy. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73(6):1359-1363. Panossian VS, Nederpelt CJ, El Hechi MW, et al. Emergency Resuscitative Thoracotomy: A Nationwide Analysis of Outcomes and Predictors of Futility. J Surg Res. 2020;255:486-494.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/24/20227 minutes, 18 seconds
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Podcast 822: Meralgia Paresthetica

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Lateral Cutaneous Femoral Nerve Entrapment Syndrome, also known as Meralgia Paresthetica, results from entrapment of the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve, often as it exits the pelvis under the inguinal ligament.  Meralgia Paresthetica is associated with obesity, pregnancy, compression from clothing or belts and diabetes. Symptoms include numbness, paresthesia and pain of the proximal lateral thigh. Signs or symptoms of radiculopathy such as weakness, loss of reflexes or severe back pain should not be present. Diagnosis is clinical and does not require further imaging if there are no additional or concerning findings.  Meralgia Paresthetica typically resolves over time without intervention; however patients should be counseled on weight loss, diabetes control and avoidance of compressive clothing as relieving factors.    References Solomons JNT, Sagir A, Yazdi C. Meralgia Paresthetica. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2022;26(7):525-531. doi:10.1007/s11916-022-01053-7 Grossman MG, Ducey SA, Nadler SS, Levy AS. Meralgia paresthetica: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2001;9(5):336-344. doi:10.5435/00124635-200109000-00007 Image from my.clevelandclinic.org   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/18/20223 minutes, 16 seconds
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Podcast 821: EKGs in Syncope

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: An EKG should be obtained quickly after a syncopal event to identify possible life-threatening causes such as ischemia and arrhythmia WOBBLER is a good mnemonic for remembering additional EKG findings to look for in syncope  Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Check for delta wave on QRS Obstructed AV node Any potential heart blocks Brugada syndrome Na channel blockade that can cause ST elevations in anterior leads Bifascicular block Conduction blockade in two of the three fascicles increases risk of complete heart block Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) Can be a sign of HOCM (younger patients) or aortic stenosis (older patients) Epsilon waves Positive deflections after the QRS that is seen in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia Repolarization abnormalities Prolonged/shortened QT segments References Martow E, Sandhu R. When Is Syncope Arrhythmic? Med Clin North Am. 2019;103(5):793-807. Solbiati M, Dipaola F, Villa P, et al. Predictive Accuracy of Electrocardiographic Monitoring of Patients With Syncope in the Emergency Department: The SyMoNE Multicenter Study. Acad Emerg Med. 2020;27(1):15-23.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/
10/17/20224 minutes, 30 seconds
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Podcast 820: Who Qualifies for Take-Home Naloxone

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Home naloxone is traditionally given to those at high risk for opioid overdose such as those in the ED due to an opioid overdose, opioid intoxication, or admit to illicit opioid use        There are a number of other patient populations that benefit from home naloxone including those on chronic opioid or benzodiazepine therapy, and those who report any type of illicit drug use Any illicit drug could be laced with opioids, and those who use drugs are more likely to be present as bystanders when an opioid overdose occurs Some important tips to remember when prescribing home naloxone There is often a scannable QR code that instructs bystanders on how to recognize and intervene in an overdose Inform the patient that naloxone is temporary and those who overdose are at high risk of overdosing again Provide support and inform the patient that if they decide they would like to enter treatment/rehabilitation programs, they can return to the ED to start that process References Strang J, McDonald R, Campbell G, et al. Take-Home Naloxone for the Emergency Interim Management of Opioid Overdose: The Public Health Application of an Emergency Medicine. Drugs. 2019;79(13):1395-1418. Moustaqim-Barrette A, Dhillon D, Ng J, et al. Take-home naloxone programs for suspected opioid overdose in community settings: a scoping umbrella review. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):597. Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/11/20224 minutes
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Podcast 819: Indiscriminate Lactate Testing

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Elevated lactate levels can be a useful indicator of critical illness in patients who meet SIRS criteria        Lactate can also be elevated due to other causes including seizures and medications such as albuterol and metformin   A recent study from Switzerland* performed routine point-of-care lactate testing in all elderly patients presenting at triage in the emergency department in order to determine the prevalence of elevated lactate in the population and its utility in predicting poor patient outcomes  Patients with seizure as their chief complaint were excluded from the study due to expected transient elevated lactate levels Poor outcomes were defined as requiring extensive IVF and/orvasoactive medications, undergoing intubation, admission to the ICU, or death 27.1% of patients had an increased lactate but only 7.3% actually met poor outcome criteria ED physicians should note that an increased lactate in an elderly patient does not mean that they are critically ill Routine point-of-care lactate monitoring at triage is of limited usefulness and should instead be targeted towards those who meet critical illness criteria   *Errata: This study was performed in Switzerland, not Sweden as was stated in the podcast   References Gosselin M, Mabire C, Pasquier M, et al. Prevalence and clinical significance of point of care elevated lactate at emergency admission in older patients: a prospective study. Intern Emerg Med. 2022;17(6):1803-1812. Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/10/20225 minutes
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Podcast 818: Local Anesthetics and LAST

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: There are two major groups of local anesthetics: Amide and Esther  To recall what group an anesthetic belongs to, use this memory trick:   Amide has an ‘i’ in the name and Amide anesthetics have 2 ‘i’s e.g., Lidocaine. Ester has no ‘i’ and most common Ester anesthetics have only one ‘i’ e.g., Tetracaine.   In a true allergy and/or contraindication to both local anesthetic groups, diphenhydramine is an acceptable alternative.  Epinephrine is administered with local anesthetics to decrease bleeding, increase duration of action, and minimize systemic spread of the anesthetic, thus reducing toxicity.  Symptoms of Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST) may begin with dizziness, confusion and/or slurred speech, and can progress to cardiovascular collapse and death. Treat LAST with lipid emulsion therapy i.e. ‘Intralipids’ to create a lipid sink that absorbs anesthetic agent Administer initial 1.5 ml/kg bolus (approximately 100 ml in 70 mg adult) followed by infusion rate of 0.25 mg/kg/hour. Do not surpass 10 mg/kg total.  References Dickerson DM, Apfelbaum JL. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Aesthet Surg J. 2014;34(7):1111-1119. doi:10.1177/1090820X14543102 Bina B, Hersh EV, Hilario M, Alvarez K, McLaughlin B. True Allergy to Amide Local Anesthetics: A Review and Case Presentation. Anesth Prog. 2018;65(2):119-123. doi:10.2344/anpr-65-03-06 Macfarlane AJR, Gitman M, Bornstein KJ, El-Boghdadly K, Weinberg G. Updates in our understanding of local anaesthetic systemic toxicity: a narrative review. Anaesthesia. 2021;76 Suppl 1:27-39. doi:10.1111/anae.15282   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visithttps://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/4/20226 minutes, 50 seconds
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Podcast 817: MI Risk during Elections

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: 2020 retrospective study with dat from two California hospitals compared rates of cardiovascular admissions in a five day period two weeks before and the five days after the presidential election      Hospitalization rate for acute cardiovascular disease increased by 17% and rate of acute myocardial infarction increased by 42%    Highest rates occurred in demographic of white males older than 75 years old No significant difference between groups in rates of stroke and heart failure  References Mefford MT, Rana JS, Reynolds K, et al. Association of the 2020 US Presidential Election With Hospitalizations for Acute Cardiovascular Conditions. JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(4):e228031. Published 2022 Apr 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.8031   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/ Donate to EMM today!
10/3/20222 minutes, 23 seconds
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Podcast 816: Ventilator Management in Asthmatics

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: The management of severe asthma or COPD exacerbation is complex, especially when the patient requires intubation/ventilation Asthma is an obstructive airway disease that can cause air trapping and hyperinflation of the lungs To avoid worsening hyperinflation patients typically require slower respiratory rates, lower tidal volumes, and increased expiratory time when on a ventilator Patients on a ventilator require very close monitoring to prevent worsening hyperinflation and associated complications including barotrauma and hypotension/cardiac arrest secondary to decreased venous return  If patient condition starts to worsen, decrease respiratory rate and tidal volume  In these cases, a decreased oxygen saturation is acceptable until their condition improves If patient status continues to worsen, consider disconnecting the ventilator and pushing on the chest for approximately 30 seconds to help force out trapped air If patient continues to decompensate, consider the possibility of a pneumothorax and determine if a chest tube is necessary Remember to continue asthma/COPD management including albuterol/duonebs, steroids, magnesium, and alternatives including as heliox References Demoule A, Brochard L, Dres M, et al. How to ventilate obstructive and asthmatic patients. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(12):2436-2449 Garner O, Ramey JS, Hanania NA. Management of Life-Threatening Asthma: Severe Asthma Series. Chest. 2022 Laher AE, Buchanan SK. Mechanically Ventilating the Severe Asthmatic. J Intensive Care Med. 2018;33(9):491-501   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/
9/27/20224 minutes, 15 seconds
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Podcast 815: Fluid Resuscitation in Pancreatitis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Historically, pancreatitis has been treated with aggressive IV fluid rehydration. Recently published data shows this may not be appropriate. A randomized, controlled, multi-hospital trial evaluated outcomes for patients with acute pancreatitis receiving lactated Ringer’s solution    Aggressive fluid resuscitation group received 20ml/kg bolus + 3ml/hour  Moderate fluid resuscitation groups received either 10 ml/kg bolus if hypovolemic or no bolus if normovolemic. Both moderate resuscitation groups received 1.5ml/hr.   The primary outcome was development of moderately severe or severe pancreatitis. 22.1% of aggressive fluid resuscitation and 17.3% of moderate fluid resuscitation patients developed primary outcome. The safety outcome was fluid overload. Fluid overload developed in 20.5% of aggressive resuscitation group and only 6.3% of moderate resuscitation group.   This trial was ended early due to differences in safety outcomes without obvious difference in primary outcome Overall, aggressive fluid resuscitation had no benefit in treatment of acute pancreatitis and providers should be aware of fluid overload risk.   References de-Madaria E, Buxbaum JL, Maisonneuve P, et al. Aggressive or Moderate Fluid Resuscitation in Acute Pancreatitis. N Engl J Med. 2022;387(11):989-1000. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2202884   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   In an effort to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in Emergency Medicine, The Emergency Medical Minute is proud to present our 2nd annual Diversity and Inclusion Award. We support increasing the representation of underrepresented groups in medicine and extend this award to individuals applying to emergency medicine residencies during the 2022-2023 cycle. For information on award eligibility and the application process, visit https://emergencymedicalminute.com/edi-award/  
9/26/20223 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 814: Post-concussion Treatment

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at the impact of screen time on duration of post-concussive symptoms 125 patients aged 12-25 diagnosed with a concussion were randomized to either abstain from or have unrestricted screen time for 48 hours after injury Patients with unrestricted screen time averaged approximately 5 hours/day of screen time Patients in the no screen time group averaged approximately 1 hour/day of screen time Statistically significant difference in duration of post-concussive symptoms Unrestricted screen time cohort averaged 8 days of post-concussive symptoms No screen time cohort averaged 3.5 days of post-concussive symptoms ED physicians should encourage patients to limit screen time as much as possible in the first 48 hours after a concussion to promote faster recovery from post-concussive symptoms   References Macnow T, Curran T, Tolliday C, et al. Effect of Screen Time on Recovery From Concussion: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(11):1124-1131.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/19/20222 minutes, 50 seconds
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Podcast 813: Pulse Oximetry

Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Most oxygen in the body is bound to hemoglobin, forming oxyhemoglobin. Less than 1% of the oxygen in the body is dissolved in plasma.  Pulse Oximeters (Pulse Ox) function by emitting wavelengths of light from one side, and capturing the amount absorbed on the opposite side. A calculation determined the amount of saturation.  Pulse Ox relies on pulsations in arterial flow to create a photoplethysmogram (pleth) for measurements  Patients with poor peripheral perfusion may have unreliable pulse ox. Patient with an LVAD have constant flow and also unreliable pulse ox.  Pulse Ox is a useful tool when pacing to determine mechanical capture. If there is disparity between the electrical wave pulse and the rate on pulse ox, there is likely no mechanical capture leading to poor distal flow.    References Eecen CMW, Kooter AJJ. Pulsoximeters: werking, valkuilen en praktische tips [Pulse oximetry: principles, limitations and practical applications]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2021;165:D5891. Published 2021 May 11. Elgendi M. On the analysis of fingertip photoplethysmogram signals. Curr Cardiol Rev. 2012;8(1):14-25. doi:10.2174/157340312801215782   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/13/20224 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 812: PO Medications

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: PO medications are less frequently used in the ED due to their longer onset of action        The position the patient is in when given PO medications may affect how quickly the medication is absorbed The quicker the medication passes through the stomach into the small intestine, the quicker it can be absorbed and metabolized Recent study used in silico gastric biomechanics model to compare the length of time it took PO medications to pass through the stomach based on the patient’s positioning Compared the medication transit time in a stomach model placed in right lateral, left lateral, upright, and supine positions Right lateral positioning resulted in the fastest time for medication to pass through the stomach and enter the duodenum Likely due to the direction of gravity aligning with the antrum and pylorus of the stomach Left lateral positioning had the slowest time for the pill to enter the small intestine  Likely due to gravity not aligning with stomach anatomy The time to absorption in the right and left lateral position were significantly faster and slower respectively than that seen in the upright and supine positions  These results indicate that placing a patient in the right lateral position when giving PO medications may result in faster rate of medication onset than if the patient is in another position   References Lee JH, Kuhar S, Seo JH, Pasricha PJ, Mittal R. Computational modeling of drug dissolution in the human stomach: Effects of posture and gastroparesis on drug bioavailability. Phys Fluids (1994). 2022;34(8):081904.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/12/20223 minutes, 26 seconds
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Podcast 811: Ketamine for Pain

Contributor: Lessen, Aaron MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine can be given at 0.2-0.3 mg/kg as subdissociative doses for pain control in the ED Ketamine coadministered with Haldol may reduce agitation A recent study in Iran compared subdissociative Ketamine given with 2.5 mg Haldol to 1 mg/kg Fentanyl for pain control in the ED Ketamine with Haldol had better pain control than Fentanyl at 5, 10, 15 and 30 minutes  Ketamine with Haldol less frequently required rescue medication  Ketamine with Haldol did have increased agitation at only the 10 minute mark Of note, there was not a Ketamine only group to compare  Ketamine with Haldol is a viable alternative combination for pain control    References Moradi MM, Moradi MM, Safaie A, Baratloo A, Payandemehr P. Sub dissociative dose of ketamine with haloperidol versus fentanyl on pain reduction in patients with acute pain in the emergency department; a randomized clinical trial. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;54:165-171. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2022.02.012 Sin B, Ternas T, Motov SM. The use of subdissociative-dose ketamine for acute pain in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2015;22(3):251-257. doi:10.1111/acem.12604   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/7/20223 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 810: Tooth Replantation

Contributor: Jarod Scott, MD Educational Pearls: There is a 1-hour window for tooth replantation in ED Cold milk is often best transport media unless there is access to specialized solutions (Hank’s Balanced Solution) Goal is to preserve periodontal ligament Soaking in tap water should be avoided as it will lyse cells of periodontal ligament     If oral surgeon is rapidly available, have them perform replantation Do not delay replantation to wait for an oral surgeon to become available Steps in tooth reimplantation Disturb the socket as little as possible Handle tooth only by crown, don’t touch root Rinse tooth gently with tap water or saline, do not scrub it Tooth should click back in place and remain stable Don’t manipulate after reimplantation   It may take weeks to determine if the tooth will survive  Studies have shown that replantation performed within one hour has a significantly better prognosis than those taking place after a greater amount of time has passed References Alotaibi S, Haftel A, Wagner ND. Avulsed Tooth. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Copyright © 2022, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2022. Andreasen JO, Andreasen FM, Skeie A, Hjørting-Hansen E, Schwartz O. Effect of treatment delay upon pulp and periodontal healing of traumatic dental injuries – a review article. Dent Traumatol. 2002;18(3):116-128. De Brier N, O D, Borra V, Singletary EM, Zideman DA, De Buck E. Storage of an avulsed tooth prior to replantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Dent Traumatol. 2020;36(5):453-476.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/5/20224 minutes, 32 seconds
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Podcast 809: Achilles Tendon Rupture

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Achilles tendon rupture usually presents in younger, healthy patients after a sports injury Patients typically present complaining of an abrupt onset ankle pain after feeling a “pop” Pain can be localized to posterior ankle and patient’s lack the ability to plantarflex Achilles rupture is a clinical diagnosis and does not usually require imaging in the ED Thompson test Having patient lay on their stomach and squeezing the calf on the injured side should result in plantarflexion  If the Achilles is ruptured, no plantarflexion will occur Treatment in the ED is to place the patient in a short leg posterior splint with some mild plantarflexion to aid in healing After discharge patients should follow up with orthopedics Recent study compared those who underwent the traditional open surgery, a minimally invasive surgery, and no surgery No difference in functionality was noted between the groups 3 months to 1 year post injury Those in the nonoperative group had slightly higher rates of repeat rupture (6%) than those in the surgical groups ( Patients undergoing minimally invasive surgery had the highest risk of nerve injury (5.2%), followed by traditional surgery (2.8%), and then nonoperative (0.6%) References Cuttica DJ, Hyer CF, Berlet GC. Intraoperative value of the thompson test. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2015;54(1):99-101. Kauwe M. Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Clinical Evaluation, Conservative Management, and Early Active Rehabilitation. Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2017;34(2):229-243. Myhrvold SB, Brouwer EF, Andresen TKM, et al. Nonoperative or Surgical Treatment of Acute Achilles' Tendon Rupture. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(15):1409-1420.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/30/20224 minutes, 31 seconds
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Podcast 808: BVM and PEEP Valve

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) is positive pressure within the lungs and maintained throughout the entire respiratory cycle. It is the pressure preventing alveoli from collapsing at the end of exhalation.  When using a bag valve mask (BVM) to ventilate patients, always attach the PEEP valve to prevent intrathoracic pressure from returning to atmospheric pressure which would allow alveoli collapse.     A BVM with a good seal to patients face and with an attached PEEP valve provides the same support as BiPAP or CPAP.   A generally acceptable PEEP setting is 5 cmH2O.  References Mora Carpio AL, Mora JI. Positive End-Expiratory Pressure. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; August 27, 2021. Harrison MJ. PEEP and CPAP. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1986;292(6521):643-644. doi:10.1136/bmj.292.6521.643 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/29/20224 minutes, 55 seconds
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Podcast 807: Ring Removal Tricks

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: If a patient is in significant pain, a digital block can be helpful. Pain management alone may allow for manual ring removal.  Ring cutters and trauma shears with specialized ring cutters can be attempted but will destroy the ring and some materials may be resistant to cutting.  2 alternative options are presented which aim to reduce edema above the ring to assist removal:  Move the ring as proximally as possible. Wrap large size suture from the ring distally beyond PIP joint. Slide the ring over the suture and off the finger.  Wrap a tourniquet from distal to proximal including over the ring. Have the patient hold the tourniquet in place while they elevate their hand above the head for 15 minutes. Take down the tourniquet then remove the ring.  References Asher CM, Fleet M, Bystrzonowski N. Ring removal: an illustrated summary of the literature. Eur J Emerg Med. 2020;27(4):268-273. doi:10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000658 Walter J, DeBoer M, Koops J, Hamel LL, Rupp PE, Westgard BC. Quick cuts: A comparative study of two tools for ring tourniquet removal. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;46:238-240. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.07.039   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/23/20224 minutes, 11 seconds
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Podcast 806: Normal ECGs

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Physicians are typically advised not to trust computer interpretation of ECGs  Retrospective study was done of computer interpreted normal ECGs to evaluate the accuracy of such an interpretation 989 ECGs were interpreted as “Normal sinus rhythm, Normal ECG” by proprietary cardiology software on MUSE Cardiology Information System These EKGs received follow up interpretation by cardiologists which was considered the “gold standard” for interpretation 18.6% of “normal ECG” had at least one abnormality identified by the cardiologist 6.1% of these discrepant interpretations were deemed potentially clinically significant  Only 1% were classified as possible ischemia On retrospective chart review: Six patients underwent non-emergent cardiac catheterization Two had cardiac interventions One had three PCI stents to a prior CABG graft One had a scheduled outpatient cardiac catheterization but was admitted and ended up receiving a CABG graft Study showed that discrepancies between computer interpretation of “Normal ECG” and cardiologist re-interpretation were not clinically significant Emergency physicians should still screen ECGs per AHA guidelines    References Winters LJ, Dhillon RK, Pannu GK, Terrassa P, Holmes JF, Bing ML. Emergent cardiac outcomes in patients with normal electrocardiograms in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;51:384-387.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
8/22/20223 minutes, 53 seconds
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Podcast 805: Tunneled Peritoneal Catheter

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with recurrent ascites may need frequent outpatient or emergency department paracentesis which can be time consuming and uncomfortable for patients.  Tunneled peritoneal catheters are a permanent alternative therapy which allows fluid drainage at home by patient or caregiver.  There has been theoretical concern that long term placement of tunneled peritoneal catheters may increase risk of infection, thus they are more commonly placed as a palliative measure for patients with end stage cancer and malignant ascites with shorter anticipated life spans. However, a recent small study found that in both patients with malignant ascites and recurrent ascites from cirrhosis, tunneled peritoneal catheter placement reduced symptoms from ascites and did not increase risk of infection or leakage at catheter site, or spontaneous bacterial peritonitis after four weeks. More research is emerging and tunneled peritoneal catheters may become more common.   References Kimer N, Riedel AN, Hobolth L, et al. Tunneled Peritoneal Catheter for Refractory Ascites in Cirrhosis: A Randomized Case-Series. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020;56(11):565. Published 2020 Oct 27. doi:10.3390/medicina56110565Petzold G, Bremer SCB, Heuschert FC, et al. Tunnelled Peritoneal Catheter for Malignant Ascites-An Open-Label, Prospective, Observational Trial. Cancers (Basel). 2021;13(12):2926. Published 2021 Jun 11. doi:10.3390/cancers13122926Corrigan M, Thomas R, McDonagh J, et al. Tunnelled peritoneal drainage catheter placement for the palliative management of refractory ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Frontline Gastroenterol. 2020;12(2):108-112. Published 2020 Feb 28. doi:10.1136/flgastro-2019-101332   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/16/20223 minutes, 15 seconds
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Podcast 804: Brugada Criteria for V Tach

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Tachycardia describes a heart rate of >120 beats per minute Wide Complex describes a QRS duration of >120 ms or 3 small boxes on a standard EKG The major differential for a wide complex tachycardia is Ventricular Tachycardia (VT), aka “V Tach”, or Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) with Aberrancy   SVT alone is a narrow complex tachycardia, but as rate increases a right or left bundle branch block pattern may emerge, creating SVT with Aberrancy seen as a wide complex on EKG It is important to distinguish the rhythms as treatment for stable VT differs from treatment(s) for stable SVT  Brugada Criteria is an algorithm for determining if wide complex tachycardia is VT with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. Following is a simple ED approach based on brugada criteria to determine VT on EKG. If either condition is true, suspect and treat VT:   Concordance: All precordial leads have QRS complexes that are either all positive or all negative.  R-S interval: >100 ms in any one precordial lead.  Also note that VT is more common in patients who are elderly and/or have cardiac comorbidities of ischemic or structural heart disease References Reithmann C. Tachykardien mit breiten QRS-Komplexen [Differential diagnosis of wide QRS complex tachycardia]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2019;161(13):48-56. doi:10.1007/s15006-019-0022-x Ding WY, Mahida S. Wide complex tachycardia: differentiating ventricular tachycardia from supraventricular tachycardia. Heart. 2021;107(24):1995-2003. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2020-316874 Brugada P, Brugada J, Mont L, Smeets J, Andries EW. A new approach to the differential diagnosis of a regular tachycardia with a wide QRS complex. Circulation. 1991;83(5):1649-1659. doi:10.1161/01.cir.83.5.1649   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/9/20226 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 803:  Sedation During Intubation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Awareness with recall of paralysis can occur in intubated and ventilated patients receiving paralytic medications  Patients who suffer from this effect are at high risk of developing severe PTSD, depression, and suicidal ideations Occurs in approximately 0.1-0.2% of patients undergoing general anesthesia in an OR setting 2021 study showed patients intubated in the ED have a much higher rate of experiencing awareness during intubation 2.6% chance of awareness in patients undergoing intubation and mechanical ventilation in the ED Higher rates with rocuronium likely due to its longer duration of action New follow up study from 2022 showed 3.4% of patients aware when paralyzed for mechanical ventilation in ED 5.5% of patients receiving rocuronium had awareness occur Patients who received other paralytics had a Important to be proactive with sedation and pain medications to decrease risk of awareness with recall of paralysis, especially in patients receiving rocuronium References Fuller BM, Pappal RD, Mohr NM, et al. Awareness With Paralysis Among Critically Ill Emergency Department Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study. Crit Care Med. 2022. Leslie K, Davidson AJ. Awareness during anesthesia: a problem without solutions? Minerva Anestesiol. 2010;76(8):624-628. Pappal RD, Roberts BW, Mohr NM, et al. The ED-AWARENESS Study: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study of Awareness With Paralysis in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Admitted From the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(5):532-544.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/8/20223 minutes, 7 seconds
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Pediatric Palliative Care Expert Panel

Selected audio from our event, Palliative, hosted on June 27, 2022 in conjunction with Children's Hospital Colorado's Department of Palliative Medicine and The Denver Hospice's Footprints Program. Keynote address by Dr. Nadia Tremonti, pediatric palliative care physician at Children's Hospital of Michigan Expert Panel composed of Dr. Kimberly Bennett, medical director for TDH's Footprints Program, Dora Mueller, clinical nurse coordinator for palliative care at Children's and Cassie Matz, LCSW bereavement coordinator at Children's. The evening commenced following a screening of the 2019 award-winning documentary, Palliative, featuring Dr. Nadia Tremonti's work at Children's Hospital of Michigan. You can watch the documentary for free at Kanopy.com using your library card using the following link: https://www.kanopy.com/product/palliative
8/3/20221 hour, 6 minutes, 6 seconds
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Podcast 802: Intranasal Medication Administration for Pediatric Patients

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Intranasal medication administration is a convenient, quick, and relatively painless option for pediatric patients Often used as an initial medication to help control pain in children prior to establishing an IV Using an atomizer is preferred when administering intranasal medications The syringe should be angled towards the ipsilateral eye or occiput rather than straight upwards Do not administer more than 1 mL of fluid per nostril as volumes greater than 1 mL are not sufficiently absorbed Intranasal medication doses differ from the traditional IV dosages and have a slower onset of action References Del Pizzo J, Callahan JM. Intranasal medications in pediatric emergency medicine. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2014;30(7):496-501; quiz 502-494. Fantacci C, Fabrizio GC, Ferrara P, Franceschi F, Chiaretti A. Intranasal drug administration for procedural sedation in children admitted to pediatric Emergency Room. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018;22(1):217-222. Rech MA, Barbas B, Chaney W, Greenhalgh E, Turck C. When to Pick the Nose: Out-of-Hospital and Emergency Department Intranasal Administration of Medications. Ann Emerg Med. 2017;70(2):203-211. Schoolman-Anderson K, Lane RD, Schunk JE, Mecham N, Thomas R, Adelgais K. Pediatric emergency department triage-based pain guideline utilizing intranasal fentanyl: Effect of implementation. Am J Emerg Med. 2018;36(9):1603-1607.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/2/20223 minutes, 24 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #14: Substance-Induced Psychosis (Part II)

In this second episode of a two-part mini-series, we feature Dr. Nadia Haddad, a Colorado psychiatrist, and Dr. Ricky Dhaliwal, an emergency medicine physician, as they discuss the various treatment modalities for substance-induced psychosis. They explore pharmacologic treatments, inpatient and outpatient treatments, and ways that emergency providers can improve their care for psychiatric patients with comorbid medical conditions. Lastly, they consider the different causes for repeat visits from mentally ill patients.    Key Points:   Pharmacologic treatments for substance-induced psychosis are similar to those for other types of psychosis; these include medications like Zyprexa, Haldol, and, as a third-line treatment, IM Thorazine.  Droperidol is used more commonly in the emergency setting, compared with the psychiatric setting.  Given the risk for respiratory depression from Zyprexa combined with benzodiazepines, psychiatrists may choose to use Thorazine or Haldol/Ativan/Benadryl instead.  It is important to reassess patients after substances wear off to determine whether they meet criteria for admission to inpatient psychiatry, though psychiatric assessments are limited by geographic constraints. The admitting psychiatry team will reassess the patient to differentiate substance-induced psychosis vs other psychoses; often this includes obtaining collateral. Helpful notes from the ED include: medications administered or restraints placed (can help extrapolate a patient’s level of agitation), vital signs, prior records.  Some people will be more open about suicidality while intoxicated and less open about it while sober so it is important to obtain additional information for corroboration.  On average, patients stay in the detox unit for 3-4 days, though some may stay longer for protracted substance-induced psychosis if they have a long-standing history of daily substance use.  It is important to discharge patients with quick follow-up and potential placement into the various mental health programs including partial hospitalization, residential, or outpatient programs. Emergency rooms can improve by taking psychiatric patients seriously, especially when they are transferred to the hospital from a psychiatric facility for medical management.  Repeat visits stem partially from the ambivalence that accompanies substance use disorders, including patients’ difficulty in giving up the substance due the purpose it may serve in their lives.  Many substance use disorder programs are siloed from the medical system, which pose a challenge to interdisciplinary communication. 
7/27/202224 minutes, 5 seconds
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Podcast 801: Push Dose Vasopressors

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: There are two common options for push-dose vasopressor: phenylephrine and epinephrine. Both have been studied in the setting of the OR, but are lacking data in emergency room utilization.  A recent retrospective study at one hospital compared the two options for effectiveness and safety. The data showed phenylephrine raised systolic pressure an average 26 points while epinephrine raised the systolic pressure higher, an average of 33 points. Additionally, the same study showed dosing errors were more common in epinephrine. The error rates were 13% and 2% when using premixed syringes of epinephrine and phenylephrine respectively. However, overall no increase in adverse outcomes were reported between the two drugs in this study.  References Nam E, Fitter S, Moussavi K. Comparison of push-dose phenylephrine and epinephrine in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;52:43-49. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2021.11.033 Weingart S. Push-dose pressors for immediate blood pressure control. Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2015;2(2):131-132. Published 2015 Jun 30. doi:10.15441/ceem.15.010   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/26/20223 minutes, 10 seconds
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Podcast 800: Mortality in Fevers

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: A recent study evaluated the association between the degree of fever and mortality rate in patients presenting to a set of Emergency Departments in Israel Febrile patients with a temperature > 38.0 C were recorded and these patients were compared against local death records to determine the all-cause 30-day mortality rate 8.1% of patients evaluated in the ED were determined to be febrile 30-day mortality for all febrile patients was around 12%  Patients with fever >40 C have a mortality rate approaching 24% Patients febrile to >40 C had increased mortality, ICU admissions, and AKIs compared to those with lesser degrees of fever Those with a body temperature of between 39.2-39.5 C had the lowest mortality rates which may indicate the protective role of fever and warrants further research References Marcusohn E, Gibory I, Miller A, Lipsky AM, Neuberger A, Epstein D. The association between the degree of fever as measured in the emergency department and clinical outcomes of hospitalized adult patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;52:92-98.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/25/20222 minutes, 30 seconds
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Podcast 799: EKG Abnormalities in Renal Failure

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Patients in renal failure may have elevated serum potassium levels which can result in EKG changes.   EKG changes in the setting of hyperkalemia generally depend on the serum level. Mild elevation may cause peaked T waves. At higher serum levels there will be loss of P waves plus wide complex tachycardia. There can be progression to fatal arrhythmias.   Treatment of acute hyperkalemia involves multiple mechanisms. Calcium gluconate stabilizes the cardiac membrane (of note, its duration of action is 1 hour). Insulin with Glucose and Bicarbonate both act to shift extracellular potassium into cells. Enhanced elimination of potassium is accomplished via Kayexalate or Lokelma. Definitive treatment for hyperkalemia is hemodialysis.   The differential for wide complex non-tachycardic rhythm on EKG includes: left ventricular hypertrophy, left bundle branch block, pacemaker, electrolyte abnormalities including hyperkalemia.   References Palmer BF, Clegg DJ. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperkalemia. Cleve Clin J Med. 2017;84(12):934-942. doi:10.3949/ccjm.84a.17056 Watanabe R. Hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2020;66Suppl 1(Suppl 1):s31-s36. Published 2020 Jan 13. doi:10.1590/1806-9282.66.S1.31   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/19/20224 minutes
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Podcast 798: Digit Reimplantation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Multiple factors affect if a digit can be reattached including: location of digit injury, mechanism of injury, duration since injury, preservation mechanism.  Recommended preservation is via indirect cooling. This is accomplished by wrapping the amputated digit piece in saline soaked gauze, placing the wrapped piece in a waterproof bag and putting the bag in ice water for transport. Avoid direct contact of the digit with ice.  A single center study showed that only 34% of the total digits received were properly preserved. Lower rates of indirect cooling were seen in patients arriving from home or via EMS (25% and 35% respectively). Of those transported from referring hospitals, still only 45% of digits were properly preserved. Therefore, consider providing preservation instructions for indirect cooling to those transporting amputated digits.    References Zhang L, Azmat CE, Buckley CJ. Digit Amputation. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; April 30, 2022. Massand S, Sinatro H, Liu AT, Shen C, Ingraham JM. Improper Preservation of Amputated Parts: A Pervasive Problem. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2020;8(9 Suppl):100-101. Published 2020 Oct 9. doi:10.1097/01.GOX.0000720828.15941.c5    Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/18/20220
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Podcast 797: Vitamin C in Sepsis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Prior, smaller studies showed intravenous Vitamin C given to patients with sepsis significantly improved patient mortality and additional outcomes.  A recently published, randomized control trial with >800 ICU patients who received up to 4 days of IV Vit C or placebo concluded that the end points of death or persistent organ dysfunction at 28 days were unaffected by Vitamin C administration. There were no adverse safety outcomes associated with Vitamin C administration.   Based on this trial, it is unlikely that Vitamin C will become a mainstay of treatment for sepsis patients.    References Marik PE, Khangoora V, Rivera R, Hooper MH, Catravas J. Hydrocortisone, Vitamin C, and Thiamine for the Treatment of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: A Retrospective Before-After Study. Chest. 2017;151(6):1229-1238. doi:10.1016/j.chest.2016.11.036 Lamontagne F, Masse MH, Menard J, et al. Intravenous Vitamin C in Adults with Sepsis in the Intensive Care Unit. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(25):2387-2398. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2200644   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/12/20222 minutes, 43 seconds
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Podcast 796: Fluid Amounts in Septic Shock

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Septic shock management has traditionally endorsed rapid fluid resuscitation and the administration of vasopressors Current guidelines are for patients to initially receive a 30 ml/kg fluid bolus then additional fluid as needed for continued hypotension The ideal volume of fluid needed to maximize patient outcomes has been debated A recent ICU-based study examined mortality differences between patient receiving restricted vs standard fluid therapy for septic shock There was no significant difference in the rate of mortality or adverse outcomes between the two groups indicating that the amount of fluid used after the initial bolus does not affect patient outcomes More research needed to evaluate the ideal  fluid volumes used in the initial resuscitation of septic shock   Errata: *** “The primary outcome was death within 90 days after randomization”   References Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Intensive Care Med. 2021;47(11):1181-1247. Meyhoff TS, Møller MH, Hjortrup PB, Cronhjort M, Perner A, Wetterslev J. Lower vs higher fluid volumes during initial management of sepsis: a systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. Chest. 2020;157(6):1478-1496. Meyhoff TS, Hjortrup PB, Wetterslev J, et al. Restriction of Intravenous Fluid in ICU Patients with Septic Shock. N Engl J Med. 2022;386(26):2459-2470.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/11/20223 minutes, 5 seconds
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Podcast 795: Lithium Toxicity

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Lithium remains a commonly used medication for treating bipolar disorder Lithium toxicity can be acute, acute-on-chronic, or chronic  Measuring blood lithium level Therapeutic range of lithium is around 1.6-1.8 mEq/L >2 mEq/L is likely to cause significant toxicity >4 mEq/L necessitates lifesaving treatment The lethal dose of lithium is 700 mg/kg Lithium can have delayed absorption resulting in levels increasing during hospitalization Symptoms associated with acute lithium toxicity Gastrointestinal Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain Neurological Tremor, nystagmus, CNS depression (late finding) Cardiovascular Bradycardia, QT prolongation, EKG changes Treatment for lithium toxicity ABCs Get a good history GI Decontamination: Whole bowel irrigation if patient ingested extended-release tablets Dialysis Most effective treatment for lithium toxicity References Baird-Gunning J, Lea-Henry T, Hoegberg LCG, Gosselin S, Roberts DM. Lithium Poisoning. J Intensive Care Med. 2017;32(4):249-263. Hedya SA, Avula A, Swoboda HD. Lithium Toxicity. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Copyright © 2022, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2022. McKnight RF, Adida M, Budge K, Stockton S, Goodwin GM, Geddes JR. Lithium toxicity profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2012;379(9817):721-728.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/5/20224 minutes, 44 seconds
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Podcast 794: Brain and Pain

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Pain sensation is generated and modified by the brain Multiple case reports provide evidence that the degree of pain a patient experiences correlates with how severe they perceive their injury/illness to be        Patients who feel safe and reassured about the care they are receiving have less pain     The patient’s narrative about their pain is the strongest factor in determining long-term outcomes of their pain Helping to shape the narrative around the patient’s pain is essential in reducing the incidence of chronic pain and increases the likelihood of pain completely resolving   References Bushnell MC, Ceko M, Low LA. Cognitive and emotional control of pain and its disruption in chronic pain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14(7):502-511. Dimsdale JE, Dantzer R. A biological substrate for somatoform disorders: importance of pathophysiology. Psychosom Med. 2007;69(9):850-854. Fenton BW, Shih E, Zolton J. The neurobiology of pain perception in normal and persistent pain. Pain Manag. 2015;5(4):297-317. Marshall PWM, Schabrun S, Knox MF. Physical activity and the mediating effect of fear, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing on pain related disability in people with chronic low back pain. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0180788.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
7/4/20220
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Podcast 793: Postintubation Sedation and Analgesia

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: When intubating a patient, it is important to consider what medications will be used for post-intubation sedation and analgesia The common non-benzodiazepine sedating medications are propofol, precedex, and ketamine Propofol is frequently used in the emergency department, and it lowers ICP and MAP making it the preferred sedative for patients with intracranial bleeds Precedex is a milder sedative used in the ICU because it decreases time to extubation and reduces the risk of complications associated with long term intubation  Ketamine should be used in hypotensive patients because it does not lower blood pressure, and its bronchodilatory effect is beneficial for asthmatic patients  Versed and ativan are the most commonly encountered benzodiazepine sedatives, but they are infrequently used because they increase the risk of delirium and delay extubation Benzodiazepines are useful for sedation in patients with delirium tremens For post intubation analgesia, fentanyl is the drug of choice since it has a lower risk of hypotension than is seen in other narcotics In the emergency department, intubated and sedated patients should initially be sedated to a RASS of -2 while obtaining imaging, but aim for a RASS of -1 after to decrease side effects and promote earlier extubation References Ely EW, Truman B, Shintani A, et al. Monitoring sedation status over time in ICU patients: reliability and validity of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). JAMA. 2003;289(22):2983-2991. Garner O, Ramey JS, Hanania NA. Management of Life-Threatening Asthma: Severe Asthma Series. Chest. 2022. Keating GM. Dexmedetomidine: A Review of Its Use for Sedation in the Intensive Care Setting. Drugs. 2015;75(10):1119-1130. McKeage K, Perry CM. Propofol: a review of its use in intensive care sedation of adults. CNS Drugs. 2003;17(4):235-272. Ramos-Matos CF, Bistas KG, Lopez-Ojeda W. Fentanyl. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Copyright © 2022, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2022.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD & Erik Verzemnieks, MD Emergency Medical Minute's Palliative screening event is tonight! There is still time to buy tickets to this intimate evening diving into the nuance of pediatric palliative care, purchase tickets on eventbrite!
6/27/20226 minutes, 17 seconds
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Podcast 792: Rectal Prolapse

Contributor: Jarod Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Rectal prolapse is an evagination of the rectal tissue through the anal opening Factors that weaken the pelvic floor muscles increase the risk of rectal prolapse These include age > 40, female, multiple pregnancies, constipation, diarrhea, cystic fibrosis, prior pelvic floor surgeries, or other pelvic floor abnormalities Noninvasive treatment options include increasing fluid and fiber intake to soften stools as well as using padding/taping to reinforce the perineum Surgery is an option to repair the prolapse so long as the patient is a good surgical candidate Medical sugar can be used as a desiccant to dry out and shrink the prolapse thus allowing for easier manual replacement References Coburn WM, 3rd, Russell MA, Hofstetter WL. Sucrose as an aid to manual reduction of incarcerated rectal prolapse. Ann Emerg Med. 1997;30(3):347-349. 2Gachabayov M, Bendl R, Flusberg M, et al. Rectal prolapse and pelvic descent. Curr Probl Surg. 2021;58(9):100952. Segal J, McKeown DG, Tavarez MM. Rectal Prolapse. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. Copyright © 2022, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 202   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/21/20224 minutes, 45 seconds
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Podcast 791: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State (HHS) is less common than Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) but is associated with a mortality rate up to 10 times greater than that seen in DKA Typically seen in elderly patients with severely elevated blood glucose levels (>1000 mg/dL) and an increased plasma osmolality Unlike in DKA, patients with HHS do not have elevated ketones Treatment of HHS includes insulin administration along with correcting fluid and electrolyte abnormalities When treating HHS, it is important to monitor and follow osmolality regularly because over-rapid correction can result in the development of cerebral edema References Fayfman M, Pasquel FJ, Umpierrez GE. Management of Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State. Med Clin North Am. 2017;101(3):587-606. Gosmanov AR, Gosmanova EO, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemic Crises: Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., eds. Endotext. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc. Copyright © 2000-2022, MDText.com, Inc.; 2000. Long B, Willis GC, Lentz S, Koyfman A, Gottlieb M. Diagnosis and Management of the Critically Ill Adult Patient with Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State. J Emerg Med. 2021;61(4):365-375.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/20/20223 minutes, 44 seconds
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On the Streets #14: Trauma Activations in the Field

The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we our upcoming event, Palliative. Check out our event page for more information and to buy tickets: Palliative Eventbrite Page
6/15/202218 minutes, 3 seconds
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Podcast 790: Opioids vs OTC Pain Meds

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: NSAIDs are a potential alternative to opioids for pain management and are associated with decreased rates of adverse effects A recent study evaluated the effectiveness of ibuprofen and oxycodone for pain management in pediatric patients with isolated, acute-limb fractures Participants were discharged home with either ibuprofen or oxycodone and followed for six weeks  There was no difference in pain scores between those taking ibuprofen and those taking oxycodone indicating that they had comparable analgesic effects Those in the ibuprofen group experienced significantly less adverse events compared to those taking oxycodone The participants in the ibuprofen group showed quicker return to their normal activities and improved quality of life In pediatric patients with fracture-related pain, ibuprofen is a safer alternative to oxycodone that is equally effective for pain control References Ali S, Manaloor R, Johnson DW, et al. An observational cohort study comparing ibuprofen and oxycodone in children with fractures. PLoS One. 2021;16(9):e0257021. Cooney MF. Pain Management in Children: NSAID Use in the Perioperative and Emergency Department Settings. Paediatr Drugs. 2021;23(4):361-372. Yin X, Wang X, He C. Comparative efficacy of therapeutics for traumatic musculoskeletal pain in the emergency setting: A network meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;46:424-429. Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we our upcoming event, Palliative. Check out our event page for more information and to buy tickets: Palliative Eventbrite Page Donate to EMM today!  
6/14/20223 minutes, 4 seconds
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Podcast 789: DOAC

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD  Educational Pearls: Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) have surpassed Warfarin and Lovenox® for anticoagulation as they do not require injection and allow for easier discharge. In the ED, they are commonly prescribed after PE or DVT diagnosis.  Common DOACs are Apixaban (Eliquis®) and Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®). There has not been a direct head to head study comparing outcomes.  2 large observational studies evaluated the recurrence of clots and bleeding risk in patients with newly prescribed Eliquis® or Xarelto® for DVT or PE. Both studies found that Eliquis® had superior outcomes.  Further data is required to determine the preferred DOAC. A randomized trial comparing the two DOACs is upcoming with enrollment ending in 2023.  References Dawwas GK, Leonard CE, Lewis JD, Cuker A. Risk for Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism and Bleeding With Apixaban Compared With Rivaroxaban: An Analysis of Real-World Data. Ann Intern Med. 2022;175(1):20-28. doi:10.7326/M21-0717 Aryal MR, Gosain R, Donato A, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of apixaban compared to rivaroxaban in acute VTE in the real world. Blood Adv. 2019;3(15):2381-2387. doi:10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000572 Image from: Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. Eliquis 10 Million Patients and Counting. Sec.gov. https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/14272/000114036119003478/s002621x16_425.htm. Accessed June 12, 2022.   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/13/20223 minutes, 7 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #13: Substance-Induced Psychosis (Part I)

Substance-Induced Psychosis (Part I)   In this first episode of a two-part mini-series, we feature Dr. Nadia Haddad, a Colorado psychiatrist, and Dr. Ricky Dhaliwal, an emergency medicine physician, as they discuss the different substances that cause psychosis and their unique presentations in the ED and in the psychiatric world. First, Dr. Haddad establishes a medical definition of psychosis. Then, Dr. Haddad and Dr. Dhaliwal partake in a fruitful discussion, each providing their unique perspective on the drugs that affect our patient populations today.   Key Points:   Psychosis is a cognitive processing disorder, which leads to auditory hallucinations, visual hallucinations, and delusions. Axis one psychosis like that from schizophrenia or mania typically produces auditory hallucinations, not visual hallucinations. Delusions are also common in underlying psychiatric psychosis.  One of the most common substances that cause psychosis today is methamphetamine. Meth-induced psychosis can mimic schizophrenia symptoms, though tactile hallucinations are very common with methamphetamine use.  Methamphetamine is active for up to about 8 hours but can vary depending on underlying mental health predispositions, which can be exacerbated for several days or a week before neurotransmitters right themselves after meth use.  Cannabis can lead to psychosis and paranoia for people - especially young people - with a predisposition to schizophrenia or bipolar. Alcohol-related psychosis comes primarily from withdrawal, though acute alcohol intoxication may cause mild alcoholic hallucinosis.  The hallmark of delirium tremens is a fluctuating, waxing-and-waning consciousness, which can occur 72 hours after the last drink. DTs can occur after treatment of the physical withdrawal symptoms. Alcohol withdrawal can occur even at high BALs relative to a patient’s baseline. Cocaine psychosis is similar to methamphetamine-induced psychosis. Recorded, Summarized, and Edited By: Jorge Chalit
6/8/202216 minutes, 16 seconds
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Podcast 788: Tracheostomy Bleeding

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Tracheostomy bleeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication that usually occurs within the first month of tracheostomy tube placement No matter how severe the bleeding, every patient should be evaluated to rule out a tracheo-innominate fistula between the tracheostomy and the innominate artery If the patient is currently bleeding and has a cuffed tracheostomy tube, over-inflate the balloon to compress the bleeding vessel Consider replacing an uncuffed tracheostomy tube with a cuffed tube or an ET tube If the tracheostomy was performed in the last seven days, use a bougie or bronchoscope to replace the uncuffed tube due to increased risk of opening a false track into the subcutaneous tissue If bleeding cannot be controlled, follow mass-transfusion protocols, and as a last resort, remove the tube and insert a finger into the stoma to manually compress the artery References Bontempo LJ, Manning SL. Tracheostomy Emergencies. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2019;37(1):109-119. Khanafer A, Hellstern V, Meißner H, et al. Tracheoinnominate fistula: acute bleeding and hypovolemic shock due to a trachea-innominate artery fistula after long-term tracheostomy, treated with a stent-graft. CVIR Endovasc. 2021;4(1):30. Manning Sara, Bontempo Laura. Complications of Tracheostomies. In: Mattu A and Swadron S, ed. ComPendium. Burbank, CA: CorePendium, LLC. https://www.emrap.org/corependium/chapter/reckOdDn9Ljn7sBLy/Complications-of-Tracheostomies. Updated August 17, 2021. Accessed June 5, 2022.   Summarized by Mark O’Brien, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, MPH & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/7/20225 minutes
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Podcast 787: TAVR and Stroke

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an increasingly common endovascular procedure to treat aortic stenosis TAVR is an alternative to the open approach surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for patients who are inoperable or are high risk surgical candidates Following TAVR, there is increased risk of stroke, particularly in the first 30 days TAVR-related strokes are due to embolic debris left on the valve root, which is generally cleaned out during SAVR Further, following the procedure many patients are anticoagulated which increases the risk for conversion to hemorrhagic stroke Isolated, unexplained nausea and vomiting in elderly patients should prompt concern for a neurologic workup with imaging - even more so if they have recently undergone TAVR  References Davlouros PA, Mplani VC, Koniari I, Tsigkas G, Hahalis G. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement and stroke: a comprehensive review. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2018;15(1):95-104. doi:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2018.01.008 Gleason TG, Reardon MJ, Popma JJ, et al. 5-Year Outcomes of Self-Expanding Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in High-Risk Patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(22):2687-2696. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2146 Siontis GCM, Overtchouk P, Cahill TJ, et al. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation vs. surgical aortic valve replacement for treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis: an updated meta-analysis. Eur Heart J. 2019;40(38):3143-3153. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehz275 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/6/20224 minutes, 46 seconds
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Podcast 786: Smiling Death

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: “Smiling Death” describes the prehospital phenomenon of a person who is happy to be extricated from an extended period of crush injury, but dies suddenly soon after the rescue.   Smiling Death is caused by Crush Syndrome. Crush Syndrome begins when large areas of tissue are damaged by compression and subsequent impeded blood flow. Resultant cell death is followed by release of myoglobin and efflux of electrolytes including potassium. Upon removal of the crushing force, high levels of potassium enter circulation and cause cardiac arrhythmias leading to sudden death.  Prevention measures include aggressive hydration using normal saline before extrication. An acceptable starting rate is 1L per hour, but providers should take patient status into consideration and titrate appropriately.  Standard techniques for controlling hyperkalemia by intracellular shifting may be less effective. Early dialysis may be useful.  References Gonzalez D. Crush syndrome. Crit Care Med. 2005;33(1 Suppl):S34-S41. doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000151065.13564.6f Better OS. Rescue and salvage of casualties suffering from the crush syndrome after mass disasters. Mil Med. 1999;164(5):366-369. Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/31/20226 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 785: Pepper Spray

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Pepper spray is a chemical irritant derived from oleoresin capsicum (OC), an extract from pepper plants. It can be used by police for riot or crowd control, or by individuals for self defense.   In the event of an exposure, those affected should immediately disperse from the area, remove contact lenses with clean or gloved hands, and remove contaminated clothing.  Pepper spray can spread from patients to providers by contact. When caring for those exposed, providers should use PPE including gloves and should double bag personal belongings.    For patient management consider the following:  If the eyes are affected, first remove contacts then irrigate with clean water. Use proparacaine drops for relief.  Clean exposed skin thoroughly with soap and water.    Inhalation and ingestion may cause nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath and generalized anxiety from discomfort. Treatment can include antiemetics and anxiolytics. Symptoms may persist for many days. References Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, McBride DI. Riot control agents: the tear gases CN, CS and OC-a medical review. J R Army Med Corps. 2015;161(2):94-99. doi:10.1136/jramc-2013-000165 Tidwell RD, Wills BK. Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Toxicity. [Updated 2022 Jan 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544263/   Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! *********************
5/30/20226 minutes, 36 seconds
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Podcast 784: Wastewater Surveillance for COVID

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: About 50% of those infected with SARS-CoV-2 will shed the virus in their feces   Wastewater surveillance can be used to track COVID burden, which may be easier than collating test data from multiple hospitals across a region  Viral shedding begins 5-7 days prior to symptom onset, so wastewater data can be used to anticipate outbreaks and inform policy and public health initiatives  Some existing limitations to wastewater surveillance include: Reporting by counties were water sources may be mixed Septic tanks and other closed water systems will not be counted Not all those infected will shed the virus References Weidhaas J, Aanderud ZT, Roper DK, et al. Correlation of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater with COVID-19 disease burden in sewersheds. Sci Total Environ. 2021;775:145790. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145790 Kirby AE, Walters MS, Jennings WC, et al. Using Wastewater Surveillance Data to Support the COVID-19 Response — United States, 2020–2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021;70:1242–1244. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7036a2 Covid-19 monitoring in wastewater. Colorado COVID-19 Updates. https://covid19.colorado.gov/covid-19-monitoring-in-wastewater. Accessed May 21, 2022. Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, MPH & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/24/20225 minutes, 6 seconds
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Podcast 783: LAD Occlusion & Troponin

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: A study randomized 34 healthy patient to have their left anterior descending artery (LAD) occluded by balloon for 0, 15, 30, or 90 seconds   Subsequently,  cardiac troponins (cTns) and Copeptin were measured every 15 minutes for 3 hours, then every 30 minutes for the next 3 hours 5 conclusions were drawn: Copeptin is not a useful marker of cardiac ischemia  cTn may be detected after only 30 seconds of ischemia  cTn may be detected in a little as 15 minutes after ischemic event  After only 90 seconds of ischemia, cTn levels met threshold for MI  Troponin I is a better marker than troponin T as it rises faster and reaches a higher peak Patients very recent or very brief ischemic events may have elevated troponin in the ED References Árnadóttir Á, Pedersen S, Bo Hasselbalch R, et al. Temporal Release of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T and I and Copeptin After Brief Induced Coronary Artery Balloon Occlusion in Humans [published correction appears in Circulation. 2021 Jun 22;143(25):e1116]. Circulation. 2021;143(11):1095-1104. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046574 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz, MD, MPH & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/23/20225 minutes, 18 seconds
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Podcast 782: Ventilator Management

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Tidal volume is the amount of breath a patient receives in a single ventilation  Traditional tidal volume (TV) setting was 10 ml/kg but studies showed lower TV had less incidence of respiratory distress, ARDS, and overall better outcomes  ED ventilation settings may get carried on for hours or days when a patient is admitted, making this an important part of patient care Recent large systematic review shows that low TV setting in the ED leads to decreased incidence of ARDS, shorter ICU and hospital length of stay, shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, and decreased mortality  Consider an ED low tidal volume ventilation setting at around 6 ml/kg of predicted body weight References De Monnin K, Terian E, Yaegar LH, et al. Low Tidal Volume Ventilation for Emergency Department Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis on Practice Patterns and Clinical Impact [published online ahead of print, 2022 Feb 7]. Crit Care Med. 2022;10.1097/CCM.0000000000005459. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000005459 Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/17/20223 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 781: Foxglove, Dropsy, and Salvador Dali

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Foxglove plant contains the cardiac glycoside digoxin   Foxglove leaf potions were once used to treat Dropsy; a historic term for symptoms of heart failure  Digoxin, previously used for treating heart failure, works by increases heart contraction strength and slows heart rate Of note, the EKG of patient on digitalis may have a ‘Dali Mustache’ appearance Digoxin toxicity can lead to a variety of dysrhythmias as well as neurological, GI, and metabolic effects Treatment of digoxin toxicity is digoxin-immune fab, which is an antibody that binds digoxin References David MNV, Shetty M. Digoxin. [Updated 2021 Dec 23]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK556025/ Cummings ED, Swoboda HD. Digoxin Toxicity. [Updated 2021 Jul 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470568/?report=classic Summarized by Kirsten Hughes, MS4 | Edited by John Spartz MS4 & Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/16/20224 minutes, 16 seconds
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Podcast 780: Pediatric Sedation Post-Intubation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looking at a pediatric emergency department to determine what percentage of patients after intubation received sedation within 10 minutes after intubation About 25% of the patients in the study received sedation within 10 minutes after intubation Only 75% of the patients in the study received sedation in the ED at some point after intubation Those who received rocuronium were less likely to received sedation post-intubation References Berg K, Gregg V, Cosgrove P, Wilkinson M. The Administration of Postintubation Sedation in the Pediatric Emergency Department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2021;37(11):e732-e735. doi:10.1097/PEC.0000000000001744 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/10/20223 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 779: Pulse Pressure in Trauma

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, normal is about 40 A narrow pulse pressure is generally thought of as less than 30 mmHg which may signal peripheral vasoconstriction in response to lower blood volumes 2020 study examined hypotension and narrow pulse pressure in trauma and outcomes 37% of patients who were hypotensive on ED arrival had a severe injury, 22% of patients who had a narrow pulse pressure had a severe injury, and 11% of patients with normal blood pressure and normal pulse pressure had a severe injury Need for thoracotomy, death, cardiac arrest, and need for other interventions was highest in the hypotensive group, the lowest in the normal blood pressure/normal pulse pressure group, and narrow pulse pressure group outcomes fell in the middle Narrow pulse pressure in the setting of trauma may be a helpful vital sign to incorporate into trauma care in the ED References Schellenberg M, Owattanapanich N, Getrajdman J, Matsushima K, Inaba K. Prehospital Narrow Pulse Pressure Predicts Need for Resuscitative Thoracotomy and Emergent Intervention After Trauma [published correction appears in J Surg Res. 2021 Oct 6;270:1]. J Surg Res. 2021;268:284-290. doi:10.1016/j.jss.2021.06.051 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/9/20223 minutes, 29 seconds
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Podcast 778: tPA for Frostbite Injury

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Mild frostbite injury usually only requires supportive care In severe frostbite injury, patients should receive an immediate angiogram, be admitted, and receive tPA if there is evidence of vascular occlusion Salvage rate is around 80% for appropriate patients who receive tPA in phalangeal frostbite injury References Paine RE, Turner EN, Kloda D, Falank C, Chung B, Carter DW. Protocoled thrombolytic therapy for frostbite improves phalangeal salvage rates. Burns Trauma. 2020;8:tkaa008. Published 2020 Apr 10. doi:10.1093/burnst/tkaa008 Basit H, Wallen TJ, Dudley C. Frostbite. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; November 5, 2021. Wexler A, Zavala S. The Use of Thrombolytic Therapy in the Treatment of Frostbite Injury. J Burn Care Res. 2017;38(5):e877-e881. doi:10.1097/BCR.0000000000000512 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/3/20223 minutes, 10 seconds
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Podcast 777: Grass, Weed, and Ancient Rome

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Antiemetics were used in ancient Rome to help with sea-sickness and included toxic substances such as wine and wormwood and white hellborn The first antihistamine used for nausea, dramamine, was introduced in 1947 for motion sickness After this chlorpromazine, prochlorperazine, and promethazine came about in the 1950s and 1960s Cannabis, colloquially referred to as weed, isolates like THC used in the 1970s to help with chemotherapy-induced After this in the 1980s, ondansetron and metoclopramide were introduced for more severe chemotherapy-induced nausea Lastly, NK-1 inhibitors were introduced to treat nausea References Sanger GJ, Andrews PLR. A History of Drug Discovery for Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting and the Implications for Future Research. Front Pharmacol. 2018;9:913. Published 2018 Sep 4. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00913 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/2/20225 minutes, 13 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #12: Management of Opioid Use Disorder with MAT (Medication-Assisted Treatment)

In this special episode of MHM, we feature Dr. Nadia Haddad, a Colorado psychiatrist, and Dr. Ricky Dhaliwal, an emergency medicine physician, as they discuss the implications of OUD in Colorado. As a substance use disorder specialist, Dr. Haddad provides an invaluable perspective on various treatment modalities for OUD in the outpatient and inpatient settings. Finally, Dr. Haddad and Dr. Dhaliwal discuss the implications of the newly introduced Colorado legislation affecting patients with OUD and their providers.    Key Points:   The classic Suboxone therapy for heroin or prescription opioid detox can precipitate severe withdrawal in street fentanyl users.  The three FDA-approved MATs include methadone (full opioid agonist), buprenorphine (partial opioid agonist), and naltrexone (opioid antagonist).  Street fentanyl does not behave like pharmaceutical-grade fentanyl; a recent study found that the chemical composition of a street pill varied and included opioid analogs and benzodiazepines Fentanyl attaches and detaches to/from the receptor more easily and quickly than buprenorphine. Dr. Haddad suspects that as fentanyl weans from the patient’s system, there is not enough to compete with Suboxone, therefore precipitating withdrawal. Suboxone vs. naltrexone: Suboxone can be started sooner to treat post-acute withdrawal. Naltrexone helps to prevent relapse but may slow a patient’s emotional return to baseline.  Dr. Haddad recently developed a new home induction program to provide patients with supportive measures for the withdrawal period, which include pharmacologic interventions like clonidine, trazodone, dicyclomine, or loperamide. Resources after discharge in Colorado include mental health centers, Front Range Clinic, Magnolia Mental Health The criminalization of substance use disorders moves people from treatment-focused settings to punitive settings and leads to prison population expansion without adequate mental healthcare resources.   
4/27/202225 minutes, 34 seconds
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Podcast 776: Single-Site Blood Cultures

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Traditionally, blood cultures are drawn from two separate sites despite no data to suggest this is better than drawing blood from one site Recent study evaluated multi-site versus single-site blood cultures to determine if there was a difference in accuracy or contamination Positive yield was 20% in the single-site year and 17% in the multi-site year No difference in contamination between the two groups References Ekwall-Larson A, Yu D, Dinnétz P, Nordqvist H, Özenci V. Single-Site Sampling versus Multisite Sampling for Blood Cultures: a Retrospective Clinical Study. J Clin Microbiol. 2022;60(2):e0193521. doi:10.1128/JCM.01935-21 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/26/20222 minutes, 55 seconds
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Podcast 775: Olecranon Bursitis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Olecranon bursitis refers to inflammation in the bursa of the elbow and can be due to infection or trauma Recent study examined treating suspected septic olecranon bursitis with antibiotics versus drainage About 90% of the patients treated with antibiotic therapy for this issue did not require subsequent drainage or hospitalization for intravenous antibiotics Consider treating suspected olecranon bursitis with antibiotic therapy and good return precautions rather than defaulting to drainage References Beyde A, Thomas AL, Colbenson KM, et al. Efficacy of empiric antibiotic management of septic olecranon bursitis without bursal aspiration in emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med. 2022;29(1):6-14. doi:10.1111/acem.14406 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/25/20223 minutes, 8 seconds
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On the Streets #13: Pre-hospital Cardiology Concepts

On this episode of On the Streets, our host, Jordan Ourada, talks with cardiologist, Dr. Chirag Chauhan, about all things cardiac. Highlighted topics: Wrist versus femoral access in the cath lab The most important prehospital interventions for an MI  Nitroglycerin: Who gets it and what are the precautions Lidocaine and amiodarone in a heart attack  CPR assist devices
4/20/202241 minutes, 53 seconds
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Podcast 774: Maggots

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Maggots were discovered as a therapy to help wound healing in WWI, but this fell out of favor after the discovery of penicillin One study from Israel used maggots in treating diabetic foot wound with positive results but notable patient discomfort Maggots debride tissue, kill MRSA, promote angiogenesis, and promote fibroblast migration to lay down new tissue While maggots may be very useful in wound healing, the reality of the therapy may make patients very uncomfortable References Gilead L, Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A. The use of maggot debridement therapy in the treatment of chronic wounds in hospitalised and ambulatory patients. J Wound Care. 2012 Feb;21(2):78, 80, 82-85. doi: 10.12968/jowc.2012.21.2.78. PMID: 22584527. Mohd Zubir MZ, Holloway S, Mohd Noor N. Maggot Therapy in Wound Healing: A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(17):6103. Published 2020 Aug 21. doi:10.3390/ijerph17176103 McCaughan, Dorothy et al. “Patients' perceptions and experiences of venous leg ulceration and their attitudes to larval therapy: an in-depth qualitative study.” Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy vol. 18,4 (2015): 527-41. doi:10.1111/hex.12053 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/19/20225 minutes, 27 seconds
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Podcast 773: Atrial Fibrillation Medications

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Atrial fibrillation is an irregular heart rhythm that sometimes requires rate control in setting of rapid ventricular response (RVR) Calcium channel blocker and beta blockers are the most frequently used medications to block the AV node and slow down the heart rate in atrial fibrillation with RVR If a patient is on one of these agents at home, the IV form should be used first Recent systematic review and meta-analysis found 3 trials addressing which medication to use to control heart rate in atrial fibrillation with RVR with a total of 150 patients Found diltiazem, a CCB, was 4x more likely to reduce heart rate than metoprolol 50% of patients had a normal heart rate at 21 minutes with diltiazem versus 22% in those who received metoprolol Both agents had a similar decrease in blood pressure after administration References Jafri SH, Xu J, Warsi I, Cerecedo-Lopez CD. Diltiazem versus metoprolol for the management of atrial fibrillation: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Oct;48:323-327. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.06.053. Epub 2021 Jun 30. PMID: 34274577. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/18/20223 minutes, 30 seconds
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Podcast 772: Firearms in Suicidal Ideation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Firearms are a dangerous potential method of committing suicide Death occurs in about 5-15% of suicide attempts overall, but death in suicide attempts using firearms occurs in 85-90% of cases In some states, families can petition a judge to remove firearms from a house although healthcare providers cannot do this References Sarai SK, Abaid B, Lippmann S. Guns and Suicide: Are They Related? Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2017 Dec 21;19(6):17br02116. doi: 10.4088/PCC.17br02116. PMID: 29272571. Anestis MD, Bandel SL, Butterworth SE, Bond AE, Daruwala SE, Bryan CJ. Suicide risk and firearm ownership and storage behavior in a large military sample. Psychiatry Res. 2020 Sep;291:113277. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113277. Epub 2020 Jul 2. PMID: 32886959. Mann JJ, Michel CA. Prevention of Firearm Suicide in the United States: What Works and What Is Possible. Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Oct 1;173(10):969-979. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2016.16010069. Epub 2016 Jul 22. PMID: 27444796. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/12/20224 minutes, 53 seconds
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Podcast 771: Intubation in Cardiac Arrest

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: In a secondary analysis of the PART trial, the mortality effect of timing of airway management for patients in cardiac arrest was examined Study looked at whether timing played a part in both laryngeal tube placement or endotracheal intubation during cardiac arrest Did not find any association of timing and survival to hospital discharge High-quality CPR and defibrillation are the only two things that improve outcomes in cardiac arrest References Okubo M, Komukai S, Izawa J, Aufderheide TP, Benoit JL, Carlson JN, Daya MR, Hansen M, Idris AH, Le N, Lupton JR, Nichol G, Wang HE, Callaway CW. Association of Advanced Airway Insertion Timing and Outcomes After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Ann Emerg Med. 2022 Feb;79(2):118-131. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.07.114. Epub 2021 Sep 16. PMID: 34538500. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
4/11/20223 minutes, 35 seconds
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Podcast 770: Xylazine

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Xylazine, referred to as tranq dope colloquially, is an FDA approved animal tranquilizer that is circulating in the illicit drug markets of the northeastern United states It is a powerful alpha-2 agonist, similar to clonidine, and patients with xylazine overdose may present similarly to opioid overdose Naloxone will not reverse the effects of xylazine and management is supportive care Withdrawal symptoms from xylazine use can be treated with clonidine References https://www.acep.org/tacticalem/newsroom/oct-2021/xylazine-an-emerging-adulterant/ Nunez J, DeJoseph ME, Gill JR. Xylazine, a Veterinary Tranquilizer, Detected in 42 Accidental Fentanyl Intoxication Deaths. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2021 Mar 1;42(1):9-11. doi: 10.1097/PAF.0000000000000622. PMID: 33031124. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/5/20223 minutes, 45 seconds
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Podcast 769: Pressors After Cardiac Arrest

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hypotension after cardiac arrest often requires a vasopressor to improve blood pressure Recent observational study from France examined outcomes of patients who received either epinephrine or norepinephrine for post-resuscitation shock Norepinephrine had significantly better outcomes  Death from shock was 35% in the epinephrine group vs. 9% in the norepinephrine group Recurrent cardiac arrest was 9% in epinephrine group vs. 3% in norepinephrine group For epinephrine: The all cause mortality was 2.5 times higher than norepinephrine Cardiovascular mortality was 5 times higher than norepinephrine Favorable neurological outcomes was 3 times worse than norepinephrine References Bougouin W, Slimani K, Renaudier M, Binois Y, Paul M, Dumas F, Lamhaut L, Loeb T, Ortuno S, Deye N, Voicu S, Beganton F, Jost D, Mekontso-Dessap A, Marijon E, Jouven X, Aissaoui N, Cariou A; Sudden Death Expertise Center Investigators. Epinephrine versus norepinephrine in cardiac arrest patients with post-resuscitation shock. Intensive Care Med. 2022 Mar;48(3):300-310. doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06608-7. Epub 2022 Feb 7. PMID: 35129643. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/4/20223 minutes, 1 second
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Mental Health Monthly #11: De-escalation: Changing Confrontation to Collaboration

Contributor: Dr. Kimberly Nordstrom De-escalation usually takes less time than physical and chemical restraints, which leads to decreased injury to staff members, better patient trust and increased patient throughput as accepting facilities oftentimes delay transfer acceptance following physical restraints Prepare to engage prior to entering their room in two ways: cognitively and emotionally Why do you want to de-escalate the patient? Remind yourself you don’t want to introduce more trauma Check your emotions, and ensure you don’t bring your emotional state into If possible, engage the patient when they’re in mild agitation before their anger is out of control Be authoritative not authoritarian or permissive, impart your expertise in medicine and explain your rationale to them without claiming to be an expert on them personally Small acts of kindness like the provision of a warm blanket, snacks or voluntary medications appropriate to the situation can aid in establishing trust and rapport Take a break to cool off if the interaction is too charged Verbal de-escalation pearls:  Respectful introduction, etiquette can be perceived as empathy to a patient in crisis Confirm story and allow patient to offer corrections to what you’ve been told Utilize active listening techniques, both verbally and nonverbally  Avoid assigning blame, but use distant third parties if necessary without being detrimental to your colleagues Offer choices in medications within your clinical comfort zone for the patient   Verbal De-escalation videos: Identification and Assessment of Agitation Basic Elements of Verbal De-escalation More Practice with Verbal De-escalation Advanced Skills in De-escalation Personal Safety and Escape Skills   References: Berlin JS. Collaborative De-escalation. In: Zeller SL, Nordstrom KD, Wilson MP, eds. The Diagnosis and Management of Agitation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2017:144-155. doi:10.1017/9781316556702.012 Richmond JS, Berlin JS, Fishkind AB, et al. Verbal De-escalation of the Agitated Patient: Consensus Statement of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Project BETA De-escalation Workgroup. West J Emerg Med. 2012;13(1):17-25. doi:10.5811/westjem.2011.9.6864 Summarized by Mason Tuttle
3/30/202216 minutes, 43 seconds
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Podcast 768: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: 3% of cases of acute coronary syndrome are due to Takotsubo Takotsubo  cardiomyopathy or “broken heart syndrome” can occur with severe physiologic or emotional stressors, as these events can result in a profound outpouring of sympathetic neurotransmitters (epinephrine/norepinephrine) Receptors for these catecholamines are very dense around the apex of the heart, so the apical aspect of the heart can balloon outward as a result of this surge Most often cases resolve in several weeks although in rare cases it can lead to congestive heart failure or a thrombus formation References Ahmad SA, Brito D, Khalid N, et al. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. [Updated 2022 Jan 14]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430798/ Bossone E, Savarese G, Ferrara F, et al. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: overview. Heart Fail Clin. 2013;9(2):249-x. doi:10.1016/j.hfc.2012.12.015 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/29/20224 minutes, 42 seconds
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Podcast 767: Transaminitis and Rhabdomyolysis

Contributor: Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Transaminitis refers to the elevation of transaminases, enzymes of the liver (AST and ALT) Elevation of ALT is relatively specific to the liver, but AST is found in more organs than the liver including the muscle If AST is significantly greater than ALT, consider a musculoskeletal origin such as rhabdomyolysis Transaminitis is not always a liver specific issue References Lala V, Goyal A, Minter DA. Liver Function Tests. [Updated 2021 Aug 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482489/ Lim AK. Abnormal liver function tests associated with severe rhabdomyolysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2020;26(10):1020-1028. doi:10.3748/wjg.v26.i10.1020 Jo KM, Heo NY, Park SH, et al. Serum Aminotransferase Level in Rhabdomyolysis according to Concurrent Liver Disease. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2019;74(4):205-211. doi:10.4166/kjg.2019.74.4.205 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/28/20223 minutes, 1 second
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Podcast 766: Truth about Tramadol

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Tramadol is often thought of as a mild-opiate to use for analgesia, but it is a more complicated drug Tramadol needs to be metabolized into an effective drug making it not pharmacologically reliable 3-10% of people cannot metabolize tramadol and it does not work Some others over-metabolize tramadol and it causes greater effect Studies have shown it is not any better as a acetaminophen or ibuprofen for analgesia, it can lower a seizure threshold, and it acts to inhibit serotonin reuptake Recent study evaluated all-cause mortality of tramadol compared to codeine and found tramadol had nearly double the all-cause mortality as those prescribed codeine Overall tramadol has many risks and should be critically evaluated before prescribing References Dhesi M, Maldonado KA, Maani CV. Tramadol. [Updated 2021 May 25]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537060/ Association of tramadol vs codeine prescription dispensation with mortality and other adverse clinical outcomes Xie J, Strauss VY, Martinez-Laguna D, et al. JAMA. 2021;326(15):1504-1515. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/22/20223 minutes, 55 seconds
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Podcast 765: Phenobarbital for Alcohol Withdrawal

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Retrospective cohort study looked at return rate of discharged patients after receiving either phenobarbital or benzodiazepines or both in the ED for treatment of alcohol withdrawal Patients who received benzodiazepines had a 25% chance of returning in 3 days versus a 10% chance of returning in 3 days for those who received phenobarbital 13% of patients returned in 3 days after receiving both phenobarbital and benzodiazepines Phenobarbital may make it less likely for patients to come back to the ED after receiving treatment for alcohol withdrawal References Lebin JA, Mudan A, Murphy CE 4th, Wang RC, Smollin CG. Return Encounters in Emergency Department Patients Treated with Phenobarbital Versus Benzodiazepines for Alcohol Withdrawal. J Med Toxicol. 2022;18(1):4-10. doi:10.1007/s13181-021-00863-2 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/21/20222 minutes, 25 seconds
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Podcast 764: Myth or Merit: Beta-Blockers for Cocaine Chest Pain

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Many are taught that patients with cocaine chest pain should not receive beta-blockers due to unopposed alpha agonism, but is this true? 363 consecutive admissions for chest pain with positive cocaine on urine toxicology were reviewed in a retrospective cohort study 60 patients in this cohort received a beta-blocker and multivariate analysis demonstrated a reduction in myocardial infarction risk Another retrospective cohort study demonstrated no association of negative outcomes with beta-blocker administration in those with a recent positive result on cocaine urine toxicology Two more recent meta-analyses were performed finding no association between adverse clinical outcomes and beta-blocker administration for cocaine chest pain No prospective randomized-controlled trials have been performed to evaluate the use of beta-blockers for treatment of cocaine chest pain in the ED setting References Dattilo PB, Hailpern SM, Fearon K, Sohal D, Nordin C. Beta-blockers are associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction after cocaine use [published correction appears in Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Jul;52(1):90]. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;51(2):117-125. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2007.04.015 Rangel C, Shu RG, Lazar LD, Vittinghoff E, Hsue PY, Marcus GM. Beta-blockers for chest pain associated with recent cocaine use. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(10):874-879. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.115 Pham D, Addison D, Kayani W, et al. Outcomes of beta blocker use in cocaine-associated chest pain: a meta-analysis. Emerg Med J. 2018;35(9):559-563. doi:10.1136/emermed-2017-207065 Lo KB, Virk HUH, Lakhter V, et al. Clinical Outcomes After Treatment of Cocaine-Induced Chest Pain with Beta-Blockers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Am J Med. 2019;132(4):505-509. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2018.11.041 Richards JR, Hollander JE, Ramoska EA, et al. β-Blockers, Cocaine, and the Unopposed α-Stimulation Phenomenon. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2017;22(3):239-249. doi:10.1177/1074248416681644 Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Flores ED, et al. Potentiation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction by beta-adrenergic blockade. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112(12):897-903. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-112-12-897 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/15/20223 minutes, 24 seconds
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Podcast 763: Sternoclavicular Infection

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Septic arthritis can occur at any joint, including the sternoclavicular joint Sternoclavicular joint infections comprise 1% of all bone and joint infections  Patients who use intravenous drugs have a higher occurrence of this type of infection compared to the general population, accounting for 17% of all sternoclavicular joint infections Usual treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and, in some cases, surgery References Tapscott DC, Benham MD. Sternoclavicular Joint Infection. [Updated 2021 Dec 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551721/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/14/20223 minutes, 16 seconds
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UnfilterED #14: Patricia Hernandez, MSIV and Leyanet Gonzalez, MSIV

Tune in for a double feature with our Equity, Diversity and Inclusion Award winners from this fall as Nick asks them about their backgrounds, what brought them into medicine and Emergency Medicine specifically.  Patricia is a 4th year medical student at PennMed. As a first-generation immigrant, college, and medical student, she is committed to actively promoting and being an advocate for diversity, equity, and inclusion because she sees the value in having a diverse workforce to build a more equitable health care system. In diversity, there is beauty, there is growth and there is strength. Leyanet is an MS4 at Caribbean Medical University. As a Cuban refugee, she strives to facilitate better rapport & cultural sensitivity to those who are underrepresented. She believes in the importance of having a workforce paradigm that comprehensively represents the community. Leyanet aspires to be a transformational leader & be a role model for others pursuing medicine to demonstrate that shattering glass ceilings and creating an inclusive workplace is important & possible.
3/9/202250 minutes, 30 seconds
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Podcast 762: Endocarditis

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Variability of organisms in infecting the myocardial valves Duke Criteria for Infective Endocarditis includes three categories that can be used to definitively diagnose endocarditis Pathologic Criteria pathological evidence of infection Major Clinical Criteria positive blood cultures positive echocardiogram findings (TEE is more sensitive than a TTE) Minor Clinical Criteria (must include all of the below criteria) Fever Underlying heart condition or IV drug use Vascular phenomena (includes Janeway’s lesions) Immunologic phenomena (includes Osler’s nodes, Roth spots) Positive blood cultures or serologic evidence of infection with bacteria known to cause endocarditis Some studies show up to a 33% one-year mortality of people diagnosed with endocarditis This criteria was developed by David Durack, MD and he was affiliated with Duke University, shout out to Dr. Pete Bakes! References https://www.mdcalc.com/duke-criteria-infective-endocarditis https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3NLtNg-pqv0 Holland TL, Baddour LM, Bayer AS, Hoen B, Miro JM, Fowler VG Jr. Infective endocarditis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2016;2:16059. Published 2016 Sep 1. doi:10.1038/nrdp.2016.59 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/8/20225 minutes, 26 seconds
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Podcast 761: Peritonsillar Abscess: To Stab or Not to Stab?

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Often present with complaints of sore throat, pain with swallowing, difficulty swallowing, voice change, and possible fever Retrospective study from 2018 evaluated outcomes of peritonsillar abscess with two management arms, surgical vs. non-surgical treatment Non-surgical treatment only included IV fluids as well as IV ceftriaxone + clindamycin; Surgical treatment included either needle aspiration or incision and drainage of the abscess as well as the medical treatment from the non-surgical arm Failure rate in both arms were statistically equivalent, but patients in the surgical arm had more days missed from work and more use of opioid medications for pain References Battaglia A, Burchette R, Hussman J, Silver MA, Martin P, Bernstein P. Comparison of Medical Therapy Alone to Medical Therapy with Surgical Treatment of Peritonsillar Abscess. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018;158(2):280-286. doi:10.1177/0194599817739277 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
3/7/20226 minutes, 35 seconds
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Podcast 760: Why Fentanyl is the Worst

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Fentanyl’s common administration route through pills has lowered the psychological barrier of using opioid compared to injecting and smoking heroin Fentanyl is showing up in all illicit drugs with documented cases even in marijuana Testing for fentanyl is difficult and requires a send out test because UA does not show up not common in ED but can better inform our care Fentanyl doesn’t show up on UA drug screen and requires a send out test, thus we should ask patients if they’re using fentanyl specifically  Send any patient using an illicit drug home with Narcan to protect them from potential opioid overdoses Start patients on buprenorphine for opioid withdrawal in the ED Fentanyl is very lipophilic, thus patients require longer washout times (sometimes over 24 hours) before buprenorphine induction to avoid precipitated withdrawal References: Adams, K.K., Machnicz, M. & Sobieraj, D.M. Initiating buprenorphine to treat opioid use disorder without prerequisite withdrawal: a systematic review. Addict Sci Clin Pract 16, 36 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13722-021-00244-8 Moustaqim-Barrette, A., Dhillon, D., Ng, J. et al. Take-home naloxone programs for suspected opioid overdose in community settings: a scoping umbrella review. BMC Public Health 21, 597 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10497-2 *Image from NIDA   Summarized by Mason Tuttle
3/1/20228 minutes
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Podcast 759: Hyperkalemia and Myth of Kayexalate

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Acute hyperkalemia is characterized as serum K of 5.4 or higher in non-hemolyzed samples Hyperkalemia is commonly associated with end stage renal disease, acute kidney injury or acute renal failure Cardiac dysrhythmias are the primary concern with hyperkalemia, common EKG changes (and approximate serum levels) can include: Peaked T waves that start to show at serum K of 6  Second sign is lengthening of PR and QRS intervals due to extended repolarization Severe hyperkalemia manifests as a sine wave around serum of 8-9 Three approaches to treat hyperkalemia: Stabilize cardiac membrane with calcium Shift potassium  back into the cell, insulin and albuterol are common agents used. Potassium binding for excretion  Cochrane review showed no significant effects of Kayexalate on serum K in 4 hours Bowel necrosis is a rare adverse event that can occur with Kayexalate More myths and misconceptions about hyperkalemia addressed in reference below! References: Gupta AA, Self M, Mueller M, Wardi G, Tainter C. Dispelling myths and misconceptions about the treatment of acute hyperkalemia. Am J Emerg Med. 2022;52:85-91. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2021.11.030 Mahoney BA, Smith WA, Lo DS, Tsoi K, Tonelli M, Clase CM. Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;2005(2):CD003235. Published 2005 Apr 18. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003235.pub2 Li T, Vijayan A. Insulin for the treatment of hyperkalemia: a double-edged sword?. Clin Kidney J. 2014;7(3):239-241. doi:10.1093/ckj/sfu049 Summarized by Mason Tuttle| Edited by Nick Tsipis, MD
2/28/20225 minutes, 13 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #10: The Elderly Psychotic Patient

Dr. Kim Nordstrom, a practicing emergency psychiatrist and associate professor with the University of Colorado, discusses various work-up models alongside valuable bedside tools for elderly patients with acute psychosis. In this podcast, she explores the methods to differentiate primary psychiatric psychosis from medically mediated psychosis in the elderly using an empirical bedside tool. Furthermore, Dr. Nordstrom educates our listeners on the treatment modalities available and currently recommended for new psychosis in the elderly.   Key Points:   Non-psychiatric causes of psychosis include lobar degeneration, sensory deficits, pharmacologic mediators, and others.  ADEPT tool, developed by CPE under an ACEP sponsorship, is a useful guideline for rapid and reliable assessment of psychosis in the elderly.  DTS (delirium triage screen) tool, embedded in the ADEPT, is 98% sensitive to rule-out delirium. BCAM (brief concussion assessment method) is used if DTS is positive to rule-in delirium with high specificity.   ADEPT Tool: https://www.acep.org/patient-care/adept   DTS Tool: http://eddelirium.org/delirium-assessment/dts-calculator/   BCAM Tool: http://eddelirium.org/delirium-assessment/bcam-calculator/   Source: Shen​vi C, Kennedy M, et al. Managing delirium and agitation in the older emergency department patient: The ADEPT Tool. Ann Emerg Med. 2020 Feb; 75(2): 136–145.
2/23/202211 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 758: Vaccine Safety During Pregnancy

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Observational study in Israel evaluated cohort of vaccinated pregnant women receiving the initial Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine  Looked at 24,288 newborns with about 16,697 exposed to maternal vaccination in utero Longitudinal follow up showed no significant difference in preterm births, neonatal hospitalizations, post-natal hospitalizations, congenital abnormalities, or mortality While this is not a randomized-controlled trial, this observational trial has a very large population that was studied supporting the safety profile of birth outcomes relating to receiving COVID mRNA vaccines during pregnancy References Goldshtein I, Steinberg DM, Kuint J, et al. Association of BNT162b2 COVID-19 Vaccination During Pregnancy With Neonatal and Early Infant Outcomes [published online ahead of print, 2022 Feb 10]. JAMA Pediatr. 2022;e220001. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2022.0001 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
2/22/20223 minutes, 4 seconds
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Podcast 757: History of Fevers and Thermometers

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Dr. Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich, of the mid-1800s, was the first physician to suggest temperature was related to disease processes and his measurements set the 37˚C (98.6˚F) as the baseline temperature Thermometers were adapted to be sold to the public with guidelines for temperature measurement interpretation Taller and thinner individuals, anyone taking a temperature in the morning, and the elderly have decreased temperatures Temperature averages have been decreased and the actual average temperature appears to be closer to 97.5˚ currently References Wright WF. Early evolution of the thermometer and application to clinical medicine. J Therm Biol. 2016;56:18-30. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2015.12.003 Geneva II, Cuzzo B, Fazili T, Javaid W. Normal Body Temperature: A Systematic Review. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019;6(4):ofz032. Published 2019 Apr 9. doi:10.1093/ofid/ofz032 Chen W. Thermometry and interpretation of body temperature [published correction appears in Biomed Eng Lett. 2019 Feb 25;9(1):19]. Biomed Eng Lett. 2019;9(1):3-17. Published 2019 Feb 9. doi:10.1007/s13534-019-00102-2 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
2/21/20226 minutes, 18 seconds
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Podcast 756: Violence Towards ED Staff

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: ACEP survey was done in 2018 looking at violence towards staff in the ED with only 10% of those solicited responding Survey found 47% of respondents were assaulted and 71% had witnessed violence towards staff Regarding what was done about the violence, 28% said patients were flagged by the hospital, 21% said patient was arrested by police/hospital security, 6% of the cases resulted in the hospital pressing charges, and in 3% of cases the staff were advised to press charges Analyzing the type of violence that occurred, it was found that in 44% of the incidents staff were hit/slapped, 30% were spit on, 28% were punched, 27% were kicked, 17% were scratched, 6% were bitten, 2% were assaulted with a weapon, and 1% were sexually assaulted ED violence is a very serious matter and you can learn more about the survey and initiatives at the links below References https://www.acep.org/administration/violence-in-the-emergency-department-resources-for-a-safer-workplace/ https://www.emergencyphysicians.org/press-releases/2018/10-2-2018-violence-in-emergency-departments-is--increasing-harming-patients-new-research-finds https://stopedviolence.org/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
2/15/20224 minutes, 58 seconds
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Podcast 755: Tubo-Ovarian Abscess

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Tubo-ovarian abscess is a rare complication of pelvic inflammatory disease Usually presents with chief complaint of abdominal pain and is often diagnosed by CT of the abdomen/pelvis Hospitalization is indicated 60-80% of patients improve with an IV anaerobic cephalosporin (cefoxitin or cefotetan) with doxycycline or using clindamycin and gentamicin Mortality can occur in up to 5% of patients, often as a result of progression to septic shock References Kairys N, Roepke C. Tubo-Ovarian Abscess. [Updated 2021 Jul 18]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448125/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account. 
2/14/20223 minutes, 49 seconds
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Podcast 754: Balanced Fluids vs. Normal Saline, The Battle Continues

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Normal saline is thought to interfere with renal function and cause an acidosis and balanced fluids (like lactated ringers) are a better option The SALT-ED trial and SMART trial showed a small benefit with renal injury and need for dialysis using balanced fluid in critically ill patients Recent multicenter RCT in Brazil evaluated balanced fluids versus normal saline and looked at 90-day mortality Found no difference in 90-day mortality or secondary outcomes like renal function PLUS trial is currently being done in Australia and New Zealand to further evaluate fluid choice Larger trials don’t show a major difference at this point, keep an eye out for future trials References Semler MW, Wanderer JP, Ehrenfeld JM, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in the Intensive Care Unit. The SALT Randomized Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017;195(10):1362-1372. doi:10.1164/rccm.201607-1345OC   Semler MW, Self WH, Wanderer JP, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Critically Ill Adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):829-839. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1711584 Zampieri FG, Machado FR, Biondi RS, et al. Effect of Intravenous Fluid Treatment With a Balanced Solution vs 0.9% Saline Solution on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients: The BaSICS Randomized Clinical Trial [published online ahead of print, 2021 Aug 10]. JAMA. 2021;326(9):1-12. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.11684 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02721654 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
2/8/20223 minutes, 22 seconds
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Podcast 753: Ring Cutting Raptors

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Techniques regarding ring removal in the ED were evaluated in a recent study which looked at using trauma shears versus the motorized ring cutters A certain type of trauma shear has a ring-cutter attached to it, 7 seconds to remove vs. about 70 seconds for motorized ring cutters Both the users of the devices and the patients preferred the ring-cutter shears References Walter J, DeBoer M, Koops J, Hamel LL, Rupp PE, Westgard BC. Quick cuts: A comparative study of two tools for ring tourniquet removal. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;46:238-240. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.07.039 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
2/7/20222 minutes, 33 seconds
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Podcast 752: Budesonide for COVID

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study evaluated budesonide for outpatient COVID-19 infection treatment to see if there was a decrease in length of illness or hospitalization rates Found patients who received a budesonide inhaler had recovery times that were about 3 days shorter and there was a slight (non-significant) decrease in hospitalizations References Berezowski I, Patel J, Shaw M, Pourmand A. High-dose budesonide for early COVID-19. Lancet. 2021;398(10317):2146-2147. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02441-7 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
2/1/20222 minutes, 46 seconds
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Podcast 751: The Bougie Trial

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: An endotracheal tube introducer or bougie are often used as a rescue device during difficult intubations as they are small and can be placed blindly Large randomized-controlled trial looked at first-pass bougie use versus standard intubation to determine if there was improvement in first-pass success rate No difference in first-pass success rate, about 80% for both techniques This does not mean that bougies are not great rescue devices or options for managing an airway References Driver BE, Semler MW, Self WH, et al. Effect of Use of a Bougie vs Endotracheal Tube With Stylet on Successful Intubation on the First Attempt Among Critically Ill Patients Undergoing Tracheal Intubation: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021;326(24):2488–2497. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/31/20223 minutes, 53 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #9: Suicide Assessment in the ED: Using the ICAR2E Tool

Dr. Kim Nordstrom discusses a valuable bedside tool for evidence-based assessment in patients that visit the ED and are at risk for suicidality. Dr. Nordstrom is a practicing emergency psychiatrist and associate professor with the University of Colorado. As a developer and user of the tool, Dr. Nordstrom gives us invaluable insight into a new avenue for psychiatric care in emergency medicine.   Educational Pearls:   An app-based tool made in conjunction with ACEP Identifying suicidal risk for each patient, including assessment of clues like bodily injuries Communicating with patients to create a safe space and enhance rapport Assessing for threats such as environmental or personal objects Risk assessment; previous attempts, mental state, life stressors, etc. Risk reduction once discharge is thought possible Extension of care once patients leave the ED   Link to Access the ICAR2E Tool References Wilson MP, Moutier C, et al. Emergency department recommendations for suicide prevention in adults: The ICAR2E mnemonic and a systematic review of the literature. Am J Emerg Med. 2020; 38:571-581. Summarized by Jorge Chalit   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/26/20228 minutes, 47 seconds
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Podcast 750: Take Home Naloxone

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Think about giving take home naloxone kits for anyone on long-term opioids as well as anyone with an opioid use disorder, those in opioid withdrawal, or those who recently overdosed on opioids Also consider for individuals with non-opioid substance use disorders For patients seen in the ED with an opioid overdose the 1-year mortality is about 5% and 1-month mortality is about 1%  Also 50% of accidental pediatric overdose deaths are due to opioids, so ensuring naloxone is present in the household can save lives Prescriptions have a very low fill rate, so getting naloxone in the hands of people before they leave is important References Strang J, McDonald R, Campbell G, et al. Take-Home Naloxone for the Emergency Interim Management of Opioid Overdose: The Public Health Application of an Emergency Medicine. Drugs. 2019;79(13):1395-1418. doi:10.1007/s40265-019-01154-5 Katzman JG, Takeda MY, Greenberg N, et al. Association of Take-Home Naloxone and Opioid Overdose Reversals Performed by Patients in an Opioid Treatment Program. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(2):e200117. Published 2020 Feb 5. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.0117 Weiner SG, Baker O, Bernson D, Schuur JD. One-Year Mortality of Patients After Emergency Department Treatment for Nonfatal Opioid Overdose. Ann Emerg Med. 2020;75(1):13-17. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.04.020 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/25/20222 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 749: PCC for Me?

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Prothrombin complex concentrate (Kcentra)  and Vitamin K are used to reverse life-threatening bleeds in patients on warfarin (Coumadin) Factors II, VII, IX, and X are included in four-factor PCC PCC/Kcentra dosing is 500-2000 units based on INR and patient weight PROPER3 RCT was a non-inferiority trial done to evaluate standardized dosing of PCC/Kcentra versus variable dosing based on INR and weight Looked at end-points to assess hemostasis, but ultimately this trial did not show non-inferiority of standardized dosing compared to variable dosing References Abdoellakhan RA, Khorsand N, Ter Avest E, et al. Fixed Versus Variable Dosing of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Bleeding Complications of Vitamin K Antagonists-The PROPER3 Randomized Clinical Trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2022;79(1):20-30. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.06.016 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/24/20224 minutes, 11 seconds
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Podcast 748: Botulism

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Botulism requires a prompt clinical diagnosis as lab results can take about 5 days to return Whale blubber, honey, home fermented foods, homemade wine (especially the wine made in prison), and improperly stored canned food can all contain the toxin The botulinum toxin is create by a Clostridium botulinum that is prevalent on our food and in the soil, but the toxin is readily degraded with heat and light Blocks release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction preventing release of neurotransmitter and therefore the propagation of an electrical nerve potential Descending paralysis, often first including bulbar muscles, and anticholinergic symptoms can be present on exam Infantile botulism, classically seen as floppy baby syndrome, occurs up to a week after ingestion, because the infant GI tract is not acidic enough to deactivate the toxin Antitoxin is available to neutralize the botulism toxin present, but it cannot prevent the already established symptoms References Jeffery IA, Karim S. Botulism. [Updated 2021 Jul 19]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459273/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/18/20228 minutes, 2 seconds
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Podcast 747: Food Impaction

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Esophageal food impaction can be managed in the ED prior to calling GI for endoscopy Coca-cola, glucagon, benzodiazepines, calcium channel blockers, and dissolved nitroglycerin are all options to try For pediatric patients, weighted bougies can be used under sedation to attempt retrieval of the food bolus  Always evaluate airway status, especially if the patient cannot maintain secretions References Long B, Koyfman A, Gottlieb M. Esophageal Foreign Bodies and Obstruction in the Emergency Department Setting: An Evidence-Based Review. J Emerg Med. 2019;56(5):499-511. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.01.025 Khayyat YM. Pharmacological management of esophageal food bolus impaction. Emerg Med Int. 2013;2013:924015. doi:10.1155/2013/924015 Schimmel J, Slauson S. Swallowed Nitroglycerin to Treat Esophageal Food Impaction. Ann Emerg Med. 2019;74(3):462-463. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.04.003 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/17/20223 minutes, 8 seconds
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Podcast 746: Elderly Head Trauma on Anticoagulation

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Biggest study to date examined new protocol for repeat head CT in anticoagulated elderly patients with head trauma and an initial negative head CT 0.5%-6% of patients in this category will get a delayed ICH and this can occur up to a week out from initial injury 18% of the study group had an ICH on initial head CT, but the rest who had negative head CT initially received a repeat head CT at 6 hours 0.9% had a bleed identified on repeat head CT 6 hours after initial imaging, but of this group no one had an intervention for this bleed Suggests repeat head CT may not be needed and that good counseling for return precautions and discharge is a reasonable disposition in caring for these patients Supratherapeutic INR was a risk factor for delayed bleed, so they should be treated as a higher risk group of patients References Borst J, Godat LN, Berndtson AE, Kobayashi L, Doucet JJ, Costantini TW. Repeat head computed tomography for anticoagulated patients with an initial negative scan is not cost-effective. Surgery. 2021;170(2):623-627. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2021.02.024 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/11/20223 minutes, 59 seconds
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Podcast 745: Nitrous-Induced B12 Deficiency

Contributor: Alicia Oberle, MD Educational Pearls: Nitrous oxide (N2O) can cause a vitamin B12 deficiency in patients after regular use N2O is used in procedural sedation but also as a popular recreational drug  N2O binds and inactivate B12 in the body, therefore decreasing usable supply Lack of B12, which is essential for myelinating nerves, can lead to subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord Presentation may include paresthesias, ataxia, gait changes, or bilateral lower extremity motor weakness B12 can be normal on labs, as the B12 is present but inactivated Treatment is daily B12 injections and oral supplementation References Stockton L, Simonsen C, Seago S. Nitrous oxide-induced vitamin B12 deficiency. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2017;30(2):171-172. doi:10.1080/08998280.2017.11929571 Samia AM, Nenow J, Price D. Subacute Combined Degeneration Secondary to Nitrous Oxide Abuse: Quantification of Use With Patient Follow-up. Cureus. 2020;12(10):e11041. Published 2020 Oct 19. doi:10.7759/cureus.11041 Edigin E, Ajiboye O, Nathani A. Nitrous Oxide-induced B12 Deficiency Presenting With Myeloneuropathy. Cureus. 2019;11(8):e5331. Published 2019 Aug 6. doi:10.7759/cureus.5331 *Image obtained from Wikimedia author Hansmuller and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International license. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/10/20222 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 744: Glucagon for Beta Blocker Toxicity

Educational Pearls: Glucagon can be used to treat hypoglycemia and esophageal foreign body, but it can also be used in beta-blocker toxicity to bypass cardiac beta-blockade The superior option for treating bradycardia due to beta-blocker toxicity is glucagon Glucagon has decreased efficacy in patients with heart failure, so increased doses up to 10 mg might be required in the event of beta-blocker toxicity References Khalid MM, Galuska MA, Hamilton RJ. Beta-Blocker Toxicity. [Updated 2021 Jul 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448097/ Rotella JA, Greene SL, Koutsogiannis Z, et al. Treatment for beta-blocker poisoning: a systematic review. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2020;58(10):943-983. doi:10.1080/15563650.2020.1752918 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/4/20222 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 743: Rust Rings

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: A rust ring can occur after a metallic foreign body is left in the eye for a prolonged period of time Issues occur when the rust ring is left as it can epithelialize and become a permanent spot in the patient’s vision An eye burr or Alger brush can help to gouge out the rust ring in the emergency setting These tools have a failsafe mechanism to prevent the eye burr from going through layers past the cornea (though this does not work if the foreign body is already through the cornea) Referral to ophthalmology, antibiotic drops, and dilating drops are recommended options upon discharge Complications include poor wound healing, scarring, and infection References Camodeca AJ, Anderson EP. Corneal Foreign Body. [Updated 2021 Apr 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536977/ https://www.reviewofoptometry.com/article/no-insult-to-injury-managing-foreign--body-removal Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
1/3/20225 minutes, 29 seconds
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Podcast 742: Pulse Check During CPR

  Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Pulse checks are necessary during CPR to check for return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) Previous studies have shown that assessing ROSC with palpating for pulse are not a very consistent Study compared palpating pulses at carotid/femoral artery versus a newly contrived gold standard for pulse checks The gold standard used was an increase in end tidal CO2 + cardiac activity on ultrasound + perfusing rhythm on ECG Carotid artery palpation was the best location to confirm pulse during pulse check, although femoral artery palpation Carotid artery palpation was 92% accurate versus 82% accuracy with femoral pulse check Regardless of chosen site, remember 10 seconds is the maximum amount of time for a pulse check before resuming CPR References Yılmaz G, Bol O. Comparison of femoral and carotid arteries in terms of pulse check in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A prospective observational study. Resuscitation. 2021;162:56-62. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.01.042 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/29/20213 minutes, 37 seconds
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Podcast 741: Calcium for Cardiac Arrest

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Study of nearly 400 patients evaluating giving calcium during cardiac arrest with the endpoint as return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) Compared giving 1 amp calcium chloride with each round of epinephrine for the first two rounds of epinephrine versus saline placebo ROSC occurred in 19% of patients in the calcium groups versus 27% in saline placebo group No magic drugs in cardiac arrest, good CPR and early defibrillation are still the most important factors for ROSC in cardiac arrest  References Vallentin MF, Granfeldt A, Meilandt C, et al. Effect of Intravenous or Intraosseous Calcium vs Saline on Return of Spontaneous Circulation in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021;326(22):2268-2276. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.20929 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/28/20212 minutes, 14 seconds
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Podcast 740: Placenta Previa

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: High concern causes of third trimester vaginal bleeding include placenta previa, placental abruption, or vasa previa In placenta previa, the placenta implants over the cervix and this condition Often noted during routine prenatal care on transabdominal ultrasound Patients present with painful vaginal bleeding, usually in the absence of trauma Avoid pelvic exam, transvaginal ultrasound, or digital vaginal exam in placenta previa Risk factors for placenta previa include multiple gestations, previous medical abortions, advanced maternal age, and previous placenta previa Management usually includes admission to the hospital >37 weeks: admission for c-section 34-37 weeks: judgment call based on maternal/fetal stability References Anderson-Bagga FM, Sze A. Placenta Previa. [Updated 2021 Jun 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK539818/ Young JS, White LM. Vaginal Bleeding in Late Pregnancy. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2019;37(2):251-264. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2019.01.006 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD *Image from BruceBlaus via Wikimedia Commons licensed under Creative Commons license The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/21/20213 minutes, 47 seconds
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Podcast 739: Perceptions of Dress

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Study examined patient perceptions of providers wearing traditional white coats,  fleece coats and soft-shell jackets Found that white coats were seen as more professional than other types of dress Also found that female physicians were viewed as less professional than their male counterparts regardless of dress Older respondents thought more of white coats than younger respondents Patient perspective should be considered and reiterating roles may help build relationships with patients References Xun H, Chen J, Sun AH, Jenny HE, Liang F, Steinberg JP. Public Perceptions of Physician Attire and Professionalism in the US. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(7):e2117779. Published 2021 Jul 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17779 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/20/20213 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 738: Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

Contributor: Ian Gillman, PA-C Educational Pearls: Acute mesenteric ischemia is a condition where bowel loses blood supply from an acute occlusion of the mesenteric arteries A frequent sign is abdominal pain that is out of proportion to the exam Atrial fibrillation is one risk factor for mesenteric ischemia Treatment includes anticoagulation and possible surgical intervention depending on the extent of the ischemia References Monita MM, Gonzalez L. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia. [Updated 2021 Jun 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Kühn F, Schiergens TS, Klar E. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia. Visc Med. 2020;36(4):256-262. doi:10.1159/000508739 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/14/20212 minutes, 56 seconds
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Podcast 737: TBI Outcomes

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Study evaluating patient outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) over 1 year Trial followed patients with severe TBI (GCS 3-8) and moderate TBI (GCS 9-12) At 1 year out ½ of the severe TBI group were able to be independent for at least 8 hours per day; ⅔ were independent to this level at one year in the moderate TBI group ¼ of the patient who were in a vegetative state 2 weeks after the traumatic brain injury had good outcomes at 1 year References McCrea MA, Giacino JT, Barber J, et al. Functional Outcomes Over the First Year After Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in the Prospective, Longitudinal TRACK-TBI Study. JAMA Neurol. 2021;78(8):982-992. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2043 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/13/20212 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 736: Seasonal Affective Disorder

Contributor: Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) a form of seasonal depression which can result in trouble sleeping, concentration difficulties, changes in appetite, and decreased mood SAD is a common condition affecting millions of people in the US Coupling this with the stresses of COVID, these affects may be compounded To reduce the effects of SAD: Stick to a routine Exercise Light therapy Engage with your community Meditation Tangible bucket list to set goals for the winter Nostalgic activity References Melrose S. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches. Depress Res Treat. 2015;2015:178564. doi:10.1155/2015/178564 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute offers AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
12/7/20213 minutes, 32 seconds
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Podcast 735: End Tidal CO2 and BiPAP

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: End tidal CO2 is accurate to 1-4 mmHg in intubated patient but use with those on positive pressure ventilation like BiPAP is unclear Study looked at patients on BiPAP for COPD or CHF and found end tidal CO2 measurements were significantly underestimated when compared to VBG levels End tidal CO2 measurements for those on positive pressure ventilation appears to be inaccurate References Uzunay H, Selvi F, Bedel C, Karakoyun OF. Comparison of ETCO2 Value and Blood Gas PCO2 Value of Patients Receiving Non-invasive Mechanical Ventilation Treatment in Emergency Department [published online ahead of print, 2021 Apr 27]. SN Compr Clin Med. 2021;1-5. doi:10.1007/s42399-021-00935-y Casati A, Gallioli G, Scandroglio M, Passaretta R, Borghi B, Torri G. Accuracy of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring using the NBP-75 microstream capnometer. A study in intubated ventilated and spontaneously breathing nonintubated patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2000;17(10):622-626. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2346.2000.00731.x Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
12/6/20212 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 734: Push Dose Antibiotics

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study at a hospital in Chicago with a shortage of normal saline decided to push IV ceftriaxone rather than the typical infusion of the antibiotic Retrospective chart analysis of about 800 patients to determine safety of giving a push dose of ceftriaxone Only 1 complication due to the ceftriaxone causing a patient to vomit References Agunbiade A, Routsolias JC, Rizvanolli L, Bleifuss W, Sundaresan S, Moskoff J. The effects of ceftriaxone by intravenous push on adverse drug reactions in the emergency department. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;43:245-248. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.03.022 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
12/1/20212 minutes, 17 seconds
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Podcast 733: Nitric Oxide for COVID

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Inhaled nitric oxide or Flolan may be considered in COVID Flolan is a prostaglandin can be inhaled or given IV These medications are classically used for right-sided heart failure, but may be used in COVID Causes pulmonary vasodilation to reduce the resistance against the right ventricle Complications include hypotension and hemolysis, but nitric oxide can be turned off very quickly if needed Be careful and wean patients on nitric oxide for pulmonary hypertension References Lotz C, Muellenbach RM, Meybohm P, et al. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide in COVID-19-induced ARDS - Is it worthwhile?. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2021;65(5):629-632. doi:10.1111/aas.13757 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/30/20215 minutes, 59 seconds
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Podcast 732: Organophosphate Toxicity

Educational Pearls: Organophosphates affect the cholinergic system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase affecting muscarinic and nicotinic receptors Symptoms include lacrimation, salivation, bronchoconstriction, blurred vision, bradycardia, bronchorrhea, emesis, and diarrhea Initially, the patient should be decontaminated to prevent further organophosphate exposure Treatment consists of atropine every 5 minutes, 1-3 mg to start and doubling the dose each time it is given until reversal of symptoms is seen Atropine only works on muscarinic receptors, so nicotinic receptor activation continues despite atropine administration resulting in muscle contractions and eventually respiratory arrest Pralidoxime (2-PAM) should also be given to prevent the nicotinic effects and maturation of the organophosphate-acetylcholinesterase complex References Robb EL, Baker MB. Organophosphate Toxicity. [Updated 2021 Jul 26]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470430/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD ********************* The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award  
11/23/20215 minutes, 25 seconds
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Podcast 731: Fluid Resuscitation in Burns

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Parkland Formula: 4 mL x [Total Body Surface Area Burned (%)] x [body weight (kg)] given in 24 hours 50% given over 8 hours and 50% given over the next 16 hours Brooke Formula: 2 mL x [Total Body Surface Area Burned (%)] x [body weight (kg)] given in 24 hours 50% given over 8 hours and 50% given over the next 16 hours 2009 military study evaluated Parkland vs. Brooke formulas for severe burn patients and found the outcomes were the same Guidelines are in flux on which formula to use, but reducing the overall volume using the Brooke formula can be done without significant change in morbidity or mortality Using fluid responsiveness by measuring urine output and signs of fluid overload can help guide overall resuscitative approach in burn patients References Chung KK, Wolf SE, Cancio LC, et al. Resuscitation of severely burned military casualties: fluid begets more fluid. J Trauma. 2009;67(2):231-237. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3181ac68cf Schaefer TJ, Nunez Lopez O. Burn Resuscitation And Management. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430795/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD ********************* The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/22/20214 minutes, 44 seconds
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Podcast 730: Alternative Treatment for Gonorrhea

Educational Pearls: Recent updates to treatment guidelines increased the 250 mg ceftriaxone IM dose to 500 mg ceftriaxone IM IM dosing can be very painful, so other methods of administration can help decrease pain for patients Using IV ceftriaxone instead of IM has no significant difference in pharmacokinetics or bioavailability, so it can be considered in patients with an IV already placed References St Cyr S, Barbee L, Workowski KA, et al. Update to CDC's Treatment Guidelines for Gonococcal Infection, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(50):1911-1916. Published 2020 Dec 18. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6950a6 Product Information: ROCEPHIN(R) IV, IM injection, ceftriaxone sodium IV, IM injection. Genentech USA, Inc. (per Manufacturer), South San Francisco, CA, 2010. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/16/20213 minutes, 32 seconds
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Podcast 729: Molnupiravir for COVID

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: A press release from Merck introduced Molnupiravir for treatment of mild to moderate COVID-19 The yet to be published study is a randomized control trial at around 100 different sites Reported outcomes were hospitalization and mortality from COVID and mortality from COVID Molnupiravir was found to be twice as effective as placebo looking at these two endpoints (7% vs. 14%) 5 day course of the drug taken twice per day costs $700, but cost-saved from using this drug was $32,000 per patient References https://www.merck.com/news/merck-and-ridgebacks-investigational-oral-antiviral-molnupiravir-reduced-the-risk-of-hospitalization-or-death-by-approximately-50-percent-compared-to-placebo-for-patients-with-mild-or-moderat/ https://www.merck.com/news/merck-and-ridgebacks-molnupiravir-an-oral-covid-19-antiviral-medicine-receives-first-authorization-in-the-world/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/15/20215 minutes, 25 seconds
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Podcast 728: Angiography for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest without ST Elevation

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Meaningful survival under 10% for out of hospital cardiac arrest The most common cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is due to cardiac ischemia Study looked at whether taking patients without ST elevation who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) should receive angiography upon arrival to the hospital Took 530 patients and randomized to early vs. delayed angiography after resuscitation from out-of-hospital arrest Found no benefit to early angiography using 30-day all-cause risk of death as the primary endpoint References Desch S, Freund A, Akin I, et al. Angiography after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest without ST-Segment Elevation [published online ahead of print, 2021 Aug 29]. N Engl J Med. 2021;10.1056/NEJMoa2101909. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2101909 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/9/20215 minutes, 8 seconds
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Podcast 727: Antibiotics for Diverticulitis

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Classically, diverticulitis is diagnosed via CT scan and patients are discharged home on antibiotics if they are without complication The DINAMO study is a multicenter open-label RCT that evaluated if it is safe to not give antibiotics to patients with mild acute diverticulitis Found no difference in readmission, return visits to ED, pain control, or likelihood of surgical intervention between the group that was sent home with antibiotics and the group without Medical societies have not reached a consensus on this issue, likely further studies need to be completed References Mora-López L, Ruiz-Edo N, Estrada-Ferrer O, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Nonantibiotic Outpatient Treatment in Mild Acute Diverticulitis (DINAMO-study): A Multicentre, Randomised, Open-label, Noninferiority Trial. Ann Surg. 2021;274(5):e435-e442. doi:10.1097/SLA.0000000000005031 *Image from Hellerhoff, CC BY-SA 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/8/20213 minutes, 35 seconds
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Podcast 726: Ophthalmia Neonatorum

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Ophthalmia Neonatorum encompasses any conjunctivitis that presents within the first 28 days of life Neonates often receive prophylactic silver nitrate eye drops for gonorrhea prophylaxis, but the drops can cause chemical conjunctivitis Etiology & Timing of Presentation: Silver nitrate conjunctivitis presents 0-2 days after birth Neisseria gonorrhae presents 2-5 days after birth Chlamydia trachomatis presents 5 days to 5 weeks Neisseria gonorrhoeae conjunctivitis is vision-threatening, typically requiring admission and  IV antibiotics with a 3rd generation cephalosporin References Castro Ochoa KJ, Mendez MD. Ophthalmia Neonatorum. [Updated 2021 Jul 22]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK551572/ US Preventive Services Task Force, Curry SJ, Krist AH, et al. Ocular Prophylaxis for Gonococcal Ophthalmia Neonatorum: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2019;321(4):394-398. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.21367 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/2/20214 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 725: Hypothermia in Preterm Deliveries

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Preterm deliveries in the ED can be complex and preventing hypothermia is essential to the health of the baby Recent meta-analysis examined methods for warming preterm deliveries to prevent hypothermia The most effective way to warm the baby is by wrapping them in plastic References Abiramalatha T, Ramaswamy VV, Bandyopadhyay T, et al. Delivery Room Interventions for Hypothermia in Preterm Neonates: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatr. 2021;175(9):e210775. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0775 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
11/1/20213 minutes, 58 seconds
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Podcast 724: Ivermectin Overdose

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Ivermectin is a Nobel-Prize winning antiparasitic  used to treat filariasis and onchocerciasis Ivermectin is receiving press due to a scientific study examining ivermectin on COVID-19 viral replication in vitro, but the dosages needed for this effect were much higher than is safe for human use Ivermectin has since been studied in humans with no evidence suggesting it is a viable treatment for COVID-19 Ivermectin is a neurotoxin but at normal levels it does not cross the blood-brain barrier Ivermectin toxicity can include altered mental status, seizures, coma, tachycardia, hypotension, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea Treatment of suspected ivermectin overdose is predominately supportive References Caly L., Druce J.D., Catton M.G., Jans D.A., Wagstaff K.M. The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. Antivir Res. 2020;178:104787. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787 López-Medina E, López P, Hurtado IC, et al. Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021;325(14):1426–1435. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.3071 Roder JD, Stair EL. An overview of ivermectin toxicosis. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1998;40(6):369-370. Roman YM, Burela PA, Pasupuleti V, Piscoya A, Vidal JE, Hernandez AV. Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials [published online ahead of print, 2021 Jun 28]. Clin Infect Dis. 2021;ciab591. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab591 Chandler RE. Serious Neurological Adverse Events after Ivermectin-Do They Occur beyond the Indication of Onchocerciasis?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018;98(2):382-388. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.17-0042 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
10/26/20214 minutes, 12 seconds
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Podcast 723: Nitro Drip in Flash Pulmonary Edema

Contributor: Alec Coston, MD Educational Pearls: Flash pulmonary edema or Sympathetic Crash Acute Pulmonary Edema (SCAPE) is a severe illness that requires aggressive treatment Often in patients with heart failure and a sympathetic surge increasing heart rate, decreased diastolic filling, increased preload, and increased afterload causing pulmonary edema Clinical diagnosis: acute onset diaphoresis and respiratory distress, hypoxia and tachypnea on exam Bedside lung ultrasound will demonstrate B-lines, indicative of pulmonary edema Treatment is nitroglycerin and BiPAP Nitroglycerin drip can be started at 80 micrograms/minute, which is similar to the dose delivered by sublingual nitroglycerin References Stemple K, DeWitt KM, Porter BA, Sheeser M, Blohm E, Bisanzo M. High-dose nitroglycerin infusion for the management of sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema (SCAPE): A case series. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;44:262-266. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2020.03.062 Agrawal N, Kumar A, Aggarwal P, Jamshed N. Sympathetic crashing acute pulmonary edema. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2016;20(12):719-723. doi:10.4103/0972-5229.195710 Wilson SS, Kwiatkowski GM, Millis SR, Purakal JD, Mahajan AP, Levy PD. Use of nitroglycerin by bolus prevents intensive care unit admission in patients with acute hypertensive heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2017;35(1):126-131. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2016.10.038 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
10/25/20215 minutes, 22 seconds
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On the Streets #12: Salient Pre-hospital Considerations for Neurosurgical Emergencies - a Smorgasbord Part II

In this podcast, we are back again with host, Jordan Ourada, and neurosurgeon, Dr. Eddie Tsvankin as they discuss an exciting and mind-blowing array of topics pertaining to neurosurgery. Listen as Dr. Tsvankin shares his views on not only the history of neurosurgery, but also the medical, surgical, and engineering advancements that are taking place today. You’ll also hear Dr. Tsvankin give intriguing details into how neurosurgeries are performed with cutting-edge technology including the exoscopes that are presently utilized at Swedish Medical Center. Finally, Jordan and Dr. Tsvankin delve into predictions for future advancements in neurosurgery and neurooncology, as well as why cancer seems more prevalent today than ever.  The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
10/20/202147 minutes
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Podcast 722: Lower Extremity Dislocations

Contributor: Donald Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Hip Dislocation Prolonged dislocations can impair blood supply to femoral head Hip dislocation for >6 hours puts patient at high risk for needing a hip replacement in the next two year Knee Dislocation High mechanism Often looks anatomically normal on knee x-ray Vascular injuries of the popliteal artery can cause significant morbidity with some studies suggesting an 80% amputation rate if not treated within 6 hours Ankle Dislocation Common dislocation and often co-occurs with ankle fractures (bimalleolar/trimalleolar) Pressure on the skin from the displaced joint can cause skin tenting, which can lead to skin necrosis Hematoma blocks work well for ankle reductions as an adjunct to or substitute for procedural sedation References Arnold C, Fayos Z, Bruner D, Arnold D. Managing dislocations of the hip, knee, and ankle in the emergency department. Emerg Med Pract. 2017;19(12):1-28. Dawson-Amoah K, Raszewski J, Duplantier N, Waddell BS. Dislocation of the Hip: A Review of Types, Causes, and Treatment. Ochsner J. 2018;18(3):242-252. doi:10.31486/toj.17.0079 Patterson BM, Agel J, Swiontkowski MF, Mackenzie EJ, Bosse MJ; LEAP Study Group. Knee dislocations with vascular injury: outcomes in the Lower Extremity Assessment Project (LEAP) Study. J Trauma. 2007;63(4):855-858. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e31806915a7 Ross A, Catanzariti AR, Mendicino RW. The hematoma block: a simple, effective technique for closed reduction of ankle fracture dislocations. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2011;50(4):507-509. doi:10.1053/j.jfas.2011.04.037 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
10/19/20216 minutes, 30 seconds
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Podcast 721: Blakemore & Minnesota Tubes: Part II

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: To place a Blakemore/Minnesota Tube: Insert into esophagus under visualization Inflate gastric port with 60 cc of air and obtain a chest xray to ensure the balloon below the diaphragm Once confirmed, place a total of 500cc of air into the gastric balloon via the gastric port Tie a liter saline bad to the tube using Kerlix and hang it off an IV pole or other object to provide about 2 lbs of traction Now the the tube is in place under traction, attach a manometer to the esophageal balloon port Provide low pressure to tamponade a variceal bleed, which is about 33 mmHg This is a temporizing measure and often patients need to get a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) from interventional radiology for more definitive treatment References Powell M, Journey JD. Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube. [Updated 2021 Jul 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558924/ Amazing video of placement by EM:RAP ProductionsPlacement of a Minnesota Tube for Bleeding Varices Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
10/18/20217 minutes, 36 seconds
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On the Streets #11: Salient Pre-hospital Considerations for Neurosurgical Emergencies - a Smorgasbord

On this episode of On The Streets, host, Jordan Ourada sits down with neurosurgeon/neurooncologist Dr. Eddie Tsvankin to discuss various topics concerning neurosurgery and how EMS workers in the field can better understand and manage neurological emergencies. In this episode specifically, you’ll hear Jordan and Dr. Tsvankin discuss topics including: Priorities in caring for patients experiencing seizures Short and long-term complications of tumor resection surgery Specifics on how brain tumors are operated on and the difficult decisions that must be made ahead of time Assessment of post-operative incisions and signs of infections How chemotherapy and radiation effect the healing process for neurosurgery patients Dr. Eddie’s thoughts on COVID and how it has impacted his career The ins and outs of ventriculoperitoneal shunts The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Diversity and Inclusion Award
10/13/20211 hour, 4 minutes, 46 seconds
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Podcast 720: Blakemore & Minnesota Tubes: Part I

Contributor: Dylan Luyten, MD Educational Pearls: Minnesota Tube has an extra port for suctioning otherwise is the same as a Blakemore Tube Indicated in MASSIVE upper GI bleeding often due to esophageal varices Esophageal varices are dilated, tortuous vessels in the esophagus due to increased portal venous pressure that can bleeding into the upper GI tract Patients with massive upper GI bleed should be intubated prior to placing a Blakemore/Minnesota tube References Meseeha M, Attia M. Esophageal Varices. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK448078/ Biecker E. Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: diagnosis, prevention and management. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19(31):5035-5050. doi:10.3748/wjg.v19.i31.5035 Powell M, Journey JD. Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube. [Updated 2021 Jul 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK558924/ Photo from Wikimedia Commons Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Check out our Diversity and Inclusion Award
10/12/20215 minutes, 14 seconds
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Podcast 719: Normal Saline vs. Tap Water for Wound Irrigation

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Multiple RCTs and a Cochrane Review found there is no difference in wound infection rates when irrigating with tap water  Pressure of the water and how extensively the wound is irrigated were the most important factors affecting infection rates Quantity and type of water were independently not as important References Fernandez R, Griffiths R. Water for wound cleansing. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(2):CD003861. Published 2012 Feb 15. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003861.pub3 Lewis K, Pay JL. Wound Irrigation. [Updated 2021 Jun 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538522/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
10/11/20213 minutes, 23 seconds
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Podcast 718: Renal Failure Follow Up

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with acute renal failure often need medical management for hyperkalemia Those with severe electrolyte derangements or absent renal function may need emergent dialysis as well Dialysis catheters are 12 or 14 french catheters placed in the right internal jugular or left subclavian Placement is very similar to a central line or cordis catheter Trialysis catheter is one option that has an extra port that can be used for regular medication administration and drawing blood Do not default to use dialysis catheters for normal ED access due to risk of infection and clot development While dialysis catheters are typically reserved for dialysis only, they can be used in extreme circumstances, such as a cardiac arrest References Co I, Gunnerson K. Emergency Department Management of Acute Kidney Injury, Electrolyte Abnormalities, and Renal Replacement Therapy in the Critically Ill. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2019;37(3):459-471. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2019.04.006 Simon LV, Hashmi MF, Farrell MW. Hyperkalemia. [Updated 2021 Aug 14]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470284/ Akaraborworn O. A review in emergency central venous catheterization. Chin J Traumatol. 2017;20(3):137-140. doi:10.1016/j.cjtee.2017.03.003 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
10/5/20213 minutes, 40 seconds
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Podcast 717: A cautionary tale of renal failure

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Hyperkalemia can cause EKG changes such as a widened QRS The fastest electrolyte results can be obtained off a VBG with electrolytes  or point-of-care labs Hyperkalemia may be reported as “hemolyzed” which indicated lysis of red blood cells and artificial elevation of the potassium level. However, always keep in mind the clinical context and look at other metabolic abnormalities like creatinine and BUN for other clues that it may actually not be hemolyzed References Co I, Gunnerson K. Emergency Department Management of Acute Kidney Injury, Electrolyte Abnormalities, and Renal Replacement Therapy in the Critically Ill. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2019;37(3):459-471. doi:10.1016/j.emc.2019.04.006 Simon LV, Hashmi MF, Farrell MW. Hyperkalemia. [Updated 2021 Aug 14]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK470284/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
10/4/20213 minutes, 19 seconds
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Podcast 716: Resuscitation Fluids

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Fluid choice may have an impact on outcomes in resuscitation, and a meta-analysis has relevant insight into their use in sepsis and trauma patients Large volume normal saline fluid resuscitation in sepsis is associated with acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis compared to Lactated Ringers Choice of fluid did not have significant differences in trauma patients for initial resuscitation References Tseng CH, Chen TT, Wu MY, Chan MC, Shih MC, Tu YK. Resuscitation fluid types in sepsis, surgical, and trauma patients: a systematic review and sequential network meta-analyses. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):693. Published 2020 Dec 14. doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03419-y   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
9/29/20214 minutes, 34 seconds
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Podcast 715: Heated High Flow O2

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: High flow nasal cannula (HFNC) or “heated high flow” can deliver higher oxygen levels than nasal cannula It typically is used as an “intermediate” between oxygen via nasal cannula and other non-invasive positive pressure devices, such as BiPAP Can modify both the FiO2 and flow rate Maximum flow rate is typically  60 liters per minute (compare that to a typical breath that is 30-40 L/min) Humidification of HFNC is important due to risk of epistaxis from drying out the nasal mucosa Large energy expenditure to humidify airflow by a patient in respiratory distress, so humidified oxygen may help decrease this metabolic demand References Nishimura M. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygen Therapy in Adults: Physiological Benefits, Indication, Clinical Benefits, and Adverse Effects. Respir Care. 2016;61(4):529-541. doi:10.4187/respcare.04577 Hacquin A, Perret M, Manckoundia P, et al. High-Flow Nasal Cannula Oxygenation in Older Patients with SARS-CoV-2-Related Acute Respiratory Failure. J Clin Med. 2021;10(16):3515. Published 2021 Aug 10. doi:10.3390/jcm10163515 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/27/20214 minutes, 59 seconds
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Podcast 714: Intradermal Sterile Water for Back Pain

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Randomized controlled-trial evaluated intradermal injections of sterile water to manage low back pain versus an IV NSAID Four intradermal injections of 0.1 cc sterile water in a square around the area of musculoskeletal pain Reduction of pain was 7 points with the procedure and 2 points with the IV NSAID at 24 hours 12% in the injection group versus 50% in the IV NSAID group needed opioids 87% patient satisfaction in the injection group versus 16% patient satisfaction in the IV NSAID group References Tekin E, Gur A, Bayraktar M, Ozlu I, Celik BK. The effectiveness of intradermal sterile water injection for low back pain in the emergency department: A prospective, randomized controlled study. Am J Emerg Med. 2021;42:103-109. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2021.01.038 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/21/20213 minutes, 26 seconds
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Podcast 713: Oral Ketamine

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Those on chronic opioid therapy may have high tolerance to opioids and/or opioid hyperalgesia Ketamine is a good adjunct for pain control in patients on chronic opioid therapy To avoid the time constraints often required to push ketamine intravenously, it can be given orally: Ketamine IV 25-50 mg (~0.01-0.03 mg/kg) as a single dose by mouth References Blonk M, Koder B, et al. Use of oral ketamine in chronic pain management: A review. European Journal of Pain. 2009. Schwenk ES, et al. Consensus guidelines on the use of intravenous ketamine infusions for acute pain management from the America Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, the American Academy of Pain Medicine and the American Society of Anesthesiologists. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/20/20213 minutes, 48 seconds
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Podcast 712: Cephalosporin with a Penicillin Allergy

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Retrospective cohort study in the Kaiser system looked at over 4 million patients receiving antibiotics to determine the effect of penicillin allergy prompts in the EHR on antibiotic prescribing Half of the sites removed prompts stating penicillin allergy and half kept the prompts Patients with penicillin allergies who received cephalosporins went up from 20% to 27% in areas where the prompt was remove No difference in mortality or no new allergies found between the two groups Reduced the use of fluoroquinolones and clindamycin in the group without the prompt References Macy E, McCormick TA, Adams JL, et al. Association Between Removal of a Warning Against Cephalosporin Use in Patients With Penicillin Allergy and Antibiotic Prescribing. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(4):e218367. Published 2021 Apr 1. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.8367 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/13/20213 minutes, 20 seconds
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On the Streets #10: IO Administration Gone Awry

Dr. Glenda Quan, trauma surgeon from Swedish Medical Center joins our host Jordan Ourada to review a case of an incorrectly placed IO and how to avoid it. The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.
9/8/202115 minutes, 57 seconds
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Podcast 711: Insulin Pumps

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Insulin pumps provide a continuous infusion of fast-acting insulin using a basal rate and bolus prior to meals Some connect to a continuous glucometer but often blood glucose needs to be checked manually Hypoglycemia is rarely due to a malfunctioning pump - there is usually an another external factor Hyperglycemia can be caused by underdosing, illness, pump malfunction or expired insulin The pump can be used to give a bolus of insulin in the emergency department if necessary Stopping the  device can be done manually on the device or disconnecting it from the tubing attachment - do not remove the tubing from the skin site if possible References Nimri R, Nir J, Phillip M. Insulin Pump Therapy. Am J Ther. 2020;27(1):e30-e41. doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001097 Sora ND, Shashpal F, Bond EA, Jenkins AJ. Insulin Pumps: Review of Technological Advancement in Diabetes Management. Am J Med Sci. 2019;358(5):326-331. doi:10.1016/j.amjms.2019.08.008 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
9/7/20214 minutes, 35 seconds
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Podcast 710: Droperidol vs. Zyprexa

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Prospective trial studied 5 mg IM droperidol to 10 mg IM olanzapine (Zyprexa) in the reducing levels of agitation Time to adequate sedation was about 16 minutes for both agents Droperidol was slightly less sedating than olanzapine and length of stay for olanzapine was longer Olanzapine had a higher rate of requiring another agent for adequate sedation Droperidol had a higher rate of adverse events (mainly extrapyramidal symptoms) than olanzapine Remember to put the safety of the staff and patient at the forefront of sedation practices and be cognizant of the psychological effect of giving involuntary medications to patients References Cole JB, Stang JL, DeVries PA, Martel ML, Miner JR, Driver BE. A Prospective Study of Intramuscular Droperidol or Olanzapine for Acute Agitation in the Emergency Department: A Natural Experiment Owing to Drug Shortages. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;78(2):274-286. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2021.01.005 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/31/20215 minutes, 24 seconds
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Podcast 709: Clown Therapy

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Using LET, procedural sedation, and distraction techniques are often needed to successfully perform painful procedures in pediatrics patients The technique of clown therapy has been studied as an adjunct to LET and other distraction techniques for procedures in pediatric patients One randomized-controlled trial from 2016 found anxiety was greatly reduced using medical clown therapy to aid in painful procedures in pediatrics patients References Felluga M, Rabach I, Minute M, et al. A quasi randomized-controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of clowntherapy on children's anxiety and pain levels in emergency department. Eur J Pediatr. 2016;175(5):645-650. doi:10.1007/s00431-015-2688-0 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/30/20214 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 708: Diagnostic Paracentesis

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Paracentesis is a procedure where fluid is removed from the peritoneal cavity by needle Indications for paracentesis include: large volume paracentesis (5-6L), diagnosis of transudative or exudative ascites, evaluation for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Infection of ascitic fluid is more likely in transudative processes due to the increased frequency of paracentesis E coli is the most common pathogen to cause SBP Treatment with 3rd generation cephalosporin, like ceftriaxone References Aponte EM, Katta S, O'Rourke MC. Paracentesis. [Updated 2020 Sep 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK435998/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
8/24/20215 minutes, 15 seconds
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Podcast 707: Sigmoid Volvulus

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Sigmoid volvulus occurs when the sigmoid colon twists 180 to 360 degrees 10% of intestinal obstructions in the US; 50-70% of intestinal obstructions worldwide More common in elderly patients with chronic constipation Eventually may lead to bowel perforation, a surgical emergency Treatment is sigmoidoscopy or sigmoid colectomy References Lieske B, Antunes C. Sigmoid Volvulus. [Updated 2021 Aug 11]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441925/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/23/20213 minutes
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Podcast 706: Pepper Spray Decon

  Contributor: Ramnik Dhaliwal, MD JD Educational Pearls: Pepper spray is a highly irritating compound with active ingredient of capsaicin Techniques to help decontaminate and alleviate symptoms of an exposure include: Disrobing the patient to prevent further exposure Half milk of magnesia and half water mixture can be used to soothe the skin in the area of exposure Proparacaine followed by Morgan lens to irrigate the eye in adults Nasal cannula connected to a liter of normal saline can passively irrigate the eye in small children and other less than cooperating patients References Tidwell RD, Wills BK. Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Toxicity. [Updated 2020 Nov 4]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK544263/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
8/18/20213 minutes, 9 seconds
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Podcast 705: Pyloric Stenosis

  Contributor: Neil Cella, MD Educational Pearls: Pylorus becomes hypertrophied and does not allow food or liquid to pass through to the duodenum tOccurs between the ages of 3 weeks to 3 months Classic presentation includes projectile nonbilious vomiting and palpable abdominal mass Ultrasound can visualize/diagnose pyloric stenosis and the treatment is surgical correction Be aware that electrolyte abnormalities and acid/base disturbances may occur References Garfield K, Sergent SR. Pyloric Stenosis. [Updated 2021 Feb 6]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK555931/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
8/17/20214 minutes, 2 seconds
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Podcast 704: Treatment of Pneumothorax

Contributor: Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Multi-center open-label non-inferiority trial looked at treatment of pneumothorax with a small-bore chest tube versus conservative management with exceptional follow up 316 patients ages 14-50 with moderate to large pneumothorax (>32% measured on CXR) were randomized into one of the two treatment arms 15% of the conservative group required further intervention as determined by prespecified protocols 94.4% of the intervention group had resolution at 8 weeks, whereas 98.5% of the conservative group had resolution at 8 weeks These data were affected by poor follow up CXR resolution average of 16 days in the intervention group and 30 days in the conservative group Symptom resolution was similar between the two groups (median 15 days vs. 14 days) Recurrence at 12 months was 17% in interventional group vs 8% in conservative group 41 adverse events in intervention group and 13 adverse events in conservative group References Brown SGA, Ball EL, Perrin K, et al. Conservative versus Interventional Treatment for Spontaneous Pneumothorax. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(5):405-415. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1910775 Franzen, D. (2019, November). Pneumothorax. Society of Academic Emergency Medicine. https://www.saem.org/about-saem/academies-interest-groups-affiliates2/cdem/for-students/online-education/m4-curriculum/group-m4-respiratory/pneumothorax. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/16/20215 minutes, 22 seconds
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Mental Health Monthly #8: Trauma-Informed Care

Contributor: Randi Libbon, MD The Core features of trauma-informed care include: Patient empowerment, choice and collaboration. This means educating patients and allowing patients to make choices about their care when possible. Collaboration helps to level the power differential between patients and providers through shared decision making. Safety and sensitivity: Developing health care settings and activities that ensure patients’ physical and emotional safety taking into account their diverse backgrounds of gender, sexuality, race, culture, and ethnicity Trustworthiness and transparency: Creating clear expectations with patients about what proposed treatments entail, who will provide services, and how care will be provided.   Resources: Reeves E. A synthesis of the literature on trauma-informed care. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2015;36(9):698-709. doi: 10.3109/01612840.2015.1025319. PMID: 26440873. Molloy L, Fields L, Trostian B, Kinghorn G. Trauma-informed care for people presenting to the emergency department with mental health issues. Emerg Nurse. 2020 Mar 10;28(2):30-35. doi: 10.7748/en.2020.e1990. Epub 2020 Feb 25. PMID: 32096370.   Key ingredients for Trauma-informed care from SAMHSA https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/programs_campaigns/childrens_mental_health/atc-whitepaper-040616.pdf The National Childhood Traumatic Stress Network: https://www.nctsn.org/trauma-informed-care The Science of Adverse Childhood Events and Toxic Stress: https://www.acesaware.org/ace-fundamentals/the-science-of-aces-toxic-stress/ From the Institute for Health Care Improvement: http://www.ihi.org/communities/blogs/how-trauma-informed-care-can-help-patients-and-clinicians-during-behavioral-health-emergencies
8/11/20219 minutes, 24 seconds
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Podcast 703: Fever in Infants

Contributor: Neil Cella, MD  Educational Pearls: 10% of patients 100.4) have an serious bacterial infection Most of these are UTIs, but also consider pneumonia and meningitis Requires CXR, LP, labs, and UA to work up cause of fever 29-60 day old well-appearing febrile infant:  Can discharge without abx if CXR, lumbar puncture, labs and UA without signs of bacterial infection If UA is positive for UTI a LP is still indicated for febrile infants References Hamilton JL, Evans SG, Bakshi M. Management of Fever in Infants and Young Children. Am Fam Physician. 2020;101(12):721-729. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
8/10/20215 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 702: Paralytic Awareness

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Known risk factors for being awake and paralyzed in the OR include only receiving IV medications, long-acting paralytics, and no formal monitoring system for being awake The ED-AWARENESS study, a prospective single-center study found 2.6% of patients with induced paralysis during mechanical ventilation were aware Rocuronium was a risk factor for developing awareness while paralyzed in this study Ensure adequate sedation during paralysis for mechanical ventilation in the ED setting, especially when using rocuronium References Pappal RD, Roberts BW, Mohr NM, et al. The ED-AWARENESS Study: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study of Awareness With Paralysis in Mechanically Ventilated Patients Admitted From the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(5):532-544. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.10.012 Pappal RD, Roberts BW, Winkler W, Yaegar LH, Stephens RJ, Fuller BM. Awareness With Paralysis in Mechanically Ventilated Patients in the Emergency Department and ICU: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Crit Care Med. 2021;49(3):e304-e314. doi:10.1097/CCM.0000000000004824   The Emergency Medical Minute offers AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. For more information and to access this content,, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/9/20212 minutes, 55 seconds
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Podcast 701: Elevated Blood Pressure Readings

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent retrospective cohort study looked at elevated BP readings in the ED and correlation to underlying hypertension Large cohort of over 30,000 patients found that nearly 50% had an elevated blood pressure reading in the ED Less than 15% of patients with elevated BP readings in the ED were diagnosed with hypertension within 2 years Only 25% of patients with BP readings >160/100 were diagnosed with hypertension within 2 years Patients with an elevated blood pressure reading of >160/100 had only a slightly increased risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, or death in the next 2 years References McAlister FA, Youngson E, Rowe BH. Elevated Blood Pressures Are Common in the Emergency Department but Are They Important? A Retrospective Cohort Study of 30,278 Adults. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(4):425-432. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.11.005 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute offers AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. For more information and to access this content,, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/3/20213 minutes, 9 seconds
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Podcast 700: Analgesics for Acute Musculoskeletal Pain

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent RCT compared pain relief in patients receiving five medications for acute musculoskeletal pain Acetaminophen 1000mg/ibuprofen 400 mg  Acetaminophen 1000mg/ibuprofen 800 mg Acetaminophen 300 mg/codeine 30 mg Acetaminophen 300mg/hydrocodone 5mg Acetaminophen 325mg/oxycodone 5mg No significant difference in pain relief at 1 and 2 hours between all of 5 groups References Bijur PE, Friedman BW, Irizarry E, Chang AK, Gallagher EJ. A Randomized Trial Comparing the Efficacy of Five Oral Analgesics for Treatment of Acute Musculoskeletal Extremity Pain in the Emergency Department. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(3):345-356. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.10.004   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
8/2/20212 minutes, 26 seconds
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Podcast 699: Pediatric Fingernail Avulsions

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Traditionally, fingernails were replaced after avulsion using sutures Sometimes artificial material was placed when the fingernail was not available Recent study evaluated treatment of fingernail avulsions pediatric patients by replacing the nail versus cleaning and putting a non-adhesive dressing No difference in the aesthetics or patient satisfaction with the new fingernail between the two treatment groups References Seiler M, Gerstenberg A, Kalisch M, Kennedy U, Scheer HS, Weber DM. Non-operative treatment versus suture refixation of the nail plate in paediatric fingernail avulsion injuries. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2021;46(5):523-529. doi:10.1177/1753193420965390 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/28/20213 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 698: Empathy, Burnout, and Patient Satisfaction

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Survey of EM physicians to self-report empathy and burnout levels and correlated with patient satisfaction scores Patient satisfaction was not affected by what the physicians thought about their level of empathy or burnout  Patient satisfaction was affected by the patient’s perception of empathetic behavior by the physician References Byrd J, Knowles H, Moore S, et al. Synergistic effects of emergency physician empathy and burnout on patient satisfaction: a prospective observational study [published online ahead of print, 2020 Nov 25]. Emerg Med J. 2020;emermed-2019-209393. doi:10.1136/emermed-2019-209393 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
7/27/20212 minutes, 36 seconds
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Podcast 697: Kounis Syndrome

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Kounis syndrome is an allergic acute coronary syndrome Triggers include medications (antibiotics), insect bites, or other common allergens Believed to be due to mast cell activation, inflammatory cytokines, and platelet activation causing coronary vasospasm or plaque rupture in setting of existing atherosclerosis Consider Kounis syndrome in the setting of chest pain in anaphylaxis Treatment involves treatment of allergic reaction, although epinephrine should be used cautiously Avoid morphine as this can cause mast cell activation References The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at https://emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/26/20213 minutes, 27 seconds
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Podcast 696: ST Elevation and Differential Diagnoses

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: ST elevation clinical guidelines for myocardial infarction include: 2.5 mm elevation for males 2 mm elevation in males >40 in V2 and V3 1.5 mm elevation for females in V2 and V3 1 mm elevation in 2 or more contiguous leads (not V2 or V3) Differential diagnosis of ST elevation includes, but is not limited to: STEMI Electrolyte abnormalities Pericarditis/myocarditis Brugada syndrome LVH Bundle branch blocks Ventricular aneurysm References de Bliek EC. ST elevation: Differential diagnosis and caveats. A comprehensive review to help distinguish ST elevation myocardial infarction from nonischemic etiologies of ST elevation. Turk J Emerg Med. 2018;18(1):1-10. Published 2018 Feb 17. doi:10.1016/j.tjem.2018.01.008 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/21/20214 minutes, 46 seconds
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Podcast 695: Einstein and Cellophane

Educational Pearls: Albert Einstein had chronic abdominal pain as a middle-aged man Dr. Rudolph Nissen, founder of the Nissen fundoplication, performed exploratory surgery for this pain and found an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) The only treatment for an AAA at that time was to wrap the vessel in cellophane, causing a fibrotic response to prevent rupture Einstein died 7 years after this surgery, likely from his leaking abdominal aortic aneurysm References Cervantes Castro J. Albert Einstein y su aneurisma de la aorta [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm]. Gac Med Mex. 2011;147(1):74-76. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/20/20213 minutes, 1 second
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Podcast 694: Complete Heart Block

Contributor: Nick Hatch, MD Educational Pearls: Complete heart block or 3rd degree atrioventricular (AV) block is diagnosed via EKG and occurs when electrical signals from the sinoatrial (SA) node are blocked from reaching the ventricles via the AV node and AV bundles P waves and QRS complexes are independent Often QRS rate is around 40 The rate is slow because the ventricular purkinje fibers have an intrinsic rate of 20-40 bpm, whereas the SA node has an intrinsic rate of 60-100 bpm Treatment is usually with pacemaker, unless there is an identifiable etiology causing the heart block that can be reversed References Knabben V, Chhabra L, Slane M. Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block. [Updated 2020 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK545199/   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!  
7/19/20214 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 693: Humerus Fractures

Contributor: Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: Humerus fractures can be characterized as proximal, midshaft, and distal fractures Proximal humerus fracture is the second-most common fracture in elderly patients  Primary complication is with the axillary nerve and axillary artery  Vast majority are managed nonoperatively with a sling, reduction usually not indicated Women comprise 70% of proximal humerus fractures, often secondary to fall with osteoporosis Midshaft humerus fractures are more often managed operatively, but can be managed nonoperatively Primary complication is with radial nerve, look for wrist drop! May require reduction and splinting Distal humerus fractures can include supracondylar fractures and involve the radius or ulna One atypical is the Holstein-Lewis fracture, that can cause radial nerve damage Management is varied depending on the exact type of distal humerus fracture Assess degree of angulation, neurovascular status, and likelihood of compartment syndrome both before and after splint application References Attum B, Thompson JH. Humerus Fractures Overview. [Updated 2020 Aug 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK482281/   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/14/20217 minutes, 45 seconds
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Podcast 692: Pelvic Fractures

Contributor: Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Pelvis is comprised of the iliac, ischium, and sacrum Three mechanisms for pelvic fractures by Young-Burgess Classification Anterior-posterior compression causing open-book pelvic fractures that can be complicated by retroperitoneal bleeding or urethral injury Lateral compression causing rami fractures Vertical sheer causing offset of sacroiliac joint or sacrum Mechanically stable pelvic ring fractures can be conservatively treated with weight bearing as tolerated Unstable fractures and those with complications will require operative fixation References Davis DD, Foris LA, Kane SM, et al. Pelvic Fracture. [Updated 2021 Feb 10]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK430734/ Weatherford B. Pelvic Ring Fractures. OrthoBullets. Updated 25 May 2021. https://www.orthobullets.com/trauma/1030/pelvic-ring-fractures The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/13/20214 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 691: TXA in Head Bleeds

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: CRASH 3 Trial looked at over 12,000 patients with traumatic intracranial bleeds, randomizing patients to a therapy with TXA or standard of care without TXA Dosing was 1 gram over 10 min for loading dose and then an infusion of 1 gram over 8 hours Found Improvement in survival and neurologic outcomes when patient received TXA within 3 hours References CRASH-3 trial collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, disability, vascular occlusive events and other morbidities in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (CRASH-3): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial [published correction appears in Lancet. 2019 Nov 9;394(10210):1712]. Lancet. 2019;394(10210):1713-1723. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32233-0   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/12/20212 minutes, 45 seconds
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Podcast 690: Rectal Oxygen. Nice,

Contributor: Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: In the 1700s, boxes lined the River Thames to pump smoke up the rectum to resuscitate people who had been found unconscious in the river Sea cucumbers can extract oxygen through their rectum Perflourocarbon, a liquid that can become oxygenated, provided rectally was able to oxygenate pigs and mice in a recent study References Okabe R, Chen-Yoshikawa T, Yoneyama Y, et al. Mammalian enteral ventilation ameliorates respiratory failure. Clinical and Translational Resource and Technology Insights. 2021;2(6):773-783. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2021.04.004   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
7/7/20213 minutes, 54 seconds
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Podcast 689: Peri-Intubation Hypotension

Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Hypotension in patients requiring intubation should be resuscitated as much as possible While intubating, the negative inspiratory pressure goes away decreasing cardiac preload and worsening hypotension Phenylephrine can be given via push doses to  increase blood pressure from  alpha agonism For sedation, avoid propofol with hypotension and opt for etomidate or ketamine References April MD, Arana A, Schauer SG, et al. Ketamine Versus Etomidate and Peri-intubation Hypotension: A National Emergency Airway Registry Study. Acad Emerg Med. 2020;27(11):1106-1115. doi:10.1111/acem.14063 Panchal AR, Satyanarayan A, Bahadir JD, Hays D, Mosier J. Efficacy of Bolus-dose Phenylephrine for Peri-intubation Hypotension. J Emerg Med. 2015;49(4):488-494. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2015.04.033 Jaber S, Amraoui J, Lefrant JY, et al. Clinical practice and risk factors for immediate complications of endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit: a prospective, multi-center study. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:2355–61. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD *********************
7/6/20214 minutes, 23 seconds
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Podcast 688: tPA Before Thrombectomy

Contributor: Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: DEVT Trial, a recent non-inferiority study, looked at giving tPA prior to endovascular thrombectomy and was stopped early because there was no benefit shown to giving tPA before this intervention Coupled with the SKIP and DIRECT MT trials corroborating these findings, it appears that giving tPA prior to thrombectomy is not indicated Whether patients should receive tPA prior to transfer for thrombectomy (i.e. they are in a rural healthcare setting) is still unclear References Yang P, Treurniet KM, Zhang L, et al. Direct Intra-arterial thrombectomy in order to Revascularize AIS patients with large vessel occlusion Efficiently in Chinese Tertiary hospitals: A Multicenter randomized clinical Trial (DIRECT-MT)-Protocol. Int J Stroke. 2020;15(6):689-698. doi:10.1177/1747493019882837 Suzuki K, Matsumaru Y, Takeuchi M, et al. Effect of Mechanical Thrombectomy Without vs With Intravenous Thrombolysis on Functional Outcome Among Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: The SKIP Randomized Clinical Trial [published correction appears in JAMA. 2021 May 4;325(17):1795]. JAMA. 2021;325(3):244-253. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.23522 Zi W, Qiu Z, Li F, et al. Effect of Endovascular Treatment Alone vs Intravenous Alteplase Plus Endovascular Treatment on Functional Independence in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: The DEVT Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2021;325(3):234-243. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.23523 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
7/5/20212 minutes, 39 seconds
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Podcast 687: STI Complications

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) occurs when the infection ascends into the uterus Tubo-ovarian abscess occurs when the infection ascends to the fallopian tubes Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome occurs when the infection enters the peritoneum and causes peritoneal inflammation with peri-hepatic inflammation These conditions require GYN consultation and often more robust antibiotic therapy for treatment References Lareau SM, Beigi RH. Pelvic inflammatory disease and tubo-ovarian abscess. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008;22(4):693-708. doi:10.1016/j.idc.2008.05.008 Basit H, Pop A, Malik A, et al. Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome. [Updated 2021 May 7]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
6/30/20214 minutes, 44 seconds
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Podcast 686: Vaginal Self Swabs

Contributor: Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study evaluated vaginal self swab testing for STIs to determine if they are equally sensitive to provider-obtained swab 515 patients consented to both tests and 95% agreement was found between the two methods of obtaining samples 75% of participants who preferred this over the pelvic exam, although some patients were concerned they did not perform the self swab correctly Consider vaginal self swab with proper coaching as an option for patients References Chinnock B, Yore M, Mason J, et al. Self-obtained vaginal swabs are not inferior to provider-performed endocervical sampling for emergency department diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis [published online ahead of print, 2021 Jan 18]. Acad Emerg Med. 2021;10.1111/acem.14213. doi:10.1111/acem.14213 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.org/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/29/20213 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 685: Cultural Sensitivity with LGBTIQ+ Patients

Contributor: Dr. Nick Gorton, MD Educational Pearls: Use transgender people’s correct names and pronouns, the Russell study found a 56% reduction in suicide behavior with chosen name usage ⅕ to ½ of transgender people report they avoided seeking care in the ED because of fear of transphobic treatment Understanding the definitions of gender identity, gender expression, assigned sex at birth, physical attraction, and emotional attraction are necessary for improving treatment of the LGBTIQ+ community Explain reasons for asking questions that address physical characteristics and/or sexual attraction Lastly, if you make a mistake simply correct the mistake, apologize, and immediately move on References Transgender Unicorn TransLine Treatment Guideline Silicone pumping handout for patients and providers https://www.ustranssurvey.org/reports Pollitt, A. M., Ioverno, S., Russell, S. T., Li, G., & Grossman, A. H. (2019). Predictors and mental health benefits of chosen name use among transgender youth. Youth & society, 0044118X19855898. Russell, S. T., Pollitt, A. M., Li, G., & Grossman, A. H. (2018). Chosen name use is linked to reduced depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior among transgender youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 63(4), 503-505. Samuels, E. A., Tape, C., Garber, N., Bowman, S., & Choo, E. K. (2018). “Sometimes you feel like the freak show”: a qualitative assessment of emergency care experiences among transgender and gender-nonconforming patients. Annals of emergency medicine, 71(2), 170-182. Thompson-Blum, D. N., Coleman, T. A., Phillips, N. E., Richardson, S., Travers, R., Coulombe, S., ... & Davis, C. (2021). Experiences of Transgender Participants in Emergency Departments: Findings from the OutLook Study. Transgender Health. Bauer, G. R., Scheim, A. I., Deutsch, M. B., & Massarella, C. (2014). Reported emergency department avoidance, use, and experiences of transgender persons in Ontario, Canada: results from a respondent-driven sampling survey. Annals of emergency medicine, 63(6), 713-720.   *Ongoing LGBTQIA+ topics are identified through collaborations with local Denver organization the Queer Umbrella as part of a new longitudinal effort to raise awareness of health disparities affecting the LGBTQIA+ community. Stay tuned as we continue to provide educational content to support this community and uplift LGBTQIA+ health providers and their practices all year long.
6/28/202110 minutes, 21 seconds
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Podcast 684: Acidosis

Contributor:  Nick Tsipis, MD Educational Pearls: pH 7.45=alkalemia If pH low and pCO2 high, indicates a respiratory acidosis If pH low and pCO2 low, indicates metabolic acidosis After determining type of acidosis, check bicarb to determine compensation for acidosis and check electrolytes to calculate anion gap Metabolic acidosis can present with tachypnea (Kussmaul breathing) and hypotension due to loss of catecholamine function and suboptimal cardiac function at low pH Treat with IV fluids and address the underlying cause, limited role for bicarb References Burger MK, Schaller DJ. Metabolic Acidosis. [Updated 2020 Nov 20]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Cadogan M. Acid Base Disorders. Life in the Fast Lane • LITFL. https://litfl.com/acid-base-disorders/. Published November 3, 2020. Accessed June 23, 2021. Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/23/20216 minutes, 13 seconds
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Podcast 683: Zofran vs. Haldol for Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

Contributor:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Around 30 patients with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) randomized treatment in three arms with 8mg Zofran, Haldol 0.05 mg/kg, and Haldol 0.1 mg/kg Haldol arms performed better on all measures compared to Zofran Extrapyramidal symptoms were significantly higher in the Haldol group than Zofran, especially the high-dose Haldol group References Ruberto AJ, Sivilotti MLA, Forrester S, Hall AK, Crawford FM, Day AG. Intravenous Haloperidol Versus Ondansetron for Cannabis Hyperemesis Syndrome (HaVOC): A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(6):613-619. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.08.021 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/22/20215 minutes, 15 seconds
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Podcast 682: Snake Bites

Contributor:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Pit vipers include cottonmouths, rattlesnakes, and copperheads All have folding long fangs, triangular face, and elliptical pupils About 5,000 snakebites per year reported to Poison Control Initially develop a local reaction (swelling, bruising, pain, bullae) Complications can include  25% of snake bites result in no envenomation (dry bites) 20% of bites have serious side-effects, which can include hematologic, cardiovascular, neurologic and, muscular abnormalities, or even anaphylaxis to the envenomation itself Minor symptoms should be observed for 12-24 hours Moderate to severe symptoms are typically treated with antivenom  CroFab and other antivenoms are expensive, with costs upwards of $3200 per vial wholesale, though newer agents are cheaper Treat with 4-6 vials of CroFab initially with moderate symptoms and subsequent redosing with  References Buchanan JT, Thurman J. Crotalidae Envenomation. [Updated 2021 Jan 29]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan. Kanaan NC, Ray J, Stewart M, et al. Wilderness Medical Society Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Pitviper Envenomations in the United States and Canada. Wilderness Environ Med. 2015;26(4):472-487. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2015.05.007 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/21/20216 minutes, 37 seconds
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Podcast 681: Internal Hernias

Contributor:  Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Internal hernias, when bowel herniates through iatrogenic or congenital defect in mesentery, represent 1-6% of all small bowel obstructions Mortality of strangulated internal hernias is over 50% due to bowel necrosis and sepsis Intermittent symptoms presenting with nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, abdominal distension Increased risk in patients with gastric bypass, liver transplant, or laparascopic surgery CT is very >90% sensitivity and specific in diagnosing SBO due to internal hernia Mesenteric swirl is a classic radiology finding Treatment with immediate surgical consultation for possible OR bowel decompression Start on broad spectrum antibiotics with any signs of sepsis References Lanzetta MM, Masserelli A, Addeo G, et al. Internal hernias: a difficult diagnostic challenge. Review of CT signs and clinical findings. Acta Biomed. 2019;90(5-S):20-37. Published 2019 Apr 24. doi:10.23750/abm.v90i5-S.8344 Martin LC, Merkle EM, Thompson WM. Review of internal hernias: radiographic and clinical findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186(3):703-717. doi:10.2214/AJR.05.0644 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/16/20215 minutes, 4 seconds
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Podcast 680: Coronary Artery Dissection

Contributor:  Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of acute MI in women under 50 years old Risk factors include fibromuscular dysplasia, extreme exercise, stress, pregnancy, and recent birth Diagnosed in cath lab but medically managed and usually do not get a stent Treated with dual antiplatelet therapy and beta-blockers References Yip A, Saw J. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection-A review. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2015;5(1):37-48. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2223-3652.2015.01.08 Janssen EBNJ, de Leeuw PW, Maas AHEM. Spontaneous coronary artery dissections and associated predisposing factors: a narrative review. Neth Heart J. 2019;27(5):246-251. doi:10.1007/s12471-019-1235-4 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/15/20214 minutes, 1 second
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Podcast 679: Antibiotics for CAP

Contributor:  Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is normally stratified into outpatient-candidates vs. inpatient candidates for treatment For outpatient treatment, antibiotic selection is driven by presence or absence comorbid health conditions (chronic lung/kidney/liver disease, DM, immunocompromised state, alcoholism, asplenia) No comorbidities: High dose amoxicillin, doxycycline, azithromycin Comorbidities: augmentin, cephalosporin, doxycycline, macrolide with fluoroquinolones as an alternatives For inpatient treatment, standard treatment is a macrolide and 3rd-generation cephalosporin Prior MRSA isolate or pseudomonas isolate as well as severe pneumonia are indications for adding MDR organism coverage with vancomycin and anti-pseudomonal coverage References Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia. An Official Clinical Practice Guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;200(7):e45-e67. doi:10.1164/rccm.201908-1581ST Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/9/20217 minutes, 20 seconds
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Podcast 678: ECMO for Refractory VFib

Contributor:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Refractory ventricular fibrillation, defined as 3 defibrillation shocks without resolution, was studied via RCT looking to compare ECMO with cardiac cath vs. typical resuscitation After 30 patients (15 each arm), the trial was stopped because such a significant benefit seen in the ECMO arm 6 patients survived and 3 had good neurological outcomes at 6 months with ECMO This is compared to 1 patient surviving initially and none surviving at 6 months in the typical resuscitation arm References Yannopoulos D, Bartos J, Raveendran G, et al. Advanced reperfusion strategies for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and refractory ventricular fibrillation (ARREST): a phase 2, single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2020;396(10265):1807-1816. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32338-2 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/8/20213 minutes, 33 seconds
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Podcast 677: Oatmeal Cream for Hand Eczema

Contributor:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: Hand eczema is present in about 10% of the population and has a great prevalence in hairdressers, healthcare workers, and food service employees Using 1% oatmeal cream instead of a base cream showed statistically significant improvement in outcomes of HE in healthcare workers in a double-blind study References Sobhan M, Hojati M, Vafaie SY, Ahmadimoghaddam D, Mohammadi Y, Mehrpooya M. The Efficacy of Colloidal Oatmeal Cream 1% as Add-on Therapy in the Management of Chronic Irritant Hand Eczema: A Double-Blind Study. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2020;13:241-251. Published 2020 Mar 25. doi:10.2147/CCID.S246021 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
6/7/20214 minutes, 22 seconds
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Podcast 676: Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis

Contributor:  Sam Killian, MD Educational Pearls: Patients with cirrhosis and ascites are frequently evaluated for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, an infection of the ascites fluid that is not from a surgically treated source Fever, abdominal pain, and altered mental status should all raise clinical suspicion in a patient with ascites Fluid from paracentesis may show increased WBCS (polys and neutrophils), high LDH, high amylase, and decreased glucose Outcomes are very poor in these patients with 30-40% of these patients continue to renal failure with 60-80% in-hospital mortality Typically treat with a third generation cephalosporin or ampicillin+gentamicin References Long B, Koyfman A. The emergency medicine evaluation and management of the patient with cirrhosis. Am J Emerg Med. 2018;36(4):689-698. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2017.12.047 MacIntosh T. Emergency Management of Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis - A Clinical Review. Cureus. 2018;10(3):e2253. Published 2018 Mar 1. doi:10.7759/cureus.2253 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/31/20214 minutes, 28 seconds
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Pharmacy Phriday #10: Colorado Pharmacists Association 2020 Opioid Prescribing and Treatment Guidelines

This week's Pharmacy Phriday features a short excerpt from a longer podcast released as promo for the Colorado's CURE initiative, Clinicians United to Resolve the Epidemic, that combats the opioid crisis through education. Frequent contributor to the podcast, Rachael Duncan, PharmD, is joined by host, Elizabeth Esty, MD, to discuss the opioid prescribing guidelines for pharmacists released by the Colorado Hospital Association in collaboration with the Colorado Pharmacists Society. Colorado's CURE focuses on four pillars: Limiting the use of opioids in clinical practice Using multimodal alternatives to opioids (ALTO) to better treat pain without the risks that come with opioids Harm Reduction Improving care for those who have developed an opioid use disorder Access Colorado's CURE Opioid Prescribing Guidelines for Pharmacists and other specialties here!   You can listen to the full Pharmacy episode of the Colorado's CURE Podcast for a more in-depth overview of the guidelines below: Apple Libsyn
5/28/202121 minutes, 25 seconds
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Podcast 675: CHF like it’s 1966

Contributor:  Chris Holmes, MD Educational Pearls: Medicine is cyclical and practice is always evolving A description of recommended treatment for CHF from 1966 Give oxygen Give one dose morphine then switch to demerol Decrease venous return and start PPV Immediately apply tourniquet to 3 extremities rotating tourniquets every 20 minutes Phlebotomy of 350-500 cc blood into a donor bag and draw off plasma as RBCs settle down Give aminophylline (make sure it is warmed) Induce hypotension with nitroglycerin and trimethoprim camphorsulfonate (infused at 10 drips/minute) Start digitalis Don’t use any diuretics as they are ineffective If in shock, release tourniquets and hang the phlebotomized blood Isoproterenol might be beneficial References Messer JV. Management of emergencies. 13. Acute cardiac decompensation. N Engl J Med. 1966;274(26):1491-1493. doi:10.1056/NEJM196606302742608 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today! Photo Credit: Photo presented without modification courtesy of Kipp Teague , CC license
5/26/20216 minutes, 31 seconds
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Podcast 674: Facial Nerve Palsy in Kids

Contributor:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Facial nerve palsy (Bell’s palsy) can occur in pediatric patients with Lyme disease, viral infection, or even leukemia One trial sought out to find if steroids and acyclovir would benefit pediatric patients with facial nerve palsy However, during screening process, around 1% of enrollees had leukemia (5 of the 644 patients)  This is important as steroids can partially treat the leukemia thereby prolonging diagnosis and put the patient at risk for tumor lysis syndrome References Babl FE, Kochar A, Osborn M, et al. Risk of Leukemia in Children With Peripheral Facial Palsy. Ann Emerg Med. 2021;77(2):174-177. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2020.06.029 Summarized by John Spartz, MS4 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/25/20214 minutes, 9 seconds
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Podcast 673: Leaving the ED with Naloxone 

Contributor: Don Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Patients are more likely to survive an opioid overdose if they have naloxone 10% risk of death in the year following an opioid overdose of patients seen in the ED Those who receive naloxone: Have better survival rates Are more likely to enter recovery Are more likely to use the naloxone on another person who has overdosed Better to give the patient naloxone at discharge from the ED as rates of filling prescriptions are low Any patient who uses illicit drugs, chronic opioid medications, or opioids with benzodiazepines are good candidates for naloxone at discharge Remember to instruct the patient and those who live with them on how to use it References Gunn AH, Smothers ZPW, Schramm-Sapyta N, Freiermuth CE, MacEachern M, Muzyk AJ. The Emergency Department as an Opportunity for Naloxone Distribution. West J Emerg Med. 2018;19(6):1036-1042. doi:10.5811/westjem.2018.8.38829 Olfson M, Wall M, Wang S, Crystal S, Blanco C. Risks of fatal opioid overdose during the first year following nonfatal overdose. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018;190:112-119. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.06.004 Olfson M, Crystal S, Wall M, Wang S, Liu SM, Blanco C. Causes of Death After Nonfatal Opioid Overdose [published correction appears in JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 1;75(8):867]. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018;75(8):820-827. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2018.1471 http://naloxoneproject.com/ Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/24/20216 minutes, 2 seconds
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Podcast 672: Oxygen Things

Contributor: Aaron Lessen , MD Educational Pearls: Patients on 10L or more of oxygen per minute in the ICU were randomized to oxygen goals of 90% or 96% to compare 90-day mortality rates Mortality rates were about 42% for both of oxygen target groups, indicating no significant difference References Schjørring OL, Klitgaard TL, Perner A, et al. Lower or Higher Oxygenation Targets for Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(14):1301-1311. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2032510   Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/18/20212 minutes, 50 seconds
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Podcast 671: Scapula Fractures

Contributor:  Adam Barkin, MD Educational Pearls: Represents less than 1% of all fractures that occur, although it has a significant mortality rate of 2-5% Typically occurs in high-energy trauma and are commonly associated with high injury severity scores and other fractures Concomitant Injuries: 50% have rib fracture 25% have clavicle fracture 30% have a spine fracture 5% have a brachial plexus injury 40% have a pulmonary contusion 30% have a pneumothorax 34% have a head injury 11% have a vascular injury References Cole PA, Freeman G, Dubin JR. Scapula fractures. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2013;6(1):79-87. doi:10.1007/s12178-012-9151-x Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/17/20213 minutes, 3 seconds
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Podcast 670: Operation Tat-Type

Contributor:  Dave Rosenberg, MD Educational Pearls: In 1951, Operation Tat-Type began tattooing adults with their blood type in an effort to prepare for rapid transfusions in the time of the Cold War and the Korean War School children in northern Indiana and areas in Utah were tattooed with their blood type beginning in 1952 under the same operation Based on tattoos given to SS officers during WWII This wasn't to identify who needed what blood but rather to identify who could give what blood in the event of a massive attack References Wolf EK, Laumann AE. The use of blood-type tattoos during the Cold War. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;58(3):472-476. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2007.11.019 Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/12/20214 minutes, 30 seconds
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Podcast 669: VTach Storm

Contributor:  Gretchen Hinson, MD Educational Pearls: Three episodes of ventricular tachycardia within 24 hours or two episodes back-to-back Treat with IV amiodarone and IV beta-blockers initially as well as IV lidocaine Correct underlying causes:  IV magnesium for QT prolongation Replete potassium in hypokalemia Urgent revascularization in ischemia For refractory vtach, urgent radiofrequency ablation or stellate ganglion block can be done Last resort is placing on the patient on ECMO References Muser D, Santangeli P, Liang JJ. Management of ventricular tachycardia storm in patients with structural heart disease. World J Cardiol. 2017;9(6):521-530. doi:10.4330/wjc.v9.i6.521 Eifling M, Razavi M, Massumi A. The evaluation and management of electrical storm. Tex Heart Inst J. 2011;38(2):111-121. Summarized by John Spartz, MS3    The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/11/20215 minutes, 48 seconds
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Podcast 668: Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia

Contributor: Donald Stader, MD Educational Pearls: Opioids target kappa and NMDA receptors that can lead to central nervous system sensitization and therefore increased pain For patients with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH), oral ketamine (25-50 mg) can be used to treat their pain as it targets the NMDA receptor Other treatments is IV magnesium, NSAIDs, tylenol, and clonidine Buprenorphine and methadone are options for chronic pain management in the setting of OIH References Lee M, Silverman SM, Hansen H, Patel VB, Manchikanti L. A comprehensive review of opioid-induced hyperalgesia. Pain Physician. 2011;14(2):145-161. Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/10/20214 minutes, 52 seconds
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Podcast 667: Lactated Ringers for DKA

Contributor:  Aaron Lessen, MD Educational Pearls: Recent study looked at whether lactated ringers might be a better choice for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA compared to normal saline Normal saline can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis Time to resolution of acidosis was 4 hours less with lactated ringers compared to normal saline Time on an insulin drip decreased by about 4 hours with lactated ringers compared to normal saline LR might be a better choice for fluid resuscitation in patients with DKA References Self WH, Evans CS, Jenkins CA, et al. Clinical Effects of Balanced Crystalloids vs Saline in Adults With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Subgroup Analysis of Cluster Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(11):e2024596. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24596 Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD
5/4/20213 minutes, 7 seconds
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Podcast 666: Pain Management & Patient Perspective

Contributor:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: About ½ of the patients in the ED present with some form of pain One study looked at patients presenting in pain and followed up two days after discharge to determine if their pain was addressed, asking if the patient received anything for pain and if the patient refused pain medication Non-analgesic pain management: About 30% discordance between patient reports and documentation Conventional analgesic pain management: About 15% discordance between patient reports and documentation References Taylor DM, Valentine S, Majer J, Grant N. Discordance between patient-reported and actual emergency department pain management. Emerg Med Australas. 2020 Nov 22. doi: 10.1111/1742-6723.13690. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33225600. Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
5/3/20215 minutes, 15 seconds
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Podcast 665: Allergic Reactions after COVID Vaccinations

Contributor:  Peter Bakes, MD Educational Pearls: Incidence 2.5-10 per million people occurring primarily in those with environmental allergens Typically occurs with mRNA vaccines in lipid nanoparticles (Moderna/Pfizer) rather than the adenovirus vaccine (J&J) Recommendation is to forego 2nd dose of the mRNA vaccine and instead get the adenovirus vaccine after weighing the risks and benefits References Kounis NG, Koniari I, de Gregorio C, Velissaris D, Petalas K, Brinia A, Assimakopoulos SF, Gogos C, Kouni SN, Kounis GN, Calogiuri G, Hung MY. Allergic Reactions to Current Available COVID-19 Vaccinations: Pathophysiology, Causality, and Therapeutic Considerations. Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Mar 5;9(3):221. doi: 10.3390/vaccines9030221. PMID: 33807579; PMCID: PMC7999280. Blumenthal KG, Robinson LB, Camargo CA, et al. Acute Allergic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines. JAMA. Published online March 08, 2021. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.3976 Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/28/20214 minutes, 10 seconds
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Podcast 664: Rabies Prophylaxis

Contributor:  Jared Scott, MD Educational Pearls: 1-3 cases of rabies per year in US with 55,000 people per year receiving rabies prophylaxis 90% of rabies cases come from wildlife, most commonly by racoons, bats, foxes, and skunks Because of rabies prophylaxis, domesticated pets almost never have rabies in the United States Rabies is typical transmitted via a bite, but direct contact with saliva or brain tissue on an open wound can transmit the virus Some people exposed to rabies from bats will never report a bite References Kessels J, Tarantola A, Salahuddin N, Blumberg L, Knopf L. Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: A systematic review on abridged vaccination schedules and the effect of changing administration routes during a single course. Vaccine. 2019 Oct 3;37 Suppl 1:A107-A117. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.01.041. Epub 2019 Feb 5. PMID: 30737043. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis (PEP). Published June 11, 2019. https://www.cdc.gov/rabies/medical_care/index.html   Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD     The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/27/20215 minutes, 15 seconds
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Podcast 663:  Down Syndrome

Contributor:  Alicia Oberle, MD Educational Pearls: Down Syndrome with Trisomy 21 have three copies of chromosome 21 Current birth rates are around 1 in 700 births  Average life span 25 years in 1980, today the average life span is 60 years of age Patients with Down syndrome require additional therapies in the first 3 years due to developmental delays They also have increased risk for childhood leukemias, seizures, hypothyroidism, celiac disease, and early-onset Alzheimers Half have a cardiac defect requiring surgery at birth References Tsou AY, Bulova P, Capone G, et al. Medical Care of Adults With Down Syndrome: A Clinical Guideline. JAMA. 2020;324(15):1543–1556. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.17024 Summarized by John Spartz, MS3 | Edited by Erik Verzemnieks, MD   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/26/20213 minutes, 56 seconds
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UnfilterED #13: Dr. Nadia Tremonti

This week’s episode features a fascinating conversation with Dr. Nadia Tremonti, medical director for the pediatric palliative care program at Children’s Hospital of Michigan in Detroit. Dr. Tremonti was the featured physician in an independent short film Palliative and subsequent New York Times shorter excerpt Dying in your Mother’s Arms that explore her work with terminally ill pediatric patients. From conversations of religion’s role in processing disease to the physician’s role in alleviating suffering for patients and their families, Nick and Nadia explore the existential ground in this thought-provoking segment.    Time Stamps 00:47 Introductions 3:50 How patients led her to pursue palliative care 14:32 Dr. Tremonti’s approach to palliative care 21:42 Understanding patients’ and family’s language to guide counseling 31:38 Most frequent anxieties and fears of families of pediatric palliative care patients 37:21 How emergent interventions can shift burden of decision to continue life-sustaining measures to families 47:45 Navigating existential questions of life or death with patients and their families 55:38 Saddest part of palliative care   The Emergency Medical Minute is excited to announce that we are now offering AMA PRA Category 1 credits™ via online course modules. To access these and for more information, visit our website at www.emergencymedicalminute.com/cme-courses/ and create an account.  Donate to EMM today!
4/22/20211 hour, 3 minutes, 11 seconds