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Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls.

English, Education, 1 season, 833 episodes, 3 days, 18 hours, 24 minutes
Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Clinical Pearls.
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(You ASKED) TOLAC IOL or Expectant Care: PART 2!

Podcast Family, this episode has 2 parts: 1. First, a "non-medical" little life lesson that I heard recently which I will share with you...I hope it ENCOURAGES you, and 2. The MEDICAL part, which comes from Paul- one of our podcast family members. Paul had a GREAT question regarding the data covered in our immediate PAST episode on TOLAC....listen in for details!
6/11/202424 minutes, 17 seconds
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TOLAC: IOL at 39 Wks or Wait?

After a primary CS, the decision to undergo trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or schedule a repeat cesarean birth is one in which a patient’s values and preferences should be prioritized in a process of shared decision making. Some clinicians elect to utilize a TOLAC calculator as part of the shared decision-making process, while others use a more generalized counseling approach. Once TOLAC is decided upon, which is better: elective induction at 39 weeks, or expected management? Does elective induction at 39 weeks increase the rate of uterine rupture compared to expected management? Older observation data has suggested that very thing. In this episode, we will review a brand new publication from the AJOG (released on June 7, 2024) that provides valuable information in counseling patients on either IOL or expectant care at 39+ weeks for TOLAC.
6/10/202425 minutes, 59 seconds
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IM Vit K Avoidance at Birth: Alternatives?

Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDNB) was first identified over a century ago, and presents as unexpected bleeding, often with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, ecchymosis and, in many cases, intracranial hemorrhage. In newborns, HDNB is typically caused by vitamin K deficiency as neonates are innately deficient in vitamin K secondary to very little vitamin K transferred through the placenta to fetuses in utero, limited liver storage of vitamin K, and low amounts of vitamin K in breast milk. IM administration of vitamin K for prevention of vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) has been a standard of care since the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended it in 1961. Despite the success of prevention of VKDB with vitamin K administration, the incidence of VKDB appears to be on the rise. This increase in incidence of VKDB is attributable to parental refusal as well as lowered efficacy of alternate methods of administration. Can parents decline this injection for their babies? In this episode, we will review IM Vit K neonatal administration and discuss the controversial data regarding Vit K oral supplementation.
6/9/202435 minutes, 51 seconds
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🔥NEW PRACTICE UPDATE: Paternal & Fetal Genotyping (cfDNA) in Alloimmunized Pregnancy

Proving that our podcast tagline, “Medicine Moves Fast” is true… this episode highlights something that is, once again, 🔥🔥🔥 Off the Press! on June 4, 2024, the ACOG released a new Practice Update regarding the determination of paternal and fetal RBC genotyping in pregnancies affected by alloimmunization. This builds upon and updates PB #192 from 2018. There are 3 big areas of change here… And we will highlight each one!
6/5/202424 minutes, 20 seconds
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cCMV (Part 2): Prevention, and Care.

June is CMV awareness month. And that’s the keyword there… Awareness! The way we prevent CMV transmission is by awareness. It would be great to have a vaccine against this virus, but we just don’t…yet. Until a safe and effective CMV vaccine is clinically available, primary prevention of cCMV relies on patient education and hygiene measures. In this episode, will take a look at this strategy and see what the data has to say about it. Will also discuss the very controversial (and non-ACOG recommended) use of antiviral medication’s for primary, perinatal CMV.
6/5/202422 minutes, 1 second
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cCMV (Part 1): Presentation, Transmission, & Workup

In 2011, Congress passed a resolution naming June "National CMV Awareness Month," to raise awareness about the most common congenital infection in the US, affecting 1 of 200 live births. It is the leading VIRAL cause of IUFD & miscarriage & the leading cause of neonatal hearing loss, second only to genetic causes. Furthermore, cCMV is more common than many other neonatal conditions, such as spina bifida and fetal alcohol syndrome. Neonates affected by the virus can experience a wide array of symptoms, from none to severe neurodevelopmental disability, & even death. However, public and healthcare provider awareness remains low. In this episode, which is part 1, we will cover the presentation, transmission, and work up of CMV in pregnancy.
6/3/202450 minutes, 8 seconds
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Does BDP Cause Adverse Preg Outcomes?

(VACAY EDITION) Recently in our high-risk OB clinic, I saw a patient who was disappointed that she “had to stop breastfeeding” as she entered her 3rd trimester with her 2nd child. Her first pregnancy was via vaginal birth, at term, with no complications. This situation is not frequently addressed and is a clinical dilemma. First, when nursing coincides with pregnancy, there is frequently a significant cultural taboo leading many women to wean their infants when they become pregnant again. Secondly, there is the concern for potential maternal “nutritional depletion” and thirdly, there is a fear of triggering preterm birth due to oxytocin release with breastfeeding. Nonetheless, there are mothers who wish to breastfeed throughout their subsequent pregnancy. This practice is known as breastfeeding during pregnancy (BDP). Is there data that shows that BDP increase miscarriage risk? What about FGR? Does it increase the risk of PTB? In this episode, we will review the latest data on this not too frequent- but real world- occurrence.
5/29/202435 minutes, 13 seconds
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The Remedy for Painful IUD Insertion?

In our podcast archive, we have an episode titled, “TikToc’s #IUD is Killing a Good LARC”. In that episode, I discussed our protocol of using viscous lidocaine applied topically to the cervix, cervical canal, and coating the IUD device for placement. This works! In this episode, we will build on that concept by reviewing a publication released on May 23, 2024 in the AJOG. Could this be the remedy for painful IUD insertion? Plus, have you heard of the CAREVIX device? Listen in for details.
5/28/202426 minutes, 48 seconds
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UPDATE: Universal CX Length Screening and More Progesterone Stuff!

It definitely is interesting how published data tends to have sporadic “groupings” in print. For example, last week 2 publications were released which could be placed under one “group”: prediction/prevention of spontaneous preterm birth. One publication (AJOG MFM) presented a systematic review and meta-analysis on universal cervical length screening. The second publication, SMFM’s consult series # 70, pertains to the management of a short cervix in individuals without a history of spontaneous preterm birth. In this episode, we will review these 2 similar, yet different, publications and make sense of all! 👍👍👍
5/23/202431 minutes, 38 seconds
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New GDM Guidance!

It’s exciting to know that we are practicing a type of medicine that is alive and ever-evolving! Such is the case regarding our clinical practice/management of gestational diabetes. In this episode, we will review brand new (as of May 21, 2024) clinical guidance from the ACOG regarding gestational diabetes. Should we be screening for diabetes before 24 weeks? Is there one diagnostic threshold which is suggested for use over the other (CC versus NDDG)? And is it possible to screen for postpartum DM as early as 2 days after delivery?😳 Listen in and find out.
5/22/202428 minutes, 36 seconds
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Fluoride in Drinking Water Harmful in Pregnancy? Fake News or Real Foe?

The United States began adding fluoride to community water supplies in 1945. At that time, Grand Rapids, Michigan became the first community in the world to add fluoride to tapwater. Over the last several years, with an increase in reporting and media stories over the last 3 months, fluorinated drinking water has come under scrutiny and controversy. Does fluoride in drinking water affect children in the womb? Is this a cause of altered neurocognitive development? Does this lower IQ scores? This is a very HOT topic and there’s more fuel towards this fire with a publication which was released on May 20, 2024 in JAMA Network Open. In this episode, we will lay out the facts of this study, and why this must be interpreted with more than just face value. So grab your favorite fluorinated water beverage, and listen in!
5/21/202442 minutes, 52 seconds
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Fun Stories From ACOG… & MORE!

Podcast family, this episode is recorded on the last day of the ACOG ACSM. Wanted to share with you some encouragement that I received from our podcast family members over these last 2 to 3 days. AND of course, in typical style, I’ll share with you a brand new publication which was released on May 17, 2024 in the AJOG (GRAY Journal) regarding “optimal dose of antenatal corticosteroids”. And lastly, I’ll share 3 Special Announcements, as an FYI.
5/19/202436 minutes, 59 seconds
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Lioness Device: New Hope for PTB?

We all can agree that we need a new ally against the foe of pre-term birth. With the disappointing results regarding the (lack of) efficacy of progesterone in reducing preterm birth, the search is out for a new, effective tool to reduce pre-term birth rates. Enter: the Lioness(tm) device. In this episode, we will review a new “safety and efficacy” study published today (May 16, 2024) in the AJOG. Is this ready for prime time? And how does this device work? Listen in for details.
5/16/202424 minutes, 9 seconds
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🔥OFF THE PRESS: Best Dose of UFH for Antepartum Inpatients? (May 14, 2024 Data)

Unbelievable timing! In our immediate past episode, we discussed the controversy surrounding pharmacoprophylaxis for antepartum inpatients. Just 3 days from that episode, a new RCT has been published in the Green Journal (Obstet Gynecol) discussing this very subject! This new RCT (published May 14, 2024) investigates the “best dose” of unfractionated heparin (UFH) during antepartum admissions? is there an advantage to “gestational – age based” dosing? Or should standard UFH dosing be used?
5/14/202432 minutes, 6 seconds
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Lovenox for Antepartum Inpatients?

All of us can agree that the rates of obesity are progressively climbing, not just in the US, but globally. Obesity is a known independent risk factor in pregnancy for VTE. Several professional societies (ACOG, CMQCC, RCOG, SMFM) have clear recommendations for VTE pharmacoprophylaxis in patients considered at high risk. These include having a high risk thrombophilia, having a personal history of VTE, or having multiple risk factors. But these recommendations address POSTPARTUM prophylaxis. The ACOG does not specifically address inpatient prophylaxis during the antepartum interval. However, in cases of prolonged antepartum admission, where ambulation may be slightly limited, there is concern that the hypercoagulable state of pregnancy, together with obesity, may raise the risk of VTE in these antepartum patients. To be clear, no professional organization or guidelines recommend strict bedrest for pregnancy complications. Is VTE pharmacoprophylaxis endorsed in these admitted antepartum patients? The answer is both YES and NO. The use of heparin based agents in this group is controversial, with published expert opinions having a dichotomy of thought. Plus, recent data (2023) has raised questions regarding pharmacoprophylaxis’ efficacy in the postpartum interval. nonetheless, at the end of the episode, will provide some common sense approaches to VTE prevention in the admitted antepartum, obese patient. (With a special shout-out to our podcast family in Australia.).
5/11/202449 minutes, 37 seconds
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DQC: New Hope for Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is known as a normal vaginal microbiota resulting in low lactobacilli; it affects one-quarter to one-third of reproductive-age women. The BV treatment landscape has not appreciably changed in decades: in the US, metronidazole and clindamycin are recommended as first-line treatments for symptomatic BV, and secnidazole and tinidazole are used as alternatives. Although these treatments are effective in the short term, up to 60% of women experience BV recurrence within 1 year of treatment. Some have more frequent recurrences. Suppressive vaginal metronidazole fails for 25% of patients and leads to secondary vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in up to 40%, and many patients have BV recurrence after stopping suppressive therapy. But now a “new” therapeutic option has been in print and is attracting a lot of attention. DQC has been available in other parts of the world for decades, and recently published results from a new European clinical investigation (May 2024) adds more reassuring date. This has led many in the United States to call for trials in this country to begin FDA approval. Listen in for details.
5/9/202434 minutes, 38 seconds
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Tocolysis Confusion!

Preterm birth is the leading cause of death in newborns and children. Tocolytic drugs aim to delay preterm birth by suppressing uterine contractions to allow time for administration of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation, magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection, and transport to a facility with appropriate neonatal care facilities. However, there is still uncertainty about their effectiveness and safety. Plus, more than 90% of the data regarding tocolytic use comes from patients with threatened preterm labor with intact membranes, with (according to the WHO) only 9% of available data is regarding patients with ruptured membranes. But in May 2024, a new publication adds further information to this subset of patients. In this episode, we will review this ongoing controversy regarding the benefits of tocolytic therapy, and when they may provide the most efficacy. And yes, of course, we will provide the ACOG guidance as well.
5/7/202446 minutes, 13 seconds
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Puerperal Group A Streptococcus Infection

Haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders, and sepsis are responsible for more than half of maternal deaths worldwide. Further, it is estimated that for every death, there are 50 pregnant people with life-threatening morbidity from sepsis. Heartbreakingly, the incidence of puerperal sepsis has risen over the last decade, in some cases doubling, with increasing rates of severe sepsis contributing to mortality. Underlying this trend is increasing virulence of group A streptococcal (GAS) infection. This is suspected to be due to the predominance of emm1 and emm28 genotypes, which have higher associations with mortality, as well as increasing maternal risk factors for infection such as obesity and DM. PLUS, certain GAS antibiotic resistance is on the rise. Group A streptococcus infection remains an important contributor to pregnancy and puerperal morbidity and mortality. Early recognition, diagnosis and aggressive management are Important for favorable outcomes given the serious risk of sepsis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. In this episode, we will highlight this alarming rise of Group A strep in the peripartum period including the most recent 2021 International Society for Infectious Disease in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISIDOG) guidelines regarding GAS in pregnancy. Listen in for details.
5/5/202442 minutes, 1 second
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The HRT Makeover

Menopausal HRT is getting a big, big facelift! Get ready for new research trials, physician education programs, and patient awareness campaigns on menopause! Since the WHI study was released in 2002, the world of menopausal HRT has gone through some major changes. WHI initially led to confusion and fear regarding the use of menopausal HRT. But now, 30 years later, where do we stand? In this episode, we will highlight 2 brand new publications released on May 1, 2024, which prove that we are finally digging out of the hole of WHI. Plus, there’s a Hollywood actress behind the new menopause awareness campaign… and we’ll tell you who that is, and more, in this episode. 😊😊😊
5/3/202437 minutes, 31 seconds
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What the What?!

Just the other day in my University clinic, in one single morning, I had 3 separate patients with three very interesting histories; these became the basis of this episode. It’s amazing what’s out there in daily practice! So, we will dive into these 3 main questions which arose from these 3 patient encounters: 1. What single test is recommended before initiation of combination birth control pills? And if this is recommended, how do online pharmacies prescribe prescription birth control? 2. Does PCOS cause other hormone (Prolactin? HCG?) disturbances? And 3., Is treatment of acne within the wheelhouse of women’s healthcare providers? We’ve got lots to cover in this episode…so let’s get started, NOW.
5/1/202446 minutes, 43 seconds
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Well, once again… Late breaking news! Today, April 30, 2024, the USPSTF released its updated recommendations for breast cancer screening (mammography) in average risk patients. This follows a firestorm of controversy and backlash over the last 1 to 2 years as the USPSTF continued to recommend initiation of mammogram at age 50, despite the increased incidence of breast cancer in women in their 40s. In this episode, we will review this brand new recommendation and summarize the ACOG response from ACOG President, Dr. Hicks.
4/30/202419 minutes, 46 seconds
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🔥 Clinical Practice UPDATE: IAI and FEVER (April 29, 2024) 🔥

Traditionally, clinical guidance has incorporated maternal fever as a required criterion for suspected intraamniotic infection. That is exactly what is stated in the ACOG committee opinion #712 from 2017. However, not all patients with clinical IAI have fever! Having fever as a required part of the diagnostic criterion may result in delayed administration of appropriate antibiotics intrapartum. This has now been addressed by the ACOG! Today, on April 29, 2024, the ACOG released a practice update regarding the criteria for the diagnosis of suspected intra-amniotic infection. This is hot of the press, and we will break it down for us all in this episode. 🔥🔥🔥🎙️🎙️🎙️👍👍🙏
4/30/202423 minutes, 58 seconds
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Regenerative Medicine in GYN

Regenerative Medicine is definitively a HOT and marketable offering across a variety of medical disciplines. But it is equally as controversial. The most well known type of regenerative medicine is the use of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP). This has been proposed as a novel care therapy for musculoskeletal pain disorders, and a variety of GYNECOLOGICAL applications- including POI, pelvic floor dysfunction, uterine infertility treatment, and even some forms of vaginal fistulas. AND YES... RPR is even being used as a type of cosmetic fascial (with a new CDC health investigation underway!). In this episode, we will review the concept of Regenerative Medicine in gynecology, summarizing some key points from a brand new narrative review of the subject published in the Green Journal (Obstetrics Gynecology).
4/28/202436 minutes, 55 seconds
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WOW. There has been a lot of new developments in the ObGyn world within the last 48 hours. In this episode, we will highlight 3 big developments/alerts regarding women’s healthcare: 1. the FDA’s approval of a new oral antibiotic for UTIs in females; 2. The updated ACOG practice advisory regarding maternal cell-free fetal RHD testing; and 3. The FDA’s recent (within last 24 hours) clearance of a new digital app for postpartum depression (MAMMALIFT). Special shout out to Dr. Colton for bringing MAMMALIFT to my attention.
4/26/202437 minutes, 32 seconds
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FACT or FICTION: Menstrual Synching; and Use of the “Q” Word!

(With Resident Co-Host Dr Taylor Apley) Menstrual synchrony is often reported by all-female living groups and by mothers, daughters and sisters who are living together. Is this real? Is this a pheromone issue? Is there biological signaling occurring here? The answer may surprise you! How does this work? Or does it work at all? And…what is the “MALE Effect”?? Where did this concept come from? This topic of menstrual synchronization is still getting its share of publications, like from November 2023- which we will review. Yep, we’re going to get into this fun topic in this episode. PLUS…DON’T say the “Q” word when all is still in L&D, or the ER. Or the OR! Saying the word QUIET is a sure-fire way to increase hospital admissions and patient pass through, right?! Can you believe there is an RCT that actually studied this? YEP…we’ll check out this issue as well: Fact or FICTION? Listen in, and find out.
4/25/202422 minutes, 7 seconds
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Good News for ALPS Follow up?

Our regular podcast family members know that we have been following the antenatal corticosteroid story (especially in the late pre-term/early term interval) for several years now. A variety of countries have now pulled back from recommending corticosteroids in the late pre-term/early term interval due to concerns of adverse child neurodevelopment, especially when the children deliver at term. But today, April 24, 2024, a new publication from JAMA has provided some reassuring information. Is this data truly reassuring? Or is there more to the story? In this episode, we will dive into this brand new publication, released today, which provides follow-up from the original ALPS Study. This issue of steroids in the late pre-term/early term interval is hot hot hot 🔥🔥🔥. Listen in to get the latest information!
4/24/202424 minutes, 41 seconds
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Gestational Breast Cancer (PABC)

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in the United States (with skin cancer are the most common). About 9% of all new cases of breast cancer in the United States are found in women younger than 45 years of age. Unfortunately, breast cancer is being diagnosed in women under 40 at an increased rate. This was recently published in a Jan 2024 JAMA population-based, cross-sectional study using data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Every year, more than 1,000 women under age 40 die from breast cancer. Nearly 80% of young women diagnosed with breast cancer find their breast abnormality themselves. Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women who are pregnant or have recently given birth. According to US statistics, Breast cancer occurs about once in every 3,000 pregnancies, with some reports stating it may be as high as 1 in 1,000. For those under the age of 40, most are diagnosed between the ages 32 to 38 years. Because many women are choosing to delay having children, it is likely that the number of new cases of breast cancer during pregnancy will increase. In this episode, we’re going to look at breast cancer in reproductive age women with a focus on gestational breast cancer. Is MMG contraindicated in pregnancy? Can chemotherapy be used during pregnancy? What about radiation therapy? And is it better to have a complete mastectomy or breast conservation, during pregnancy? Listen in for details.
4/22/202442 minutes, 28 seconds
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Colostrum Harvesting? Do No or Not To Do…That’s The Question.

Historically, colostrum was expressed by women mid- to late-pregnancy with the intent to avoid engorgement and breast trauma in the postnatal period, but it was not stored for use after birth. But storing colostrum antepartum for newborn feeding has gained attention in social media channels. Is antenatal milk expression, also called colostrum harvesting, evidence-based? Are there benefits to this? Does this run the risk of initiating labor? Are there published studies? In this episode, we will “milk” the data- including a RCT from 2023 – and present some key points to consider about what it is and what it isn’t.
4/19/202433 minutes, 28 seconds
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New Practice Advisory for Syphilis in Pregnancy (April 2024)

From 2012 to 2021, congenital syphilis cases in the United States increased by 755%. According to the CDC, 88% of congenital syphilis cases in 2022 could have been prevented with timely screening and treatment. Despite repetitive messaging about the need to identify syphilis early in pregnancy, with appropriate treatment, gaps remain. A new publication in the Green Journal (4/17/24) provides shocking information about gaps in diagnosis and treatment. In this episode, we will review that original research as well as summarize the new ACOG Practice Advisory (April 2024) regarding screening for syphilis in pregnancy.
4/18/202419 minutes, 53 seconds
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Female Low T?

There is a STRONG debate within the medical community as to whether testosterone should be prescribed to women during menopause and the time before and after it. Social media influencers and other media personalities are touting testosterone as a cure-all for mood, sex drive, cognitive changes, fatigue, reduced muscle strength, and other symptoms associated with menopause. In fact, the number of testosterone prescriptions for women has risen within the last five years in the United States and internationally. But is that evidence-based. The answer is both YES and NO. In this episode, we will focus on testosterone replacement for female low sexual interest. We will highlight the position statements from a large international coalition in 2019, a separate 2021 position statement, and the opinion of the ACOG. We have LOTS to cover here, so go lather up with your testosterone cream (JK) and listen in!
4/17/202449 minutes, 23 seconds
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IV Fe PP, and More

While the importance of optimizing a woman's hemoglobin level during the peripartum period has been emphasized in recent guidelines by the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology, the ACOG, and the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Society, postpartum anemia remains a real issue in both the developed and developing world. Postpartum anemia has been associated with depression, fatigue, impaired lactation, and impaired cognition. This may lead to impaired maternal-child bonding. Additionally, severe anemia during the antepartum interval is an important predictive factor of PPH! This relationship was shown in a published meta-analysis in 2021. Postpartum, IV Fe has been proven to be of value for asymptomatic anemia. Packed RBC transfusion may be recommended for women with postpartum hemoglobin levels
4/15/202450 minutes, 32 seconds
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Amnioinfusion with IAI? Yay or Nay?

Amnioinfusion was first described in 1976 using a rhesus monkey model. In that landmark study, the authors reported that variable decelerations occurred when amniotic fluid was removed from the uterine cavity and resolved when it was replaced. Although this experiment established that variable decelerations related to oligohydramnios and cord compression could be corrected by amnioinfusion, the technique did not achieve clinical application until 1983, when a novel approach to the relief of variable or prolonged decelerations was described. Amnioinfusion is mainly utilized in the rescue of recurrent fetal variable decelerations intrapartum. But what if the patient has suspected IAI? Is that a relative contraindication for amnioinfusion? Is that safe? In this episode we will examine the data and provide some clinical insights.
4/12/202442 minutes, 9 seconds
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Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) in Pregnancy and Autism: Latest Data (April 9, 2024)

In 2014, a publication out of JAMA Pediatrics raised questions regarding the safety of acetaminophen in pregnancy describing a possible “association” with later neurodevelopmental and cognitive delays in children. What followed was a string of controversial publications (observational) with mounds of conflicting data. This led to a controversial international consensus opinion in 2021 calling for “caution for use” regarding acetaminophen in pregnancy. The ACOG had a strong rebuttal to that statement at that time. But now, as of April 9, 2024, we have new data on acetaminophen/paracetamol use in pregnancy and possible neurodevelopmental affects in children. This new study was published out of JAMA network and followed 2.4 million children with sibling pairs out of Sweden. This is making a lot of news within the last 24 hours and it is hot off the press 🔥🔥🔥. Listen in, and find out more.
4/10/202430 minutes, 23 seconds
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When Things Go South: Perinatal PTSD

It has been stated that “Trauma is in the eye of the beholder”. Healthcare providers must be aware that a woman makes experience a birth as traumatic, even if she and her infant are healthy. The ACOG has highlighted perinatal PTSD in several publications, which we will review in this episode. Perinatal PTSD has definitely been in the OB/GYN and psychology literature with an increased frequency just over the last 3 months. In this episode, we will review the very real and devastating condition of perinatal PTSD, its diagnosis, and discuss interventions to reduce its development. We will also review new data on “service dogs“ detecting PTSD in people with trauma histories? NOTE: We will also highlight a real world account of a traumatic birth event from one of our podcast listeners (Deidentified, and shared with permission).
4/8/202448 minutes, 53 seconds
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New HDP Med Data: The PYTT Study

In July 2023 and again in November 2023, we discussed the “Rule of 55“ and its role in the management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. The Rule of 55 has been mainly applied in the selection of appropriate antipretensive medications when urgent/emergent hypertension is present. Does the Rule of 55 also work for antihypertensive management of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia without severe features? A new publication (April 1, 2024) from the AJOG MFM gives us that answer! In this episode, we will cover the newly released PYTT study from Italy.
4/7/202430 minutes, 54 seconds
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The Eclipse’s Effect on Pregnancy ☀️🌞🕶️🕶️🌖🌗🌘🌑

On April 8, 2024, parts of the United States will be within the Path of Totality for the total solar eclipse. The state of Texas has already declared a state of emergency as visitors flock to the state to witness the event. This is a fascinating celestial occurrence that is not scheduled to happen again until August 2044. Does the eclipse have a negative effect on pregnancy? Do lunar cycles affect birth rates? What does the data say? Does NASA have a statement on this? And what are neutrinos?! Listen in… And find out. 🌖🌗🌑
4/5/202426 minutes, 32 seconds
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⭐️NEW⭐️Clinical Practice Update: ACOG Updates PB 222 (Biomarkers for PreE).

Today, April 3, 2024, the ACOG released a clinical practice update to practice bulletin# 222 (gestational hypertension eclampsia). This is in direct response to a recent FDA approved biomarker test for risk stratification for preeclampsia. On May 19, 2023, the FDA cleared a novel biomarker serum test for the risk stratification for severe preeclampsia in hypertensive pregnant women. This clearance is the first given to any blood-based biomarker test for assessing preeclampsia risk. The company is Thermo Fisher Scientific (no disclosures). This new clinical practice update puts this test into proper perspective and gives clinicians some valuable insights of what it can, and what it cannot, do. Listen in for this “off the press” clinical practice update. 🔥🔥🔥🔥
4/4/202425 minutes, 35 seconds
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New Data Re: Obesity in Pregnancy- Weight Gain Recs, and NPWT at CS

According to the CDC, as well as worldwide data, the percentage of individuals categorized as overweight or obese is rising. First released in 1990 by the IOM, the guidelines for expected weight gain in pregnancy-based on pre-pregnancy weight (BMI)- have been controversial. These guidelines were revised in 2009. Now, a new publication from the Lancet (28 March 2024), is questioning the validity of the “minimal weight gain” recommended for patients with obesity. In this episode, we will review this controversy. Additionally, we will highlight a separate publication from the AJOG MFM (systematic review and meta-analysis) discussing NPWT use at C-section for patients with obesity.
4/2/202444 minutes, 9 seconds
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The Steroids Saga: New Data, New Debate, New News.

The current dose and schedule for antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) follows the original publication by Liggins and Howie in 1972. That dose and schedule was based on sheep models from the 1960s. The dose in current use had never been evaluated to minimize exposures while assuring efficacy. New pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data is calling into question whether the current dose and schedule is necessary. Translational research in animal models indicate that a constant, low concentration fetal exposure to ACS is sufficient for lung maturation, resulting in lower fetal exposures. In this episode, we will summarize a new clinical commentary published in AJOG in March 2024 highlighting the current state and controversies regarding ACS for threatened preterm labor.
4/1/202438 minutes, 27 seconds
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Depo-Provera Causes Brain Tumors?! 😬🧠😬

Meningiomas are common intracranial tumors with a female predominance. The vast majority of these tumors are benign (World Health Organization [WHO] grade 1) while 15% to 20% of these tumors can behave atypically (WHO grade 2) and rarely, in 1% to 2% of cases, these tumors can be malignant (WHO grade 3) Their etiology is still poorly documented. The role of sexual hormones has long been proposed, but data have been conflicting across studies. However, a dose-dependent relationship between the incidence and growth of meningiomas and hormonal treatment with the synthetic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA) has been recently established (2021). Now, a new observational study from France (BMJ) has raised the warning flag for a similar association with a common birth control option, depo medroxyprogesterone acetate. Does Depo-Provera cause brain tumors? It's very important to put this study into proper context. We’ll explain all of this, and more, in this episode.
3/29/202438 minutes, 29 seconds
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Balloon For PROM? Yea or Nay

According to the ACOG, pre-labor rupture of membranes (PROM) complicates 10% of all births in the United States and is a major contributor to perinatal morbidity and mortality. What is the best course of action when patients present with PROM with a “unfavorable cervix”? Should it be a pharmacological method of ripening, or a mechanical? What does the data say? In this episode, we will do a deep dive into published data from the 1980s up to 2023. We will also explain why the Bishop score “is irrelevant“(SOGC) in patients at term with PROM. 😳. The literature does favor one pharmacological agent in cases of PROM. Curious? Listen in and find out more.
3/27/202453 minutes, 52 seconds
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Neonatal Subgaleal Hemorrhage: Pearls of Wisdom

Obstetrical vacuum and forceps are incredible tools, when used correctly, to assist vaginal delivery. Appropriately selected and used, they can be pivotal in reducing the number of unnecessary cesareans and potentially decreasing certain fetal and maternal complications. However, there are several pearls of wisdom to remember when using them. In this episode, we will focus on a rare – but potentially fatal – complication of vacuum use: subgaleal hemorrhage. Although subgaleal hemorrhage can occur following normal birth processes, and even cesarean section, vacuum use is the strongest independent factor for its occurrence. In this, we will review these pearls of wisdom and the importance of detecting neonatal subgaleal hemorrhage quickly.
3/25/202447 minutes, 28 seconds
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New Menopause CURE? The Ovarian Autotransplantation Debate

Ovarian preservation by autologous transplantation has given hope to patients desiring future fertility after certain gonadotoxic therapies for malignant conditions. But now, the same procedure is being promoted as a “natural cure” for menopause. Can ovarian tissue-based therapies really be the female, endocrine “fountain of youth”? In this episode, we will highlight a recent publication from the AJOG describing the potential of this procedure. We will also discuss the history of ovarian autotransplantation and why this procedure for menopause prevention has more questions than answers.
3/22/202430 minutes, 47 seconds
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PreMeal or PostPrandial Glucose Checks PP with Type I DM

Since the late 1990s, the standard practice for GDM care has been to measure postprandial glucose values. For patients with pre-gestational diabetes, whether type I or type II, the ACOG recommends multi-level glucose checks (fasting, pre-meal , postprandial, and nighttime). But what about in the immediate postpartum interval? In patient’s with pre-existing diabetes, should blood sugars be checked pre-meal (qAC) or postprandial while still in the hospital, and after discharge? The topic for this episode comes from one of our podcast family members who had this clinical dilemma? In this episode, we will review the data and recommendations from the American Diabetes Association, the ACOG, and CDC. So grab your sugar-free drink of choice, and listen in!
3/21/202443 minutes, 27 seconds
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Hep C and BF Confusion (and Updated HIV BF Guidance)

Is breastfeeding with Hepatitis C safe? The answer: Yes! But confusion persists today mainly surrounding the serum hepatitis C viral load. That’s the topic and focus of the new publication released March 2024 in the Green journal, Obstetrics and Gynecology. We will highlight this new study in this episode. Yep, we have learned a lot about hepatitis C, and HIV, and breast-feeding. In this episode, we will review: the different hepatitis C genotypes and their implications, current breast-feeding guidelines for women with hepatitis C, the updated guidelines for breast-feeding with HIV, how some may be spontaneously “cured” of hep C postpartum, and why viral load matters for one of these conditions – but not the other!
3/18/202447 minutes, 24 seconds
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Are ADHD Meds Safe In Pregnancy?

It has been estimated that up to 4.4% of the US adult population has been diagnosed with ADHD. Use of ADHD medication is increasing among pregnant women. In the last several years, there’s been a litany of publications looking at the effects of pregnancy on ADHD, as well as the effects of medication on the pregnancy. In this episode, we will highlight a new publication released March 2024 (Archives Women’s Mental Health) examining prenatal outcomes in women who continued dexamphetamine in pregnancy. We will also summarize the data regarding the effect of ADHD medication on congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the children.
3/15/202436 minutes, 25 seconds
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Check the Box: REASSURING NEWs regarding US Maternal Mortality

Four years, the US National Vital Statistics System has reported an abnormally high maternal mortality rate in the United States, showing it to be nearly doubled from 17.4 in 2018 to 32.9 per 100,000 live births in 2021. The United States’s maternal mortality rate has been on the media radar for many years because of this. But that rate is completely WRONG. How is it that maternal mortality rates are more than 2 to 3 times higher than other developed countries despite our vast progress in obstetrical care? The answer? It is a statistical error! In this episode, we will review a brand new publication from the AJOG published on March 12, 2024 that is making media headlines. We have known that this reporting system is greatly flawed for several years, and now it is getting the attention it deserves. Although this is reassuring news for the country overall, there is still ONE patient demographic where we need to dramatically reduce the maternal mortality rate. Curious? Listen in and find out more.
3/13/202437 minutes, 52 seconds
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Should We Screen For Thrombophilia Pre-OCP? March 2024 Data

The ACOG, CDC, and WHO currently do not recommend universal screening for thrombophilia in the general population before starting oral contraceptive pills. However, a new publication in AJOG (March 2024) is challenging that stance. In this episode, we will review this new prospective population-based study to see if it makes the case for universal screening for thrombophilia variants before starting OCPs. In this episode, we’ll also discuss high-risk versus low-risk thrombophilia, discuss relative risk versus absolute risk of VTE on the combination pill, and give clear clinical implications for patient management.
3/10/202451 minutes, 34 seconds
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Metformin in OB and Child's Neurodevelopmental Outcomes (March 2024 Data)

Gestational Diabetes (GDM) is vastly more prevalent in pregnancy compared to pre-existing diabetes. In 2009, the ACOG states that 7% of all pregnancies were complicated by a diabetes diagnosis, with 86% being GDM. The prevalence of GDM keeps rising in the US and globally. Metformin is increasingly prescribed in pregnancy, yet its long-term effect on the neurocognitive development of the offspring remains incompletely described. However, newly published data (March 6, 2024; AJOG) has changed that! In this episode, we will summarize and review a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes after in utero exposure to metformin. Additionally, does some evidence suggest that metformin may be superior to insulin in pregnancy for perinatal outcomes? We will discuss all this and more, in this episode. This information will be helpful as we counsel and educate our patients on metformin use in pregnancy.
3/8/202440 minutes, 32 seconds
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OPill…Now HERE! (ACOG PA March 2024)

On this podcast, we have been following this story of the OPill for several months. Previous episodes on the subject can be found in our podcast library. As expected, this first ever daily use progestin only pill is now available over-the-counter in the US. 👏👏. On Wednesday, March 6, 2024, the ACOG released its Practice Advisory presenting some key reminders for clinicians regarding this new over-the-counter contraceptive option. In this episode, we will summarize this practice advisory and answer some real-world questions patients may have regarding this: does the OPill help with acne? Is this approved for endometriosis pain? What happens if a patient misses the next dose at the scheduled time? Listen in for these answers and more.
3/7/202429 minutes, 46 seconds
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GLP1 Agonist Exposure in Pregnancy

Use of second-line noninsulin diabetic medications, like Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, is rapidly increasing for treatment of T2D and other indications. As these drugs are being used by an increasing group of fertile women, it is expected that a few of them will get pregnant and data on their safety when used in the first trimester is needed. Is periconceptional use of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists associated with increased risk of major congenital malformations? In this episode, we will look at the available data (although limited) regarding these medications, focusing on specific GLP1 options.
3/5/202440 minutes, 8 seconds
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Foley For CX: Tension or No Tension? And More (March 2024 Data)

Using mechanical options as a way to prime/ripen the cervix for labor is nothing new. Balloon catheters have been used for labor induction as far back as the 1890s. Embrey and Mollison reinvigorated the method in 1967 using it in combination with extraamniotic prostaglandins. Since then numerous studies have been performed worldwide, mostly using the Foley catheter. Then, in 1990, the double balloon catheter was introduced by Atad; this paved the way for the Cook Balloon. But what is the best way to use a balloon for cervical ripening? Should be a single balloon or a double balloon? If single balloon, does volume of the balloon matter? Should it be used alone or with combination with a second agent? Can it be used safely as an outpatient procedure? In this episode, we will present new data regarding traction vs no-traction for single balloon cervical ripening therapy. This new study was published on March 1, 2024 in Obstetrics and Gynecology (the Green Journal).
3/1/202445 minutes, 27 seconds
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Things That Make You Go Hmmmm

It’s very important to stay up-to-date and current with new data. But sometimes you read something that is hot-off-the press and it makes you just stop and say, “hmmm”. In this episode, we will discuss the new USPSTF position statement on screening/treating iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. We will also review the ACOG August 2023 clinical consensus #4 regarding UTI in pregnancy. In doing so, we present 2 things that “make you go hmmm”.
2/29/202432 minutes, 10 seconds
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GDM Dx with Abnormal Fasting Value: Start Meds?

The “traditional“ Parkland management protocol for GDM included the immediate initiation of medical therapy for those with abnormal fasting blood sugar, in addition to another additional value, on the 3 hour GTT. These patients were automatically labeled as A2 GDM at time of diagnosis, rather than waiting the 1 to 2 weeks of nutritional/diet therapy. Does fasting hyperglycemia on the 100g GTT truly predict the need for subsequent medical therapy? In this episode, we will summarize new data on this subject from AJOG MFM published on February 17, 2024. Does immediate medical therapy after GDM diagnosis improve overall maternal/neonatal outcome? It’s a complicated answer, and we will review it in this episode.
2/28/202446 minutes, 49 seconds
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Feb 26, 24 SMFM Position Statement RHIG < 12 Weeks: Confused?

Yes, the subject of RhoGAM/RHIG administration to RH negative patients under 12 weeks gestational age is a continuously controversial issue. We have covered this issue in past episodes, most recently- last month- on January 4, 2024. Today, February 26, 2024, the SMFM released their position statement on the subject. As you would guess, the controversy continues! In this episode, we will review this brand new, hot off the press, position statement regarding RHIG administration, or avoidance, under 12 weeks gestation.
2/26/202415 minutes, 23 seconds
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Stage 1 HTN in OB

February 2024 has seen its share of medical and mainstream media stories highlighting hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. While some of this can be considered “old news”, there is “new news” and new developments on the horizon. We have covered hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on several past episodes; however, in this episode, we are going to pick up where we left off and review what the current state of understanding is for AHA/ACC Stage 1 hypertension in pregnancy. Does stage I hypertension in pregnancy require medication? What about antepartum fetal surveillance? What are these patients at risk for? Listen in as we simplify the latest data and summarize the latest evidence regarding serum biomarkers for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
2/24/202435 minutes, 54 seconds
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New Developments in HG 🤢🤮🤢

Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) has a reported incidence of approximately 0.3–3% of pregnancies. Without prompt recognition and treatment, severe maternal dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac arrhythmias, and potentially altered fetal neurodevelopment may result. Recently, HG made medical and general media news as new data has pinpointed 2 likely culprits of its origin- and neither one is estrogen. In this episode, we will discuss these 2 protein markers, and how researchers are looking to develop a genetic test for patients to predict HG. We will also summarize a new publication from Obstetrics & Gynecology (which was published on February 1, 2024) as an ACOG Clinical Expert Series on the inpatient management of HG.
2/23/202444 minutes, 59 seconds
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Fetal Manual Rotation: 1st or 2nd Stage Practice?

Women whose fetuses are in the occiput posterior head position at the time of delivery are known to have longer second stages of labor and more complicated deliveries, including more operative assisted births, more 3rd and 4th degree lacerations, PPH, and in some studies lower Apgar scores and lower umbilical cord arterial pH. At what point in labor should the healthcare provider attempt to rotate the fetal head: first stage or second stage of labor? Recent intrapartum studies using ultrasound to verify fetal head position has provided new insights regarding the cardinal phases of labor. In this episode, we will tackle the fetal occiput posterior position and manual rotation. Should this be a 1st or 2nd stage of labor practice?
2/20/202447 minutes, 3 seconds
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“Formula” to Predict SD?

The ACOG has long-held that shoulder dystocia is “unpreventable and unpredictable”. Nonetheless, as it is a devastating obstetrical occurrence, researchers have attempted to identify a reproducible mathematical formula using ultrasonographic, anthropometric factors to better predict it. What is the data behind these math models? Does the ACOG recognize their use? What is their positive predictive value? In this episode, we will examine the data – going back 40 years – and we will end the episode with the current stance from the ACOG regarding these mathematical calculations for shoulders dystocia prediction.
2/17/202439 minutes, 44 seconds
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GDM “Screen” in 3rd Trimester?

The ACOG has consistently recommended universal screening for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. Although controversial, the ACOG does endorse earlier screening for GDM in patients with additional risk factors. But what about patients who present for prenatal care after the 28th or 29th week? Should screening for GDM be done in the 3rd trimester? And if we do screen in the then, what is the reference range for “normal “or “abnormal”? Is it the same interpretation as when it is done between 24 and 28 weeks? Does 3rd trimester screening impact parental outcome? In this episode, we will examine the data and provide a recommendation of when testing for gestational diabetes in the 3rd trimester may have the most impact.
2/15/202441 minutes, 47 seconds
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Phthalates and PTB: “New Data”

On February 6, 2024, a new publication in the Lancet Planetary Health received national and international headlines. This study, funded through the NIH, revealed a striking association between certain chemicals in our environment and preterm birth. But is this data really new? We have known that certain chemical components, called phthalates, have a strong association with preterm birth for over 10 years now. Nonetheless, it is always a good reminder to reduce or avoid exposures to potentially dangerous substances which are ubiquitous in today’s culture. What exactly are phthalates? What did this new data reveal? In this episode, we will dive into the data and put things into proper perspective. PLUS, at the end of the episode, I’ll review 10 common-sense things that we can all do daily to try to reduce our exposure to these“forever chemicals”.
2/14/202439 minutes, 42 seconds
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Another Nail in the Coffin for Late PT Steroids: New RCT Data

YES, it’s true… Not even Super Bowl Sunday 🏈🏈can stop us from getting our podcast episode up and out! In this episode, we will summarize the key findings of a newly released RCT (ahead of print, Obstetrics and Gynecology) that is yet another “nail in the coffin” for late pre-term/early term steroids. This is perfect timing, as we just covered this topic on a separate episode last week. So listen in as we summarize this newly released, triple-blind RCT with eye-opening results.
2/11/202421 minutes, 10 seconds
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New Data on Naltrexone in Pregnancy

We are still in an opioid crisis. The number of women with opioid-related diagnoses at delivery has increased by 131% over the last several years (CDC, Data and Statistics, 2023). The ACOG has recommended the use of opioid agonist pharmacotherapy for MOUD during pregnancy. Traditionally, medically supervised withdrawal has not been endorsed for pregnancy. However, some patients may elect to discontinue opioid therapy in favor of an opioid antagonist like naltrexone. In this episode, we will review a new systematic review just released ahead-of-print in Obstetrics and Gynecology. This systematic review evaluates OB and neonatal outcomes following naltrexone use during pregnancy. And listen in until the END of the episode for one of the “issues” with naltrexone as a MOUD option.
2/8/202427 minutes, 55 seconds
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TOKOPHOBIA: Pregnant & Petrified

It is completely natural, and part of the human experience, to have some anticipatory concern about an upcoming delivery/childbirth. However, when that concern becomes overwhelming, it can develop into a debilitating phobia called Tokophobia. First coined as a term in 2000, there’s been growing awareness of this specific type of anxiety disorder/phobia. Even though it was first described in 2000, this extreme fear of pregnancy and childbirth has, of course, been part of the human experience For centuries. This is now considered a sub-type of PTSD when it happens after a traumatic childbirth experience. The idea for this episode originated from a real patient encounter that one of our residents had just yesterday. Have you heard of Toca phobia? How prevalent is it? And what are the “4 Rs” of trauma informed care? Will cover this, and more, in this episode.
2/7/202451 minutes, 57 seconds
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In 1972, Liggins and Howie published their landmark study on the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) regarding their reduction of prematurity’s morbidity and mortality. This led to the weekly administration of ACS until 34 weeks. Weekly courses of steroids are no longer given, but the steroid story keeps evolving. In 2016, the ALPS trial demonstrated reduction in short-term respiratory morbidity when steroids were given in the late pre-term interval. Many professional societies and organizations endorsed this intervention shortly thereafter. But since then, there have been renewed commentaries and debates regarding steroids in the late pre-term interval, and steroid exposure in-utero for babies born late pre-term/term. several professional organizations, no longer endorse steroids in the late pre-term interval. In this episode, we will review this complicated and ever evolving debate, highlighting a recent systematic review and meta-analysis from August 2023.
2/5/202450 minutes, 10 seconds
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Putting LNG-IUS EC In Perspective

On January 28, 2021, a non-inferiority RCT was published in the NEJM, “Levonorgestrelvs Copper T Device for Emergency Contraception”. This study concluded that the LNG 52mg IUD was “noninferior” to the CopperT IUD for emergency BC up to 120 hours after ill-protected intercourse. Since that time, use of the LNG 52mg IUS has remained controversial with some organizations endorsing its use as EC while others take a more cautionary stance. Now, as a February 1, 2024, a new commentary in the Green Journal (Obstet Gynecol) is raising eyebrows regarding this. What’s the controversy surrounding this? Is the LNG 52 mg IUS a reasonable option for emergency contraception? What does non-inferiority mean? In this episode, we will go through all of the data and put things in proper perspective. While gaps in evidence remain… There is plenty to draw an evidence-based opinion on. Curious? Listen in and find out more.
2/3/202450 minutes, 47 seconds
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The Incredible VIBRATING belt (Osteoboost device): Good Data?

On January 18, 2024, the FDA cleared a novel new device for osteopenia treatment. This is a vibrating belt (wearable device) that transmits low-amplitude, high-frequency (20 to 40 Hz) vibration to the spine and hips. This belt is called Osteoboost. Osteoboost previously received a breakthrough designation from the FDA in Dec 2020. This FDA clearance has already generated a lot of commentaries regarding the single RCT results. In this episode, we will review the results critically and explain why there is a difference in “per protocol” RCT results and “intend to treat” RCT results. Is Osteoboost a game changer? Listen in and find out.
2/1/202435 minutes, 38 seconds
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Place IUD/S if BV Present? What Would You Do?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal aberrant condition in women, in the general population. Even still, the majority of women with BV are asymptomatic. If BV is found at time of elective IUD/S placement, can the device still be inserted? Or is it an independent risk factor for upper tract infection? What category in the CDC MEC is vaginitis/vaginosis for IUD placement? There definitely is some confusion about this in clinical practice, highlighted by the 3 different clinicians which were interviewed in this episode! So…. IUD placement with BV: test and place, or test and differ placement? Listen and find out.
1/30/202431 minutes, 37 seconds
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More Bad News Re: PreEclampsia

Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) affect 5 to 15% of women worldwide, and their increasing incidence is likely related to the growing levels of obesity, metabolic syndrome and advancing maternal age. It is widely accepted that women who have preeclampsia are at increased risk of future hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and even diabetes in later life. But what is the association between HDP and dementia? In this episode, we will review the latest data from a systematic review and meta-analysis published on January 24, 2024 in the AJOG.
1/27/202432 minutes, 29 seconds
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OB Issues After IUD Perf?

Uterine wall perforation at time of IUD placement has been published to occur, in general, about 1-2/1,000 cases. It happens! While there are some risk factors for uterine perforation (very antiflexed, retroflexed, recent postpartum state, lactating), sometimes uterine perforation can happen even with the best of technique and no risk factors. While most providers are concerned about immediate short-term gynecological complications like infection and bleeding, we don’t really consider the possibility of any potential future OB complications. Is a patient at higher risk of future adverse OB issues after perforation during IUD placement? It’s an interesting question, with an even more fascinating answer! In this episode we will dive into the data, and make sense of published case reports and clinical opinions which help us arrive at the answer to that question.
1/25/202452 minutes, 47 seconds
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Extencilline, Linezolid, & STUFF

Yep, Medicine moves fast! On Friday, January 5, 2024, I participated in a medical news report published in “The Guardian”. In that news commentary I stated that “Bicillin-LA is the only medication approved for syphilis during pregnancy”. We’ve all heard that statement, and it is a true statement. However, 5 days later on January 10, 2024, the FDA announced the importation allowance of “Extencillin” to combat the Bicillin-LA shortage. Yep, Medicine moves fast. Now we have this medication available as an option until Bicillin-LA increases its availability. But what about Linezolid? In this episode, we will also discuss a recent non-inferiority trial of Linezolid for early syphilis, which was published in “The Lancet”. Although that study had disappointing results, there are some caveats which need explaining. Listen in to find out more.
1/22/202420 minutes, 39 seconds
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Preg Test in ESRD: Going Down the Rabbit Hole?

If you had 5 reproductive age women, all late on their menstrual cycle, who were having unprotected sex, and all have a positive pregnancy test… What would be your diagnosis? The most likely diagnosis would be that there are five pregnancies! Right?! But what if 1 of those patients had end stage renal disease (ESRD), on hemodialysis. Is there anything else to consider? While ruling out pregnancy is priority #1, it is possible that this HCG is a phantom result. This is a slippery slope discussion and one that could easily lead down the rabbit hole. In this podcast, we will highlight this clinical conundrum, based on a real case from our practice, and summarize some fascinating reports from the literature.
1/21/202448 minutes, 57 seconds
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You Asked, We Answered!

Periodically, we respond to podcast family members’ questions as data is available. In this episode, we will cover 3 very clinically relevant questions from our podcast listeners. The first question is regarding our immediate past podcast topic, which was propranolol as a labor stimulant. The question is, “Does the ACOG have a statement on adjuvent propranolol use during labor?“. We’ll answer that question in this episode. The second question is whether the placebo/pill-free interval of combination birth control pills is linked to anxiety/depression. This is a COMPLICATED issue but there is brand new data that helps answer that exact question, and we will cover that in this episode. The final question is whether or not “HPV booster vaccination“ is indicated after CIN2+ treatment in patient who had previous vaccination. Lots of data to help answer these questions… and we will summarize it here.
1/18/202446 minutes, 30 seconds
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Can Propranolol Rescue Labor?

It has been well reported that rates of elective induction have risen nationally and internationally since the adoption of the ARRIVE trial. But as medicine is at times controversial, some studies have suggested an increase in cesarean section rates with elective induction of labor at 39 weeks. While we will briefly discuss those studies, they are not the focus of this episode. However, as induction of labor becomes more common place, there has been renewed interest in use of adjuvant medications to augment induction success. One of those medication is propranolol. Can giving a beta-blocker help with uterine contractility? The data is conflicting with recent evidence saying “No!“. In this episode, we’re going to put the evidence on trial and present both arguments: one as plaintiff, and one argument as the defense for our shared client, which is propranolol. Is propranolol guilty of its charges of being a labor stimulant? Or is it innocent of all charges? Let’s let the data decide.
1/17/202440 minutes, 18 seconds
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More Data on LUST (Follow up to 12/31/23 Episode)

On New Year’s Eve 2023 we released “LUST for TOLAC”. LUST stands for lower uterine segment thickness. This is a very enticing, and controversial, approach to TOLAC counseling and direction. I encourage you to go back and listen to that episode, if you have not yet, before listening to this one as this is more data to support those conclusions. In this episode, we will highlight a multi-center, cluster-randomized trial out of Canada, the PRISMA study. This fantastic investigation sheds more light on the application of LUST for prediction of TOLAC uterine rupture.
1/15/202427 minutes, 18 seconds
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Beyond the 22 Week Birth

The gestational age boundary termed viability has shifted dramatically during the past 50 years, and more so in the last 15 years. In 1971, a widely used neonatology textbook stated that, “The lower limit of viability is probably around 28 weeks, at which time most infants weigh two pounds, four ounces (1000 g).” Today, the most immature infants routinely cared for by neonatologists in some parts of the world are born at 22 weeks of gestation, with many weighing around 500 grams. While most studies reporting on neonatal resuscitation at 22 weeks give a main outcome as “alive at discharge”, there are other potential long-term morbid conditions which cannot be ignored. The ability to perform neonatal resuscitation at 22 weeks and 0 days has led to many powerful ethical debates and published commentaries. In this episode we will take a look at the complexities of neonatal resuscitation at 22 weeks focusing on the potential long morbidity after hospital discharge.
1/13/202441 minutes, 55 seconds
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NIPTS Clarify: “46 XX or 46 XY”?

This is NOT our regularly scheduled episode. Based on an incredible comment from Rachel – one of our podcast family members, which I received just moments ago, this was too good to not put out. A brief clarification on NIPTS and “46XX or 46XY”. (This is a supplement to our immediate past episode.) 😊😊🧐🧐
1/12/20246 minutes, 9 seconds
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NIPT’s Sex Chromosome Abnormalities: Clinical Pearls.

NIPT is a prenatal SCREENING method that involves analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood. Prenatal screening for sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) has become readily available through expanded non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). NIPTs became commercially available in 2011 and has since been introduced in more than 60 countries around the world and is now part of mainstream obstetrical practice. Initially offered as a secondary screen for pregnancies with a high probability of a fetal chromosomal anomaly, NIPT is now often offered and recommended as a first-line screening test for the main chromosomal aneuploidies. Initially, NIPT was available to screen for fetal trisomies 21 (Down syndrome), 18 (Edwards syndrome) and 13 (Patau syndrome). This has expanded of course to include (separately) fetal sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA) screening. However, there are some VERY important points we must remember when seeing an “atypical sex chromosome” NIPT result. What is the PPV of a SCA found on NIPT? In this episode we will highlight a recent NIPT atypical sex chromosome result from our practice and review what this may and may not actually mean, and review why NIPT screening for SCA is actually VERY controversial with some potential ETHICAL concerns, with some countries recommending AGAINST ordering it. Lots to cover here….so listen in.
1/11/202450 minutes, 39 seconds
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No Data, No Problem!

We take pride as healthcare providers in being “evidence based“. But sometimes things that we do, even in 2024, sound, reasonable and sound practical, but actually are NOT evidence-based. But lacking evidence means 2 things: 1. Studies have proven something does not work, or 2. Studies have not been done to confirm or refute the intervention. In this episode, we will discuss 2 common interventions that are recommended in pregnancy that actually don’t have the evidence behind them. First is the “test of cure” urine culture after treatment of ASB or cystitis, and the second is certain physical activities like specific yoga positions/Miles circuit as preparation for labor. I believe in both of these interventions- although we don’t have STRONG data for either. I will explain in this episode. That’s why I am calling this, “No data, No problem!”.
1/7/202448 minutes, 26 seconds
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UPDATES Re: RHD Alloimmunization

Before the 1960s, there was no method available to prevent Rh sensitization during Rh-incompatible pregnancies. Then, in 1968, the FDA approved the use of RhoGAM to help prevent Rh immunization. This was a landmark move in the field of Obstetrics. More recently, ever evolving data and medical genomic technology has brought new insights to RHD alloimmunization care. Can maternal RH typing be avoided with early pregnancy loss (under 12 weeks)? Why about in cases of pregnancy termination? Is that safe? And what is the UNITY non-invasive prenatal test? How can it be used to decrease unnecessary Rhogam administration? Well cover all this new data in this episode (NOTE: UNITY is not a sponsor of this podcast nor of this episode).
1/5/202436 minutes, 4 seconds
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Teratoma's "Crazy" Side: The "Brain on Fire"

Historically a range of psychiatric and medical conditions have been erroneously attributed to 2 gynecological organs/function. During the time of Hippocrates, the “wandering womb” theory blamed emotional disturbances in women on this condition. Not only was that erroneous, it was nonsensical. However, certain gynecological conditions can indeed manifest with neuro-behavioral disturbances. One of these syndromes can be triggered by the presence of an ovarian dermoid. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) encephalitis is a paraneoplastic limbic syndrome which may be caused by ovarian teratomas containing neural components. Neural tissue in a teratoma can trigger the production of anti-NMDA-R antibodies, which causes neuronal dysfunction and loss by altering the neuronal cell-surface NMDA receptors in the limbic system. This syndrome presents with a range of psychiatric, neurological and autonomic features and if not promptly recognized and treated may be associated with long-term morbidity and mortality. Rare…yes. But it is out there in the community and patients are at HIGH risk of misdiagnosis. In this episode we will discuss this “Brain on Fire” syndrome and highlight a real case contributed by one of our podcast family members (HIPPA protected).  
1/3/202450 minutes, 29 seconds
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“LUST” for TOLAC: Last Episode for 2023!

This is our last episode for 2023! A podcast family member reached out to me notifying me of a thread on social media discussing ultrasound measurements of “lower uterine segment thickness” (LUST) for TOLAC candidates. I consider myself pretty social media friendly, but was unaware of this comment thread. Should we be measuring lower uterine segment thickness in the late 3rd trimester as a discriminatory tool for TOLAC approval/denial? Is this evidence-based? Where did this concept originate? Is this supported by the ACOG? The answer to all of this is both YES and NO. We will explain in this episode.
12/31/202344 minutes, 17 seconds
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Year of the Doula

It’s no surprise and understatement to say that the US maternal/neonatal morbidity and mortality rates have to improve. As a way to increase maternal supportive care, an increasing number of states are turning to cover Doula services. Despite this forward thinking, there are still misperceptions, misunderstandings, and “boundary” issues regarding Doulas which must be addressed. Are Doula interventions evidence based? Are Doula services related to improved maternal and neonatal outcomes? What is the position from the ACOG? Does the March of Dimes have a position statement? We will answer all of these questions and explain why 2024 may be the “Year of the Doula” in this episode.
12/28/202337 minutes, 12 seconds
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NEW DATA: Fetal Growth Trajectories – the Growth Velocity Issue

On May 8, 2023, we released an episode called “Slowed Fetal Growth Trajectory and Neonatal Outcome”. That episode highlighted data that slowed fetal growth was an independent risk factor for stillbirth. This is true even though the composite EFW remained above 10 percentile. Now, there is new data which validates this concept and provides a working model which may help predict fetuses with slowed fetal growth who are at risk of stillbirth. PLUS, we will describe a free online fetal growth trajectory calculator (UK) that helps with patient education and prognostication.
12/26/202339 minutes, 31 seconds
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SMFM HBV Consult Series #69: Dec 21, 2033.

On August 26, 2023, we summarized the ACOG update on viral hepatitis in pregnancy and discussed new concepts regarding Hep B viral infection. To follow that up, the SMFM has now released its Consult Series #69 (Hepatitis B in Pregnancy: Updated Guidelines) which was published on December 21, 2023. In this episode, we will reinforce some topics originally discussed back in August 2023 and emphasize key management issues regarding Hep B in pregnancy based on this Consult Series… both for the infected, and the non-infected/non-immune patient. Is antepartum fetal surveillance indicated in these patients? Is C-section a way to prevent perinatal transmission? What’s the viral load cut-off to begin antiviral medication? Is it safe to administer hepatitis B vaccine during pregnancy for those who need it? Listen in for details.
12/23/202330 minutes, 14 seconds
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Is Maternal Short Stature an OB Risk Factor?

The average height for men in the U.S. is about 5 feet 9 inches. For women, it’s about 5 feet 4 inches. Height stature has been correlated with some interesting health conditions at a population level: Some research shows that a below-average height may mean you have lower odds of getting some types of cancer. For example, a study of more than 100,000 women in Europe and North America showed that shorter women are less likely to get ovarian cancer. Also, although researchers can’t explain why, studies show that the shorter you are, the less likely you are to have a VTE. People who are 5 feet or shorter have the lowest chances of getting one. Those are good correlations to being short! BUT, short stature has also been linked to higher stroke risk, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. It is theorized that individuals at/around the 5 foot mark- outside of simple race/genetics- may have been imprinted for smaller growth trajectories either in utero or in early childhood which metabolically predisposes them to these future issues. What about short stature and pregnancy? Are there any correlations there? Is maternal short stature an independent OB risk factor for negative outcomes? And why do we only have ONE main EFW chart (Hadlock) in pregnancy vs population specific ones? We’ll get to the tall and short of it…in this episode.
12/22/202341 minutes, 29 seconds
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“Orgasm Gave Me a Seizure”

Sex has always had its share of misinformation, even as it relates to some medical conditions- like epilepsy. "Coitus brevis epilepsia est" ("Sex is a brief seizure") is an ancient proverb attributed to Galen, the influential Greek physician and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Then, in the 18th and 19th centuries, some physicians, including Samuel-Auguste Tissot and Edward Sieveking, argued that excessive masturbation could cause epilepsy! At the time, castration and clitoridectomy (removal of the clitoris) were reportedly performed on people with severe epilepsy. Terrible! Thankfully we now are all SURE that sex does not CAUSE epilepsy, but sexual release (orgasm) and seizure like activity are indeed similar. Can orgasm trigger epilepsy? And is the reverse possible: can seizures give orgasm like effect? How is PNES related to this? We will review this fascinating clinical conundrum in this episode.
12/20/202347 minutes, 34 seconds
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UPDATED 1st & 2nd Stage Labor Mgmt: Jan 2024

BIG. BIG. BIG Update. In March 2014, the ACOG/SMFM released OCC #1 (Safe Prevention of the Primary C-section) which redefined the labor curve. That document has now been WITHDRAWN. It is being replaced with Obstetrical Care Consensus #8 coming out January 2024. In this episode, we will highlight key points from this updated guidance including: 1. ACOG’s new language surrounding the length of latent phase, 2. the role of “early” amniotomy in labor induction, and 3. clarification on 2nd stage of labor management.
12/18/202343 minutes, 3 seconds
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GDF15 and N/V of Pregnancy: Moving Beyond Estrogen and HCG

It’s really amazing how fast medical information and discovery happens. For decades, we blamed nausea and vomiting of pregnancy/hyperemesis gravidarum on either estrogen or high levels of HCG. While these 2 hormones definitely have some association with that condition, new evidence has pointed to a separate compound as the likely offender. In this episode, we will review data just published on December 13, 2023 from an international research think tank. This group has likely pinpointed the origin of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. This discovery opens up a new area of therapeutics aimed at targeting this chemical messenger, rather than simply treating the symptom of nausea. Are you familiar with GDF-15? In this episode, will review this incredible little molecule, and summarize key findings from this recent publication.
12/15/202327 minutes, 44 seconds
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AMH in PCOS DX: 2023 PCOS Update

According to ACOG’s CO 773 from 2019, “Currently, serum antimüllerian hormone levels are not part of the accepted diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)”. But medicine moves fast, and that statement is no longer valid, at least it isn’t valid from the ASRM July 2023 Standpoint. Yep, once considered experimental, AMH has now entered the PCOS diagnostic algorithm. Nonetheless, some important limitations and facts must be understood for its use in this way. In this episode, we will highlight the recommendations from the 2023 international, evidence-based guideline for the assessment and management of polycystic ovary syndrome, focusing on the role of AMH. We will also discuss the condition in adolescents and why this diagnosis is DIFFERENT in this group, and the update to the number of follicles per ovary (FNPO) recommended for the diagnosis. This guideline has been co-published in Fertility and Sterility, Human Reproduction, European Journal of Endocrinology, and The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
12/15/202346 minutes, 1 second
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The Endometriosis-Migraine Link: New Data on Genes and CGRP

We thought we had endometriosis all figured out. After all, we know it’s a chronic pain syndrome that’s hormone responsive. But there’s more to it than that. Within the last few years, including this year 2023, we have grown even more in our understanding of this pelvic pain condition. We now have new data explaining the link between endometriosis and migraine attacks. Are you familiar with CGRP? While most attention has focused on this biochemical messenger’s role in migraines, CGRP is also related to endometrial implants. In this episode, we will do a deep dive into the shared pathophysiology of endometriosis and migraine headaches. We will look at the role that CGRP and TRPV1 play in both of these pain conditions.
12/13/202348 minutes, 44 seconds
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IVH: OB Considerations

Advances in obstetrical and neonatal care have allowed for increased survival rates in babies born at extremely premature gestational ages. However, extreme prematurity brings its own set of issues and problems. One of these issues is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Intraventricular hemorrhage is not simply a neonatology issue, but is something that all obstetrical providers should be familiar with. Does the mode of delivery impact the rates of intraventricular hemorrhage for extremely preterm vertex babies? Do corticosteroids help reduce the rate of IVH? And at what gestational age is umbilical cord milking not associated with the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (Nov 2023 Data)? In this episode, we will do a deep dive into the pathogenesis and behavior of IVH and discuss common obstetrical interventions that may mitigate its occurrence. We will also discuss how magnesium sulfate works for fetal neuroprotection and discuss the importance of neonatal vitamin K administration in extremely pre-term neonates.
12/11/202357 minutes, 6 seconds
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DIY Insemination: YEP, It’s Real.

We are definitely a “DIY“ society. And now, consumers can add DIY Insemination to that list! On December 6, 2023 the FDA cleared the first device for at home insemination. This over-the-counter option will be available in 2024. In this episode, we will review this landmark and historic device clearance. We will also clarify the distinction between FDA “approval” and FDA “clearance”. Who is best suited to use this device? Is this considered first-line for unexplained infertility? Lots of interesting questions, but we have the answers. Listen in and find out more.
12/8/202328 minutes, 19 seconds
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AOK & AOK-T: Data Review for AFE Care

Amniotic fluid embolism remains one of the most devastating conditions in obstetric practice with an incidence of approximately 1 in 40,000 deliveries. The associated mortality for this condition has been reported to be 20% at the low-end, to 80% at the high-end. The use of atropine (1 mg intravenously [IV]), ondansetron (8 mg IV), and ketorolac (30 mg IV) (AOK) as an adjunctive treatment has been widely discussed by obstetric providers as a treatment option which should be considered to supplement other treatment modalities. In this episode, we will review the pathophysiology of AFE and discuss its first-line treatment regimens, as well as the AOK/AOK – T protocol.
12/7/202343 minutes, 59 seconds
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The CIN2 Conundrum: New Population-Based Data.

Management of CINI is straightforward, as is management of CIN3. CIN1 allows for observation, and CIN3 requires treatment regardless of the patient’s age as it is a true pre-cancerous lesion. But some “gray zone“ exits for CIN2 management. Population-based data has confirmed a high rate of spontaneous resolution within 2 years after CIN2 diagnosis. Is the rate of cervical cancer higher in this surveillance group compared to immediate LEEP? In this episode, we will highlight 2 separate publications, each originating from the same patient database (Danish population-based cohort). These 2 publications are from the same group of authors with one publication coming from the AJOG (December 2023), and the other one published last month in BMJ (November 2023).
12/5/202336 minutes, 52 seconds
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The IR Issue: Evidence-Based Testing

A recent analysis of NHANES data from 2021 found that 40% of US adults aged 18 to 44 are insulin-resistant (IR) based on HOMA-IR measurements. While obesity rates have increased considerably over the past 2 decades, this rapid increase in prevalence was not only associated with increased adiposity. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and limited physical activity also increased insulin resistance. PCOS and IR are intimately tied, although not all PCOS patients will have clinical or biochemical evidence of IR. And remember this clinical pearl: IR is NOT included in the diagnostic criteria for PCOS. According to published estimates, insulin resistance may be found in 44% to 90% of people with PCOS (the widespread percentage is due to various testing modalities and PCOS phenotypes). Screening for IR is an important aspect of preventative health maintenance in PCOS patients, and all patients deemed high risk. In this episode, we will provide an evidence-based review of the various modalities for IR screening and diagnosis.
12/3/202342 minutes, 6 seconds
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🔥HOT OFF the PRESS: New Data on “Physiologic HTN”/ Rule off 55 (Nov 30)

On July 30, 2023 we released an episode describing the hypertensive “rule of 55” otherwise known as the physiologic approach to hypertension management. The rule of 55 breaks down hypertension into either hyperdynamic/high cardiac output in origin, or systemic vascular resistance in origin. There is plenty of evidence to support this management approach. Late this evening, on November 30, 2023, Obstetrics and Gynecology released a new research letter ahead of print, providing more insights on the physiologic approach to hypertension management. In this episode, we will briefly cover this brand new publication, released just 2 hours ago, and provide clinical application perspectives.
12/1/202323 minutes, 32 seconds
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F/U Ov Cysts? The O-RADS Scale.

Population based data tells us that 15 to 20% of women will develop an ovarian cyst during their lifetime. Although most ovarian cyst have a low potential for malignancy, their presence causes anxiety for both the patient and the provider. Our typical mental-exercise is balancing the risks of expected management vs choosing surgery prematurely. Which ovarian masses are likely to resolve if given enough time? Do septated ovarian cysts resolve the same as simple cysts? In this episode, we will highlight and summarize a new publication coming out in Obstet Gynecol (Green Journal) in December 2023. We will also review a uniform, standardized approach to reporting and interpreting ovarian masses, originally published in 2020 by the American College of Radiology. This scale is called the O-RADS classification and provides extremely helpful tools for ovarian cyst prognostication and follow up.
11/30/202347 minutes, 40 seconds
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The Mysterious Bean: The Clitoris Needs Love 💕

The word clitoris comes from the Greek word, “kleitoris” which means “little hill”. In 1559, the clitoris was “discovered” by an anatomist Renaldus Columbus who called it the “love of venus” and concluded that its primary function was strictly for pleasure. It is quite shocking 2 believe, although true, that the first anatomical paper on the clitoris was published only in 1998 and its anatomy, using MRI, fully described in full in 2005. This lack of scientific attention, until recently, to both the anatomical structure and true functioning of the clitoris is equally shameful as it is shocking. It is no wonder that vast misunderstandings of such a vital structure for female sexual well-being persist even today. In this episode, we will review an eye opening, and sad, recent publication released on October 15, 2023 in the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. How well do we truly understand clitoral anatomy? Apparently, not well at all! As Women's Health care providers, we must realize that the results of that study are not only disappointing but that we must also advocate for more information and education pertaining to the mysterious little bean. How is our understanding of the clitoris related to Napolean Bonapart, and to Sigmund Freud? How is the Clitoris-Vaginal Distance related to orgasm? And what is the actual wishbone anatomy of the clitoris? Listen in and find out.
11/28/202350 minutes, 22 seconds
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Uterine Rupture in the Unscarred Uterus

A ruptured uterus is a potentially catastrophic event in which the integrity of the myometrial wall is breached. We all have memorized the usual red flags and contraindications to labor as prior classical cesarean, multiple (more than 2) low transverse cesarean, prior transmural gyn surgery, or grand multiparity. In the absence of previous surgery or multiparity, uterine rupture may go unnoticed, resulting in late diagnosis and considerable mortality and morbidity. Uterine rupture intrapartum has also been reported in primiparous patients, without a history of uterine surgery. Although more likely to go unrecognized and/or underreported, the proposed incidence of rupture in the unscarred uterus has been recently published at less than 0.01% deliveries! Rare right? Well, it’s rare until it happens to you. In contrast, uterine rupture has been reported to occur in 0.2–1% in those with one previous low-transverse scar. Diagnosing this condition in the absence of uterine scar requires a high degree of suspicion and fetal heart tracing abnormalities remain the most common symptom. In this episode, we will look at published data- including a recent review from the Green Journal from April 2023- regarding this terrifying event and review risk factors that may raise the risk of uterine rupture in a patient without the classic historical red flags. And, we will review how 2 GYN diagnoses influence the risk of uterine rupture in labor. Plus, we will review what the published data says regarding characteristic uterine and fetal heart rate patterns in those found to have uterine rupture.
11/25/202348 minutes, 32 seconds
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“Perfect Timing”: Mag for Late PP HTN (Supplement to immediate past episode)

On Tuesday, November 21, we released an episode titled “Optimizing Postpartum HTN Care”. On Wednesday, November 22, I received notification that a new clinical opinion piece will be released in AJOG in December 2023 which also discusses whether or not mag sulfate, should be used in the late postpartum interval in these patients. Amazing timing! Our podcast, and this soon-to-be released clinical opinion, match 100% in the data and recommendations! 🎉🎉🎉 So in this episode, we will highlight the main take-home points from that soon-to-be released clinical opinion regarding whether or not magnesium sulfate should be used in the late postpartum interval for hypertension. This is a perfect and timely supplement to our immediate past podcast. 👏👏👏
11/23/202322 minutes, 36 seconds
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Optimizing PP HTN Care

Data has shown that more than half of maternal deaths occur past the traditional 6 week postpartum mark. This is why the ACOG recognized the “fourth trimester” in 2018 (ACOG CO 736), reflecting the fact that the patient is still at risk beyond the first 6 weeks after delivery. One of the main areas of focus postpartum is on hypertension care. Growing understanding of the long-term implications of HDP and other medical complications of pregnancy have led to an increasing focus on building transitions from postpartum care to primary care, which will be essential for the long-term wellbeing of women with postpartum hypertension. How many women will develop new onset hypertension more than 6 weeks from delivery? At what blood pressure cut off should anti-hypertensive medication be considered postpartum? Should it be at 150/100 or 140/90? Which medication is preferred for postpartum use? Is magnesium sulfate for severe range blood pressures effective as seizure prevention beyond 7 days postpartum? We will tackle these questions, and more, in this episode.
11/22/202355 minutes, 57 seconds
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Asthma in Pregnancy: the GINA Recs

ACOG’s last practice bulletin on asthma in pregnancy (ACOG PB 90) was back in February 2008. Yep, 2008. Sooo… No advances since then? There’s been big shifts in the management of asthma, of course. That’s why we’re doing this podcast- things move so fast, and it’s often hard for guidelines to keep pace at times. That’s why we’re here. And that’s why it’s important to always stay ahead of the data. are you aware of the new recommendations from the GINA? It has changed the way we view Short Acting B Agonist therapy (SABA) as solo medication. And what about antepartum fetal surveillance? Is that indicated in moderate to severe asthma? Maternal asthma is not listed on the “indications for outpatient fetal surveillance“ from the ACOG‘s 2021 Committee Opinion. Should it be there? Can biologics be used? We’ve got lots to cover in this episode. So take a deep breath in and out… and listen in.
11/20/202348 minutes, 31 seconds
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The “L” in TPAL: What is it Good For?

It’s a universal nomenclature… The TPAL system. Despite its traditional and long-standing integration into obstetrical vernacular, there are significant gaps in this system. And, although we use these terms daily, there is controversy about what one of those elements actually means. What is the “L“ actually for? We’ve all learned it as “living children”. But what does that actually mean? Is that live births? Is it number of living children at time of the report? Or does it mean something entirely different? In this episode, Dr. Katie Light joins me as we have a fun time looking into the data. Hang out with us until the end of the episode, because I will give us some practical insights for using the TPAL nomenclature.
11/18/202313 minutes, 17 seconds
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NEW Home STI Tests Approved 👍

This episode is our NEWS BRIEF. Yesterday, on November 15, 2023, the FDA approved the first, patient self-collected, home test kits for GC and Chlamydia. This is a BIG advancement for women's health. But, this is actually not the first at home STI test to be approved. In this episode, we will review this new FDA approved test, the specifics of the product, and why this is not just a "direct to consumer" purchase item.
11/16/202313 minutes, 41 seconds
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To CBE or Not to CBE

Recently, we released an episode regarding the limited utility of by BMEs; now, I mean, limited utility as a routine, annual exercise in the low-risk asymptomatic, and non-pregnant patient. And there’s plenty of evidence that has shown that just doing a bimanual exam because “that’s what we’ve always done” -without a real indication- is just not helpful. All to say, we received numerous comments regarding that episode with 99% saying, “this is great”, “thank you for sticking with the evidence”, and “yes, we stopped doing bimanual exams without indication, when the ACOG first put that out several years back”. But of course there’s always that 1% who state something like, “I can’t believe you’re not recommending this exam, this is how we find ovarian cancer, etc”. This is very interesting because the whole episode was how it exactly did NOT help in the early detection of ovarian cancer, but simply increased the ordering of tests and patient anxiety! (Which makes me think, maybe they didn’t even listen to the episode). One of the comments that came in was worth noting. This provider said, “Isn’t the same debate applicable to clinical breast examinations (CBEs)?” What’s the data on that? And how do various medical groups and professional societies agree or disagree with CBEs? Well, that’s exactly why we’re doing this episode! In this episode, we’re going to cover the various guidelines and opinions regarding the utility of clinical breast examinations. Plus, you’ll want to hang out with us until the end of the episode, when we will provide some real, practical applications for daily practice. Yep, let’s “feel the data out” (see what I did there?). 🧐🙂🙂
11/16/202344 minutes, 29 seconds
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ASX Trich in Preg: Treat or No Treat?

Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the United States and is more prevalent than chlamydia and gonorrhea combined. In the US, the southern states share a disproportionate burden of infection, with rates up to 14%. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis increases risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and preterm premature rupture of membranes. Although 80% of infections are asymptomatic, there are no national recommendations for trichomoniasis screening in women who are HIV-negative (including pregnant women who are HIV-negative), except for incarcerated women, where screening is recommended. Plus, there is also perpetual controversy surrounding whether asymptomatic trich should be treated in pregnancy or not. Why is that? Shouldn’t we always treat STIs in pregnancy? The data is a bit confusing for asymptomatic trichomoniasis. We’ll review the data in this episode and we will end with some practical advice for treatment of trich in pregnancy.
11/14/202341 minutes, 59 seconds
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Get Your Fingers Outta There (New Data on ASX BMEs).

The pelvic examination is a standard component of the annual gynecologic visit despite limited evidence supporting its utility. Pelvic examinations can be a source of discomfort and anxiety for some patients seeking routine health care, whereas, for others, they can offer reassurance. In 2018, the ACOG released CO 754 on "The Utility of and Indications for Routine Pelvic Examination". What does the AAFP, ACP, and ACOG say about "routine" pelvic examinations in low-risk, nonpregnant, and asymptomatic women? Why do they say what they do? In this episode, we will summarize a new publication from Obstetrics & Gynecology which was just released yesterday (November 9, 2023) which validates these professional societies' guidelines/stances.
11/10/202330 minutes, 13 seconds
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Fundal Accreta in a Nullip? YES (The Non-Previa Accreta).

What do think about when I mention to you, Placenta Accreta Spectrum (PAS)? You would probably think placenta previa and prior C-section, right? You should! Those are the two most well-known risk factors. But placenta accrete can happen without either of those 2 factors, although less commonly. I was recently asked to provide insights on a real case of suspected PAS in a primiparous patient who was suspected of having placenta accrete at attempted placenta extraction at time of her primary C-Section performed for failure to progress. Her placenta was fundal. Can a fundal placenta be an accreta? What is the frequency of that? And what is the expected patient morbidity? We’ll examine the data and highlight a recently published case report from September 2023 describing a similar presentation.
11/8/202343 minutes, 44 seconds
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I received a very personal and impactful Facebook message today from one of our podcast family members. It was enough to stop me in my tracks, and issue this heartfelt response. For F. L.
11/7/202321 minutes, 39 seconds
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The Ophthalmia Neonatorum Debate.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the World Health Organization all recommend universal topical ocular prophylaxis to prevent gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum. In the United States, ophthalmia neonatorum caused by N. gonorrhoeae has an incidence of 0.3 per 1000 live births, while Chlamydia trachomatis represents 8.2 of 1000 cases. However, this prophylaxis is not a uniform GLOBAL stance. The Canadian Pediatric Society recommends against universal prophylaxis. Several European countries, including Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, no longer require universal prophylaxis, instead opting for a prevention strategy of increased screening and treatment of pregnant women and/or selective use in those delivered without pregnancy screening. But WAIT… it gets even slightly more confusing. According to a 2022 publication from the FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS, the AAP has taken the position that the need for legal mandates for ocular prophylaxis should be reexamined and instead advocates for states to adopt strategies to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum by focusing on maternal treatment, such as compliance with CDC recommendations for prenatal screening and treatment of N gonorrheae and Chlamydia trachomatis. This was also the subject of a recent review published May 2023 in an article titled, “Neonatal ocular prophylaxis in the United States: is it still necessary?”. Confused...don't be. We’ll cover all this information in this episode. So, can erythromycin ophthalmic application be avoided in some cases? Is that safe? And if so, doesn’t that conflict with current US neonatal care expectations? Listen in and find out.
11/6/202338 minutes, 35 seconds
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MORE Support for Universal LDA in OB

On September 26, 2023 we released an episode titled “LDA in Preg: the SAGA Continues”. Well, it continues still. In this episode, we will review a brand new publication (a Narrative Review) released ahead-of-print yesterday on November 2, 2023 covering “Aspirin in Pregnancy” (Obstet Gynecol). We will focus on 2 main areas: 1. Dose of aspirin best suited for preeclampsia prevention, and 2. support for universal adoption. PLUS, we will throw in one other clinical pearl regarding continuation until delivery. As a reminder, the ACOG is still in the draft stages of revising its “low-dose aspirin for preeclampsia prevention” consensus guideline. Listen in to see which way the data is leaning regarding this common prophylactic treatment plan.
11/3/202321 minutes, 2 seconds
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That Darn Persistent Yeast.

Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVCC) is a highly burdensome, long-lasting medical condition that heavily compromises the activities of women and their quality of life. Recently, the prevalence of RVVC has increased, partly due to a rise in VVC caused by non-albicans species. Here's a real-world clinical dilemma (from a real case): What would you offer a patient who is allergic to fluconazole and terconazole, has taken 3 doses of Brexafemme, has used boric acid, and even tried vaginal probiotics? Oh- and vaginal Gent Violet is not available (in this case). In this episode, we are going to review 3 alternative vaginal therapies that could be very helpful in cases where that darn yeast will not go away.
11/3/202341 minutes, 28 seconds
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“Intrapartum, Isolated Maternal fever”: Clinical Outcomes.

In 2017, the ACOG released committee opinion (CO) 712 which described the 3 categories of intrapartum fever. One of those categories was “isolated intrapartum fever”. In that CO, the ACOG stated that practitioners “should consider” the use of antibiotics in patients with isolated intrapartum fever. However, there was no evidence to support or refute that. But that evidence has now arrived. In this episode, we will discuss an upcoming publication from the AJOG (November 2023) providing important insights into the treatment of “isolated, intrapartum fever”.
11/1/202334 minutes, 26 seconds
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DiGeorge Deletion Syndrome

DiGeorge syndrome… what a complicated condition for such a little area of a single chromosome being affected. The condition’s descriptive and preferred name is 22q11.2. This is called a microdeletion. Along with microduplications, microdeletions are collectively known as copy number variants. Copy number variants can lead to disease when the change in copy number of a dose-sensitive gene or genes disrupts the ability of the gene(s) to function and affects the amount of protein produced. Other examples of microdeletion syndromes include Prader- Willi, (which is a deletion on 15q), and Cri du chat syndrome which results from a microdeletion on 5p. In this episode, we will review the varied penetrance of DiGeorge syndrome and review its genetic basis. What are some suggestive features found on prenatal ultrasound? What are the associated abnormalities/phenotypes? And how is this condition managed after birth? And why is this also known as CATCH22. We will answer all of these questions, and more, in this episode.
10/30/202343 minutes, 2 seconds
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Bee Pollen & BOOBS😳

For years, herbalists have touted bee pollen as an exceptionally nutritious food. They've even claimed it is a cure for certain health problems. Bee pollen does contains vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, and protein. It comes from the pollen that collects on the bodies of bees as they fly from one flower to another. Bee pollen may also include bee saliva. This is NOT the same as natural honey, honeycomb, bee venom, propolis, or royal jelly. These other products do not contain bee pollen although there are combination products that contain one or more of these substances. A recent Social Media trend has propagated the idea that bee pollen can help breasts grow. Can it? Can it really boost your immunity and longevity? And what is the recommendation for use during pregnancy or breastfeeding? And speaking of pregnancy, can pregnant women eat RAW honey? We’ll get to the “sweet spot” of the data!
10/27/202340 minutes, 32 seconds
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New SMFM Data: SCD in Pregnancy

Although there were some early reports of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the late 19th century, the 1st time that the disease was referenced in literature was in 1910. Then in 1957, a doctor studying protein chemistry in England discovers that a single genetic mutation causes the abnormal hemoglobin found in patients who inherit SCD. And our knowledge of SCD continues to grow. In this episode, we will review a soon-to-be released new SMFM Consult Series # 68 highlighting the data on management of SCD and pregnancy. Are routine, prophylactic blood transfusions in pregnancy recommended? What about hydroxyurea? What is the dose of folic acid recommended for these patients? Is antepartum fetal surveillance recommended? We will answer all of these questions, and more, in this episode.
10/25/202346 minutes, 25 seconds
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New CC (Nov ‘23) from “The College”: Comp Bioidentical Hormones

In November 2023, the ACOG will release Clinical Consensus #6, “Compounded Bioidentical Menopausal Hormone Therapy”. We have covered bioidentical hormones in past episodes. However, this ACOG clinical consensus sheds new light on an old topic. Is there ever a role for bioidentical hormone therapy? What about postmenopausal testosterone use? What does the College say about the marketing of these compounded options? And, were you aware that for the first time ever there is now a novel, bioavailable estrogen in a combination oral contraceptive? That same estrogen (E4) is now being considered as another option for bioidentical hormone use. In this episode, we will review this new estrogen, estetrol (E4), answer the questions posed, and provide other high yield facts from the clinical consensus.
10/24/202337 minutes, 18 seconds
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NEW FIGO REC: Fe Deficiency w/o Anemia.

On June 27, 2023, researchers published a population based analysis of the prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Females in the US who were aged 12-21 Years. This study spanned from 2003 to 2020. What they found was staggering: Almost 40% of American teenage girls and young women had iron deficiency. This was published in JAMA. It's the first research to look at iron deficiency in young women and adolescent girls. Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are both common, underappreciated conditions with significant morbidity and mortality despite widespread availability of effective treatment. Iron deficiency is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and is the most frequent cause of anaemia. Historically, the focus of screening has been preschool-aged and pregnant females. The CDC-P recommends anemia screening for nonpregnant female adolescents and women every 5 to 10 years, whereas the USPSTF does not address screening for these populations. Oh, and that CDC recommendation is from 1998! That’s right, no update since 1998. Also, guidelines from the ACOG focus only on anemia during pregnancy. But now, and here’s a clinical pearls: This year, for the first time in its history, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics issued a recommendation that all women and girls who menstruate should regularly be screened for iron deficiency, not just for anemia and not just during pregnancy. This was recently picked up as a story in the New York Times, being published on October 17, 2023. And here’s another clinical pearl… It is completely possible for someone with normal hemoglobin levels to still have iron deficiency. So in this episode, we’re going to address the new FIGO guidelines and review why a “screening CBC“ just does not have the sensitivity to detect iron deficiency in reproductive age women. We will also review the appropriate screening test for this condition, as well as review basic iron physiology.
10/21/202334 minutes, 59 seconds
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The Cat 2 FHT Conundrum

In 2009, the ACOG released practice bulletin 106 which introduced the 3- tier fetal heart rate classification system. This was followed up in November 2010 with its sister practice bulletin, number 116, “Management of Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Tracings”. Yet now, 13 years later, management of the category II tracing remains a conundrum. How long can you watch/observe a category II tracing? Can category II tracings predict fetal acidemia? And what is a step-by-step, evidence-based algorithm for category II management? In this episode, we will cover all of these questions, and summarize a new systematic review/meta-analysis from the AJOG (October 2023) focused on this very condition.
10/20/202354 minutes, 40 seconds
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Vag Progesterone Returns for PTB?

In April 2023, both the ACOG and SMFM released their clinical updates regarding the use of progesterone for preterm birth prevention. While 17-OHP is gone, vaginal progesterone remains an option in the appropriate patient, with some slight differences between the opinions from ACOG and SMFM. A new expert commentary from October 2023 in the AJOG -MFM is calling for a reappraisal of those opinions. Is vaginal progesterone for PTB prevention coming back to treat ALL patients with a history of PTB, not just those with a short cervix? That depends on how you look at the data. And, where does cerclage fit in? Listen in for all this...and more.
10/17/202339 minutes, 10 seconds
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The Fetal Somersault Delivery Manever

Finding a nuchal cord (NC) at delivery is not rare. NCs occur anywhere from 25-30% of all deliveries. When encountered at time of vaginal delivery, the first line maneuver should be an attempt to "reduce" the loop of cord around the fetal head by gently pulling the cord up and around the presenting part. However, if the NC is tight, an attempt at reduction may not be successful- or may risk inadvertent cord rupture withs subsequent fetal blood loss. Historically, the next move described was the +clamp and cut" maneuver. However, this interrupts the vital communication of oxygenated blood to the child from the placenta prior to the fetal body delivery. This prevents the beneficial and physiologic placental blood transfusion to the child immediately after the body delivers. That's why the fetal somersault maneuver has benefits when encountering a tight fetal NC. First described in 1991, this maneuver often gets overlooked as a viable option. In this episode, we will summarize the basis for and technique (the 4 Fs) of the fetal Somersault Maneuver.
10/16/202339 minutes, 33 seconds
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Screen for Vit D in OB?

Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy/Preeclampsia is a persistent problem, world-wide. Over the last decade, studies have highlighted the role of vitamin D in modulating several mechanisms associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including but not limited to vessel compliance, the maternal immune response, the renin angiotensin response, and placental implantation and angiogenesis. There has also been published concern that maternal vitamin D deficiency may be associated with childhood neurodevelopmental issues including autism. However, the last ACOG CO on UNIVERSAL SCREENING for vitamin D in pregnancy was in 2011…this stated that UNIVERSAL screening is just not recommended (FYI, this was reaffirmed 2021, and is currently being reaffirmed by the OB committee). But this is different than targeted screening. Since the ACOG stance in 2011, despite RCTs of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy, everything has changed and yet nothing has changed regarding the approach to screening for vitamin D deficiency. Should vitamin D levels be assessed? Are the cutoffs for vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency the same in pregnant patients? Who is the ideal pregnant patient for vitamin D intervention? How can the intervention be optimized? And what’s that link between maternal vit D deficiency and the child’s neurodevelopmental outcomes? There is data to answer these questions, and we will lay it all out in this episode.
10/13/202353 minutes, 7 seconds
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Opill: Success and Suspicions

The FDA’s approval of the first oral hormonal contraceptive pill, Enovid, in 1960 launched a revolution in women’s reproductive healthcare. From that one initial pill sprang a plethora of oral contraceptive choices, representing estrogen-progestin combinations in standard dose to ultra-low dose options, progesterone only pills, and cyclic or continuous use pre-packaged formulations. According to a survey conducted from 2017 to 2019 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), around 65% of women aged 15-49 use some form of birth control, with the pill being the most common birth control method used by younger women. Around 20% of women aged 15-29 use oral contraceptives. Similarly, the FDA’s approval of levonorgestrel-based (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) in 1998, and its subsequent approval of the selective progesterone receptor modulator-based option in 2010 (ullipristal acetate or UPA), provided another layer of contraceptive protection during times of unprotected or ill-protected sexual intercourse. More recently, this revolution in medical control over reproductive ability has resulted in the FDA’s approval of the first over-the-counter, norgestrel-only oral contraceptive, the Opill. This move allows the Opill to be available in a variety of venues, from online to local pharmacies and grocery stores. Nonetheless, despite this major success in women's contraception, some suspicions remain. In this episode we will review latest data on Opill and its plan for release in 2024. This has already lead to the potential for a combination OTC pill coming out soon. Have you heard of it? And...does your state already offer OTC hormnal BC? Listen in and find out more.
10/11/202331 minutes, 15 seconds
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10/11/20233 minutes, 55 seconds
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CONTROVERSY: Second Stage, How Long is Too Long?

There is no controversy regarding the definition of the 2nd stage of labor: it is the phase of labor from 10 cm until complete delivery of the child. However, there has been persistent controversy about what defines a prolonged 2nd stage of labor. In other words, are the hour limits stated by the ACOG “active pushing” or “total duration” in 2nd stage? 🤔 Historically, this has been a very gray area. Even though we have guidance on this going back to 2014 with the ACOG Obstetric Care Consensus 1, “Safe Prevention of the Primary C-Section”, certain phrases within that document caused confusion. Does the ACOG make a distinction between active vs passive 2nd stage of labor? Listen in and find out. 🎙️🎙️🎙️
10/8/202342 minutes, 3 seconds
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Mirror Syndrome

Mirror Syndrome also known as “triple edema” or Ballantyne syndrome, is a rare disorder affecting pregnant women. Mirror Syndrome is often underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to a general unawareness of the condition, and sometimes its preeclampsia-like manifestations. However, until now, the characteristics of Mirror Syndrome have not been fully elucidated. But medicine moves fast, and we now have a better understanding of its presentation, likely contributing factors, and outcomes. Still, some knowledge gaps remain. In this episode we will summarize the data on this terrible, potentially life threatening, obstetrical emergency. Our centerpiece for discussion will be a recent systematic review published in September 2023 in the AJOG with authors from my home state of Texas.
10/6/202333 minutes, 38 seconds
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Technique or Tuff Luck? OB “Issues”.

Incorrect delivery technique can lead to fetal birth trauma. However, sometimes – despite proper technique and care – fetal birth injuries occur. As I was taught as an intern, “Mal-occurrences don’t always mean Mal-practice“. Does that rule hold true for fetal clavicular fracture? What about Erb’s palsy found at birth? Can these issues occur as part of normal labor and delivery? And at time of cesarean section, does meticulous surgical technique always prevent immediate postop bleeding complications? In this episode, we’re going to review the data on 3 perinatal adverse events that may occur despite proper care: clavicular fracture, Erb’s palsy, and post-operative, rectus sheath bleeding/hematoma.
10/4/202341 minutes, 1 second
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The ACOG released Clinical Consensus #4 in August 2023, covering Urinary Track Infections in Pregnancy. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the more common perinatal complications, affecting approximately 8% of pregnancies. These infections represent a spectrum, from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic acute cystitis, to the most serious, pyelonephritis. In this episode we will summarize some the key points from this monograph, and we will tackle 3 common myths/misperceptions related to OB Pyelonephritis. Are most people who claim a PCN allergy truly allergic? Can an anaphylactic PCN response decrease over time? What antibiotic is recommended for OB Pyelo if patients do have a real anaphylactic PCN history? Can OB Pyelo present without fever? Listen in and find out.
10/2/202348 minutes, 27 seconds
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Advanced Paternal Age? YES

The age at which couples have children in the United States continues to increase. While it is well documented and known that maternal age directly impacts fetal and child outcomes, less attention has been given to advanced paternal age (APA). Medical and Genetic commentaries have stated that limited APA principles have been advocated for or disseminated into the medical communities and the general population. There may be considerations for the development and application of a couple-centered strategy counseling on age-related genetic risks. Is APA a real issue? What age defines that? And what has APA been associated with? Listen in and find out!
9/30/202343 minutes, 57 seconds
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Beyfortus PASSIVE Immunity info! For Katie!! ❤️❤️❤️

A quick clarification about Beyfortus neonatal protection against RSV. Thank you Katie for bringing this to my attention! What a wonderful podcast community we have. ❤️❤️❤️
9/28/20234 minutes, 16 seconds
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“The College” Clinical PA: Maternal RSV Vaccine Guidance

We have been following this developing story on the Maternal RSV vaccine, Abrysvo. In the recent podcast, we stated that we would let you know when the ACOG releases its “Practice Advisory”, which is its clinical guidance update. This is now out! In this episode will provide the summary, high-yield points regarding this vaccine’s use in pregnancy. Can this be co-administered with other vaccines? What did ACOG say about the preterm birth “numerical imbalance” among study trial participants who received this vaccine? And which option provides a stronger and longer lasting immune response in the child: maternal vaccination, or newborn vaccination? Listen in and find out.
9/28/202316 minutes, 47 seconds
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LDA in Preg: The SAGA Continues

Low Dose Aspirin has been a routine aspect of preeclampsia prevention since first mentioned by the ACOG’s Hypertension in Pregnancy Task Force report, back in November 2013. Since that time, there has been several revisions of the criteria of who qualifies for low-dose aspirin in pregnancy. Nonetheless, there are calls and expert opinions challenging this “risk factor based” approach, favoring a more universal adoption. Additionally, the DOSE of low-dose aspirin has also come under recent critique. Is 81 mg the correct dose to use? Does aspirin have the potential to reduce preterm birth? In this episode, we will review a soon-to-be released clinical commentary from the AJOG (October 2023) which addresses these matters.
9/26/202339 minutes, 8 seconds
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OB Mental Health Meds: “The College” Data Review.

According to the CDC’s press release from September 2022, the leading underlying causes of pregnancy-related death include mental health conditions (including deaths to suicide and overdose/poisoning related to substance use disorder), accounting for 23% of cases. The top 2 perinatal, mental health conditions are anxiety and depression. And, although much more rare with an incidence of 1–2/1,000, postpartum psychosis is a major cause of self-harm an infant harm. In this episode, we will review “The College’s” recent clinical practice guidelines on mental health therapies in the perinatal interval. Do you know which 2 classes of medications are most preferred for treating anxiety/depression in the perinatal period? Are SSRIs a leading cause of PPHN? Is Lithium allowed in pregnancy? And what is “neonatal adaptation syndrome”? We will cover all these questions, and more, in this episode.
9/25/202347 minutes, 49 seconds
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ASX Postmenopausal ES Thickness: Bx?

It’s pretty standard of an evaluation… TVUS for postmenopausal bleeding. It’s well accepted that an endometrial thickness of 4 mm (5 mm in some studies) should trigger further endometrial tissue analysis in women with postmenopausal bleeding. But is there a cut-off endometrial thickness at which endometrial tissue should be evaluated in a postmenopausal patient WITHOUT bleeding, where this was found incidentally? There is definitely an evidence-based recommendation, and we will cover that in this episode.(With a special guest host 😊…. “Anything for SELENAs”)
9/22/202318 minutes, 42 seconds
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OB SMORGESBOARD: A Cornucopia of Info.

Welcome to our “OB Smorgasburg” episode, where we have a CORNUCOPIA of topics. Well, maybe not a full cornucopia… But a mini-cornucopia. In this episode, we will address 2 recent publications that really are my “pet peeves“ about medical data! One is from the US Preventive Service Task Force, and the other has to do with “timed intercourse”. You have to listen to this! Then we will get into new data regarding the association of 1 abnormal glucose value on the 3 hour GTT with adverse neonatal outcomes. And lastly, is there such a thing as “organic” 50 g glucose challenge? Let’s get into all this information…Now!
9/20/202330 minutes, 16 seconds
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Weekly Labs for HDP (OB HTN)?

Universal, weekly (surveillance) laboratory screening for expectant management of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy has been routine practice since the release of the ACOG’s Hypertension in Pregnancy executive summary in November of 2013. This plan of care was also recommended in the ACOG Practice Bulletin 222 focused on Gestational Hypertension and Preeclmapsia. But does this actually help prevent maternal morbidity? Does routine weekly lab surveillance, detect worsening disease over clinical presentation alone? In this episode, we will summarize a new study soon to be released in the Green Journal (Obstetrics & Gynecology) which seeks to determine the clinical utility of this outpatient, antepartum management option.
9/18/202328 minutes, 20 seconds
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The “Neglected” STI

Trichomoniasis has been found in every continent and climate without showing any significant seasonal variability. According to the CDC, trichomoniasis is estimated to be the most prevalent nonviral STI worldwide, affecting approximately 2.6 million persons in the United States. Conditions shown to be associated with T vaginalis infection include: Increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, increased prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections, adverse outcomes of pregnancy (eg, preterm delivery, preterm prelabor ROM), pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. Nonetheless, despite this potential morbidity, T. Vaginalis remains a non-reportable communicable illness. Why is that? In this episode we will summarize the data and look into the CDC's rationale for that decision.
9/17/202337 minutes, 11 seconds
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Continue Metformin in PCOS Pregnancies?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women, with a prevalence between 10 to 13%. PCOS has a large component of Insulin Resistance at its core. This is not only a metabolic complication in gynecology, but also has adverse implications for pregnancy. Since metformin is a staple of PCOS care, not only for infertility but also for the metabolic syndrome in adults, a common question is what to do with that medication once conception occurs. Should metformin continue past conception, and if so...should it be stopped at a certain gestational age or continued until delivery. There is data to help with this clinical conundrum. In this episode we will review the data from 2001 up to the most recent ASRM PCOS management guideline for PCOS, which just came out-ahead of print- last month August 2023.
9/15/202335 minutes, 55 seconds
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NSAIDs have been shown to be associated with development of VTEs. This data is not new, but is more than 10 years old. Of course, hormonal contraception is also known to potentially increase the risk of VTE depending on the amount of estrogen in the combination product as well as the type of progestin used. So, a reasonable question to ask is whether the use of these two medications TOGETHER synergistically increase the risk of VTE. A recent publication in BMJ (06 Sept 2023) provided some controversial results in this very topic. Could those study results be the result of "indication bias" or protopathic bias? In this episode we will look at the data, summarize the key results, review the study limitations, and provide some real world clinical insights as to what to do with this new info.
9/13/202323 minutes, 20 seconds
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Single- or Double-Layer Closure at CS?

Optimal uterine closure remains one of the most studied and controversial aspects of cesarean delivery. Traditionally, a single-layer locking hysterotomy closure has been taught and passes down. Is this evidence based? Is there any advantage to doing a double-layer myometrial closure? We’ll get down to the data in this episode.
9/12/202336 minutes, 30 seconds
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CS Ut Closure: Decidua or No Decidua?

A uterine niche is a reservoir-like pouch in the anterior uterine isthmus located at the site of a previous CS scar. First published and describe din 1961, there have been a variety of publications looking at "best practice" at cesarean hysterotomy closure to try to minimize its occurrence. This defect has been linked to abnormal placentation in subsequent pregnancies, CS scar ectopic pregnancies, abnormal uterine bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. While the complete pathogenesis of the niche defect is not completely understood, hysterotomy closure techniques have been implicated in its formation. Should we include the endometrial decidual layer at hysterotomy closure or should we exclude it. Its a debated subject but the data does favor one approach over the other. In this episode, we will examine that data.
9/10/202339 minutes, 51 seconds
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SLE in OB: SMFM Info

SLE can affect people of all ages, including children. However, women of childbearing ages—15 to 44 years—are at greatest risk of developing SLE. Women of all ages are affected far more than men (estimates range from 4 to 12 women for every 1 man). Are you familiar with the 2019 updated diagnostic criteria for SLE? What are some specific concerns regarding this condition in pregnancy? Do patients with anti-SSA/SSB antibodies need serial fetal echocardiograms? And do these patients need early induction of labor? We will cover all this information, and more, in this episode (summary of SMFM, Consult Series # 64; 2023)
9/8/202337 minutes, 25 seconds
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Celiac Disease and Fertility/Pregnancy

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine. Celiac disease is the only autoimmune disorder with a single clearly identified environmental trigger...DIET. Although the exact mechanism of the disease development is unknown, celiac disease appears to form after gluten intake from a complex interplay of environmental, immune, and genetic factors. What is Tropical Sprue and hoe is this different than Tropical Sprue? Does this lead to infertility? How is this linked to a specific dermatologic condition? And what about pregnancy outcomes in Celiac Disease. In this episode, we will cover all this data and more! (For Ana!)
9/6/202345 minutes, 4 seconds
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Probiotics for the Vag? Yea or Nay?

Probiotics may be good for your gut, but does your vagina need them too? Probiotics are in everything from fermented drinks to pills and powders, and in many cases, are being advertised as a way of improving your vaginal health. Is that evidence based? Do oral probiotics help support a healthy vaginal microbiome? What about vaginal probiotics? Can vaginal probiotics augment BV therapy? The answer may surprise you. So…Grab your kombucha and take a seat… We’re going to cover this and much more, in this episode. 😊
9/4/202342 minutes, 17 seconds
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Cough Medicine as Antidepressant?

We recently provided some additional information regarding the recently approved medication for postpartum depression, Zoranalone. One of the benefits of this medication is it’s rapid mechanism of action. Although not yet approved for major depressive disorder outside of the perinatal interval, there is a separate medication, which was FDA approved last year, which is ultra-fast acting for depression. Oddly enough, one of its main ingredients is a traditional cough suppressant. Have you heard of this medication? In this episode we will review this incredible development AND highlight some cautionary ⚠️ details.
8/31/202320 minutes, 47 seconds
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MI Dose? Zuranolone for MDD? “Shoulder Shrug”? Your questions answered.

As a true testament that we read each one of our Podcast Facebook messages, this is a “You asked, We answered” episode regarding 3 main recent topics: 1. dose of oral MI for PCOS, 2. Zoranalone for Major Depressive Disorder, and 3. the “shoulder shrug” maneuver for shoulder dystocia. 👍👍👍👍
8/29/202328 minutes, 3 seconds
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Inositol for PCOS? Yes.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder and one of the most frequent causes of infertility in women. It affects 5–20% of women of childbearing age. The pathogenesis of PCOS is still not fully understood; however, insulin resistance (IR) is known to have a central role in its pathogenesis. According to a cross-sectional study, IR is present in 75% of lean and 95% of overweight women with PCOS. This IR seems to have something else behind it: an imbalance in the ratio of 2 vital inositols! In the treatment of PCOS, metformin is the gold standard metabolic treatment. However, metformin may induce mild to severe gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. So, an evidence-based and data driven alternative is highly welcome…especially one that could be seen as “natural”. Can inositol, specifically myo—inositol, “reverse” some PCOS metabolic derangements? Can it help normalize cycles? The data may surprise you.
8/28/202346 minutes, 14 seconds
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UPDATED Recs: Hep B in Pregnancy (Sept 2023).

In 1990, the ACOG released the “Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program“. OB healthcare workers have doing universal screening for Hepatitis B using HBsAg in each pregnancy, ever since. However, there is a new guidance being released in September 2023 from the ACOG. This new guidance aligns with the national Hep B screening and testing recommendations from the CDC released March 2023. Are you familiar with the “Hep B triple screen”? Is antiviral therapy recommended for Hep B in pregnancy? When should it be used? And is breast-feeding still allowed in mothers with Hep B viral infection? We will cover all of this- and more- in this episode. 🎙️🎙️🎙️
8/27/202333 minutes, 36 seconds
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OCPs and Varicose Veins: Risky or Not?

OK, OK…we all get that past history of DVT related to hormonal exposure is a true and persistent contraindication for estrogen birth control. We get that. But what about the incidental presence of lower extremity varicose veins? Are varicose veins a contraindication to estrogen containing birth control? After all, some data has linked superficial varicose veins to the development of DVT. That must mean that estrogen containing BC is contraindicated due to the additional risk of clot formation, right? Is that true? There is some STRANGE information on the internet regarding the association of oral birth control pills and varicose veins. Do combo OCPs cause varicose veins? Do they increase the risk of DVT in those with varicose veins? In this episode we will explore the science, data, and published guidelines related to the prescribing of estrogen containing birth control in patients with varicose veins. PLUS, we will cover which patients- who do by chance develop a superficial venous thrombus in a varicose vein- need anticoagulation.
8/24/202335 minutes, 15 seconds
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New FDA Approved OB RSV Vaccine? Nuances and Cautionary Notes!

On August 21, 2023, the FDA approved a new RSV vaccine for maternal use, ideally in the late third trimester. However, there are some nuances and some cautionary notes here! In this episode, we will review the phase 3 data, which fostered the FDA approval and review the nuances to this study. Are we ready for mass incorporation of the maternal RSV vaccine into clinical practice? The answer quite simply is… “No”. We will explain why in this episode.
8/22/202319 minutes, 58 seconds
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EIN-AEH: New Clinical Consensus (Sept 2023)

In 2015, the ACOG released its Committee Opinion on "Endometrial Intraepithelial Hyperplasia", or EIN (CO 631). EIN is of clinical significance because it is often a precursor lesion to adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Making the distinction between hyperplasia and true precancerous lesions or true neoplasia is super important because their differing cancer risks must be matched with an appropriate intervention to avoid under/overtreatment. As is our podcast tagline, "medicine moves fast"; coming out in September 2023, the ACOG will release a new Clinical Consensus guideline on "EIN-AEH". What are the new changes? Why are we moving from a EIN designation to EIN-AEH? Is a progestin IUS a reasonable therapeutic option for those wishing to preserve fertility after this diagnosis? In his episode, we will answer all these questions and more, focusing on this new Clinical Consensus guideline.
8/21/202341 minutes, 15 seconds
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Vital Tips for Shoulder Dystocia: Understanding the Maneuvers

Recently, a horrific and unimaginable birth event made national (USA) news. A case of shoulder dystocia resulted in an extremely morbid and rarely witnessed complication. On August 16, 2023, an extremely important review article was released (ahead of print) in the American Journal of ObGyn. This article summarizes important key aspects and tips for the proper performance of rescue maneuvers for shoulder dystocia, with the aim of keeping both the mother and the baby safe. In this episode, we will review these critical and vital tips for safe resolution of shoulder dystocia. Should the buttocks rotate upwards with McRoberts maneuver? What is the Ruben I procedure? We’ll get to all of this, and more, in this episode.
8/18/202336 minutes, 4 seconds
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Add Cox2 Inhibitor to Plan B? New Data.

Access to effective oral emergency contraception is vital, now more than ever. While use of either levonorgestrel or ulipristal is endorsed by the ACOG, pharmacodynamic and clinical data does show that ulipristal has the efficacy advantage. Although the process of ovulation is directed by the LH surge, it is also put into action by prostaglandin resulting from COX2 activity. So, can the addition of a COX2 inhibitor increase the efficacy of Plan B when taken as a combo? A new study published 24 hrs ago in the Lancet provides some exciting data. We will cover this new RCT, and more, in this episode.
8/17/202326 minutes, 20 seconds
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Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder: It’s a Real Thing! (Genito-Pelvic Dysesthesia)

Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD), now called Genito-Pelvic Dysesthesia, was first described by Leiblum and Nathan in 2001 in a five-patient case series. This is now a well-recognized pelvic floor/genital abnormality with a consensus statement being released in 2019 by the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health. Are you familiar with this condition? It is a source of severe emotional and mental hardship for those affected. In this episode, we will summarize the data on this strange but very REAL condition that is NOT related to sexual desire or sexual arousal.
8/16/202338 minutes, 2 seconds
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Recurrent AB? STOP Checking This! (ALIFE2 Data)

The definition of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the US is 2 or more consecutive failed clinical pregnancies documented by ultrasound or histopathology, while, in the United Kingdom, the definition is as having 3 or more consecutive early pregnancy losses. Up to 50 percent of cases of recurrent pregnancy loss lack a clear etiology. Where do we stand, in 2023, in regards to our understanding of the effects of inherited thrombophilias on recurrent pregnancy losses? Do they cause recurrent ABs? Does LMWH help? In this episode, we will summarize a June 2023 publication in the Lancet that provides a clear answer.
8/14/202325 minutes
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Does Perineal Massage Prevent SVD Lacs? New Data.

Perineal trauma after vaginal birth is common, with approximately 9 of 10 women being affected. Second-degree perineal tears are twice as likely to occur in primiparous births, with a incidence of 40%! Obstetrical lacerations of all degrees can lead to significant physical and even psychological morbidity, and have been identified as an independent risk factor for sexual dysfunction- which could last up to 18 months after delivery. Can perineal massage help reduce the rate of obstetrical trauma at time of vaginal birth? In this episode, we will summarize a new publication from the AJOG which was released on Aug 10, 2023 (first released as an ePub at the end of 2022) and compare the results covered in that publication with a separate systematic review and meta-analysis published in Feb 2023 in a separate journal. Does antepartum perineal massage help? What about intrapartum perineal massage? The answer depends on who you ask/read? Listen in, and find out why.
8/12/202336 minutes, 45 seconds
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Understanding ZURZUVAE™ (zuranolone): The First Oral Med for PPD

In 2019, brexanolone, better known as Zulresso, became the first postpartum depression (PPD) drug to receive FDA approval. While we have previously discussed this IV medication for PPD in other episodes, there is now a novel oral version of this antidepressant which has made the news as of last week (ie, early august 2023). That medication was known as SAGE 217 during the clinical trials, but it is now known as zuranolone (ZURZUVAE™). YEP.. in the first week of August 2023, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the medication zuranolone for the treatment of postpartum depression – making it the first FDA-approved oral pill in the United States specifically for postpartum depression. Do you know how this medication works? What’s the data on it? Does ACOG have an opinion on this? And what’s the special FDA warning that ended up as a BLACK BOX on the approval? In this episode, we will learn the ins and outs of Zurzuvae.
8/10/202320 minutes, 58 seconds
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Brand New TXA at CS Data: Shout out to KC et al!

In our most recent episode on vaginal prep at C-section, we referenced a parallel topic where individual data pieces seem to be contradictory: prophylactic TXA at time of cesarean section. In that past episode, we referenced a systematic review and meta-analysis that showed prophylactic TXA was indeed beneficial. Well… we are going to build on that data regarding prophylactic TXA in this quick/targeted episode that we call our NEW DATA BLURB. In this episode, we will highlight a fantastic, brand new, systematic review and meta-analysis published by one of our very own podcast family members out of Arizona. Dr. “KC”… Great job and congratulations to you and your co-authors on a wonderful publication. 👏👏👏👏
8/8/202314 minutes, 27 seconds
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Vag E2 After Breast CA: Nah or Yeah?

With improvements in the screening & treatment of Breast Ca, the number of female survivors continues to rise, with a reported 5-year survival rate of up to 90%. However, several of the systemic treatments for breast cancer, including endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, can result in a new or worsened hypoestrogenic state. Up to 70% of postmenopausal women will develop symptoms of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). With an estimated 3.8 million breast cancer survivors in the US, women’s healthcare providers are on the front lines of addressing survivorship issues, including these hypoestrogenic-related adverse effects of cancer therapies or early menopause. This isn’t simply bothersome vaginal dryness, but this also affects sexual intimacy, and may even be linked to recurrent UTIs. Although nonhormonal vaginal agents are traditionally considered first-line for patients with a history of breast cancer, there’s been evolving data on the efficacy and safety of vaginal, low-dose estrogen therapy for genitourinary syndrome of menopause in breast cancer survivors. In this episode, we will highlight pivotal pieces of data starting from 2021 and ending with a new publication just released on August 3, 2023 revealing very impactful and clinically applicable insights reffing vaginal E2 in breast cancer patients.
8/7/202340 minutes, 55 seconds
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To Vag Prep or Not to Prep: That is the Question (Aug 2023 Data)

CS is the most important risk factor for postpartum infection with a 20-fold increase compared to the vaginal delivery route. For post-cesarean section metritis, infection is considered to be primary due to ascending bacteria from the vagina. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is thought to reduce postoperative infections, it has little effect on bacterial colonization of the vagina. Over the past 20 years, multiple randomized clinical trials have investigated the effect of preoperative vaginal preparation/disinfection (including povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, metronidazole gel, etc.) on postoperative infection, but the conclusions have not been consistent. Actually, a publication from June 2023, which we summarized in a prior episode back in Dec 2022 when it was released ahead of print, concluded that vaginal pre- CS prep with povidone-iodine did NOT prevent infectious morbidity over standard infectious precaution use (abdominal prep and standard IV antibiotics). But as of August 2023, there is new data that seeks to provide a more definitive recommendation. In this episode, we will summarize this new systematic review and meta-analysis (AJOG MFM) examining the effectiveness of vaginal cleaning with either povidone-iodine or chlorhexidine acetate in the prevention of post CS infectious morbidity.
8/4/202325 minutes, 15 seconds
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VTE Med Prophylaxis After SVD?

Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) are among the top three causes of maternal death in developed countries and prevention with thromboprophylaxis has been identified as the most readily implementable means of reducing maternal mortality from VTE. Most guidelines address VTE prophylaxis after cesarean section, and/or in those with thrombophilias- not after vaginal delivery alone. The ACOG does not directly address inpatient pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis during antepartum admission nor after vaginal deliveries for patients without a known thrombophilia or without a personal history of a VTE event. Guideline recommendations regarding thromboprophylaxis strategies for women with more commonly occurring risk factors- such as Preeclampsia with severe features- vary widely, leading to uncertainty regarding the optimal strategy for prevention. Do you order pharmacoprophylaxis for postpartum (SVD) patients with “minor risk factors”? What about the patient whose BMI is 40? Have you heard of the recommendations from the NPMS and the CMQCC regarding VTE prevention after vaginal birth? In this episode we're going to review VTE prophylaxis after vaginal delivery and take a look at the data.
8/4/202341 minutes, 7 seconds
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Kratom & Pregnancy

We are still in an opioid crisis state in the US. Have you heard of Kratom? It is likely at your neighborhood health food store or even on the counter at your local gas station. A derivative of the coffee plant, Kratom is making national headlines. Whether Kratom, a legal, widely available herbal supplement, should be classified as an opioid is contentious. Although the US Food and Drug Administration has recently addressed this controversy, Kratom continues to be marketed as an over the counter, nonopioid, "natural" remedy for a variety of conditions- including pain, anxiety, mood, and opioid withdrawal. YES.. its use is increasing in the United States. and it is now getting new attention from both medical as well as governmental authorities for its possible adverse effects during pregnancy and its association with NAS. In this episode, we will discuss this novel OTC herbal supplement which has now earned the watchful eye of the FDA. Kratom: wonder supplement or dangerous herb? Let’s discuss.
8/1/202337 minutes, 21 seconds
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The “Rule of 55” For HDP: A Critical Review of a New Meta-Analysis

In 2019, the ACOG released CO 767 discussing “Emergent Therapy for Acute-Onset, Severe Hypertension During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period”. currently, 3 meds are recommended for the treatment of emergent hypertension in pregnancy: oral nifedipine, IV, labetalol, and IV hydralazine. But which one is “better” at normalizing blood pressure? A new meta-analysis, published on July 24, 2023, provides one answer. However, this meta-analysis did not take into account the most crucial factor determining success of antihypertensive medication: “The Rule of 55”. In this episode, we will review this new meta-analysis from the journal of Mat-Fetal Neonatal Medicine, and review the petition by hypertension experts to tailor antihypertensive treatments based on the “hemodynamic expression” of the hypertensive disorder in pregnancy.
7/30/202342 minutes, 40 seconds
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NEW HPV Vaccine ADVISORY: Use After CIN2+ Therapy (PRACTICE ADVISORY; July 2023)

We have learned so much about the natural progression of HPV induced cervical abnormalities. In 2019/2020, the ASCCP published its updated guidance using a “risk-based” algorithm for management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Traditionally, HPV vaccination was considered ineffective once cervical dysplasia already was present. But recent data has proven this concept incorrect! In this episode, we’re going to summarize a brand new ACOG practice advisory released today, on July 28, 2023, related to this “adjuvant HPV vaccination” for patients undergoing treatment for CIN2 or more.
7/28/202323 minutes, 5 seconds
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Amniotic Fluid Injections? 😳💉💉💉

There are, indeed, FDA indicated applications for purified, amniotic membrane (wound healing). Is there also a role for the use of purified amniotic fluid as a “regenerative medicine” treatment option? Can amniotic fluid injections help repair osteoarthritis and aching joints? Can it be used as EYE DROPS for dry eyes? The subject is trendy on certain social media channels and on certain websites. But this concept of injecting amniotic fluid into various body locations has landed one Texas healthcare professional in hot water. Specifically, the US Department of Justice, has pressed charges. 😳 In this episode we will discuss this whole issue of “regenerative medicine” and the legitimate an illegitimate use of amniotic products, AND we also review the inherent qualities of amniotic membranes and fluid which makes them attractive for "regenerative" uses. 💉💉💉
7/26/202334 minutes, 5 seconds
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HS in Pregnancy

Skin conditions can't affect pregnancy outcomes, right? After all, the skin is just the skin. WRONG! As a chronic inflammatory disease, hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) exemplifies the link between integumentary and comorbid systemic disease through shared inflammatory pathways. Patients have double the comorbidity burden compared with the general population, and hidradenitis suppurativa has independent associations with several individual comorbid diseases. During pregnancy, HS also is associated with some specific pregnancy related morbidities. Successful management of hidradenitis suppurativa is challenging and at times requires comprehensive care from a coordinated team of health care professionals, including dermatologists, general or plastic surgeons, experts in pain management and wound care. In this episode, we ill summarize the pathogenesis of HS, its treatment, and its affect on pregnancy and vice-versa.
7/25/202340 minutes, 13 seconds
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AHA BP Cutoffs Helpful in Pregnancy? (Aug 2023 Data)

In Feb 2023, the USPSTF recommended that clinicians “screen for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy”. Specifically, they stated that “measuring blood pressure at each prenatal visit is the best approach”. Mind blowing I know. 😳😊 But sarcasm aside, a new publication- set to be released next month in AJOG (Slade LJ et al; Aug 2023)- validates this recommendation…not that it needed validation of frequent BP monitoring during pregnancy. This has to do with the “sensitivity” of BP results in pregnancy compared to the “specificity”. Ahhh…intrigued? In this episode, we will review this upcoming publication aimed at evaluate whether the definition of gestational HTN should be revised according to the 2017 ACC and AHA criteria, and whether or not there is an association between adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes based on those lower BP levels. And as always, you’ll want to stay with us until the end of the episode as we pass on real world clinical implications of these findings.
7/23/202340 minutes, 22 seconds
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BV RX to Prevent PTB?

On April 5,2023 the U.S. FDA withdrew its approval of Makena and generic forms of 17-a hydroxyprogesterone caproate for the prevention of recurrent preterm birth. Having the only medication which had been FDA approved for the prevention of preterm birth taken away, has left clinicians investigating other possible strategies that can cause a dent in preterm birth rate. As Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal abnormality in reproductive age women, naturally the spotlight would fall on the treatment of BV for preterm birth prevention. After all, BV is a well-known risk factor for preterm birth. There’s been new advances in the diagnostic tools for vaginal infections, so BV is back in the hot seat as a possible intervention for PTB prevention. Yes, this has been investigated in the past. But in this episode, we’re going to highlight 2 recent publications- one from March 2023, and one from July 17th 2023- which help to solidify the answer to this question: “can treatment of BV help prevent preterm birth?” Let’s talk about that… now.
7/19/202336 minutes, 31 seconds
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Up, Up, and AWAY!😊👋😊👋😊

FYI. We just released our episode for today, July 14, 2023, and will be out until July 23!
7/14/20231 minute, 38 seconds
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Does Walking Induce Labor? 🚶‍♀️🚶‍♀️🤰

Its hard to be pregnancy in the late third trimester, especially in a HOT state like TEXAS in the summer. Pregnant individuals will try just about anything "to just get this baby to come out already!" Historically, walking, spicy foods, and SEX have been "employed" to get the labor process going. Does it work? In this episode we will look at the data examining whether labor can induce spontaneous labor. Is this a myth or a real thing? What about CURB WALKING?! That works, right? Lots to cover and explain in this let's get our walking shoes on and get to it.
7/14/202334 minutes, 23 seconds
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False Positive “Confirmation” Syphilis Test?

There’s no such thing as a “false positive syphilis confirmation test”, is there? After all… It’s right there in the name, CONFIRMATION test! Well, not all positive confirmation tests are true positives, especially when that test is the FTA-ABS. Yes, it’s true, the specificity for this is very good between 95 to 98%. But there are cases of BFPs (Biologic False Positives), which have been reported and published in the literature. This is why putting the test results in clinical context is very important. In this episode, we will highlight a real clinical scenario where a “low level“ confirmation test did not fit the clinical picture (asymptomatic, monogamous, low risk patient). Is there something else going on here? What about autoimmune conditions? Can pregnancy itself cause a false positive FTA-ABS? And more importantly… What are the options for management in this case? We’ll discuss all of this, and also review the “reverse syphilis algorithm” in this episode.
7/13/202333 minutes, 4 seconds
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The Bandl Band

The Bandl Constriction Ring. It is real. It exists. Its true incidence is unclear as it lacks uniform reporting when found at time of cesarean. As labor guideline are more permissive of slowed labor progress, some fear that the incidence of Bandl's Band may rise. What is this ring? What is the pathophysiology of this abnormal uterine response? Can ultrasound detect this labor abnormality? In this episode we will cover the fascinating and controversial history of the Bandl Band and review some key publications describing its potential morbidity.
7/11/202333 minutes, 46 seconds
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How the Sausage is Made! 🤣😊😳

Just a little description of what happens “behind the scenes“! Enjoy. 😊😊❤️❤️😩😩
7/10/20235 minutes, 33 seconds
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Early GDM RX New Data: 👎😕🙁😔

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Currently, the ACOG recommends early screening for GDM for women “at risk”. However, other experts disagree with this approach. On October 6, 2022 we released a podcast episode called “Early GDM Screening: Evidence-based?”. In that episode we covered the controversy regarding early GDM screening, in other words- screening under 24 weeks. We have been following this story and debate for over 2 years now; we first released the episode investigating the utility of early screening back on May 7, 2021 with an episode called “early GDM screening: Does it matter?”. The controversy surrounds maternal and neonatal outcomes… does it improve with early screening? Well… we have more data now! YEP.. looks like we were vindicated in our prior messages covering this! In this episode, we will summarize key findings from a recent June 2023 publication in the NEJM titled, “Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Diagnosed Early in Pregnancy”. The lead author is Simmons. So…should we be doing early screening for GDM? We’ll highlight the data.
7/9/202330 minutes, 36 seconds
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Brand NEW Consensus Statement on OSA in Pregnancy (July 6, 2023)

Well, Well, Well, this is very interesting. Back in May 10, 2023, we released an episode on "OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea) in Pregnancy: Time to Screen?". In that episode, we summarized the impressive data on OSA in pregnancy and its association with some adverse perinatal sequelae. Spring forward to July 6, 2023, the ACOG has now released a brand new Consensus Statement on OSA in pregnancy. This statement is a joint guideline from the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine and the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. Seems that we were ahead of the curve on this one. So, should we screen for OSA in pregnancy? The answer is YES and NO. Is CPAP really safe in pregnancy? We'll explain in this episode.
7/6/202325 minutes, 36 seconds
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HT Causes Dementia?! New June 2023 Data.

The headline from CNN Health form June 28, 2023 reads, "HRT use by younger women linked to dementia, study says". That is FRIGHTENING to any patient using hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms. Does HT cause dementia? Or is HT a "easy suspect"? The question of HT and cognitive function has been a subject of controversy for many years. In this episode we will summarize the NAMS position statement on HT for cognitive issues (2022) as well as summarize this new June 2023 publication from BMJ causing quite a stir among menopauses' medical experts. PLUS, we will provide a likely reason, which is the proverbial "elephant in the room", for this new study's conclusions.
7/6/202331 minutes, 43 seconds
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The “Antiquated” Apgar Score

First published in 1952, the Apgar Score has remained unchanged over 70 years and is intrenched in current OB/Pediatric/Neonatal care. The ACOG highlighted the Apgar Score in 2015 in CO 644. In that release, the ACOG reminds us that although it provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed, it has important limitations: A. The healthy preterm infant with no evidence of asphyxia may receive a low score only because of immaturity, B. The incidence of low Apgar scores is inversely related to birth weight, and C. a low score cannot predict morbidity or mortality for any individual infant. Most importantly, it is inappropriate to use an Apgar score alone to diagnose asphyxia. It has been previously shown that not all items of the conventional Apgar score are of equal importance. However, Virginia Apgar did not differentially weigh or remove individual items since it was her intention to have a score that can be “determined easily and without interfering with the care of the infant”. Accordingly, use of the score has been found to have important use limitations across babies whose skin color has more pigmentation, leading to more NICU admissions in some despite other more objective measures of neonatal status. As the United States and many other countries have become more racially and ethnically diverse, embedding skin color scoring into basic data and decisions of health care may propagate unintentional race-based medicine. In this episode we will discuss the data leading some to call the traditional Apgar score “antiquated” and are calling for a change.
7/3/202336 minutes, 19 seconds
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CBD in Pregnancy, OK? New Data

Listen to this! According to recent US statistics from both consumer reports and 26% of Americans used CBD in 2022, 24% of people owning pets use CBD for their animals and themselves, 33% of Americans have used CBD products at least once, 64% of Americans have used CBD for pain, 49% of Americans use it for anxiety and stress, and 42% of Americans have used it for sleep and insomnia. CBD is super common, and it is super unregulated. CBD, or cannabidiol, is one of the numerous cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. After THC, CBD is the second most active substance found in the plant. THC produces the euphoria that users feel when consuming it through various methods. CBD differs in that it doesn't produce a high, is non-psychoactive, and like THC, isn't physically addictive. Although CBD has shown promise in migraine care, chronic pelvic pain, fibromyalgia, and cancer associated pain, it is NOT benign. CBD contains several terpenes that are all oil-based. These are known to cause some disturbances in the body's immune system. Other things like lethargy, sedation, and increases in liver enzymes are possible when used regularly. Things like malaise, weakness, heavy fatigue, diarrhea, and a skin rash may occur. Nonetheless, as CBD is viewed as “natural”, many pregnant women look to this as an alternative medication for pregnancy aches and pains. Is this safe? We know that THC is problematic, but what about CBD? We have learned much more about CBD in pregnancy since the ACOG’s CO 722, first released in 2017 and reaffirmed in 2021…and even the term has changed! In this episode we will review the data on CBD use in pregnancy from 2018 (since the last ACOG CO) onward and let you know why one word in particular is no longer favored.
7/1/202332 minutes, 48 seconds
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Placental Lakes on Sono: Implications?

This episode subject was requested by Emily, one of our podcast family members. She has noticed the reporting of “large placental, venous lakes” on antepartum ultrasound. Placental lakes are enlarged spaces in the placenta filled with maternal blood. These spaces are also called intervillous spaces because they are found between the placental villi the finger-like projections of the placenta that contain fetal blood vessels . The placental villi float in the intervillous spaces and absorb oxygen and nutrients from the maternal blood. The blood-filled placental lakes appear nearly black on ultrasound because they do not reflect soundwaves back to the ultrasound machine. Placental lakes can be seen within the placenta or on the fetal surface of the placenta bulging into the amniotic cavity. Slow swirling blood flow may be seen within the spaces, and the shape of the spaces tends to change with uterine contractions. These features may help to distinguish a placental lake from a thrombus. Well, why is this even supposed to be an issue? How can venous lakes affect the fetus, after all…maternal blood is normally found in the intervilluous spaces between the chorionic villi which house the placental vessels for gas exchange. Well, the theory is that these large placental lakes may affect blood redistribution in the chorionic fetal vessels, leading to increased incidence of placental growth abnormalities or fetal distress in labor. Are these placental sono findings a harbinger of bad things to come or are they simply benign findings? Let’s look at the data!
6/29/202325 minutes, 39 seconds
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Genetic Screen or E-phoresis For Hemoglobinopathy? Is One Better Than the Other?

We recently had a patient in our OB high-risk community clinic whose maternal carrier screen result was either late or lost. Thinking the test may be lost, another resident ordered hemoglobin electrophoresis. The electrophoresis was NEGATIVE (that is, no abnormal hemoglobin was found at detectable levels)…by the way, good for that resident! After calling the lab for the genetic screen and not getting a clear answer from that location, they had the self- initiative in ordering a back-up test. AND TURNS OUT: this was a GREAT educational opportunity as the results from these two tests were discordant: the maternal carrier screening panel returned the day after and was POSITIVE for alpha thalassemia trait. So, which is better? Hgb electrophoresis (once considered the clinical gold standard over CBC with indices) or molecular testing? Let’s explore the data in this episode.
6/28/202333 minutes, 27 seconds
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Can GBS Cause Vaginitis? New Data on Aerobic Vaginitis.

Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) made its debut in the medical literature in 1965, by the hands of Gray and Barnes. In that paper, they presented their findings on 478 women complaining of vaginal discharge. Then, in 2002, Donders et al. described a new entity, referred to as aerobic vaginitis (AV). This term emphasized the clear contrast with the far more common and acknowledged form of dysbiosis: bacterial vaginosis (BV). These 2 clinical conditions are now thought to exist on a clinical continuum of presentations with AV being the "milder form" and "DIV" manifesting as a more severe condition. Recently, I received three separate questions regarding aerobic vaginitis (AV) and the potential role of GBS in its etiology...which lead to the research for this episode. Can GBS cause vaginitis (AV)? Or is it simply a "colonizer", and not a pathogen? This topic and the role of GBS in it has been a hot debate for 40 years PLUS! However, new data published in March 2023 by the ISSVD has contributed to: the credibility of AV as a cause of vaginitis, the pathogenesis of this DIAGNOSIS OF EXCLUSION, and resulted in a guideline for therapy. We will cover all this- and more- in this episode.
6/27/202342 minutes, 11 seconds
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Circumvallate Placenta: Maleficent or Meh?

The word placenta, first used in a 1638 anatomy textbook, was borrowed from the New Latin phrase placenta uterina, meaning "uterine cake", because the circular, flat shape of the organ was thought to resemble a traditional Roman flat cake. Circumvallate is another Latin derived term meaning the "encircled placenta, by a rampart". Circumvallate placentas are a form of extrachorial placenta where the basal plate extends past the margins of the chorion plate resulting in the chorion and amnion folding over one another onto the fetal surface. Is a circumvallate placenta an incidental finding or is it a harbinger of adverse outcomes? The answer to that question depended, until recently, on who you asked and WHEN you asked. In this episode, we will summarize and highlight a new publication from the American Journal of Perinatology from May 2023 which serves to offer a more definitive answer to this question. So, is the circumvallate placenta Maleficent or Meh? Listen in and find out!
6/23/202328 minutes, 45 seconds
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Syphilis' Vertical Transmission (Congenital Syphilis)

Over the past decade, there’s been about a 700% increase in the cases of congenital syphilis in the United States. That’s 700%! Rates of congenital syphilis, meaning the number of cases for every 100,000 live births, are highest in the South and Southwest, in states such as Arizona, New Mexico, Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. Individual states have seen increases that are even more astounding. From 2016 to 2021, cases shot up 3,300% in Mississippi, nearly 3,000% in Oklahoma, more than 2,200% in Hawaii, more than 1,800% in Washington, more than 1,600% in New Mexico, according to CDC data . "Clinical Pearls" has covered screening and diagnosis of maternal syphilis in past episodes; one past episode focused on the traditional and the now-favored reverse sequence algorithms. You can find that episode in our archives from July 03, 2022. Do you know what the CDC calls “inadequate treatment” for congenital syphilis prevention? Having recently had concern for a child born at high risk of congenital syphilis, in this episode we will focus on the vertical transmission of syphilis and congenital syphilis (CS) and provide several clinical pearls related to this subject.
6/21/202331 minutes, 29 seconds
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IUD(S) Insert with BV? IUD(S) Pearls.

LARCS provide remarkable contraception. The IUD and the IUS are both HIGHLY effective, although they do not have the same typical-use failure rates. While it is common knowledge that active mucopurulent cervicitis is a contraindication for IUD/IUS placement, what about the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV)? BV has been identified for years as an independent risk factor for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease. Is placement of an IUD/IUS in a patient with current BV contraindicated? What do the guidelines say? Listen in and find out.
6/18/202324 minutes, 55 seconds
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Bacteria Causes Endometriosis? Surprising New Data From June 2023.

Endometriosis is caused by endometrial-like tissue containing endometrial glands and extensive fibrotic tissue growing outside the endometrial cavity, most often in the pelvic peritoneum or ovaries, resulting in chronic pelvic pain and infertility. It is reported to affect 10 to 15% of women of reproductive age, with an unknown percentage of women who go on undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. For decades, Sampson's Theory has survived as the most "likely" to explain the pathogenesis of endometriosis. But why do some women with retrograde menstruation go on to develop endometriosis while others do not? That has been the big UNKNOWN for decades....until NOW. Could the answer be because of the uterine microbiome? Its highly possible! If so, certain combination of antibiotics may reduce and/or reverse some of the pathology of endometriosis. In this episode, we will summarize a brand new study (from 06/14/23) that is SHAKING UP gynecology! Listen in...and find out what this data is about, its clinical applications, and the gaps that still remain in this story.
6/15/202329 minutes, 39 seconds
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New Data on PP Home BP Checks: June 2023 Systematic Review

The world of "Hypertension (HTN) in Pregnancy" is an ever-evolving environment! Many clinicians have adopted patients' home monitoring of blood pressure (BP) in their management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Do you recommend home BP monitoring in your OB patients? On May 4, 2022 we summarized the results of 2 RCTs examining whether home BP monitoring during antepartum care prevents HTN morbidity and mortality. These were BUMP1 and BUMP2 (JAMA). We will again summarize the key findings from those 2 RCTs in this episode. PLUS, we will highlight a brand new publication from Obstet Gynecology (the Green Journal) which was just released on June 13, 2023 (Steele et al) which examines the effectiveness of POSTPARTUM home BP monitoring in patients with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Does that reduce postpartum HTN morbidity? Its completely acceptable to be "medically conservative" and have patients self-monitor their BPs at home...but is that also data-driven? And which antihypertensive seems to work the best in the immediate postpartum interval: labetalol, nifedipine, or is it furosemide? Listen in and find out!
6/15/202328 minutes, 45 seconds
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MSAFP “Addendum”: Thank you Maggie Ray!

Just a quick clarification regarding a previous statement, on an earlier episode, regarding MSAFP….thank you Maggie Rey! ❤️❤️❤️this community.
6/13/20233 minutes, 30 seconds
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The Pill Causes Depression? New June 2023 Data

Does the combination birth control pill cause depression? This has been a controversial subject for over 2 decades. While some observational studies have described a possible association, randomized clinical trials have shown little to no connection. On June 12, 2023, a new population-based cohort study from the UK sought to evaluate this possible association. This resulted in some interesting claims! These results, just within 24 hours, have now made their way to major news outlets and social media circles. In this episode, we will summarize the key findings as well as the key limitations to this “hot-off the press" publication.
6/13/202326 minutes, 13 seconds
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NAMS 06/2023 NonHormonal Position Statement

I recently received a message from one of our podcast family members requesting more gynecological topics...that was perfect timing, since the NAMS just released its 2023 Position Statement on "NonHormonal Therapies" for vasomotor symptoms on June 1st. In this episode we will summarize this 18 page monograph. The NAMS expert working work critically evaluated the published literature on all nonhormonal therapies for hot-flashes and grouped them into 5 categories: lifestyle modifications; mind-body techniques; prescription therapies; dietary supplements; and acupuncture-other treatments-and technologies. In this episode we will cover each of these categories to keep you informed, up to date, and evidence-based. Is yoga recommended for hot-flash relief? What about cannabinoids? Can chiropractic adjustments help with hot-flashes? Listen in and find out!
6/11/202329 minutes, 24 seconds
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Dermatoses of Pregnancy (Pt 2)

Welcome back to part 2. In this episode we will wrap up our discussions on dermatoses of pregnancy, focusing on atopic eruptions of pregnancy and ICP. Do you know what the 3 comorbidities are which may follow a diagnosis of ICP? We’ll cover that here. AND we’ll throw in a weird one as our final discussion point, one that is considered by some to be the 5th dermatosis of pregnancy. This is the Triple P: Pustular Psoriasis of Pregnancy.
6/9/202324 minutes, 13 seconds
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Dermatoses of Pregnancy (Pt 1)

I’ve said this many times before: I ❤️ our podcast community. This podcast topic idea comes from Jerry, an OBGYN Resident in Virginia. 👏👏 Jerry writes, “I wanted to know if you could do a topic on the Dermatoses of Pregnancy. My program has had some interesting cases recently and most of what I could find was in UpToDate. I couldn’t find a specific PB or CO on the topic, so I wanted to reach out.” Honestly, I hadn’t even thought of this topic…and it is a good one! We do see patients with these complaints very frequently. So, in this episode we are going to not just scratch the surface—see my dad joke there? “Scratch the surface”, as we talk about dermatoses—anyway…we will be taking a deep dive into these conditions: their presentations, workup, and therapies. Is herpes gestationis related to herpes virus? Can pruritic papules and plaques on the abdomen have bullae? Which conditions are linked to adverse maternal-neonatal outcomes? And what is the condition known as, TRIPLE P? …Stay with us and find out. 🧴😳❓😬
6/7/202323 minutes, 1 second
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IDA + BetaThal Trait in OB: Fe, or No Fe?

It has long been considered that iron deficiency does not exist in Thalassemia syndromes, including Thalassemia major as well as Trait (Thal minor). But that is incorrect. Recent studies have shown the occurrence of iron deficiency in patients with Beta-Thalassemia Trait. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy has been associated with an increased risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, and perinatal mortality and should be treated with iron supplementation in addition to prenatal vitamins. However, patients with Beta-Thalassemias have been considered to be at risk of iron overload due to alterations in function of hepcidin. So, can pregnant women with Beta-Thalassemia Trait, found on hemoglobinopathy screening, take oral iron supplementation for concomitant iron deficiency anemia? That’s a big question, and we’re going to answer it in this episode!
6/4/202326 minutes, 5 seconds
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Sterile or Clean Gloves for Labor Checks? New RCT Data (June 2023)

When performing cervical examinations during labor, providers in the United States commonly use sterile gloves, even when there is no rupture of membranes. Is this an evidence-based practice or is it simply tradition? This debate has been going on for decades. In this episode, we will highlight some interesting/intriguing hospital policies and procedures, and walk-down our history timeline of data. We will start in 2010 and end with a recent publication from June 2023 from the AJOG-MFM. Finally, there is some Level I evidence to help settle this debate. 🧤🧤🧤❓❓❓
6/2/202332 minutes, 49 seconds
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GDM Screen After 28 Weeks? Yay or Nay.

Here’s a real world clinical conundrum: A patient first presents for prenatal care in the 3rd trimester. As healthcare providers, we play a game of “catch-up” with routine serum tests ordered to make up for time lost. But what about specific pregnancy tests that are restricted to gestational age? Take, for example, GDM screening. Currently, traditional screening for GDM occurs at 24 to 28 weeks based on the original studies by O’Sullivan and Carpenter-Coustan. Or take this parallel, clinical scenario: A patient passes routine screening between 24 and 28 weeks, but in the 3rd trimester has suspected fetal macrosomia or new onset polyhydramnios. Should we rescreen these patients for GDM? As cut off values for the GDM screens are based on a 24 - 28 week pregnancy, we don’t really know what the cut off serum glucose levels should be after 28 weeks. And more importantly, does diagnosing GDM in the 3rd trimester improve maternal or neonatal outcomes? In this episode, we will walk down history’s timeline of data starting in 2001 and ending with a publication in 2022. We’ll discuss the findings of these publications (6 total) and at the end of the episode, I’ll give you my personal perspective on the subject.
5/31/202331 minutes
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The 39 Week IOL “Dilemma”

We are now 5 years into the publication of the Arrive trial (2018) which opened the door to elective induction of labor at 39 weeks in an otherwise low risk pregnancy. But five years later authors and researchers are still debating whether a 39 week elective induction is helpful or not. Yep, the rebuttals and retorts against the ARRIVE trial began shortly after its publication, and they are still active even now- with a recent publication, from February 2023, having an opposing view. Yep…While some have called for universal adoption of the “39 week IOL rule“, others have put the brakes on the plan. in this episode, we’re going to dive into this persistent on again off again dilemma of elective induction at 39 weeks. This podcast idea comes from one of our podcast family members who sent me this message on May 27: “Hey Dr. Chappa, what are your and your team's thoughts on elective induction at 39 weeks? I've had multiple discussions with my co-fellow about how it may not be the best option for some of our pregnant folks, especially those who have had a successful un-induced vaginal delivery. My attending sent me an interesting article from the Journal of Perinatology which questions the validity of the Would love any input you have on this. Thanks!” What a great topic to discuss. There’s so much to unpack here and we’re going to summarize that article which came out in print in February 2023, and we will also discuss a separate study that followed in March 2023 on this very issue. And…Is 39 week eIOL cost effective? Lots of angles to examine here and we will do all of that in this episode. And- as always- you’ll want to stay with us until the end of the episode because I’ll provide my personal perspective and typical practice regarding eIOL at 39 weeks.
5/29/202336 minutes, 16 seconds
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Nonhypoxic Antepartum Fetal Bradycardia

The fetal heart rate is controlled by various integrated physiological mechanisms, most importantly by a balance of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve impulses. Intrapartum, fetal bradycardia may be in direct response to an evolving or acute hypoxic event, including tachysystole, uterine rupture, or placental abruption. Antepartum, excluding acute events like maternal trauma which could lead to an acute hypoxic episode, most fetal brady arrhythmias will be nonhypoxia related. We recently evaluated and cared for a patient at 23 weeks gestation with the incidental finding during her routine prenatal visit of a fetal HR of 90. This was confirmed by bedside ultrasound, and then noted to be in the 70s on reexamination in L&D. There was no fetal hydrops, no evidence of maternal injury, no maternal connective tissue disease, normal amniotic fluid, and a normal fetal movement seen on ultrasound. What are the possible causes of antepartum fetal bradyarrhythmia? What’s the work-up? What is the fetal Long QT syndrome? And when is delivery recommended? Listen in and find out.
5/26/202323 minutes, 15 seconds
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New Serum Biomarker Test for sPreeclampsia (The Praecis Study).

On May 19, 2023, the FDA cleared a novel biomarker serum test for the risk stratification for severe preeclampsia in hypertensive pregnant women. This clearance is the first given to any blood-based biomarker test for assessing preeclampsia risk. The company is Thermo Fisher Scientific (no disclosures). But what does this test actually check for? Who qualifies for this? And what was the clinical investigation that the FDA based its clearance decision on? And most importantly…what do we do with this result?! We will answer all of these questions- the what, why, how, and what now- in this episode.
5/23/202323 minutes
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Umbilical Vein Injection for 3rd Stage?

The 3rd stage of labor is the time from child's birth to delivery of the placenta. Delayed placental separation and expulsion is a potentially life-threatening event because it hinders expected postpartum uterine contraction, which can lead to PPH. The concept of umbilical vein injection of a variety of substances (saline, pitocin, plasma expanders) is nothing new. It is first described in the 1930s! This had found new life in the 1980s and 1990s but soon thereafter again fell into ambiguity. What is the theorized MOA of this intervention? Does oxytocin injection into the umbilical vein help prevent PPH? Is this an effective management option in the 3rd stage? We will walk down history's timelime and find out. We will also summarize the data of 2 Cochrane Reviews that have twice looked at this technique, with the last published report in 2021. Thank you Haley for the podcast topic suggestion!
5/22/202332 minutes, 27 seconds
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Laughing Gas in Labor.

Although labor epidural remains the gold standard for labor analgesia, some patients may opt for a trial of a less invasive analgesic agent. While IV/IM narcotics are an option, others may prefer a trial of nitrous oxide (N2O). In this episode, we will review the crazy history of this useful inhalational agent, and how it has ties to the manufacturing of the Colt45 handgun, how it transformed dentistry, and review the contribution to medicine by Dr. Horace Wells. We will review N2O's current application in obstetrics, and summarize statements from the ACNM and the ACOG. And…What does this gas have to do with vitamin B12? Are there any safety warnings out there regarding its use? And does it even work? Let’s answer these questions, and more, in this episode.
5/20/202325 minutes, 28 seconds
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Bipolar in Pregnancy

Just the other day I received a text from one of our wonderful FM attendings in our group concerned about refilling a patient’s Lamictal in early pregnancy. When asked if that was acceptable to do, I quickly answered ABSOLUTELY. We’ve come a long way in understanding bipolar disorder and a long way since lithium was first described for its use. While its use in psychiatry dates to the mid-19th century, the widespread discovery of lithium is usually credited to Australian psychiatrist John Cade who introduced it for mania in 1949. The first randomized trial was published in 1954 showing efficacy for this mental health condition. The drug was not US FDA approved for treatment of bipolar disorder until 21 years later in 1970. Thankfully, now- safer options of medical therapy are available for reproductive age women. In this episode we will summarize the data on medical therapy for bipolar disorder. Which medications are preferred? Are serum drug levels recommended? Does lithium really cause Epstein's Anomaly? And what drastic move did the UK perform to reduce fetal exposure to some medications commonly used for bipolar disorder in reproductive age women? We’ll explain it all in this episode.
5/17/202322 minutes, 53 seconds
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Lactational Mastitis and Abscess: New Data on the Milk Microbiota

The ACOG recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life, with continued breastfeeding while complementary foods are introduced during the infant’s first year of life, or longer, as mutually desired by the woman and her infant (ACOG CO 820; 2021). Problems may arise that can keep women from achieving their breastfeeding goals, and only 25.4% of women are breastfeeding exclusively at 6 months. One of the most common reasons women stop breastfeeding is engorgement, which could lead to lactational mastitis due to milk stasis. In this episode we will review the current best practice plans for lactational mastitis and one its complications, breast abscess. Plus, new data regarding the pathogenesis of lactational mastitis is challenging the old traditional model of causation; we’ll explain in this episode.
5/15/202319 minutes, 10 seconds
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You Asked, We Answered! (#2): 4 Topics Clarified.

This is our second episode in the format of “You Asked, We Answered!” In this episode we will clarify and discuss 4 topics currently active: (1) Is the FDA approving OTC Birth Control? What is the progestin in the OPill? Do you know what “Free the Pill” is? We’ll discuss here. (2) Why did the USPSTF change the MMG screening rec to age 40? Has’nt the ACOG already recommended that? And what did the USPSTF comment regarding dense breasts? We’ll discuss here. (3) What is the “10 and 10” association between HbA1c and Birth defects? We’ll discuss this and the “rule of 30”, and lastly (4) We recently summarized a new publication on IPI after stillbirth and commented on the higher risk of PTB overall in the first pregnancy after stillbirths. Was this due to medically indicated inductions or due to spontaneous PTB (Ruthy’s question)? We will discuss in this episode!
5/13/202329 minutes, 5 seconds
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“Completed” Gestational Weeks?

Historically, governmental and professional societies referred to gestational "completed" weeks in their definitions of preterm or term deliveries. But this term of "completed weeks" has remained a point of confusion for clinicians and researchers alike. The ACOG favors simply stating the gestational age as clear designations of weeks and days (e.g., 34 weeks 5 days) rather than "completed weeks". Nonetheless, state and national vital statistics reports still rely on documented completed weeks. Does "34 completed weeks" imply the day after 33 weeks and 6 days, or the day after 34 weeks and 6 days"? We'll clear up the confusion regarding "completed" weeks of gestation in this episode.
5/12/202316 minutes, 1 second
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OSA in Pregnancy: Time to Screen?

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects nearly 30 million people in the United States. OSA isn’t just a disruption to pregnant women’s sleep, it is linked to serious pregnancy complications. In this episode will summarize the latest research on OSA and disorganized sleep patterns and their associated pregnancy outcomes. Should we screen for this in pregnancy? Is CPAP safe in pregnancy? Should these patients be on low dose aspirin? Does treatment for OSA prevent the adverse perinatal outcomes? Screening for OSA in pregnancy is controversial…so you’ll need to stay with us until the end of the episode to find out why. This topic suggestion comes from a second-year resident in Columbus, Ohio, who is part of our podcast family. Dani, thanks for reaching out. Enjoy your residency journey… It goes by fast. Dani, here’s your podcast.
5/10/202332 minutes, 24 seconds
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Pregnancy After Stillbirth: Does Timing Matter?

Stillbirth is one of the most common adverse pregnancy outcomes, occurring in 1 in 160 deliveries in the United States. The optimal interpregnancy interval (IPI) after stillbirth is unclear. Currently, many organizations recommend IPIs greater than 18 months due to findings that, after live birth, a short IPI is associated with increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and, sometimes, stillbirth. But this was based largely on expert opinion and not peer reviewed data. Recently, data has been published on this very subject that may aid bereaved parents in planning for a next pregnancy. In this episode we will review the first large-scale population study on the subject (from 2019) and summarize a soon-to-be released publication from Obstetrics Gynecology (the Green Journal) examining the effect of IPI after stillbirth.
5/9/202324 minutes, 49 seconds
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Slowed Fetal Growth Trajectory & Neonatal Outcomes

The ACOG defines FGR as fetuses with an estimated fetal weight or abdominal circumference that is less than the 10th percentile for gestational age (ACOG PB 227). BUT, some argue against this cut off. There may be a subgroup of AGA fetuses with placental insufficiency who display slowing of fetal growth trajectory while in utero, but do not end up with a birthweight <10th centile at term, and so not classed as FGR. Such a cohort that has declined in weight centiles in late pregnancy may be an important under-recognized group with sub-optimal placental function. Growth velocity represents the rate of fetal growth in a specific time interval and may have more clinical utility to distinguish normal from pathological fetal growth and may help to identify fetal growth abnormalities that are abnormal yet still above the crucial 10% cut off. So in this episode we're going to focus on this very question... what do we do with those fetuses that we find have plateaued or have slowed trajectories of fetal growth antepartum but are still above the 10th percentile. It's a common clinical conundrum. This podcast idea comes from one of our podcast family members who reached out for this very reason. Lauren, thank you for your message, here's your podcast.
5/8/202334 minutes, 9 seconds
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FASD and Paternal ETOH Use

Can you believe that in 1977, the public health guidelines issued by the National Institutes of Health suggested a two-drink-per-day limit for pregnant women? It's TRUE. Ethanol had even been investigated, and promoted, and an "effective tocolytic agent". We now, of course, understand that there is no safe amount of ethanol use during pregnancy. Our understanding of FASD has evolved over the years, so much so that we now understand that FASD is possible by PATERNAL use of alcohol in the prericonception period. This is due to epigenetic changes in the sperm. In this episode we will review some historical facts regarding the use of alcohol in pregnancy and summarize new data demonstrating the MALE partner's contribution to FASD.
5/6/202322 minutes, 16 seconds
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Epidural Related Maternal Fever (ERMF)

Epidural anesthesia remains the gold standard for relieving labor pain. Currently, there are 3 techniques for providing epidural related analgesia (traditional epidural, combined spinal- epidural, and dural scrape/puncture epidural). A controversial subject dating back to the 1990s, epidural related maternal fever (ERMF) has been extensively studied. In this episode, we will summarize two recent publications on the subject from the AJOG and review historical data. What is the pathophysiology of ERMF? Are antibiotics still indicated in these patients? Listen in and find out.
5/3/202331 minutes, 7 seconds
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MH in L&D: Recognize & Act

Medical/Nursing simulations which focus on high-acuity, low-frequency crisis events improve team dynamics, team morale, and most importantly patient outcomes. One such high-acuity, low-frequency event is malignant hyperthermia (MH). On labor and delivery (L&D) units, neuraxial (spinal and epidural) blocks are the safest and most commonly used anesthetics. However, general anesthesia is performed when the case is emergent (stat), when the regional anesthesia level is insufficient, or regional anesthesia is contraindicated (low platelets). Joint Commission accreditation included preparedness for medical reactions/emergent conditions, including malignant hyperthermia. In this episode we will provide a high-yield summary of MH including etiology, pathophysiology, medication rescue, and supportive care for this potentially life threatening emergency.
5/1/202322 minutes, 33 seconds
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Daily Dilemmas, Easy Answers!

One of the sources of ideas for our podcast topics is our daily clinical practice. During my recent shift in ultrasound clinic, we encountered 4 clinical scenarios which became wonderful teaching opportunities at that moment. In this episode, we will share these common- at times, daily – clinical dilemmas, and we will provide evidence-based, easy answers!
4/29/202329 minutes, 58 seconds
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CGM in Diabetic Pregnancies

In June 1999 the FDA approved the first continuous glucose monitor for diabetic intervention. We have come along way since 1999. Continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) come in 2 different varieties: real-time CGM, and intermittent/“flash” monitor devices. The use of these devices in pregnancy has exponentially grown. In this episode, we will summarize the key findings from the landmark study, published in 2017 in patients with Type I diabetes in pregnancy (the CONCEPTT study). Is there evidence supporting the use of these devices for gestational diabetes? Has the FDA cleared any of these devices for use in pregnancy? We will answer these questions and much more in this episode.
4/27/202329 minutes, 50 seconds
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Literature References!

You asked… We did! Listen in and find out what this means.
4/26/20232 minutes, 6 seconds
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Incidental HCG in Menopause?

It’s a rather uncommon, but not rare, phenomenon: the incidental hCG finding in a postmenopausal patient. What are we supposed to do with that? Is this automatically cancer? In this episode, we will highlight a real clinical case from one of our podcast listeners, Cynthia. We will review the likely causes of low-level hCG levels in a postmenopausal woman (who is not pregnant). You may be surprised of some possible etiologies. Towards the end of the episode, we will also provide an evidence-based recommendation on the diagnostic evaluation/work up of this type of patient. Lastly, we will give an important reminder of how urine could be a valuable tool in this schema.
4/26/202328 minutes, 25 seconds
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Max Misoprostol Total Dose For Ripening?

The earliest studies of misoprostol’s use in cervical ripening and labor induction were done by South American investigators, who reported their experience using intravaginal misoprostol. This was published in the Lancet in 1992. Despite its widespread incorporation into obstetrical practice, there’s still some lack of uniformity in its administration. Is there a cumulative maximum dose allowed for cervical ripening? What about time… is there a maximal amount of time in which misoprostol can be used? Is that 12 hours, 18 hours, 24 hours? In this episode we will review important misoprostol’s FDA label information, summarize position statement from the ACOG and AWHONN, and discuss issues with “scoring” the 100mcg tablet to give a 25mcg dose. And of course, we will summarize the important peer-reviewed data regarding “maximum vaginal cumulative doses” of this medication for cervical ripening/labor induction.
4/24/202324 minutes, 14 seconds
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IUPC Pros &Cons vs EUM

The concept of measuring intrauterine contractions strength was first proposed in 1949, and eventually published in 1952. The use of an IUPC is well ingrained in modern obstetrical/intrapartum practice. Even though it is so commonly performed, we tend to forget some potential limitations and possible risks of this procedure. In this episode, we will review the history and purpose of the IUPC and remind ourselves of some real (though rare) limitations and risks. We will also touch on an evolving, new alternative to intrapartum uterine monitoring: electrical uterine monitoring (EUM). This is electromyography (EMG) of the uterine muscle activity as a contraction monitoring technique.
4/23/202330 minutes, 28 seconds
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Can “Shrooms” Cure HPV?

Once considered on the fringe of main-stream medicine, “alternative therapies” are becoming more accepted into clinical practice. Such is the case of psilocybin (a mushroom extract) for certain mood disorders. 🍄 And now, another mushroom extract (AHCC) has gained attention in gynecology. Could this extract help eliminate the most common viral STI? Is this evidence-based? The research may surprise you. Let’s review the data on ‘shrooms and HPV. Thank you Leah for the episode suggestion! Keep up the great work up north in Long Island! 😊
4/20/202328 minutes, 58 seconds
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You Asked, We Answered. 🤔👏🤔

We ❤️ our podcast community! Over the last 3 recent episodes, we have received similar “themed“ listener questions. So in this episode, we are going to respond to some recent inquiries regarding three recent episodes: 1. combination birth control and estrogen levels (and Perimenopausal use), 2. vaginal progesterone for patients without a history of preterm birth, and 3. the use of vaginal dilators for vaginismus. This is how we all grow together! Now… Let’s get to your questions. 😊😊😊🤔🤔🤔
4/18/202333 minutes, 34 seconds
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Jade Egg, & Vaginal Weight Lifting 🤔

I recently had a patient (young reproductive age, without prolapse or urinary incontinence) ask me about using the “Jade Egg” vaginally for better sex. Women’s sexual intimacy is a big dollar commercial industry. What’s the history behind this Jade Egg and/or other vaginal insertion weights? Is there a benefit to using these inside the vagina for pelvic floor training and enhanced sexual intimacy? Are these any better than regular Kegel exercises? In this episode, we’ll do a deep-dive into the data and find out when, if ever, these devices may be used as ancillary tools.
4/16/202331 minutes, 38 seconds
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Does Mec Staining Correlate to Duration of Exposure?

Presence of meconium stained membranes/placental tissue has been used in medico-legal cases by both plaintiffs and the defense alike. Using the presence of meconium stained tissue has been used as a tool to “timeline” fetal hypoxia. Is this evidence-based? In the session, we will review the historical data (1985) that fueled this concept, and give the latest scientific and medical expert opinion regarding the possibility of this theory (highlighting a new Expert Review in the AJOG, April 2023).
4/14/202324 minutes, 21 seconds
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Cerclage, Vag Prog, & PTB: SMFM April 13 Statement.

Oh, the ever evolving drama of “progesterone in high risk obstetrics”. Today, April 13, 2023, the SMFM released its Special Statement response to the recent change in the progesterone PTB prevention landscape. Where does cerclage fit in? In this episode we will summarize the current recommendation for cerclage for preterm birth prevention and how it fits in to the vaginal progesterone story. Is cervical ultrasound surveillance after vaginal progesterone initiation warranted? We will make it clear in this episode.
4/13/202310 minutes, 26 seconds
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PostPartum IUDs: Best Time to Place?

We have come a long way in our understanding regarding the safety of intrauterine contraception. Once withheld from adolescents and immediately postpartum patients, the safety in both populations is now well established. Postpartum IUD/IUS placement is a balance between risk of expulsion and patient loss to follow up. In this episode, we will summarize a new RCT from JAMA discussing this very subject. Is it better to place immediately Postpartum, at 2 weeks after delivery, or as an interval procedure at 6 to 8 weeks? We will summarize this Level I evidence and also provide helpful resources for increased accessibility of LARC options, including the new (April 2023) ACOG Committee Statement on this very issue.
4/12/202324 minutes, 37 seconds
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Low-dose ComboBC VTE Risk (PLUS HRT E2 Serum Levels)

This episode is in reply to one of our fantastic podcast family members who had some wonderful clinical questions regarding dosage of combination BC after listening to our past episode. In our immediate past episode, we discussed hypoestrogenemic symptoms on ultra low-dose pills in certain patients (young, thin). Is a 20 µg BC pill less thrombotic than a 30 or 35 µg pill? What does the data say? In this episode will answer this question and also dive deeper into serum estradiol levels not only with combination birth control but also with menopausal hormone therapy. Is there a “target level” of systemic/serum estrogen with combination HRT? Listen in and find out.
4/10/202325 minutes, 53 seconds
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ComboBC & Serum E2 Levels

In 1972, a publication in which a radioimmunoassay measured serum estradiol levels in participants taking oral combination birth control concluded that levels of serum estrogen were “sufficient to prevent symptoms of estrogen deficiency”. Knowing NOW what we do, and looking back to that article, those authors’ conclusions were completely incorrect! Is it possible for a patient to experience hypoestrogenic symptoms despite taking an estrogen containing birth-control? What are normal, endogenous estradiol levels in a reproductive age female? In this episode, we will review the various degrees of hypothalamic – pituitary – ovarian axis suppression from different categories of hormonal birth-control. Should certain micrograms of ethinylestradiol be preferred in thin and/or adolescent patients? Listen in and find out.
4/8/202320 minutes, 13 seconds
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New Practice Advisory on Dense Breasts at MMG (ACOG PA April 2023) 🚨

Here’s proof that our catchphrase, “Medicine Moves Fast“ is 100% true! On October 30, 2022, and again on November 1, 2022, we released episodes on “Dense Breasts on MMG? What to do?”. Those episodes were in response to Katie Couric’s public outcry for the need for additional screening at time of mammogram in the setting of dense breasts. On March 9, 2023, the FDA issued a new ruling/guidance on patient notification of breast density at screening mammogram. And now, in April 2023, the ACOG has released its new Practice Advisory (PA) on the subject. In this episode, we will quickly summarize this practice advisory, it’s implications for us as clinicians, and implications to our patients.
4/7/202310 minutes, 11 seconds
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Makena is GONE.

A quick update and commentary on the recent (April 6, 2023) FDA decision to withdraw approval of Makena for preterm birth prophylaxis.
4/7/20238 minutes, 12 seconds
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“Momnesia”: Your Brain on Pregnancy 🧠😳🧠

Pregnancy causes some well-known and well documented physical changes to the body. While hyperpigmentation, breast enlargement, and increase in vaginal discharge are non-disputed physical changes during pregnancy, other effects on mental capacity (memory and cognition) are more controversial. Does “mommy brain” really exist? Or is it a fulfilled psycho-social expectation? Does pregnancy actually change the brain? In this episode, we’ll present the data and provide some practical tips at the end of the show to help tackle the elusive foe called “momnesia”.
4/6/202328 minutes, 24 seconds
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The STI “Testing Window”

For a patient who presents after an episode of unprotected sexual intercourse, seeking testing for STIs, it’s important to know when to perform the test. The time between infection and a positive test is called the testing window. This testing window can be different for different pathogens. In this episode, we will review the importance of knowing this testing window, and we will also review the differences between pathogen inoculation, incubation/latency, and their overlap with the testing window.
4/4/202324 minutes, 12 seconds
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VWD in Pregnancy

Von Willebrand Disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder among American women, and it may present with a history of mucocutaneous bleeding patterns. Ideally, women should be screened/identified with this condition prior to pregnancy- but that is not always the case. How does VWD affect delivery? Is this a cause of immediate PPH? In this episode we will review the clinical manifestations of VWD in pregnancy. We will: 1. review appropriate labs tests for this evaluation, 2. summarize the recommended management peripartum, and 3. discuss if a C-Section is required in the affected patient. LOTS of material is covered in this episode! (References: ACOG's Clinicals Expert Series, March 2023; ACOG CO 785).
4/2/202327 minutes, 56 seconds
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Urine STI Screening: New Data

For women’s healthcare, there are 3 ways to screen for genital GC, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis: 1. vaginal swab, 2. endocervical swab, or 3. first-catch urine. The CDC states that, “For female screening, specimens obtained with a vaginal swab are the preferred specimen type. Vaginal swab specimens are as sensitive as cervical swab specimens.” Why does it not favor urine screening? Although acceptable at a POPULATION level, there are several caveats to urine screening for STIs at an INDIVIDUAL level. In this episode, we will review the latest published data (March/April) regarding the sensitivity of urine screening for these 3 common STIs. Additionally, we will summarize important instructions/tips for proper self-swab collection, and proper first-catch urine testing.
3/31/202319 minutes, 44 seconds
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The 4 PCOS Phenotypes

We have come a long way in our understanding of the “Stein and Leventhal Syndrome”. First described in 1935, our understanding of the pathogenesis and future health morbidities of PCOS has grown exponentially. We now know that AMH levels may help in the certain PCOS diagnoses. At the center of this clinical condition lies insulin resistance (IR). One of the manifestations of IR is Acanthosis nigricans (AN). (But AN can also be a marker of a much more deadly condition.) It is important to remember that not all PCOS patients are the same. In this episode, we will review the 4 phenotypes of PCOS and discuss a specific variant of the condition which is called the “lean PCOS variant”.
3/29/202336 minutes, 22 seconds
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The Vegan OB Patient

The rate of vegetarianism in the United States is dramatically on the rise. While in 2014, a national survey found that only 1% of the US population considered themselves vegetarian, current estimates put that number up to 6%. But not all vegetarians are the same. Is being a strict vegetarian (a.k.a., vegan) associated with any adverse perinatal outcomes? Does being vegan increase your risk of preterm birth? In this episode, we will cover the latest data on how diet can affect perinatal outcomes, and in-utero metabolic programming of the child. 🥑🥗🍎🍇🍊🌾🌾
3/26/202328 minutes, 56 seconds
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AC < 10% with Normal EFW: Risks?

Traditionally, fetal growth restriction (FGR) was diagnosed when the Hadlock EFW was < 10th percentile. However, in 2020, SMFM updated its publish guidelines endorsing the use of an isolated abdominal circumference (AC) under the 10th percentile as an additional diagnostic criterion. Is the isolated small AC linked to adverse perinatal outcomes? And what are the delivery recommendations for an isolated small AC? It’s a complicated issue with complicated data. In this episode we will provide the “He said, She said” reported outcomes for this clinical conundrum. At the end of the episode we will provide some real-world practical tips on how to manage the isolated AC growth restricted fetus. 🫄
3/26/202330 minutes, 8 seconds
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Birthing Ball: Toy or Labor Tool?

Our current discipline of obstetrics owes a lot to the practice of Midwifery. In a previous episode, we covered “lessons learned from Midwifery” and that is available on our podcast archive. In this episode, we will discuss the data regarding a practice originally propagated by Midwifery: the Birthing Ball. What is the origin of this, and how did it make its way into obstetrical practice? Is there data for it’s use? Does it really help reduce labor pain? In this episode we will summarize the data of a soon-to-be released publication from the AJOG. In this episode, we will find out if the Birthing Ball is a toy… or a labor tool.
3/24/202317 minutes, 30 seconds
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For Gerri (CNM)! Quick response regarding a common gyn problem!

Gerri, thank you for your voice message today! Welcome to our podcast family. Here’s some helpful notes for you. 😊😊
3/22/20233 minutes, 40 seconds
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Back to Amnioinfusion for Mec? New Metaanalysis Data (03/2023)

In Oct 2006, the ACOG released Opinion Number 346. This stated that “Based on current literature, routine prophylactic amnioinfusion for the dilution of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid should be done only in the setting of additional clinical trials”. Back then, some experts criticized the decision to abandon amnioinfusion for meconium based on the limitations of the 2005 study which helped to motivate the ACOG decision. And now, a new systematic review and meta-analysis (published ahead of print March 18, 2023; AJOG) has brought new life into this old debate. Can amnio-infusion, in fact, reduce meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)? Do current professional guidelines need to be updated? We will explore and dissect this new data in this episode.
3/20/202321 minutes, 59 seconds
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Unexplained Infertility: New LIFE-CHANGING Genetic Data.

Infertility. It’s real. It affects 10-15% of couples in the US. After a thorough investigation, 30% of couples will be left without an identifiable cause for their infertility. This has been termed unexplained infertility. While traditionally this may have been considered a reassuring result, new data is raising the yellow flag of caution in these patients. Research has now established the link between infertility and some potential future negative health outcomes. As “next generation“ genetic tests become more integrated into clinical practice, new data (released ahead of print on March 16, 2023 in the New England Journal of Medicine) has revealed some life-changing realities for couples struggling with unexplained infertility. In this episode, we will highlight the advances in genetic medicine and summarize the key findings of this eye-opening new publication.
3/18/202325 minutes, 14 seconds
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OB Anti-Thyroid Antibody Tests: 👍or👎

Such a small gland… Yet so much confusion, and controversy: the THYROID gland in pregnancy. Let’s start with this foundational question: should we universally screen for thyroid abnormalities in pregnancy? And as a follow-up question, should we be checking for anti-thyroid antibodies? The answer to both of those queries depends on who you ask! In this episode, we will solve the conundrum of whether we should be screening for anti-thyroid antibodies pre-pregnancy and/or during pregnancy itself. Does identification of these antibodies affect management? What is their role in recurrent miscarriage? Listen in, and find out.
3/14/202322 minutes, 28 seconds
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The traditional explanation and assumed pathophysiology of HELLP syndrome stated that it was a late manifestation/further progress of preeclampsia with severe features. But can HELLP present clinically without hypertension? What about without proteinuria? If a patient has lab criteria of HELLP alone, without hypertension, does she still require magnesium sulfate? In this episode, we will summarize data from 3 sources (ACOG practice bulletin on thrombocytopenia, ACOG practice bulletin on gestational hypertension and preeeclampsia, CMQCC hypertension bundle), and answer these questions and more.
3/11/202321 minutes, 22 seconds
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Fezolinetant: A Revolutionary Medication.

The pathophysiology of menopausal hot flashes has remained largely a mystery until about a decade ago when KNDy neurons were found to be the key triggers of the hot flash. Since then, research and development has been going fullsteam to develop a non-hormonal, receptor-based therapy for the common hot flash. In April 2023 in the journal, Obstetrics and Gynecology (the Green Journal), new safety data will be published on the revolutionary new medication, Fezolinetant. With Phase 3 study results already in print, the FDA is projected to rule on this new medication’s approval potentially in May 2023. In this episode, we will review the fascinating biochemistry of KNDy activity and how this new medication works.
3/9/202319 minutes, 5 seconds
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Nonreactive NST: Give OJ?

The fetal NST is a hallmark of antepartum fetal surveillance and a key component of the BioPhysical Profile (BPP). Historically, and still done today, one of the low-risk interventions for rectifying a non-reactive NST has been the maternal administration of glucose/PO challenge. Is this evidence-based? Does maternal hypoglycemia contribute to a nonreactive NST? In this episode, we will review the data spanning a 40-year interval that has sought to answer this question. And what about fetal movement? Does maternal glucose loading increase perception of fetal movement? Let’s go to the data now.
3/7/202328 minutes, 23 seconds
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Do Rescue ACSs Affect Neurodevelopment? New March 2023 Data.

The Liggins and Howie trial demonstrating the benefit of antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs) on fetal lungs was published in 1972 in the journal Pediatrics. First adopted as weekly injections, ACSs were then found to be associated with decreased birth weights and decreased head circumferences. Hence, weekly administration was abandoned in the late 1990s. But the ACOG/SMFM does still recognize a single repeat dose “based on clinical scenario”, called a rescue dose. Is a rescue dose of steroids associated with altered neurodevelopment in the child? In this episode, we will summarize a brand new study just accepted for publication in the AJOG MFM (the Pink Journal) shedding some light on this question.
3/5/202323 minutes, 19 seconds
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UPDATE: Israel, “French CSs”, & Patient Groups.

This is a brief update regarding our recent podcast on “the French C-section”. Having an Israeli member of our podcast family…is priceless! ❤️Listen to the latest development regarding the extraperitoneal C-section in Israel and how this situation bears similarities to the US approval of ADDYI in 2015. Thank you Liel N.!! 😊😊
3/3/20239 minutes, 19 seconds
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The Scary State of Syphilis

In 1999, the CDC had a national plan of action to “completely eliminate syphilis” by the year 2005. Although rates of syphilis did dramatically decrease to record lows during that time, we are now experiencing record HIGH rates of congenital syphilis. Some states are having a close to 500% increase in congenital cases. How did we get to this point? In this episode, we will review and summarize 3 key recent publications regarding the rise of congenital syphilis (Journal Women’s Health Issues [Elsevier]– article in press: AJOG Dec 2022; ACOG Clinical Expert Series May 2020) which have resulted in the SCARY STATE of SYPHILIS. We will also review the JH reaction, and provide a clinical pearl regarding the interval restriction between doses of Penicillin G injections, AND we will summarize the time frames permitted to allow a decrease in RPR titers after therapy. Lots of material covered in this episode! 👍
3/3/202331 minutes, 44 seconds
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BEWARE The French C-Section!

The historic saying is, “there is nothing new under the sun”. So true! Such is the case with the extraperitoneal C-section. First advocated in 1823 by French obstetrician, Louis-Auguste Baudelocque, this complex technique fell to the waste-side with the advent of antibiotic availability. But now, this extra-peritoneal cesarean technique, A.K.A. the "French AmbUlatory Cesarean Section" technique (FAUCS), is trending on social media. Is this safe? Does this have any advantage over a traditional C-section? And why has one country recently BANNED this procedure? In this episode we will present this novel technique and explain why some are calling for caution in its adoption.
3/1/202321 minutes, 12 seconds
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Pravastatin For Preeclampsia: New (Feb 2023) Data (AJOG).

The “cure” for preeclampsia is NOT delivery. Preeclampsia is an important signal for future cardiovascular complications once pregnancy is over. While there may not be a true “cure”, we do have options for chemoprophylaxis of preeclampsia. Currently, only low-dose aspirin is ACOG/SMFM endorsed for preeeclampsia prevention. But pravastatin is gaining steam. Pravastatin was previously classified (in the now discontinued FDA label) Category X. However, the FDA recently removed the warning regarding use of statins in pregnancy, resulting from the favorable data on pravastatin as a potential chemoprophylactic agent against preeclampsia. While short term fetal safety has already been documented, there was a gap in data regarding long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed to this medication in- utero. But new data has some reassuring findings (with a CAVEAT). In this episode, we will highlight a soon-to-be released publication in the AJOG, which is the first to report on the long-term neuromotor, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes of children exposed to pravastatin in utero.
2/26/202319 minutes, 33 seconds
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The Short Interpregnancy Interval (IPI)

Some obstetrical publications discuss adverse perinatal outcomes based on a short interpregnancy interval (IPI). A separate, yet related topic, is a short interdelivery interval (IDI). Most obstetrical care providers are aware of the adverse obstetrical outcomes following a short IPI. However, short IPI has also been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental disorders in the child. Are repeat fetal growth ultrasounds indicated in a pregnancy following a short IPI? Is antepartum fetal surveillance indicated? In this episode, we will tackle the short interpregnancy interval, and we will end the podcast with the Level C guidance regarding pregnancy management following a short IPI.
2/25/202323 minutes, 57 seconds
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The 34-36 WK PPROM Dilemma

In 2018, the ACOG recommended immediate induction of labor/delivery for patients with PPROM, who had sure gestational dating, and were at 34 weeks and 0 days or more. This was in order to reduce the risk of neonatal sepsis. This changed, however, in 2020 with ACOG Practice Bulletin 217 which discussed expected management for PPROM in the late preterm interval. Nonetheless, as is our tagline for this podcast, “medicine moves fast”. In February 2023, a current commentary was published in BJOG adding a cautionary note to the option of expected management in the late preterm interval. In this episode, we will review the acog guidelines, review GBS culture versus NAAT, and summarize this current commentary from BJOG. What is the one clinical factor that should be considered in planning for expected management with PPROM in the late preterm interval? We will explain it in this episode.
2/23/202321 minutes, 51 seconds
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Is Proliferative Endometrium in Menopause Benign?

As part of our medical training and education, we often learn diagnoses in isolation. For example, we have learned that Proliferative Endometrium on EMB is a non-pathological finding. That result can be left alone without therapy, correct? But what if that is found in the context of a postmenopausal patient. Is it still considered a nonpathological finding? In this episode, we will summarize the current nomenclature for endometrial pathology and why one classification scheme is favored over the other (EIN over WHO). We will also summarize key points form a February 2023 publication (Obstetrics and Gynecology) released under the section, “Clinical Conundrums: Proliferative Endometrium in Menopause, to Treat or Not to Treat?”.
2/20/202320 minutes, 57 seconds
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Marginal Cord Insertion: Benign or Not?

Marginal cord insertions can be found on antenatal ultrasound. What is the data regarding marginal cord insertion and adverse neonatal outcomes? Is there a relationship, or is this a benign finding? Are serial growth ultrasounds recommended? What about antepartum fetal surveillance for isolated marginal cord insertion? In this episode, we will review the latest data on pregnancies with marginal cord insertion. We will end the episode with a summary of the expert opinions regarding best practice for management of pregnancies found to have a marginal cord insertion.
2/19/202320 minutes, 51 seconds
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Beyond the PHQ9: Dr. Leon-Arango’s Case

This is our impromptu podcast session in-between patients in our OB Clinic. In this episode, Dr. Leon-Arango (Senior Resident) highlights the importance of looking “deeper” into a patient’s persistent complaint of depression despite a negative PHQ9 score, based on her encounter from today. This real example of a physician’s perception of need for intervention likely helped to change the trajectory of this patient’s life. Listen in as we go “beyond the PHQ9”.
2/16/20237 minutes, 52 seconds
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Winning Against Placenta Accreta Spectrum

The first case of placenta accreta listed on PubMed was reported in 1927 by Dr D.S. Forster out of Montreal. That was 1 case in 8000 deliveries! Now, according to the National Accreta Foundation, PAS occurs in 1 in 272 pregnancies. How did we get to this rate? In this episode we will highlight data from ACOG, SMFM, and the National Accreta Foundation. We will highlight key ultrasound markers, patient risk stratification, and review what a PAS Care Center is. This is how we win the battle against PAS.
2/1/202327 minutes, 15 seconds
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Non-vigorous Baby & Umbilical Cord Milking: New Feb 2023 Data

Delayed cord clamping (DCC) provides vital placental transfusion to newborns and is endorsed by ACOG, SMFM, March of Dimes, and the ACNM. However, DCC in nonvigorous newborns may not be provided owing to a perceived need for immediate resuscitation. Umbilical cord milking, in late-term and full-term neonates, is an alternative in these cases. In December 2020, the ACOG’s Committee Opinion stated a lack of outcomes data for umbilical cord milking in nonvigorous newborns. This Level 1 data has now arrived (February 2023). In this episode, we will summarize the key findings from this soon-to-be released publication from the AJOG on umbilical cord milking in nonvigorous newborns born at >/= 35 weeks.
1/29/202314 minutes, 44 seconds
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IUD Use After Ectopic?

Historically, IUDs where considered contraindicated in a patient with a prior ectopic pregnancy. This was due to concerns that IUDs may be causative of tubal gestations. Is this true? Are IUDs contraindicated with a past history of ectopic pregnancy? In this episode we will review the data from the CHOICE project, the CDC (US), and the Royal College of OBGYN (UK). We will also summarize key findings from a May 2022 Green Journal publication that investigated this very issue, and we will explain why some IUSs may be MORE protective (52mg vs 13.5mg) against ectopic than others (Thank you Jessica W. for this timely and clinically relevant podcast topic suggestion). 
1/27/202318 minutes, 55 seconds
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Epidurals=Autism? New 2023 Data.

A 2020 publication from JAMA Pediatrics reported that labor epidural analgesia may be associated with an up to 37% increased risk of offspring autism spectrum disorder. The ASA has rejected those results based on methodologic limitations of the study, the lack of biological plausibility. But some remain fearful of labor epidurals because of that publication. In February 2023, a new publication in AJOG will help put this matter to rest with the largest population-based analysis done to date. In this episode, we will highlight and summarize the key findings of this landmark study, and better understand whether or not Labor epidurals are tied to offspring ASD/ADHD.
1/25/202312 minutes, 14 seconds
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PRP Ovarian “Rejuvenation”

Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy is a HOT and TRENDY item right now. PRP use was initiated in sports medicine in the 1970s. It has since expanded into many medical specialty fields, and now it is being heralded as the new hope for diminished ovarian reserve for those desiring pregnancy…even in menopause! Can injecting the ovaries with PRP really rejuvenate the ovary? We’ll examine the evidence as it sits as of January 2023.
1/22/202324 minutes, 23 seconds
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Routine OB Urine Dips per Visits?

Routine, repetitive urine dipsticks (meaning at each prenatal visit) were introduced into prenatal care back in the 1960s and 70s. The idea was to act as an early screen for bacteriuria (ASB), proteinuria as a screen for preeclampsia, and glycosuria as a screen for GDM. That was based more on expert opinion rather than clinical trials. The utility of urine dipstick testing in pregnant women has been debated for years, with studies suggesting minimal use in asymptomatic patients. Urine dips as still integrated into clinical practice mainly out of tradition…But is this evidence-based now? And if it is NOT evidence-based to do this with every visit and with every patient, when SHOULD it be done? What does ACOG have to say? Well, turns out ACOG says a lot- so you’ll want to stay tuned until the end of the episode as we cover that and a lot more.
1/19/202317 minutes, 45 seconds
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IUDs Don’t Cause Abortion

Paragard, Mirena, and Liletta IUDs are the most effective types of emergency contraception. Data from the 1980s, now seemingly forgotten, showed that IUDs work primarily on inhibition of fertilization rather than implantation effects. Nonetheless, misperceptions regarding the IUDs mechanisms of action persist, with some websites stating IUDs are abortive agents. Do IUDs cause abortion? Let’s examine the evidence.
1/17/202321 minutes, 36 seconds
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The Placenta Menu? Placentophagy Reviewed.

“Placentophagy” is not a new concept. Most non-human mammals eat their placentas after giving birth but humans, historically, have not. Is there evidence to support this practice? Where did this idea come from? How did Rolling Stone magazine help launch this phenomenon back in the 1970s? Is Kim Kardashian onto something cutting edge by advocating for Placental encapsulation? In this episode we will walk through history and learn some pretty remarkable things about this practice. Grab your favorite placental snack, and start listening! 🍽️🍴🍴
1/15/202320 minutes, 47 seconds
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Max Pitocin Infusion Rate (mU/min)?

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists supports the use of both low-dose and high-dose oxytocin regimens to induce and augment labor, but does not specify MAXIMUM DOSE RATES. Most hospitals, however, have protocols that impose a maximum dose rate of oxytocin infusion. Is this evidence-based? Is there a danger with going above a certain threshold of infusion, for example, greater than 20 milliunits/minute? A new publication coming out in Obstetrics and Gynecology (the Green Journal) sheds some light on this very issue. Let’s talk about the maximum oxytocin infusion rate and labor.
1/12/202321 minutes, 24 seconds
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Don’t Do Surveillance For These!

The ACOG states, “In spite of its unproven value, antepartum fetal surveillance is widely integrated into clinical practice in the developed world”. Antepartum fetal surveillance can be done by a variety of techniques and, despite its unproven value, is a mainstay of obstetrical management. At what BMI should we offer fetal surveillance? Is this current BMI or pre-pregnancy BMI? And what about advanced maternal age? What is recommended for that? Did you know that there was a change in the ACOG wording regarding this AMA issue from June 2021 to August 2022? And what about ultrasound surveillance for cervical length after cerclage placement? Is that evidence based? We are going to dive into these 3 clinical scenarios (obesity, AMA, cervical length after cerclage) in this episode. 👍
1/10/202318 minutes, 8 seconds
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Breech! ECV and Beyond

Breech presentation at term occurs in approximately 3 to 4% of pregnancies. While the vast majority are simply chance events, breech presentation could be a marker of other fetal comorbid conditions. When should ECV be attempted? Does the ACOG recognize neuraxial analgesia as a tool to increase ECV success rates? What’s better spinal or epidural block? What are relative contraindications to ECV? In this episode, we will summarize the latest data on fetal breech presentations and answer key questions regarding the process of ECV. Jasmine…here’s your podcast! 😊
1/8/202333 minutes, 14 seconds
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Folic Acid, Folate, or L-Methylfolate?

On some current social media channels, there is a hot debate as to why professional medical societies still recommend prenatal folic acid compared to the more “biologically, active” L-methylfolate. Are they onto something here? Published data has shown that anywhere from 40-60% of the general population may have an MTHFR mutation leading to the inability to process folic acid. Should we be screening for this mutation? What about screening for homocystine levels? Are these medical societies incorrect in still recommending folic acid rather than L-methylfolate? We are going to tackle these questions and provide a very simple take home message at the end of this episode. We’ll set the record straight regarding “Folic acid, folate, or L-methylfolate”.
1/4/202324 minutes, 14 seconds
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Don’t Forget Prenatal Choline!

Currently on social media, there seems to be an interest in prenatal choline supplementation. Choline, a B vitamin, is not typically within standard prenatal vitamins. Is this micronutrient important for prenatal supplementation? What do professional/medical societies have to say regarding prenatal supplementation? What’s the data? In this episode, we will summarize choline’s role in fetal/newborn development, examine the data regarding deficiency, and talk supplementation recommendations. (Shout out to Dr. Cat Jimenez for the subject suggestion.)
1/2/202329 minutes, 50 seconds
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Fibroids, Menopause, and HRT

Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that arise from a single genetically altered myometrial stem cell under the influence of gonadal hormones. Traditionally, it has been taught that fibroids universally diminish in size after menopause. However, an article published in 2021 showed a possibility of fibroid growth after menopause in overweight/obese women. Do fibroids need surveillance in menopause? Is HRT contraindicated in the fibroid patient? And which HRT is the most fibroid friendly? We will answer these questions in this episode.
12/28/202225 minutes, 13 seconds
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A Life Lesson From “ER”

I am a fan of the original hit TV show, “ER”. Although mostly melodramatic and outside of bounds of reality Medicine, one episode (season 6, episode 6) has a valuable life lesson for all of us. I originally viewed that episode when it was live and current, and I have never forgotten the message. In this episode, will discuss this important life lesson learned, and I promise you won’t be the same thereafter.
12/27/202213 minutes, 38 seconds
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TikTok’s #IUD is Killing a GOOD LARC!

In January 2023, a new publication in Obstetrics and Gynecology- the Green Journal, will highlight the disheartening statements being made on social media (TikTok) regarding IUDs. IUDs are highly effective forms of contraception and the progesterone releasing variety have significant non-contraceptive benefits. Most of the dissatisfaction stated on social media surrounds pain during insertion. Do you offer topical lidocaine for IUD insertion? Ever consider lavender aromatherapy? What about music as a non-pharmacological intervention? Are these options evidence-based? In this episode, we will review the soon to be released January 2023 publication and also summarize a 2020 systematic review analyzing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to reduce pain and anxiety during IUD insertions.
12/23/202227 minutes, 50 seconds
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Vag Prep at CS UPDATE

Pre-operative vaginal preparation before gynecological surgery has unquestionable benefit for the prevention of postop infectious morbidity. Does the same hold true for vaginal prep at C-section? There has been over a decade of data, but a new publication- soon to be released in AJOG- is calling previous results into question. Does iodine work as a vaginal prep? What about chlorhexidine? There’s answers for all of these questions, and we will summarize them in this episode.
12/20/202222 minutes, 52 seconds
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NPWT at CS: Yay or Nay?

Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication resulting from cesarean section. Despite advances in infection control, SSIs remain a significant post-op burden, to the patient first, and to the healthcare system second. Negative pressure wound therapy devices (NPWT) are a potential solution to post C-section. wound infections/complications. Do these devices prevent incisional wound complications after C-section? In this episode, will dive into the data and review the specific CDC criteria for diagnosing surgical site infections.
12/18/202227 minutes, 5 seconds
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Timed IUD Insert After Chlamydia Rx?

Traditionally, the CDC has recommended delaying IUD insertion for 3 months in a woman diagnosed with asymptomatic, cervical Gonorrheal or Chlamydial infection. This is to first confirm a negative test of cure. However, this leaves the patient at a greater risk of unplanned pregnancy compared to the risk of PID. Is this really the most evidence-based approach? The CHOICE CONTRACEPTIVE Study data provides an alternative approach. In this episode, we will discuss this dilemma and allow the data to settle the discussion. (With special co-host guest: 3rd year medical student, Ms. Carley Hagar).
12/15/202217 minutes, 54 seconds
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Redesigning Prenatal Care: An ACOG Initiative.

In the upcoming (May) 2023 ACOG Annual Clinical Meeting, the College will have a highlighted session to “redesign, prenatal care”. The traditional model of prenatal care includes 12 to 14 in-person visits. However, there is no data that supports the theory that adverse outcomes are reduced by the number of prenatal contact visits. In 2020, at the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, women’s healthcare practitioners became more flexible in how they delivered prenatal care. Now, the ACOG is supporting an alternative prenatal care visit schedule for patients at “average risk”. This is called the PATH Prenatal proposal. Let’s talk about that in this episode, and discuss the ONE BIG Limitation to this proposal.
12/13/202222 minutes, 29 seconds
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The Single Umbilical Artery

Did you know that not all cases of a single umbilical artery (SUA) result in a 2-vessel cord? Some umbilical cords with a SUA still have 3 vessels! How is that possible? Although SUA is only found between 0.2 to 1% of all live births, they can have important clinical implications. Although sonographic absence of other congenital anomalies is very reassuring (isolated SUA), some fetal conditions may not be apparent until time of birth. In the session, we will review the etiology of, diagnosis of, and management of the SUA.
12/10/202222 minutes, 50 seconds
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Fasting Better for 1-Hr GTT?

The ACOG recommends universal screening for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy with occasional early screening for those at high risk. Is there an advantage to completing the 1-hour 50 g GTT while fasting? First studied in the 1990s, a new publication further validates the original study results. In this episode we will summarize this new publication soon to be released in Obstetrics & Gynecology (the Green journal) and discuss the paradox/conundrum of GTTs while fasting.
12/7/202219 minutes, 31 seconds
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😊😊Thank you, Ivana!❤️❤️

As I’ve said on previous podcasts, “we all need some encouragement every now and again”. Well this morning I received mine, through a small gift…from Germany!
12/6/20221 minute, 41 seconds
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Nix RhoGAM® Under 12 weeks?

Anti-D immune globulin has been advocated for use in appropriate patients since the 1970s. Historic data showed that 0.1ml of fetal D+ blood was all that was required to potentially sensitize an Rh negative mother. New data is questioning whether this prophylaxis is required in all cases of threatened miscarriage/abortion in early pregnancy, or if a more selective approach is appropriate. In this episode, we will highlight a soon to be released “Questioning Clinical Practice” commentary from Obstet Gynecol (the Green Journal) tackling this issue. Is it time to change our current and standard practice?
12/3/202220 minutes, 40 seconds
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Fragile X Syndrome: Targeted or Universal Screening?

Fragile X Syndrome is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability, and the most common single gene cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder. It is also responsible for some cases of premature ovarian insufficiency. Do you recall the difference between a Fragile X “pre-mutation” versus the full mutation? Should we do universal screening for this as part of expanded maternal carrier testing, or should this be a targeted screening approach? Although we covered maternal carrier screening on November 4, 2022, this episode will go into much more detail, focusing specifically on Fragile X Syndrome and who should be screened for this. (For Emma…Great question! Thank you for reaching out to us).
12/1/202222 minutes, 39 seconds
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Weed and Breastfeeding: Yay or Nay.

Marijuana is the most commonly used federally illegal drug in the United States; its use among pregnant and lactating women is on the rise. Is breast-feeding contraindicated with marijuana use? It is difficult to separate marijuana use from several confounding variables, leading to conflicting data in print. Is marijuana use and breast-feeding compatible? A patient friendly article on, released on November 23, 2022 seems to imply just that. In this episode, we will review the data on marijuana use during lactation and help clear up the seemingly contradictory outcomes data. Also, we will summarize key position statements from a variety of professional organizations, and find out what data gaps still exist.
11/28/202230 minutes, 50 seconds
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The Mouth’s Effect on Pregnancy

Several cohort studies and meta-analysis have shown a direct association between poor oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The key driver for this association is systemic inflammation. In this episode, we will review the ADA, ACOG, and CDC data on how maternal oral health can influence pregnancy outcomes. Although this association is pretty strong, remember that association does not necessarily prove causation. We will explain this in this episode.
11/26/202228 minutes, 46 seconds
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🧠Your Brain on Gratitude 🙏 🧠❤️

Happy Thanksgiving, Podcast family! As we gather with family, friends, and loved ones… Let’s make the practice of gratitude a daily habit, not some thing that we do just once a year. There is real science on the art and practice of gratitude! In this brief episode, we will remind ourselves that gratitude is not just “something we do” on Thanksgiving, but really should be our way of life. We will cover gratitude’s effect on neurochemistry and it’s activation of critical brain centers. ❤️🦃❤️🦃❤️🦃
11/24/202215 minutes, 44 seconds
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Wimbledon, The Period, and Lack.

On November 17, 2022 Wimbledon showed a major head nod to women’s health. Do you know what that was? Nonetheless, this recognition of menstruation is just one small move forward, noting that Period Poverty is still widespread right here in the US. In this episode, we will review “Wimbledon, the period, and lack”.
11/21/202224 minutes, 15 seconds
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🪷 The Lotus Birth Request 🪷

“The Lotus Birth”… Although first described back in the 1970s, this birthing trend is gaining popularity today mainly because of social media. Is this practice evidence-based? Is it safe? There are real concerns here which have spurred several professional organizations and societies to issue HARSH warnings about this practice. In this episode, we will review the origins and current state of “the Lotus Birth”. We will also review the tragic case of Baby Harlow Eden. We will wrap up this episode with some practical peer advice as to how to handle this unconventional birth experience. 🪷
11/17/202230 minutes, 7 seconds
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SLE and APS: ASA, LMW Heparin, or Both?

Systemic Lupus Erythematosis is several-fold more common in women than in men. As it primarily targets reproductive age women, identification of and proper management of patients with associated antiphospholipid antibodies is crucial to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. In this episode, we will review the 2019 ACR diagnostic criteria for SLE and review the management of SLE patients with/without antiphospholipid antibodies and with/without antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.
11/13/202220 minutes, 21 seconds
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NPO in Labor? No!

The idea of keeping women “Nil per os” (NPO) during labor traces back to the 1940s with the pivotal work of Dr. Curtis Mendelson. His work on “aspiration pneumonitis” has kept women NPO during labor up to present day. But is this still evidence-based? Is it risky to allow women to have PO intake during an otherwise uncomplicated labor course? In this episode we will walk through history and provide an updated view on the risks and benefits of this historic practice.
11/10/202224 minutes, 13 seconds
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TXA was first found to reduce maternal morbidity at time of established postpartum hemorrhage in the WOMAN trial (2017). Since then, evidence has grown to include TXA as a prophylactic agent to prevent postpartum hemorrhage. Despite its known effectiveness in BOTH the prevention and treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, there is a renewed global warning regarding this medication. In this episode, we will review the WHO and FDA warning regarding the misapplication/inadvertent intrathecal use of TXA at time of cesarean section.
11/8/202216 minutes, 37 seconds
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Maternal Carrier Screening: What it is and isn’t.

Maternal carrier screening (either pan-ethnic or expanded carrier panel) is recommended by the ACOG and SMFM. Ideally, this is done pre-conception or with the first pregnancy. Did you know that in August 2022 the ACOG added an additional test for universal maternal carrier screening? Does this maternal carrier screen include BRCA? In this episode we will cover what maternal carrier screening is, and what it is not.
11/5/202217 minutes, 39 seconds
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Dense Breasts on MMG: Part 2

Katie Couric recently described her path to her diagnosis of breast cancer, urging women with “dense breast tissue” to get supplemental breast imaging. Do these supplemental imaging tests improve overall survival? In this session, we will review the statements of 4 professional societies/organizations regarding the use of supplemental breast imaging for women with dense breasts who have no additional breast cancer risk factors and are asymptomatic.
11/1/202212 minutes, 19 seconds
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Dense Breasts on MMG? What to do (Part 1)

Dense breasts can decrease the sensitivity of screening mammogram (MMG). Some US states have mandated reporting of breast density on MMG, while the rest of the states report on dense breasts voluntarily as a standardized reporting system. What supplemental breast imaging tools are advised as a follow up in these patients? Does the ACOG support supplemental breast imaging in average risk patients? What about the USPSTF? In this session we will do a deep dive into this common MMG description of “dense breast noted”.
10/30/202222 minutes, 45 seconds
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CSection ERAS: DC Foley?

The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery guidelines were birthed (no pun intended) as a way to curb post-op morbidity from colorectal surgery. In 2019, CSection ERAS guidelines were published in the AJOG. Despite widespread agreement that ERAS is valuable, one aspect of the guideline is controversial: timing of Foley removal. Should the Foley be removed immediately after C-section? Should an indwelling bladder catheter be used at all? Let’s dive into this topic now.
10/26/202221 minutes, 13 seconds
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Save the Pitocin! Safe to stop Pit once in Active Phase?

The United States is currently facing an oxytocin shortage. How long this medication shortage is projected to continue is not clear. In an attempt to curb unnecessary use of oxytocin, is it safe to consider stopping oxytocin after induction, once the active phase of labor is reached? Is there data to support the practice? And what about using oxytocin for first trimester D&C? Is that evidence-based? In this session, we will review the data regarding discontinuation of oxytocin once the active phase of labor is reached. Is it safe? Is this effective? Let’s find out!
10/24/202219 minutes, 48 seconds
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Finger-sticks (CBG) for GDM DX?

In 1964, John O’Sullivan published his original research describing abnormal cut off values following an oral glucose challenge in pregnancy. O’Sullivan laid the foundation for screening and diagnosis of gestational diabetes. We have learned a lot since that 1964 publication. In this session, we will review a new meta-analysis coming to print in November 2022 comparing the 1-step with the 2-step oral glucose tolerance test. We will also summarize data on point of care glucometers (capillary blood glucose) for diagnosing gestational diabetes. Is the use of POC testing devices for GDM diagnosis evidence-based? There’s an answer for that… And we will cover it.
10/21/202222 minutes, 6 seconds
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Hattie’s Hep B Vaccine in Pregnancy Clarification

Hattie… with these kind of insights, you are going to ROCK your oral boards in the next 72 hours! We are cheering you on! 👏👏👏👏
10/15/20221 minute, 54 seconds
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OB Vaccines: The Sequel!

Recently, we reviewed the 3 vaccines generally recommended for every woman, in each pregnancy. But as they often say on late night commercials, “but wait… There’s more!” In this session, we will review 3 separate vaccinations which are applicable in special populations. Do you know which 3 they are? In this session our special guest, Carley Hager (3rd year medical student), will help us review the ACOG recommendations.
10/14/20226 minutes, 25 seconds
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Understanding FFN as an L&D Triage Tool.

Fetal fibronectin was first reported as a possible biomarker for identifying those at risk of preterm birth back in 1991. Despite over 3 decades of ever evolving published data on FFN, underuse, misuse, and misunderstandings regarding what fetal fibronectin is and is not still persist. In the session we will review the SMFM recognized transvaginal ultrasound/FFN algorithm for preterm labor triage assessment. What is traditionally accepted as a “short cervix” on TVUS? Is it really safe to send patients home after a negative FFN result? Let’s review the data now. (Thank you Matt S. for the podcast suggestion.)
10/14/202228 minutes, 5 seconds
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ER-Nifedipine Intrapartum Beneficial for PreE with Severe Features.

In 2015, the ACOG included immediate release nifedipine as an intervention for acute, emergent hypertension in pregnancy. But what about extended release nifedipine? Is there a role for this medication in patients with preeclampsia with severe features intrapartum? Does this calcium channel blocker prevent uterine contractility? In this session we will review a new study from the American Heart Association reviewing the effectiveness of oral extended release nifedipine during labor induction for preeeclampsia with severe features.
10/8/202215 minutes, 42 seconds
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Early GDM Screening: Evidence-Based?

Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes. Currently, the ACOG recommends early screening for GDM for women “at risk”. However, other experts disagree with this approach. In this session, we will review the latest controversies regarding early screening for gestational diabetes. Is hemoglobin A1c an option for early testing? What about impaired glucose tolerance? We will cover all this and do a deep dive into the data in this episode. (For Dr. Kim! 😊)
10/6/202226 minutes, 15 seconds
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Anticoag Bridge Therapy in the GYN Patient

Anticoagulation sure has come along way from warfarin. Although largely replaced by direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), warfarin is still in use- mainly for patients with mechanical heart valves. For those on anticoagulation chronically, who require gynecological surgery, how/when is bridge therapy performed? In this episode, we will cover the ins and outs of anticoagulation bridge therapy. We will also review why bridge therapy is 100% not needed for a patient on DOACs.
10/4/202222 minutes, 52 seconds
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HMB Control in the Anticoagulated Woman

Up to 70% of women who are anticoagulated will experience episodes of heavy menstrual bleeding. Traditionally, progestin only hormonal agents have been used in these cases. Can combination birth control pills be used in the anticoagulated patient? Is there data regarding their safety? In this episode, we will walk down the data timeline starting in 2009 and ending in 2021 regarding the use of combination birth control for menstrual/ovulation suppression in women who are anticoagulated. (For Elise 😊)
10/2/202220 minutes, 59 seconds
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For Ana and Luis! 😊

A great podcast topic recommendation/suggestion: anticoagulation bridge therapy, and patients undergoing gynecological surgery. More to come…
10/1/20222 minutes, 43 seconds
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Best BP Med for PP HTN? Labetalol or Nifedipine?

In January 2022, the American Heart Association conducted a study and concluded that labetalol may be the best antihypertensive medication antepartum. However, the ACOG has not endorsed one antihypertensive medication over the other. But what about Postpartum? Is labetalol the best to prevent postpartum hypertensive readmissions? In this episode we will review a new publication being released October 2022 from Obstetrics and Gynecology (Green Journal). Which medication is best to prevent postpartum hypertensive readmissions? Listen and find out.
9/28/202214 minutes, 5 seconds
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For Dr. Rob S: MPA or Aygestin for AUB-O

This message is for Dr. Rob in Northern California preparing for his OBGYN oral boards. Rob, thank you for your voice memo on the app! Great question and absolutely fantastic clinical insights. With that kind of clinical inquiry and drive, I am sure you will ACE your upcoming OB/GYN oral boards. Dr. Rob’s question is which progesterone would be best for treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding: a progestational agent or one that is more androgenic. Listen and find out.
9/25/20226 minutes, 15 seconds
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New GBS Vaccine? YES

Current ACOG/SMFM/CDC guidelines for the prevention of Group B Strep neonatal infection are aimed at prevention of early onset GBS neonatal disease. But late onset infections still occur worldwide and are devastating for the newborn. This is why there is a new Group B Strep (GBS6) vaccine in the pipeline! On September 22, 2022 the FDA granted this vaccine “Breakthrough Therapy designation”. In this session, we will review what that designation means, why this vaccine is needed, and where we are in the process.
9/24/202212 minutes, 15 seconds
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Acetaminophen + Pregnancy= Autism?

Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) is the most common medication used in pregnancy. For several years now, observational studies have raised concern for use of this common OTC medication in pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder/attention deficit disorder in children. Does acetaminophen cause these neurodevelopmental disorders? In this session we will highlight 3 recent publications that have gained national and international attention. We will also summarize the statements from the FDA, ACOG, SMFM, and the SOGC.
9/19/202220 minutes, 52 seconds
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cBHT/Testosterone For Women

There is a current trend advocating for women to do complete “hormone panels” for wellness. There is also persistent confusion surrounding the use of “bioidentical hormones” stemming mainly from the vast options of OTC and compounded “natural” hormone supplements. For women, compounded bioidentical hormones (cBHT) mainly takes the form of testosterone supplements/pellets. With decades of use of these products, what is the current state of opinion on them? In this episode we will review updated position statements for bioidentical hormone use from the National Academy of Science & Medicine, the NAMS, the ASRM, and the International Society of Sexual Health. We will discuss the use of “pan- hormone testing” and will also review when serum testosterone levels may be indicated and summarize key concepts for testosterone use in women.
9/14/202225 minutes, 46 seconds
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The #1 Killer in Pregnancy

Maternal mortality in the United States is among the highest of all industrialized nations. Shockingly, the top cause of obstetric death no longer belongs to pregnancy related factors; homicide is the most common cause of pregnancy associated death. And suicide is not far behind. In this episode we will review a new publication from the ACOG reviewing staggering statistics on pregnancy associated deaths. We will distinguish between “pregnancy related deaths” and “pregnancy associated deaths”, and discuss how “the big 4” are risk factors for both homicide and suicide.
9/11/202213 minutes, 27 seconds
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HSV Discordancy in Pregnancy

Neonatal herpes infection can be devastating to the newborn. For patients with a history of known genital herpes, daily suppression beginning at 36 weeks until delivery has been the standard for over 2 decades. For the HSV2 negative pregnant patient with a HSV2 positive partner, is PREP an option? In this session, we were review management of the HSV2 discordant couple during pregnancy.
9/7/202219 minutes, 34 seconds
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The Purple Vagina: Is GV Safe?

Gentian Violet has been used for over a century for a variety of conditions including vaginal candidiasis. Does it work? More importantly… is it safe? In this session we will review the medical history, current use of, and safety profile of Gentian Violet. We will discuss ACOG’s stance on ordering vaginal medications WITHOUT an examination and we will also cover the most recent antifungal medication which has been FDA approved, Brexafemme.
9/3/202224 minutes, 2 seconds
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Does Progesterone Prevent Miscarriage?

Progesterone has long been hoped to be a remedy for 1st trimester pregnancy loss. Does progesterone help reduce miscarriage risk? The data is ever evolving. In this session we will review 2 landmark studies that helped answer this question (PROMISE, PRISM). We will also cover a 2020 Cochran systematic review that helped change the 2021 NICE practice guidelines on the subject. Lastly, we will also cover the latest data on this from May 2022 (ACOG ACM).
8/28/202223 minutes, 9 seconds
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FAIL! Disappointing New Data on Vaginal Progesterone

Oh, the twisted love story of progesterone and pre-term birth! Ever since the Meis trial in 2003, we have been fascinated with the use of progesterone as a possible cure-all of all things preterm birth. But the data keeps piling in, with results just contrary to that. In this episode we will review the publication history of progesterone and it’s fight against PTB. We will also highlight a new publication from the AJOG coming out September 1, 2022 analyzing vaginal progesterone’s effectiveness against PTB. Does it work? Let’s find out.
8/24/202213 minutes, 43 seconds
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White Classification: Still Relevant?

In 1949, Priscilla White published her landmark study on diabetes in pregnancy, launching the “White Classification”. This has been a staple of pre-pregnancy diabetes nomenclature since that time. However, despite its historical role in obstetrics, is this scale still relevant? In this episode we will review the history, definitions of, and proposed alternative nomenclature to the traditional White Classification.
8/20/202218 minutes, 57 seconds
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Epilepsy and Women’s Care

Epilepsy/seizure disorders disproportionately affects women of reproductive age over men. The influence of sex hormones on seizure prevalence is well documented. As women’s healthcare providers, it’s vital for us to understand the influence of seizure disorders on women’s overall care. In this session, we will review important aspects regarding contraception and review the data on pregnancy outcomes in women with epilepsy.
8/17/202215 minutes, 16 seconds
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OB Listeriosis

There are so many things to go over with our pregnant patients especially at their initial intake visit. However, one thing that should not be left off that discussion list includes food items to avoid! Listeriosis during pregnancy can be devastating for the fetus. Are you familiar with the work up and CDC recommended treatment for this condition? In this episode we will present an easy to remember protocol for managing patients with a possible exposure to listeria monocytogenes.
8/14/202222 minutes, 25 seconds
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I’ll let this episode title speak for itself… LOL. Hope this makes you smile.
8/11/20221 minute, 52 seconds
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New Med for ENDO! (With Guest Co-Host)

Endometriosis is a devastating condition. Once thought to have its impact only during reproductive age, endometriosis has been linked to an increased risk of stroke later in life. Any new medication which shows safety and efficacy in menstrual pain reduction is welcome in this space. In this session we will review a new FDA approval of an existing medication in the battle against endometriosis. (Special guest co-host, Kacie Mitchell, 3rd medical student)
8/8/202215 minutes, 6 seconds
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Mag Neuroprotection at 22 Weeks?

Yesterday, 08/01/2022, we released a podcast on “The 22 Week Birth”. As a follow-up to this, and in response to 5 separate questions (all related to the use of magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection) from podcast members, we decided to get this episode out! While we all understand the upper limit for magnesium sulfate for CNS protection to be 32 weeks and 0 days, is magnesium sulfate a consideration at 22 weeks? We will lay out the timeline of data from 2017 to current day in this session.
8/2/202212 minutes, 18 seconds
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The 22 Week Birth

Over the last several years, the “limit of viability” for neonates has decreased dramatically. The new “lower limit” of neonatal viability can now be considered to be as early as 22 gestational weeks. But there’s a lot more to that statement! In this session, we will review the latest data on neonatal survival in the Periviable interval. We will highlight and summarize a new publication from the Lancet published on July 25, 2022. Should we be performing “universal resuscitation” at 22 weeks? Or should we take a more “selective” approach? Let’s summarize the latest data.
8/2/202221 minutes, 11 seconds
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Polyhydramnios affects from 0.2 to 2% of all pregnancies. Which is preferred for diagnosis, MVP or AFI? Is amnioreduction an effective intervention? When is indomethacin indicated? In the session we will dive into the issue of polyhydramnios, its workup, and delivery implications.
7/28/202213 minutes, 47 seconds
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Misuse of Fetal Scalp Stimulation

One of the most common techniques to assess fetal status intrapartum is the fetal scalp stimulation test. First proposed in 1936, its incorporation in modern obstetric practice is still evident. However, there are some common misapplications and misunderstandings of this intervention. Does fetal scalp stimulation help resolve a fetal deceleration? Or could it be potentially harmful? In this podcast we will set the record straight to prevent misuse of the fetal scalp stimulation test. Thank you Abby for the podcast topic and bringing this to my attention.
7/23/202212 minutes, 6 seconds
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HT in BRCA Patients?

In this session, we will continue our brief summary of the NAMS 2022 clinical update on hormone therapy. Is hormone therapy allowed in patients with known BRCA genetic mutations? Is Bazedoxifene safe? What about vaginal estrogen therapy? We will answer these questions and more in this session.
7/19/202214 minutes, 41 seconds
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Can HT continue past 65? NAMS 2022 UPDATE

Medical information moves fast. We know a lot more about risks and benefits of hormone therapy since the impactful WHI study was first released. In this session we will review important new concepts from the NAMS Hormone Therapy update just released Summer of 2022. Is it safe to continue hormone therapy beyond the age of 65? Is “lowest dose for shortest duration” still a valid concept? We will tackle this question and more in this session!
7/16/202222 minutes, 18 seconds
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New Data on Water Births (July 2022)

For several years, data has validated the value of water immersion during labor (1st stage). However, when it comes to the 2nd stage of labor, the AAP and the ACOG are unified in their positions which is at odds with the ACNM. But what does the new data support? In this session we will cover a new systematic review and meta-analysis from BMJ Open which was published July 2022. Let’s set the record straight on water immersion during the first and second stages of labor.
7/12/202212 minutes, 37 seconds
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Melatonin Use in Pregnancy?

Sleep disruption and poor sleep quality are not unusual during pregnancy. That’s obvious! What’s not so obvious is whether a common over-the-counter sleep agent, melatonin, is safe to use during pregnancy or not. While traditionally, options like diphenhydramine and doxylamine have been used as sleep aids during pregnancy, up to 4% of women (reportedly) use this over-the-counter supplement during gestation. What does the data say? Let’s address this common supplement use…now.
7/8/202219 minutes, 16 seconds
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“Reverse Sequence” Syphilis Tests

Lots of practical clinical pearls in this episode! “Reverse sequence testing” for syphilis has largely taken over the traditional testing algorithm. Traditionally, non-Treponemal tests (RPR, VDRL) were done first with a reflex to a Treponema specific test if that was positive (MHATP). But this is now considered the antiquated technique. Reverse sequence testing has the advantage of potentially identifying infected patients very early on. In this session, we will give easy to use/practical tools for reverse sequence test interpretation, and how to best manage “discordant“ results.
7/3/202223 minutes, 39 seconds
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Does Ella Cause Abortion?

Over the last several days I have received numerous Facebook messages, podcast voice memos, and personal texts regarding the potential for misapplication of Ulipristal’s mechanism of action as emergency contraception. Will Ella be banned? Does it affect implantation? It’s time to clear the dust and set the record straight.
6/27/202213 minutes, 50 seconds
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New ACOG (June 16, 2022) Advisory: “PreP Talk”

On June 16, 2022, the ACOG released a new practice advisory regarding PreP in the ObGyn patient population. This has important implications on how we counsel patients especially after recent STI diagnosis. In this podcast we will cover important aspects of PreP to get you comfortable with this preventative option. What are the 3 currently approved options? Are they safe? What about monitoring? Do adolescent patients qualify? We will answer all of these questions and more in this session.
6/25/202217 minutes, 34 seconds
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PCOS and ACUTE PeriPartum Risks

We have come a long way from the first report from Stein and Leventhal describing “polycystic ovaries“ on ultrasound in infertile women back in the 1950s. We already well understand that PCOS raises the risk of certain antepartum complications including gestational diabetes, possible macrosomia, and the development of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. But there actually is scant data on the risk of acute peripartum complications. In this podcast we will summarize a large study just published June 16, 2022 out of the Journal of AHA. We will also cover the importance of distinguishing between “Odds Ratios” and “absolute numbers” for clinical implications. Ready? Let’s dive into acute PeriPartum risks for women with PCOS.
6/23/202220 minutes, 16 seconds
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Well…so there’s this. 😳😳😳
6/20/20221 minute
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Monkeypox 101: Effect in Pregnancy and Beyond.

This is your crash course into all things “Monkeypox”. Data for this podcast comes from the CDC, WHO, and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Information is moving fast and we’re here to keep you evidence-based. How does Monkeypox affect pregnancy? When is a C-Section indicated? What are the treatments available? And what about the 2 vaccines available in the USA… Why is one more problematic than the other? Listen in and find out.
6/13/202220 minutes, 56 seconds
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Hydration for Oligo?

Which is better for determining amniotic fluid volume: the AFI or MVP? There’s data to support one or the other. In cases of isolated oligohydramnios in the late preterm interval, is there a role for maternal oral hydration? Does that actually work? We are going to dive into the amniotic fluid (no pun intended) dilemmas now.
6/9/202220 minutes, 12 seconds
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Is Myfembree Birth Control?

According to the ACOG, by natural menopause it is estimated that up to 70% of women will have developed a uterine leiomyoma. 70%! Most of course are asymptomatic. For those with symptoms, heavy menstrual bleeding and pain are the most common afflictions. In May 2021, the FDA approved a new triple combination pill for heavy menstrual bleeding associated with fibroids. Can this medication also be used as hormonal birth control? We will review the ACOG, FDA, and manufacture’s information for MyFimbree in this clinical update.
6/6/202213 minutes, 27 seconds
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Meet Hilda! In this quick episode, I’ll share a very unique story of one of our coworkers (our featured guest on the podcast). I know this will encourage, inspire, and just make your day! Listen in, and find out why.
6/3/20225 minutes, 43 seconds
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Does the Progestin Matter?

There are currently (in the USA) 4 generations of available progestins in combination birth control pills. Are these differences clinically relevant, or is it all manufacturer marketing? In this session we will review the chemical nature, biology of, and clinical manifestations of the different progestins. We will set the record straight. (This topic was suggested by an OB/GYN senior resident at Lincoln Hospital, South Bronx… Thank you for listening to our podcast and for the wonderful podcast topic suggestion).
6/2/202218 minutes, 15 seconds
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Fetal Microcephaly

Fetal microcephaly is a devastating diagnosis. Prognosis is dependent on whether fetal microcephaly is isolated or part of other congenital anomalies. Prognosis is also directly related to the degree of fetal microcephaly. In this session, we will review the diagnostic criteria, workup, and prognosis of this devastating fetal condition.
5/28/202220 minutes, 52 seconds
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Here’s what’s going on… As of May 26, 2022.
5/26/20221 minute, 27 seconds
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The Mask of Pregnancy

Pregnancy can definitely work some changes on the body. Melasma is a common pregnancy reaction, and can be a cosmetic concern to many affected. Are treatments safe to use during pregnancy? Are cutaneous lasers allowed? In this session we will review the available literature and cover the first, second, and third-line options for treatment of the mask of pregnancy.
5/21/202217 minutes, 48 seconds
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The Non-Palpable Implant

The etonogestrel implant is the most effective LARC available. Well, how many years AFTER the FDA approval of 3 years does the implant remain effective? Also, currently, the usual and customary standard is for the provider and patient to palpate the implant area after insertion. But what happens when the insert is non-palpable? In the session, we will review the evidence-based protocol to find this nonpalpable implant. Can you order a serum etonogestrel level? Do these things “migrate”? Can a patient still use it for birth control after 3 years? Listen in, and find out.
5/17/202214 minutes, 3 seconds
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Is Too Much FM Bad?

Historically, obstetrical providers cautioned patients about decreased fetal movement. But what about maternal perception of INCREASED fetal movement? Is increased fetal movement a harbinger of adverse neonatal outcome? In this session we will highlight and summarize a new publication from the AJOG (April 26, 2022) that helps shed light on this clinical conundrum.
5/12/202213 minutes, 18 seconds
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The Metronidazole Myth!

Since the 1960s, metronidazole has carried a label warning stating that alcohol use while taking the medication can lead to significant side-effects. This was termed a “Disulfurim-like reaction”. However, that’s 100% not true! Where did this metronadazole myth come from? Why has it survived for over 50 years? In this podcast… We’ll set the record straight! Yes, you can have your cake and eat it too… I mean, your beer and drink it too! 🍻🍺🍻🍺🍷🍷🍷
5/8/202213 minutes, 43 seconds
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BUMP1 and BUMP2! (May 2022)

On May 3, 2022, JAMA published 2 separate randomized clinical trials (RCTs) regarding patient’s self-monitoring of blood pressures at home. Historically, clinicians instructed patients either at risk of developing hypertension in pregnancy or those with existing chronic hypertension/hypertensive disorders in pregnancy to self-monitor their blood pressure in-between clinician visits. Is that recommendation clinically useful? Does the data support that? Once again, the world of “hypertension in pregnancy” is being shaken up! In this podcast we will review these 2 recent RCT studies which may the change the way we practice obstetrics.
5/5/202210 minutes, 38 seconds
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Headaches in Pregnancy: New ACOG Guidance (May 2022)

In May 2022, the ACOG Will release a new Clinical Practice Guidance (#3). This will cover “Headaches in Pregnancy and Postpartum”. Do you know which classes of medication are considered first line for primary headache prevention during pregnancy? And for acute treatment of migraine, which medications are recommended? Are Ergot alkaloids safe for use? What about Triptans? In this session, we will summarize and highlight Clinical Pearls for the prevention and treatment of primary headache in pregnancy and during lactation.
4/29/202219 minutes, 15 seconds
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Epidural’s Secret Benefit!

Addressing severe maternal morbidity is a public health priority in the US. Postpartum hemorrhage is one of the driving contributors to severe maternal morbidity/mortality peri-partum. A recent study published in JAMA open network in February 2022 is showing an unusual benefit of labor epidural analgesia which may help close the gap in severe maternal morbidity-related healthcare disparities. In this episode, we will highlight the key findings of this publication and review “epidural’s secret benefit”.
4/26/202217 minutes, 40 seconds
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NIPTS Takes a HIT (May 2022 New Publication from Obstetrics & Gynecology)

It could not have been timed any better: Coming off the heels of the recent FDA warning on the use of noninvasive prenatal test (NIPTS), a new study soon to be released in May 2022 is calling its use into further question. Is this a return of the Maternal Serum QUAD screen? Listen in and find out.
4/22/202213 minutes, 31 seconds
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ACOG’s 4/20/22 Response to FDA Warning!

On April 19, 2022 the FDA released a warning regarding the inappropriate use of cell free DNA genetic screening tests. Within 24 hours, the ACOG (April 20, 2022) issued a statement response. In this podcast we will highlight these two key documents. We will also review what cell free DNA is and is not. What is the role of Ultrasound in genetic screening? Can cell free DNA be repeated after a “no call” result? Lots of important information… Covered here!
4/21/202217 minutes, 1 second
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IUS Use and Acne: It’s Real!

Without doubt, the most common reason for requested progestin-intrauterine system (IUS) removal is abnormal bleeding patterns. But do you know what the second most common reason is? It’s acne! In this episode, we will summarize a soon to be released article accepted for print in Obstetrics and Gynecology (the Green Journal). This episode will provide practical clinical pearls to truly obtain informed consent from our patients seeking long acting reversible contraceptives (LARCS).
4/19/20229 minutes, 34 seconds
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Matthew’s Question: ROM Plus and EGA

On Friday, April 15, 2022, I received a Facebook question regarding a recent episode on ROM test. We stated that ROM Plus, as a test, has accuracy between 23 to 37 weeks. Where does that come from? In this brief episode, will explain the facts.
4/16/20226 minutes, 46 seconds
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🚨ACOG Practice Advisory🚨: CHAP Trial Response (April 2022).

Today, April 11, 2022, the ACOG updated its practice advisory regarding chronic hypertension in pregnancy. This follows the statement from the Society of Maternal Fetal Medicine recognizing the change in practice based on the CHAP trial. In this session we will summary ACOG’s response.
4/11/20224 minutes, 28 seconds
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Ovaries OUT! (New Data On Age of BSO at Benign Hyst)

Since 2005, experts have advocated for ovarian conservation, until the age of 65, at time of hysterectomy for benign indication. However, a soon to be released publication is calling for a retraction of that opinion! Based on brand new data, do you know the age NOW at which ovarian removal is recommended? In this session, we will review this brand new information that will greatly impact how we perform hysterectomy for benign indications.
4/10/202214 minutes, 57 seconds
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🚨ACOG ALERT🚨 (April 6, 2022): CHAP Trial

A study published on April 2, 2022 in The New England Journal of Medicine, "Treatment for Mild Chronic Hypertension during Pregnancy” (CHAP Trial) has resulted in ACOG calling to order its Practice Advisory Committee to prepare a “practice update” regarding the management of mild to moderate hypertension in pregnancy. This recent publication is practice changing! While we await the revised guidelines and official statement from the ACOG, this podcast will review the current state of affairs regarding management of mild to moderate chronic hypertension in pregnancy.
4/7/20227 minutes, 12 seconds
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ROM Tests: Not All Are The Same.

This is Part 2 where we will wrap up our review of commercially available screening tests for ROM. Do you know what each test specifically checks for? Which test seems to outperform the others? And what about ferning and pH testing? Are those still done? Let’s wrap up our 2-part series with these answers and more.
4/2/202214 minutes, 9 seconds
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Understanding ROM Tests: Pitfall Prevention Pearls (Part 1)

PROM is a common diagnosis in Labor and Delivery. However, making a false positive diagnosis OR a false negative one may place the pregnancy at risk of either unnecessary interventions or adverse perinatal outcomes- or both. In this session, we will review best practices for exam based diagnosis. Are you aware of the FDA “Dear Doctor” letter regarding ROM biomarker testing (2018)? This session is Part 1. In Part 2, we will dive deep into the 3 main biomarker tests for ROM- how they differ, how they perform, their strengths and their weaknesses.
3/30/202217 minutes, 18 seconds
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Send The Placenta? Hmm…likely NO.

Some things in medical practice stem more out of tradition than true clinical evidence. Such is the case for histological examination of the placenta. When is pathological examination of the placenta actually helpful? Should we send of the placenta in cases of multifetal birth? What about meconium or chorioamnionitis? In the session, we will review a soon to be released clinical brief from Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) coming out April 2022. This new evidence review questions our current clinical practice of routine placental histological evaluation.
3/26/202218 minutes, 24 seconds
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Prevention of HBV Vertical Transmission: New Data

There is a recommendation for universal screening of Hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnancy. Which antiviral medication is recommended for prevention of Hep B vertical transmission in pregnancy? Is there a antiviral medication approved for Hepatitis C in pregnancy? In this session, we will review new data which is soon-to-be released in the American Journal of OB/GYN (Gray Journal) reviewing antepartum (maternal) antiviral medication used to prevent mother to child transmission of Hepatitis B. We will also review the SMFM guidelines for hepatitis B viral infection during pregnancy.
3/22/202215 minutes, 15 seconds
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Duration of PP MagSulfate: New Data

Why is Magnesium Sulfate the first-line medication for preeclampsia/eclampsia? How did that arise into the current, international, standard-of-care regiment for that condition? Is 24 hours of Postpartum Mag evidence-based? In this episode we will review the evolution of magnesium sulfate for eclampsia prevention/treatment. We will also summarize a soon to be released systematic review and meta-analysis publication from Obstetrics & Gynecology examining the duration of postpartum MagSulfate use.
3/14/202216 minutes, 3 seconds
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OB Care After ART (SMFM Series #60; 2022)

Pregnancies that arise after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are at higher risk of maternal, fetal, and even placental complications. In this session we will summarize and highlight key prenatal management pearls for pregnancies that arise after ART. This is a summary of the SMFM consult series # 60, from March 2022.
3/7/202218 minutes, 42 seconds
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Statins and Preeclampsia Prevention: Yes or No.

Preeclampsia occurs in 3 to 5% of the general OB population. It has even higher prevalence among those with high-risk conditions. Currently, aspirin stands alone as the most evidence-based pharmacological option for preeclampsia prevention (risk reduction). But over the last decade new interest has arisen for the use of statins for preeclampsia prevention. Well, do statins work? What is the state of statin therapy as of 2022? In this session we will review the latest data and review the key pathogenesis in preeclampsia formation.
3/3/202216 minutes, 3 seconds
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Optimizing Natural Fertility (ASRM)

Couples trying to conceive often ask questions like these: When is the best time to have sex to get pregnant? Is there a better sexual position to have sex in order to conceive? Is one type of over the counter lubrication better than the other? Well despite weird myths and misperceptions about these subjects, there are firm answers we can give. In this podcast we will cover the January 2022 ASRM Bulletin on ways to “optimize natural fertility”.
2/26/202218 minutes, 13 seconds
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Water Immersion in Labor: AAP/ACOG vs ACNM

Hydrotherapy (water immersion) has a proven safety record and proven benefits in the first stage of labor. But what about actually delivering with water immersion? In January 2022, the AAP released a Committee Opinion regarding water immersion delivery. The AAP echoes the words from the ACOG regarding water immersion births. However, the ACNM does not agree. In this session, we will review the established and conflicting viewpoints from these organizations regarding water immersion in labor and delivery.
2/22/202212 minutes, 50 seconds
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23AndMe and OCPs

The old adage, “Too much of anything is a bad thing”, is traditionally credited to Mark Twain. Was he right? Does the same apply to medical information?What about finding incidental genetic carrier states from online companies like “23AndMe”? In a patient with no personal or family history of any medical complication or malignancy, is this information helpful or more psychologically harmful? In this episode we will review a recent real-world case of how gynecological care was impacted by a patient’s curiosity regarding her genetic makeup.
2/17/202216 minutes, 6 seconds
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Allergic to Semen!

Semen allergy is a real (although rare) immune reaction. Do you know what the presenting signs/symptoms are?The ISSM has established diagnostic criteria for this. In this session, we will review the diagnostic algorithm for a patient presenting with possible semen allergy.
2/8/202220 minutes, 30 seconds
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Did WHO Ban Bakri?

Postpartum hemorrhage continues to be a worldwide leaning cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In May 2021, the WHO updated it’s global recommendations for the use of “uterine balloon tamponade” in the management of PPH. Did the WHO ban the Bakri? In the session we will review the May 2021 WHO updated guidance and summarize a soon to be released guideline commentary from the ACOG (proposed release date March 2022).
2/5/202214 minutes, 57 seconds
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Birth During Covid and Child Development: NEW DATA

Globally, more than 200 million infants have been born since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. It has been unclear whether fetal exposure to maternal SARS-CoV2 infection can adversely affect the child’s neurodevelopmental progress. Does having Covid during pregnancy affect the child’s neurodevelopment? The answer is intriguing! This is a tale of a pandemic, psychosocial stress response, and epigenetic changes. (Data summary from JAMA Pediatrics; Jan 2022).
1/20/202212 minutes, 35 seconds
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In the ACOG Practice Bulletin #106, which was released in 2009, the use of maternal supplemental oxygen for fetal heart rate tracing correction is mentioned. In that original bulletin, it states “despite inadequate data to support its use” consideration can be given to supplemental maternal oxygen for category II or III fetal heart rate tracings. However, within the last 7 years, an ever-growing body of evidence has proven that supplemental oxygen for fetal heart rate pattern abnormalities is not only ineffective but may actually be harmful to the premature fetus. Now, as of January 2022, we now have new guidance on this. Find out how and why the ACOG has now changed its original opinion.
1/15/20225 minutes, 25 seconds
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OB HTN UPDATES (BIG CMQCC Recommendations).

Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are a large contributor to maternal mortality. Maternal mortality rates for chronic hypertension in pregnancy have increased 15-fold over the last 4 decades! The California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative (CMQCC) has been a leading authority in the Pregnancy Hypertensive space. In the session, we will review BIG updates from the CMQCC. Should we aggressively treat chronic hypertension in pregnancy? What about treating nonsevere gestational hypertension? Are you familiar with the new Cardiology subspecialty of “Cardio- Obstetrics“? Let’s cover all this information… NOW!
1/13/202219 minutes, 14 seconds
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New Data on Periods After Covid Vaccination