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Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast Profile

Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast

English, Health / Medicine, 1 season, 372 episodes, 4 days, 4 minutes
About
Cardionerds is a medical cardiology podcast created to bring high yield cardiovascular concepts in a fun and engaging format for listeners of all levels. We aim to democratize cardiovascular education, promote diversity & inclusion in our beloved field, empower every learner to teach & every teacher to learn and foster wellness & humanity for all. Check us out! www.cardionerds.com
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371. Case Report: The Curious Case of Obstructive Cardiogenic Shock – Maine Medical Center

CardioNerds Dr. Josh Saef and Dr. Tommy Das join Dr. Omkar Betageri, Dr. Andrew Geissler, Dr. Philip Lacombe, and Dr. Cashel O’Brien from the Maine Medical Center in Portland, Maine to enjoy an afternoon by the famous Portland headlight. They discuss a case of a patient who presents with obstructive cardiogenic shock. Dr. Bram Geller and Dr. Jon Donnelly provide the Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review segment for this episode. Dr. Maxwell Afari, the Maine Medical Center cardiology fellowship program director highlights the fellowship program. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Tina Reddy. This is the case of a 42 year-old woman born with complicated Tetralogy of Fallot repair culminating in a 29mm Edwards Sapiens (ES) S3 valve placement within a pulmonary homograft for graft failure who was admitted to the cardiac ICU for progressive cardiogenic shock requiring vasopressors and inotropic support. Initial workup showed lactic acidosis, acute kidney injury, elevated NT-proBNP, and negative blood cultures. TTE showed at least moderate biventricular systolic dysfunction. She was placed on furosemide infusion, blood cultures were drawn and empiric antibiotics initiated. Right heart catheterization demonstrated elevated right sided filling pressures, blunted PA pressures with low PCWP, low cardiac index, and low pulmonary artery pulsatility index. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) showed a large mass within the ES valve apparatus causing restrictive valve motion with a low gradient across the pulmonic valve in the setting of poor RV function. Angiography revealed a large filling defect and balloon valvuloplasty was performed with immediate hemodynamic improvement. Blood cultures remained negative, she was gradually weaned off of inotropic and vasopressor support, and discharged. Despite empiric treatment for culture negative endocarditis and ongoing anticoagulation, she was readmitted for recurrent shock one month later at which time the pulmonic mass was revisualized on ICE. A valve-in-valve transcatheter pulmonary valve (29mm ES S3) was placed to compress what was likely pannus, with an excellent hemodynamic result and no visible mass on ICE. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Pearls - Obstructive Cardiogenic ShocK Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic defect and can lead to long term complications after surgical repair including chronic pulmonary insufficiency, RV dysfunction, residual RVOT obstruction and branch pulmonary artery stenoses. Chronic RV failure may be more indicative of a structural defect and therefore require interventional or surgical management. Valve thrombosis, infective endocarditis and obstructive pannus formation should be considered in the differential of a patient with obstructive shock with a prosthetic valve. Bioprosthetic pulmonic valve obstruction may be effectively managed with balloon valvuloplasty in patients who present in acute extremis but TCPV will likely provide a more lasting result. While valvular gradients are typically assessed via echocardiography, invasive hemodynamics can serve as a critical adjunctive tool in its characterization. Show Notes - Obstructive Cardiogenic ShocK Notes were drafted by Drs. Omkar Betageri, Philip Lacombe, Cashel O’Brien, and Andrew Geissler. What are the common therapies and management for Tetralogy of Fallot? Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common cyanotic defect in children beyond the age of one year Anatomic Abnormalities: Anterior and Superior deviation of the conal septum creating a SubAo VSD and encroachment on the RVOT.
5/14/202450 minutes, 56 seconds
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370. CardioOncology: Advanced Heart Failure in CardioOncology with Dr. Richard Cheng

CardioNerds Co-Founder Dr. Daniel Ambinder, Episode Chair Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and FIT Lead Dr. Natalie Tapaskar discuss advanced heart failure in CardioOncology with expert Dr. Richard Cheng. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. In this episode, we discuss the spectrum of advanced heart failure in patients with a history of cancer. We dissect cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) cases and the imaging and biomarker tools available for risk stratification and disease monitoring. We delve into the data on the use of guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in these patients. We discuss the risk of prior radiation and chemotherapy during cardiac surgery. Finally, we learn about the post-transplant risk of rejection, recurrent malignancy, and de-novo malignancies, as well as treatment strategies we can employ for these patients. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Advanced Heart Failure in CardioOncology Use the HFA-ICOS risk tool to understand the baseline risk of developing cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD). Key factors are type of cancer therapy, baseline CV risk factors, and age. A relative change in global longitudinal strain of more than 15% from baseline is a marker of early cardiac dysfunction and predicts the subsequent risk for systolic dysfunction in patients undergoing cardiotoxic chemotherapy. Statins may be useful in prevention of cardiovascular dysfunction in patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy. There is limited data on the 4 pillars of GDMT in prevention of CTRCD, but should be started early once CRTCD is suspected or diagnosed! Mediastinal radiation causes adhesions and scarring which increase the risk of bleeding during cardiac surgery, lead to longer operative times, and can lead to RV failure and poor wound healing. Patients with a pre-transplant history of malignancy have a higher risk of mortality due to post-transplant malignancy. And patients with active cancer should not be considered for heart transplant. Post-transplant malignancy risk can be mitigated by utilizing an mTOR based, CNI free immunosuppression regimen. Show notes - Advanced Heart Failure in CardioOncology How do cardio-oncology and advanced heart failure intersect? There are 3 basic populations of patients to consider:Patients with advanced heart failure who develop cancer.Patients with pre-existing chemotherapy and radiation exposure for cancer treatment who later develop advanced heart failureHeart transplant recipients who, in the long term are at very high risk of developing cancer Cardio-oncologists must consider risk assessment and mitigation, long-term prognosis, and treatment strategies for each of these unique populations. How can we assess the risk of developing cardiovascular disease during cancer treatment (CTRCD)? There are many proposed risk tools. However, the majority are not well-validated. One of the most used tools is the HFA-ICOS risk tool.1You can select the planned cancer therapy for the patient (anthracyclines, HER-2, VEGF, RAF/MEK inhibitors, Kinase inhibitors, multiple myeloma therapies) and then calculate their risk of developing CV disease during cancer treatment based on baseline variables:1) previous history of CV disease,2) biomarkers – troponin and NT-proBNP3)age,4) CV risk factors -HTN, DM,
5/13/202444 minutes, 46 seconds
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369. Case Report: Apical Obliteration with Biventricular Thrombus – West Virginia University

CardioNerds, Dr. Richard Ferraro and Dr. Dan ambinder join Dr. Li Pang, Dr. Emily Hendricks, and Dr. Bei Jiang from West Virginia University to discuss the following case that features apical obliteration with biventricular thrombus. Dr. Christopher Bianco provides the Expert CardioNerd Perspectives & Review (E-CPR) for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Tina Reddy. A 37-year-old Caucasian man with a history of tobacco smoking and hypertension who presented with chest pain and elevated troponin was admitted for non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Ischemic evaluation with an invasive coronary angiogram was negative. He was treated as NSTEMI and scheduled for outpatient cardiac MRI (CMR). The patient came back 2 months later with right arm weakness and confusion and was found to have an embolic stroke. Labs showed positive troponin with a flat trend and hypereosinophilia. Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed obliteration of LV and RV apex with thrombus and reduced LV systolic function. CMR was consistent with myocarditis with biventricular thrombus. The patient was started on corticosteroids and warfarin. Hypereosinophilia workup was positive for PDGFRA alpha rearrangement. He was diagnosed with primary hypereosinophila syndrome. Imatinib was initiated. The patient was followed up with the hematology clinic, achieved a complete hematologic response with normalized cell count, and remained free from any cardiovascular event at the 8-month follow-up. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Pearls - Apical Obliteration with Biventricular Thrombus Cardiac MRI is a valuable test for patients presenting with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). Obliterated apex with apical thrombus on TTE with hypereosinophilia should raise high suspicion for eosinophilic myocarditis. Initiation of corticosteroids is the first-line treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis, which is associated with lower mortality in patients with myocarditis. For other potential complications, such as heart failure, intracardiac thrombus, arrhythmia, and pericardial effusion, the standard of care for each disorder is recommended. Hypereosinophilia can be seen in parasitic infections, vasculitis, asthma, allergy, hematological malignancies, and as a primary disorder. Show Notes - Apical Obliteration with Biventricular Thrombus What is the differential diagnosis for patients with elevated troponin and nonobstructive CAD? The occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without significant CAD was reported 80 years ago. However, the term MINOCA (myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries) has only been used recently to describe these patients. It involves ischemic and nonischemic etiologies. First, overlooked ischemic etiologies need to be ruled out by reconciling the angiogram images such as spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) and plaque disruption. Intracoronary imaging, such as intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) or optical coherence tomography (OCT), may be applied to evaluate for SCAD and subtypes of plaque disruption when indicated.  The investigation continues with nonischemic causes such as stress cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pulmonary embolism, demand ischemia from sepsis, anemia, chest trauma, heart failure exacerbation, arrhythmia, and stroke. The diagnosis of MINOCA is established when it fulfills the following criteria: First, it is AMI by the Fourth Universal Definition; Second, less than 50% of stenotic lesion on angiogram; Third, there is no alternate diagnosis.
5/7/202447 minutes, 2 seconds
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368. Obesity: Procedural Management of Obesity with Dr. Steve Nissen

CardioNerds (Drs. Richard Ferraro, Gurleen Kaur, and Rupan Bose) discuss the growing epidemic of obesity and dive into the role of its procedural management with Dr. Steve Nissen, Chief Academic Officer at the Cleveland Clinic HVTI and past president of the American College of Cardiology. This is an exciting topic that reflects a major inflection point in cardiovascular care. In this episode, we discuss the importance of addressing obesity in cardiovascular care, as it is a major driver of cardiovascular disease and the progression of associated cardiovascular comorbidities. We look at the role of bariatric surgery and its ability to produce sustained weight loss. Finally, we look into the emerging role of new medical therapies such as GLP1 and GIP agonist medications. Notes were drafted by Dr. Rupan Bose and episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Intern Dr. Atefeh Ghorbanzadeh. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Procedural Management of Obesity with Dr. Steve Nissen Obesity is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Returning to a healthy weight can largely prevent the downstream consequences of obesity. Regarding lifestyle modifications, diet alone is insufficient in sustaining prolonged weight loss. It is associated with short-term weight loss, but it is generally necessary to supplement with exercise and activity to ensure sustained weight loss. Bariatric surgery should be considered for patients with BMI ≥40 kg/m2 or BMI ≥35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbid conditions who are motivated to lose weight and who have not responded to behavioral treatment with or without pharmacotherapy. New emerging medications, including GLP1 receptor agonists, GIP receptor agonists, and glucagon receptor agonists, are beginning to approach weight loss levels that were previously only seen with bariatric surgery. Further research in this dynamic area is ongoing. Show notes - Procedural Management of Obesity with Dr. Steve Nissen Notes drafted by Dr. Rupan Bose. What is the role of obesity in the burden of cardiovascular disease, and why is it so important for CardioNerds to address it? According to the AHA, approximately 2.8 to 3.5 billion people worldwide are either overweight or obese. It is estimated that by 2030, 30% of people in the US will have a BMI greater than 30. Adipose tissue is associated with cytokine release. Cytokines, in turn, can activate and increase levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and CRP, leading to an increased inflammatory state. This pro-inflammatory state then accelerates the rate of cardiovascular disease. Obesity is also associated with significant joint and orthopedic diseases, which further impact patients’ quality of life and morbidity. Additionally, obesity is associated with NASH cirrhosis. These adverse liver outcomes hold additional significant systemic implications and morbidity. How do you determine one’s goal weight and goal BMI? Is BMI a good standard for measuring obesity? BMI is a variable of both weight and height. However, it cannot differentiate those whose weight is from adipose tissue versus from muscle mass. Therefore, BMI measurements can sometimes be misleading. Waist circumference may be a better measurement standard for obesity and risk assessment. The “apple shape” body type, with more abdominal fat, is associated with higher inflammation and cardiovascular risk than the “pear-shaped” body type, which is where there is more fat deposition in the buttocks a...
5/5/202437 minutes, 58 seconds
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367. GLP-1 Agonists: Clinical Implementation of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists with Dr. Neha Pagidapati

CardioNerds (Drs. Gurleen Kaur and Richard Ferraro) and episode FIT Lead Dr. Spencer Carter (Cardiology Fellow at UT Southwestern) discuss the clinical implementation of GLP-1 receptor agonists with Dr. Neha Pagidapati (Faculty at Duke University School of Medicine). In this episode of the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series, we discuss the clinical implementation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. We cover the clinical indications, metabolic and cardiovascular benefits, and potential limitations of these emerging and exciting therapies. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Spencer Carter. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Pacey Wetstein. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Clinical Implementation of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists GLP-1 agonists work through a variety of mechanisms to counteract metabolic disease. They increase insulin secretion, inhibit glucagon secretion, slow gastric motility, and increase satiety to limit excess energy intake. Patients with type II diabetes and an elevated risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease should be considered for GLP-1 agonist therapy regardless of hemoglobin A1c. GLP-1 agonists offer significant ASCVD risk reduction even in the absence of diabetes. Newer data suggest a significant reduction in cardiovascular events with GLP-1 agonist therapy in patients who are overweight or obese and have a prior history of heart disease. GLP-1 agonists should generally be avoided in patients with a history of medullary thyroid cancer or MEN2. As these medications slow gastric emptying, relative contraindications include history of recurrent pancreatitis and gastroparesis. GLP-1 agonists should be initially prescribed at the lowest dose and slowly uptitrated to avoid gastrointestinal side effects. Show notes - Clinical Implementation of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists What were the groundbreaking findings of the STEP1 and SURMOUNT-1 trials and how these impact cardiovascular wellness? The STEP1 and SURMOUNT trials demonstrated sustained clinically relevant reduction in body weight with semaglutide and tripeptide, respectively, in patients with overweight and obesity. As obesity is an important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease, weight reduction meaningfully contributes to cardiovascular wellness. What were the findings of the LEADER trial and their implications for patients with type II diabetes and high cardiovascular risk? The LEADER trial demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, or nonfatal stroke in patients with type II diabetes treated with liraglutide. GLP-1 receptor agonist therapy should be considered in all patients with type II diabetes and elevated ASCVD risk regardless of A1c or current hyperglycemic therapy. What are current indications for GLP1 agonists in the context of cardiometabolic disease. GLP-1 receptor agonists should be considered in patients with type II diabetes and high ASCVD risk OR patients without diabetes who are overweight/obese and have a history of cardiovascular disease. What are important side effects or contraindications to GLP1 agents when used for cardiovascular risk reduction and wellness? GLP-1 receptor agonists should be avoided in patients with a history of medullary thyroid cancer or MEN2. Relative contraindications include recurrent pancreatitis, gastroparesis,
5/3/202443 minutes, 3 seconds
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366. Digital Health: Integrating Digital Health into Practice with Dr. Alexis Beatty and Dr. Seth Martin

CardioNerds (Dr. Dan Ambinder), Dr. Nino Isakadze (EP Fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital), and Dr. Karan Desai (Cardiology Faculty at Johns Hopkins Hospital) join Digital Health Experts, Dr. Alexis Beatty (Cardiologist and associate professor in the department of epidemiology and biostatistics at UCSF) and Dr. Seth Martin (Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Mobile Technologies to Achieve Equity in Cardiovascular Health (mTECH), which is part of the American Heart Association (AHA) Strategically Focused Research Networks on Health Technology & Innovation) for another installment of the Digital Health Series. In this specific episode, we discuss pearls, pitfalls, and everything in between for emerging digital health innovators. This series is supported by an ACC Chapter Grant in collaboration with Corrie Health.  Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Shivani Reddy. In this series, supported by an ACC Chapter Grant and in collaboration with Corrie Health, we hope to provide all CardioNerds out there a primer on the role of digital heath in cardiovascular medicine. Use of versatile hardware and software devices is skyrocketing in everyday life. This provides unique platforms to support healthcare management outside the walls of the hospital for patients with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, evolution of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and telemedicine is augmenting clinical decision making at a new level fueling a revolution in cardiovascular disease care delivery. Digital health has the potential to bridge the gap in healthcare access, lower costs of healthcare and promote equitable delivery of evidence-based care to patients. This CardioNerds Digital Health series is made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Nino Isakadze and Dr. Karan Desai.   Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Digital Health Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
4/25/202444 minutes, 40 seconds
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365: CardioOncology: Cardiotoxicity of Novel Immunotherapies with Dr. Tomas Neilan

Immunotherapy is a type of novel cancer therapy that leverages the body’s own immune system to target cancer cells. In this episode, we focused on the most common type of immunotherapy: immune checkpoint inhibitors or ICIs. ICIs are monoclonal antibodies targeting immune “checkpoints” or brakes to enhance T-cell recognition against tumors. ICI has become a pillar in cancer care, with over 100 approvals and 5,000 ongoing trials. ICIs can lead to non-specific activation of the immune system, causing off-target adverse events such as cardiotoxicities. ICI-related myocarditis, though less common, can be fatal in 30% of cases. Clinical manifestations vary but can include chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, heart failure symptoms, and arrhythmias. Diagnosis involves echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment includes high-dose corticosteroids with potential additional immunosuppressants. Baseline EKG and troponin are recommended before ICI initiation, but routine surveillance is not advised. Subclinical myocarditis is a challenge, with unclear management implications. So let’s dive in and learn about cardiotoxicity of novel immunotherapies with Drs. Giselle Suero (series co-chair), Evelyn Song (episode FIT lead), Daniel Ambinder (CardioNerds co-founder), and Tomas Neilan (faculty expert). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cardiotoxicity of Novel Immunotherapies Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) play a crucial role in current oncology treatment by enhancing T-cell recognition against tumors. ICI-related cardiac immune-related adverse events (iRAEs) include myocarditis, heart failure, stress-cardiomyopathy, conduction abnormalities, venous thrombosis, pericardial disease, vasculitis, and atherosclerotic-related events. ICI myocarditis can be fatal; thus, prompt recognition and treatment is crucial. Management includes cessation of the ICI and treatment with corticosteroids and potentially other immunosuppressants. Close monitoring and collaboration with cardiology and oncology are crucial. Rechallenging patients with immunotherapies after developing an iRAE is controversial and requires careful consideration of risks and benefits, typically with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Show notes - Cardiotoxicity of Novel Immunotherapies What are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)? ICIs are monoclonal antibodies used to enhance the body’s immune response against cancer cells. Currently, there are four main classes of FDA-approved ICIs: monoclonal antibodies blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). ICIs can lead to non-specific activation of the immune system, potentially causing off-target adverse events in various organs, including the heart, leading to myocarditis.    The mechanisms of cardiac iRAEs are not fully understood, but they are believed to involve T-cell activation against cardiac antigens, which leads to inflammation and tissue damage.  What are the cardiotoxicities related to ICI therapies? ICI-related cardiac immune-related adverse events (iRAEs) include myocarditis, heart failure, stress-cardiomyopathy, conduction abnormalities, venous thrombosis, pericardial disease, vasculitis,
4/22/202457 minutes, 10 seconds
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364. Case Report: A Drug’s Adverse Effect Unleashes the Wolf – Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

CardioNerds join Dr. Inbar Raber and Dr. Susan Mcilvaine from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center for a Fenway game. They discuss the following case: A 72-year-old man presents with two weeks of progressive dyspnea, orthopnea, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and right upper quadrant pain. He has a history of essential thrombocytosis, Barrett’s esophagus, basal cell skin cancer, and hypertension treated with hydralazine. He is found to have bilateral pleural effusions and a pericardial effusion. He undergoes a work-up, including pericardial cytology, which is negative, and blood tests reveal a positive ANA and positive anti-histone antibody. He is diagnosed with drug-induced lupus due to hydralazine and starts treatment with intravenous steroids, resulting in an improvement in his symptoms. Expert commentary is provided by UT Southwestern internal medicine residency program director Dr. Salahuddin (“Dino”) Kazi. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Pearls - A Drug's Adverse Effect Unleashes the Wolf The differential diagnosis for pericardial effusion includes metabolic, malignant, medication-induced, traumatic, rheumatologic, and infectious etiologies. While pericardial cytology can aid in securing a diagnosis of cancer in patients with malignant pericardial effusions, the sensitivity of the test is limited at around 50%.  Common symptoms of drug-induced lupus include fever, arthralgias, myalgias, rash, and/or serositis. Anti-histone antibodies are typically present in drug-induced lupus, while anti-dsDNA antibodies are typically absent (unlike in systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE). Hydralazine-induced lupus has a prevalence of 5-10%, with a higher risk for patients on higher doses or longer durations of drug exposure. Onset is usually months to years after drug initiation. Show Notes - A Drug's Adverse Effect Unleashes the Wolf There is a broad differential diagnosis for pericardial effusion which includes metabolic, malignant, medication-induced, traumatic, rheumatologic, and infectious etiologies. Metabolic etiologies include renal failure and thyroid disease. Certain malignancies are more likely to cause pericardial effusions, including lung cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, sarcoma, and melanoma. Radiation therapy to treat chest malignancies can also result in a pericardial effusion. Medications can cause pericardial effusion, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, which can cause myocarditis or pericarditis, and medications associated with drug-induced lupus, such as procainamide, hydralazine, phenytoin, minoxidil, or isoniazid. Trauma can cause pericardial effusions, including blunt chest trauma, cardiac surgery, or cardiac catheterization. Rheumatologic etiologies include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, sarcoid, and vasculitis. Many different types of infections can cause pericardial effusions, including viruses (e.g., coxsackievirus, echovirus, adenovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, and influenza), bacteria (TB, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pneumococcus), and fungi. Other must-not-miss etiologies include emergencies like type A aortic dissection and myocardial infarction. In a retrospective study of all patients who presented with a hemodynamically significant pericardial effusion and underwent pericardiocentesis, 33% of patients were found to have an underlying malignancy(Ben-Horin et al). Bloody effusion and frank tamponade were significantly more common among patients with malignant effusion, but the overlap was significant, and no epidemiologic or clinical parameter was found useful to differentiate between cancerous and noncancerous effus...
3/14/202438 minutes, 26 seconds
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363. GLP-1 Agonists: Diving into the Data with Dr. Darren McGuire

Welcome back to the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series, where we are continuing our discussion of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP-1 RAs). This class of medications is becoming a household name, not only for their implications for weight loss but also for their effect on cardiovascular disease. CardioNerds Dr. Ty Sweeney (CardioNerds Academy Faculty Member and incoming Cardiology Fellow at Boston Medical Center), Dr. Rick Ferraro (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Cardiology Fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital), and special guest Dr. Franck Azobou (Cardiology Fellow at UT Southwestern) sat down with Dr. Darren McGuire (Cardiologist at UT Southwestern and Senior Editor of Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research) to discuss important trial data on GLP-1 RAs in patients with heart disease, as well as recent professional society guidelines on their use. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Ty Sweeney. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Intern student Dr. Diane Masket. If you haven’t already, be sure to check out CardioNerds episode #350 where we discuss the basics and mechanism of action of GLP-1 RAs with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - GLP-1 Agonists: Diving into the Data Patients with diabetes and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or who are at high risk of ASCVD benefit from treatment with a GLP-1 RA. For persons with sufficient ASCVD risk and type 2 diabetes, GLP-1 RAs and SGLT2 inhibitors can, and often should, be used in combination. "Just like we don’t consider ‘and/or’ for the four pillars of guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, we shouldn’t parcel out these two therapeutic options...it should be both.” Setting expectations with your patients regarding injection practices, side effects, and expected benefits can go a long way toward improving the patient experience with GLP-1 RAs. Utilize a multidisciplinary approach when caring for patients on GLP-1 RAs. Build a team with your patient’s primary care provider, endocrinologist, clinical pharmacist, and nurse. “This is really a cardiologist issue. These are no longer endocrinology or primary care drugs. We need to be prescribing them ourselves just like we did back in the nineties when we took over the statin prescriptions from the endocrinology domain...we need to lead the way.” Show notes - GLP-1 Agonists: Diving into the Data For which patients are GLP-1 RAs recommended to reduce the risk of major cardiac events? For patients with type 2 diabetes and ASCVD, starting a GLP-1 RA carries a Class 1, Level of Evidence A recommendation in the most recent ESC and ACC guidelines. For patients without diabetes or clinical ASCVD with an estimated 10-year risk of CVD exceeding 10%, consideration of starting a GLP-1 RA carries a Class 2b, Level of Evidence C recommendation to reduce CV risk. The STEP-HFpEF trial showed that among patients with obesity and HFpEF, once-weekly semaglutide may be beneficial in terms of weight loss and quality of life. The results of the FIGHT and LIVE trials question the utility and safety of liraglutide in treating patients with advanced HFrEF. Of the over 17,000 patients enrolled in the SELECT trial, about 25% had heart failure, of which about one-third had HFrEF. Stay tuned for sub-analyses from that trial for more info! Can we still prescribe GLP-1 Ras in patients with well-controlled T2DM?
3/12/202443 minutes, 1 second
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362. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #32 with Dr. Harriette Van Spall

The following question refers to Section 13 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student and CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Mayo Clinic Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Faculty Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and then by expert faculty Dr. Harriette Van Spall.Dr. Van Spall is an Associate Professor of Medicine, cardiologist, and Director of E-Health at McMaster University. Dr Van Spall is a Canadian Institutes of Health Research-funded clinical trialist and researcher with a focus on heart failure, health services, and health disparities.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #32 Palliative and supportive care has a role for patients with heart failure only in the end stages of their disease. TRUE FALSE Answer #32 Explanation The correct answer is False Palliative care is patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering and should be integrated into the management of all stages of heart failure throughout the course of illness. The wholistic model of palliative care includes high-quality communication, estimation of prognosis, anticipatory guidance, addressing uncertainty, shared decision-making about medically reasonable treatment options, advance care planning; attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress; relief of suffering; and inclusion of family caregivers in patient care and attention to their needs during bereavement. As such, for all patients with HF, palliative and supportive care—including high-quality communication, conveyance of prognosis, clarifying goals of care, shared decision-making, symptom management, and caregiver support—should be provided to improve QOL and relieve suffering (Class 1, LOE C-LD). For conveyance of prognosis, objective risk models can be incorporated along with discussion of uncertainty since patients may overestimate survival and the benefits of specific treatments – “hope for the best, plan for the worst.” For clarifying goals of care, the exploration of each patient’s values and concerns through shared decision-making is essential in important management decisions such as when to discontinue treatments, when to initiate palliative treatments that may hasten death but provide symptom management, planning the location of death, and the incorporation of home services or hospice. It is a Class I indication that for patients with HF being considered for, or treated with life-extending therapies, the option for discontinuation should be anticipated and discussed through the continuum of care, including at the time of initiation, and reassessed with changing medical conditions and shifting goals of care (LOE C-LD). Caregiver support should also be offered to family members even beyond death to help them cope with the grieving process. A formal palliative care consult is not needed for each patient, but the primary team should exercise the above domains to improve processes of care and patient outcomes. Specialist palliative care consultation can be useful to improve QOL and relieve suffering for patients with heart failure—particularly tho...
3/10/202417 minutes, 10 seconds
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361. Case Report: Sore Throat, Fever, and Myocarditis – It’s not always COVID-19! – University of Maryland

CardioNerds cofounder Dr. Dan Ambinder joins Dr. Angie Molina, Dr. Cullen Soares, and Dr. Andrew Lutz from the University of Maryland Medical Center for some beers and history by Fort McHenry. They discuss a case of disseminated haemophilus influenzapresumed fulminant bacterial myocarditis with mixed septic/cardiogenic shock. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Stanley Liu (Assistant Professor, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine). Episode audio was edited by Dr. Chelsea Amo-Tweneboah. A woman in her twenties with a history of intravenous drug use presented with acute onset fevers and sore throat, subsequently developed respiratory distress and cardiac arrest, and was noted to have epiglottic edema on intubation. She developed shock and multiorgan failure. ECG showed diffuse ST elevations, TTE revealed biventricular dysfunction, and pleural fluid culture grew Haemophilus influenza. Right heart catheterization showed evidence of cardiogenic shock. She improved with supportive care and antibiotics. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Sore Throat, Fever, and Myocarditis - It’s not always COVID-19 The post-cardiac arrest ECG provides helpful information for diagnosing the underlying etiology.​ Be aware of diagnostic biases - availability and anchoring biases are particularly common during respiratory viral (such as COVID-19, RSV) surges. Consider a broad differential diagnosis in evaluating myocarditis, including non-viral etiologies. Right heart catheterization provides crucial information for diagnosis and management of undifferentiated shock​. When assessing the need for mechanical circulatory support, consider the current hemodynamics, type of support needed, and risks associated with each type. Show Notes - Sore Throat, Fever, and Myocarditis - It’s not always COVID-19 ECG findings consistent with pericarditis include diffuse concave-up ST elevations and downsloping T-P segment (Spodick’s sign) as well as PR depression (lead II), and PR elevation (lead aVR). In contrast, regional ST elevations with “reciprocal” ST depressions and/or Q-waves should raise concern for myocardial ischemia as the etiology. Biventricular dysfunction and elevated troponin are commonly seen post-cardiac arrest and may be secondary findings. However, an elevation in troponin that is out of proportion to expected demand ischemia, ECG changes (pericarditis, ischemic ST elevations), and cardiogenic shock suggest a primary cardiac etiology for cardiac arrest. The differential diagnosis of infectious myopericarditis includes, most commonly, viral infection (respiratory viruses) and, more rarely, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic. Noninfectious myopericarditis may be autoimmune (such as lupus, sarcoidosis, checkpoint inhibitors), toxin-induced (alcohol, cocaine), and medication-induced (anthracyclines and others). Right heart catheterization can help diagnose the etiology of undifferentiated shock, including distinguishing between septic and cardiogenic shock, by providing right and left-sided filling pressures, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, and cardiac output. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is indicated for patients in cardiogenic shock with worsening end-organ perfusion despite inotropic and pressor support. MCS includes intra-aortic balloon pump, percutaneous VAD, TandemHeart, and VA-ECMO. The decision to use specific types of MCS should be individualized to each patient with their comorbidities and hemodynamic profile. Shock teams are vital to guide decision-making. References Witting MD, Hu KM, Westreich AA, Tewelde S, Farzad A,
3/5/202441 minutes, 33 seconds
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360. Obesity: Lifestyle & Pharmacologic Management of Obesity with Dr. Ambarish Pandey

CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Cardiology Fellow at JHH), Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship and Internal Medicine resident at BWH), and Dr. Alli Bigeh (Cardiology Fellow at the Ohio State) as they discuss the growing obesity epidemic and how it relates to cardiovascular disease with Dr. Ambarish Pandey (Cardiologist at UT Southwestern Medical Center). Show notes were drafted by Dr. Alli Bigeh. CardioNerds Academy Intern and student Dr. Shivani Reddy performed audio editing. Obesity is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is on the rise! Here, we discuss how to identify patients with obesity and develop an approach to address current lifestyle recommendations. We also discuss the spectrum of pharmacologic treatment options available, management strategies, and some therapy options that are on the horizon. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Lifestyle & Pharmacologic Management of Obesity Identify obese patients not just using BMI, but also using anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (central adiposity). Lifestyle modifications are our first line of defense against obesity! Current recommendations emphasize caloric restriction of at least 500kcal/day, plant-based and Mediterranean diets, and getting at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity weekly exercise. Dive into the root cause of eating and lifestyle behaviors. It is crucial to address adverse social determinants of health with patients to identify the driving behaviors, particularly among those individuals of low socioeconomic status. Newer weight loss agents are most effective at achieving and maintaining substantial weight loss, in particular Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP). Initiate at a low dose and titrate up slowly. Obesity is a risk factor and potential driver for HFpEF. Targeted treatment options for obese patients with HFpEF include SGLT-2 inhibitors and semaglutide, which recently showed improvement in quality of life and exercise capacity in the STEP-HFpEF trial. Show notes - Lifestyle & Pharmacologic Management of Obesity How do we identify and define obesity? The traditional definition of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI), defined as BMI greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 (weight in kg/height in meters).Recognize that BMI may not tell the whole story. A limitation of BMI is it does not reflect differences in body composition and distribution of fat.Certain patients may not meet the BMI cutoff for obesity but have elevated cardiovascular risk based on increased central adiposity, specifically those that are categorized as overweight.The devil lies in the details of anthropometric parameters. Include waist circumference measurements as part of an obesity assessment of visceral adiposity. A waist circumference greater than 40 inches for men and greater than 35 inches for women is considered elevated. What are some current lifestyle recommendations for obese patients? Lifestyle recommendations are the first line of defense against obesity.Current ACC/AHA guidelines suggest a target of reducing caloric intake by 500 kcal per day. For patients with severe obesity, this number may be higher.Emphasis on hypocaloric plant-based and Mediterranean dietsReduce total carbohydrate intake to 50-130 grams per day.Focus on a low-fat diet with less than 30% of total energy coming from fat with a high-protein diet to main...
2/19/20240
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359. Case Report: Fee-Fi-Fo-Fum: An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure – Georgetown University

CardioNerds join Dr. Ethan Fraser and Dr. Austin Culver from the MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine and cardiology programs in our nation’s capital. They discuss the following case involving an unusual case of rapidly progressive heart failure. Episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Academy Intern and student Dr. Pacey Wetstein. Expert commentary was provided by advanced heart failure cardiologist Dr. Richa Gupta. A 55-year-old male comes to the clinic (and eventually into the hospital) for what appears to be a straightforward decompensation of his underlying cardiac disease. However, things aren’t as simple as they might appear. In this episode, we will discuss the outpatient workup for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and discuss the clinical indicators that we as clinicians should be aware of in these sick patients. Furthermore, we will discuss the differential for NICM, the management of patients with this rare disease, and how this disease can mimic other cardiomyopathies. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure Pearls - Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure The non-ischemic cardiomyopathy workup should incorporate targeted multimodal imaging, thorough history taking, broad laboratory testing, genetic testing if suspicion exists for a hereditary cause, and a deep understanding of which populations are at higher risk for certain disease states. Key Point: Always challenge and question the etiology of an unknown cardiomyopathy – do not assume an etiology based on history/patient story alone.  Unexplained conduction disease in either a young or middle-aged individual in the setting of a known cardiomyopathy should raise suspicion for an infiltrative cardiomyopathy and set off a referral to an advanced heart failure program. Key Point: Consider early/more aggressive imaging for these patients and early electrophysiology referral for primary/secondary prevention. Giant Cell Myocarditis is a rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy characterized by high mortality (70% in the first year), conduction disease, and classically presents in young/middle-aged men. Key Point: If you have a younger male with rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy (anywhere as quickly as 1-2 months, weeks in some cases) and conduction disease, consider early endomyocardial biopsy, even before other advanced imaging modalities. The Diagnosis of Giant Cell Myocarditis is time-sensitive - early identification and treatment are essential to survival. Key Point: The median timeframe from the time the disease is diagnosed to the time of death is approximately 6 months. 90% of patients are either deceased by the end of 1 year or have received a heart transplant. The treatment of Giant Cell Myocarditis is still governed largely by expert opinion, but the key components include high-dose steroids and cyclosporine, largely as a bridge to transplantation or advanced heart failure therapies. Key Point: Multi-disciplinary care is essential in delivering excellent care in the diagnostic/pre-transplant period, including involvement by cardiology, cardiac surgery, radiology, critical care, allergy/immunology, case management, advanced heart failure, and shock teams if necessary. There remains significant clinical overlap between Giant Cell Myocarditis and sarcoidosis, making managing equivocal cases challenging. Key Point: Consider early FDG-PET imaging in equivocal cases, as management during the pre-transplant period and evaluation of transplant candidacy can vary drastically between the two. Show Notes - Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure 1.
2/12/202459 minutes, 23 seconds
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358. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #31 with Dr. Javed Butler

The following question refers to Section 9.5 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & former CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Vanderbilt Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Faculty Dr. Breana Hansen, and then by expert faculty Dr. Javed Butler. Dr. Butler is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, President of the Baylor Scott and White Research Institute, Senior Vice President for the Baylor Scott and White Health, and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at the University of Mississippi The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #31 Mrs. Hart is a 70-year-old woman who was admitted to the CICU two days ago for signs and symptoms consistent with cardiogenic shock. Since her admission, she has been on maximal diuretics, requiring greater doses of intravenous dobutamine. Unfortunately, her liver and renal function continue to worsen, and urine output is decreasing. A right heart catheterization reveals elevated biventricular filling pressures with a cardiac index of 1.7 L/min/m2 by the Fick method.   What is the next best step? A Continue current measures and monitor for improvement B Switch from dobutamine to norepinephrine C Place an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) D Resume guideline directed medical therapy Answer #31 Explanation The Correct answer is C – Place an intra-aortic balloon pump. This patient is between the SCAI Shock Stages C and D with elevated venous pressures, decreased urine output, and worsening signs of hypoperfusion. She has been started on appropriate therapies, including diuresis and inotropic support. The relevant Class 2a recommendation is that in patients with cardiogenic shock, temporary MCS is reasonable when end-organ function cannot be maintained by pharmacologic means to support cardiac function (LOE B-NR). Thus, the next best step is a form of temporary MCS. IABP is appropriate to help increase coronary perfusion and offload the left ventricle. In fact, for patients who are not rapidly responding to initial shock measures, triage to centers that can provide temporary MCS may be considered to optimize management (Class 2b, LOE C-LD).    The guidelines further state that in patients presenting with cardiogenic shock, placement of a pulmonary arterial line may be considered to define hemodynamic subsets and appropriate management strategies (Class 2B, LOE B-NR). And so, if time allows escalation to MCS should be guided by invasively obtained hemodynamic data via PA catheterization. Several observational experiences have associated PA catheterization use with improved outcomes, particularly in conjunction with short-term MCS. Additionally, PA catheterization is useful when there is diagnostic uncertainty as to the cause of hypotension or end-organ dysfunction, particularly when the patient in shock is not responding to empiric initial measures, such as in this patient. There are additional appropriate measures at this time that are more institution-dependent. An institutional shock team would be very helpful here as they often comprise multidisciplinary teams of heart failure and critical care specialists,
2/9/202412 minutes, 5 seconds
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357. CardioOncology: Cardiac Tumors with Dr. Juan Lopez-Mattei

CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, series chair Dr. Teodora Donisan, and Dr. Sukriti Banthiya discuss cardiac tumors with Dr. Juan Lopez-Mattei, a nationally recognized expert in the fields of cardio-oncology and the director of cardiac imaging at the Lee Health Heart Institute. Here, we explore the topic of cardiac tumors, with a focus on distinguishing between primary and secondary tumors. We delve into the symptoms, diagnostic methods, and treatment options. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Sukriti Banthiya and episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Intern and student Dr. Diane Masket. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cardiac Tumors Keep it simple when approaching an intracardiac mass; start with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and use transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) based on the clinical context. Use TEE when suspecting valvular vegetations or thrombi & CMR for intracavitary cardiac masses. Cardiac tumors can manifest with a variety of symptoms; however, they are more commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding! When faced with the dilemma of selecting the most suitable imaging modality for evaluating a cardiac mass, consider the following hierarchy: begin with TTEas the first choice, followed by CMR. If the patient cannot undergo CMR, the next step is cardiac computed tomography (CT) or Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). TEE is especially useful for the evaluation of small, highly mobile cardiac masses! Imaging cannot substitute a tissue diagnosis of cardiac masses. However, in cases of advanced malignancy, it may not always be necessary. Show notes - Cardiac Tumors Segment One: A big “picture” Approach to Cardiac Tumors Let’s start with an overview of cardiac masses Neoplastic vs non-neoplasticNeoplastic lesions can be further classified into Primary Cardiac Tumors (PCT’s) & Secondary Cardiac Tumor (SCT’s)A majority of PCTs are benign (up to 90%!); however, rarely, they may be malignant. SCTs are more common than PCTs, and, by definition, they are malignant tumors. Now, let’s look at the tools you can use to aid with the diagnosis of cardiac masses… Step 1: Investigate the cardiac mass initially with TTE. Step 2: Collect clues through history-taking & examination.If suspecting valvular vegetations (as in infective endocarditis!) or left atrial appendage thrombus, characterize the mass further with TEE.Consider the possibility of metastatic cardiac tumors in patients with a known malignancy, as they are more common than primary cardiac tumors. In cases where it is uncertain if the mass is a cardiac tumor or thrombus, use CMR to differentiate the two entities. Some findings on TTE that support the presence of a thrombus include left ventricular dysfunction with segmental wall motion abnormalities and/or apical aneurysm as these result in local pockets of stasis (think: Virchow’s triad) Step 3: Put it all together! Think about whether a tissue biopsy will be needed. If yes, determine whether a negative margin or open biopsy will be required. Segment Two: Symptoms, Symptoms, Symptoms! Cardiac tumors may be symptomatic and present in the 3 key ways as outlined below (Think COD 🐟). However, they are more commonly identified as incidental findings! Constitutional symptoms (fever, arthralgias, weight loss,
2/8/202438 minutes, 21 seconds
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356. 2023 ACC/AHA/ACCP/HRS Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines – Key Takeaways with Dr. José Joglar and Dr. Mina Chung

CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation Series Co-Chairs Dr. Colin Blumenthal (University of Pennsylvania Cardiology fellow) and Dr. Kelly Arps (Duke University Electrophysiology Fellow) join the 2023 atrial fibrillation guideline writing committee Chair Dr. José Joglar (UT Southwestern) and Vice Chair Dr. Mina Chung (Cleveland Clinic). They review the key takeaways from the 2023 ACC/AHA/ACCP/HRS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation. This podcast was developed in collaboration with the American Heart Association. For more on these guidelines, access the AHA Science News AF Guideline landing page. CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
1/23/202455 minutes, 9 seconds
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355. Case Report: Hypertension With a Twist – Mount Sinai Medical Center

CardioNerds nerd out with Drs. Karishma Rahman (Mount Siani Vascular Medicine fellow), Shu Min Lao (Mount Sinai Rheumatology fellow), and Constantine Troupes (Mount Sinai Vascular Surgery fellow). They discuss the following case: A 20-year-old woman with a history of hypertension (HTN), initially thought to be secondary to a mid-aortic syndrome that resolved after aortic stenting, presents with a re-occurrence of HTN. The case will go through the differential diagnosis of early onset HTN focusing on structural etiologies of HTN, including mid-aortic syndrome and aortitis. We will also discuss the multi-modality imaging used for diagnosis and surveillance, indications and types of procedural intervention, and how to diagnose and treat an underlying inflammatory disorder leading to aortitis. The expert commentary was provided by Dr. Daniella Kadian-Dodov, Associate Professor of Medicine and Vascular Medicine specialist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Audo editing was performed by Dr. Chelsea Amo-Tweneboah, CardioNerds Academy Intern and medicine resident at Stony Brook University Hospital. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Hypertension With a Twist Pearls - Hypertension With a Twist Early onset hypertension (HTN) and lower extremity claudication should raise suspicion for aortic stenosis (including mid-aortic syndrome). Initial evaluation should include arterial duplex ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging such as CT or MR angiogram of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis to assess for arterial stenosis involving the aorta and/or branching vessels. Mid-aortic syndrome can have multiple underlying etiologies. Concentric aortic wall thickening should raise suspicion for an underlying inflammatory disorder. Initial evaluation should include inflammatory markers such as ESR, CRP, and IL-6, but normal values do not exclude underlying aortitis.  While Takayasu arteritis is the most common inflammatory disorder associated with mid-aortic syndrome, IgG4-RD should also be a part of the differential diagnosis. IgG subclass panel can detect IgG4-RD with elevated serum IgG4 levels, but some cases can require pathology for diagnosis. Catheter based intervention is a safe and effective treatment of aortic stenosis for both primary aortic stenosis and post-procedural re-stenosis. Multi-modality imaging, including cross-sectional imaging and duplex ultrasound, plays a central role for the diagnosis, management, and post-procedural surveillance of aortic disease. A multi-disciplinary team (as exemplified by the participants of this podcast!) is essential for the management of complex aortopathy cases to optimize clinical outcomes. Show Notes - Hypertension With a Twist 1.  Early onset HTN can have multiple etiologies – aortic stenosis (including but not limited to secondary to congenital aortic coarctation and mid–aortic syndrome, as well as in stent re-stenosis if there is a history of aortic stenting), thrombosis, infection, inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, renovascular disease, polycystic kidney disease, and endocrine disorders. 2. Mid-aortic syndrome is characterized by segmental or diffuse narrowing of the abdominal and/or distal descending aorta with involvement of the branches of the proximal abdominal aorta (renal artery, celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery) and represents approximately 0.5 to 2% of all cases of aortic narrowing. Underlying etiologies include genetic syndromes, inflammatory, non-inflammatory, and idiopathic. It is important to have a high suspicion of underlying inflammatory disorders if cross-sectional i...
1/16/202446 minutes, 53 seconds
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354. Obesity: Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease Risk with Dr. Jamie Almondoz

CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro (cardiology fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital) and Dr. Eunice Dugan (cardiology fellow at the Cleveland Clinic) join episode lead Dr. Tiffany Brazile (cardiology fellow at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine) to discuss the impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk, differential risk in specific populations, and effective strategies for counseling patients. They are joined by expert Dr. Jamie Almondoz, Medical Director of the Weight Wellness Program and an Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Tina Reddy. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease Risk The durability of metabolically healthy obesity (i.e., normal A1c, lipids, LFTs, BMP, normotensive) is limited. Within 5 years, a third of adults with “metabolically healthy” obesity will develop a cardiometabolic complication. The biomechanical and psychosocial complications of obesity are just as important as the cardiometabolic complications. Biomechanical and psychosocial complications, including obstructive sleep apnea, joint pain, and mood disorders also influence cardiovascular disease risk. Weight loss is not always the patient’s goal. Meet patients where they are and understand their challenges, concerns, and long-term goals with respect to their cardiovascular health and obesity. This information provides an opportunity to frame the conversation in a supportive and engaging way that allows for patient education. Body mass index (BMI) is a screening tool for obesity, but is not sufficient for providing individualized care. Obesity management methods that result in rapid weight loss may not be appropriate for all patients. These methods, such as bariatric surgery and GLP1-receptor agonists, require regular monitoring, follow-up, and multidisciplinary care (e.g., nutritionist, exercise physiologist, endocrinologist, cardiologist, psychologist, etc.). Show notes - Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease Risk Is it possible to be healthy at any size? Whether an individual can be healthy at any size depends on the definition of health and its durability.Approximately 10-15% of adults with obesity are metabolically healthy.The risk for developing cardiometabolic disease is higher in obese versus non-obese adults. One in three adults with metabolically healthy obesity will develop cardiometabolic complications (i.e., insulin resistance/diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension) within five years. Thus, metabolically healthy obesity may represent a transient phenotype with adverse long-term consequences. Consider non-metabolic health consequences of obesity that also influence cardiovascular disease risk. Obstructive sleep apnea, joint pain leading to decreased physical activity, and mood disorders are key considerations here and encompass the biomechanical and psychosocial consequences of obesity. Does large, rapid weight loss result in poorer long-term weight loss than slower, gradual weight loss? When approaches to weight loss are not sustainable, such as extremely low-calorie diets or extreme fitness regimens, the results and associated health benefits are less likely to be durable. Rapid, large-magnitude weight loss is appropriate for some adults with obesity and can be achieved throug...
1/9/202430 minutes, 34 seconds
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353. Atrial Fibrillation: Anticoagulation Pharmacology & Clinical Decision-Making with Dr. Ashley Lochman and Dr. Chris Domenico

CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Amit Goyal, series co-chair Dr. Colin Blumenthal, and episode lead Dr. Anushka Tandon to discuss pharmacologic anticoagulation options in atrial fibrillation with Drs. Ashley Lochman and Chris Domenico. The case-based review helps clarify some key concepts, such as when warfarin is preferred for anticoagulation, who may be a good DOAC (direct-acting oral anticoagulant) candidate, how to choose an appropriate DOAC agent, and how to manage anticoagulation therapy in patients already on antiplatelet therapies. Notes were drafted by Dr. Anushka Tandon. The episode audio was edited by student Dr. Shivani Reddy. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This episode was planned and recorded prior to the release of the 2023 ACC/AHA/ACCP/HRS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation. Please refer to this guideline document for the most updated recommendations. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Anticoagulation Pharmacology Avoid potentially fatal errors with this terminology tip for correctly referencing non-warfarin oral anticoagulant agents: it’s DOAC (like, please DO use AntiCoagulation), not NOAC (imagine someone interpreting that as “NO AntiCoagulation for this patient” at discharge – yikes)! Sometimes, an oldie really is a goodie – warfarin is recommended over DOACs for patients with mechanical heart valves, moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis, anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS), left ventricular (LV) thrombus, higher INR goals, or DOAC failure. Patient preference and medication costs should also be considered – at the end of the day, “the best drug is the drug that a patient is willing to take!” Standard-dose rivaroxaban or apixaban may be considered for use in patients weighing >120kg or with BMI >40; use of other DOACs should be limited to pts weighing =/< 120kg or with BMI =/< 40. The pharmacists involved in this podcast promise they don’t have stock in apixaban! It just often happens to be the preferred DOAC option in certain scenarios – think patients with severe renal impairment (including ESRD) or with an increased risk for bleeding events (including older adults, those with a history of GI bleed, etc). In general, dual therapy (DOAC or warfarin + P2Y12 inhibitor) is non-inferior to triple therapy (oral anticoagulant + P2Y12 inhibitor + aspirin) at preventing thrombotic events but is associated with a lower risk of bleeding events. Most patients can be transitioned to dual therapy after 7-30 days on triple therapy post-percutaneous coronary intervention. What’s that on the horizon? Factor XI inhibitors may become the breakout stars of anticoagulation – multiple investigational agents are being studied for their potential to reduce thrombotic risk without significantly increasing bleeding risk in patients with indications for anticoagulation therapy…at least that’s the theorize hope. Watch this space! Notes - Anticoagulation Pharmacology In which cases is warfarin preferred over DOACs in patients with atrial fibrillation? Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation and either a mechanical valve or moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis (i.e., valvular atrial fibrillation as defined in the 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS guidelines on atrial fibrillation [1]). The REALIGN trial [2] showed increased rates of thromboembolic and bleeding complications with dabigatran vs.
12/29/20231 hour, 3 minutes, 21 seconds
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352. Case Report: The Culprit in the Pillbox – University of Kansas

CardioNerds (Dr. Amit Goyal) join Dr. Anureet Malhotra, Dr. John Fritzlen, and Dr. Tarun Dalia from the University of Kansas School of Medicine for some of Kansas City’s famous barbeque. They discuss a case of Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy. Notes were drafted by Dr. Anureet Malhotra, Dr. John Fritzlen, and Dr. Tarun Dalia. Expert commentary was provided by Dr. Pradeep Mammen. The episode audio was edited by Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. Drug-induced cardiomyopathy remains an important and under-recognized etiology of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Hydroxychloroquine is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug used for various rheumatological conditions, and its long-term use is well-known to have toxic effects on cardiac muscle cells. Multiple cardiac manifestations of these drugs have been identified, the most prominent being electrophysiological disturbances. In this episode, we discuss a biopsy-proven case of hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiotoxicity with detailed histopathological and imaging findings. We develop a roadmap for the diagnosis of hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy and discuss the various differentials of drug-induced cardiomyopathy. We highlight the importance of clinical monitoring and early consideration of drug-induced toxicities as a culprit for heart failure. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy Pearls - Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy Continued decline in left ventricular systolic function despite appropriate guideline directed medical therapy should prompt a thorough evaluation for unrecognized etiologies and warrants an early referral to advanced heart failure specialists. Transthoracic echocardiogram is a valuable non-invasive screening tool for suspected pulmonary hypertension, but right heart catheterization is required for definitive diagnosis. Cardiac MRI can be used for better characterization of myocardial tissue and can aid in the evaluation of patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a commonly used DMARD that remains an underrecognized etiology of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In addition to ophthalmological screening, annual ECG, as well as echocardiography screening for patients on long-term HCQ therapy, should be considered in patients at risk for cardiovascular toxicity, including those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, older age, female sex, longer duration of therapy, and renal impairment. Management of hydroxychloroquine-associated cardiomyopathy consists of discontinuing hydroxychloroquine and standard guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure.  HCQ cardiomyopathy may persist despite medical therapy, and advanced therapy options may have to be considered in those with refractory heart failure. Show Notes - Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy What are the various cardiotoxic effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and the mechanism of HCQ-mediated cardiomyopathy? One of the most frequently prescribed disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), HCQ is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent that remains an integral part of treatment for a myriad of rheumatological conditions. Its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions.8 The known cardiac manifestations of HCQ-induced toxicity include conduction abnormalities, ventricular hypertrophy, hypokinesia, and lastly, cardiomyopathy. Conduction Abnormalities - by binding to and inhibiting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) voltage-gated potassium channel,
12/27/202323 minutes, 45 seconds
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351. Case Report: The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital

CardioNerds meet with fellows from The Christ Hospital, Drs. Hanad Bashir, Hyunsoo Chung, and Dalia Aziz to discuss the following case that highlights angioleiomyoma: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for breast cancer (on tamoxifen) presented as a transfer to our facility for a clot-in-transit. She had initially presented to the outside hospital after progressive dyspnea on exertion and recent syncope. She was found on an echocardiogram to have a right atrial mass spanning into the right ventricle. CTA of the chest and abdomen/pelvis demonstrated extensive thrombus burden spanning from the IVC into the right ventricle. She was transferred to our facility for intervention. Endovascular attempts were unsuccessful, at which point she underwent surgical thrombectomy. Gross examination of the mass revealed a cylindrical shape, homogeneous tan color, rubbery soft tissue, measuring 25.5 cm in length and 2.3 cm in diameter. Histology confirmed the presence of angioleiomyoma. A second, smaller mass (5.2cm long and 4mm in diameter) was removed from under the tricuspid valve, with histology consistent with leiomyoma. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor staining were strongly positive, leading to the discontinuation of tamoxifen. Given the presence of uterine fibroids identified on the CT scan, there was concern about a uterine origin. A hysterectomy is planned for her in the near future. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Wojciech Mazur. Episode audio was edited by student Dr. Adriana Mares. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital Pearls - The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital Although evaluation of cardiac mass by echocardiography can provide information such as size, location, and morphology, adjunctive cross-sectional imaging may be used depending on the need for further temporal resolution (CT) or tissue characterization via cardiac MRI (CMR). If suspicious for elevated metabolic activity, there should be consideration of FDG-PET. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulator) is an agent used for breast cancer therapy. However, its use has been associated with endometrial hyperplasia, uterine fibroids, endometrial and uterine malignancy. Increased risk of malignancy has been seen more often in post-menopausal women and is dose and time-dependent. Clot in transient is a mobile thrombus, typically within the right heart structures. It is estimated to occur in 4-18% of patients with pulmonary embolism and is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Treatment includes surgical embolectomy, endovascular embolectomy, systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed thrombolysis, or systemic anticoagulation. Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign pericystic tumor that most commonly affects the extremities. There are case reports of other affected sites, including the uterus. Invasion into the cardiac structures is exceedingly rare. The only established treatment for angioleiomyoma is surgical resection. Show Notes - The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness secondary to reduced blood flow to the brain. Often, certain presentations are mislabeled as syncope, such as seizure disorders, posttraumatic loss of consciousness, and cataplexy. An organized diagnostic approach should be used to reduce hospital admissions and medical costs and increase diagnostic accuracy. Syncope can be divided into five general subgroups. 1) Neurally mediated reflex syncope (carotid sinus syndro...
12/20/202337 minutes, 25 seconds
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350. GLP-1 Agonists: Mechanisms to Applications with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer

Calling all those with a passion for cardiovascular prevention! In this episode of the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series, we take a deep dive into the world of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Along the way, you’ll hear about the biology of the GLP-1 molecule and its related peptides, learn more about how GLP-1 agonists promote glycemic control, weight loss, and cardiometabolic health, and explore the current body of literature supporting the individualized application of these medications to patients with diabetes, obesity, and/or ASCVD. Join Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen (CardioNerds Academy Fellow and Internal Medicine Resident at MGH), Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship, Chief of House Einthoven, and Internal Medicine resident at BWH), and Dr. Rick Ferraro (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Cardiology Fellow at JHH) for a wide-ranging discussion on GLP-1 and GIP agonists with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer (Cardiologist and Director of the Center for Cardiometabolic Health in the section of Preventive Cardiology at the Cleveland Clinic). Show notes were drafted by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Tina Reddy. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - GLP-1 Agonists: Mechanisms to Applications The selection and dosing of GLP-1 and GIP agonists (GLP-1s and GIPs) depends on their intended use as an anti-glycemic or anti-obesity agent. The cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1s and GIPs may be independent of improvements in glycemic control, and in part be driven by reduction in inflammation, a key driver of arterial plaque formation. In patients with comorbid coronary artery disease, obesity, and diabetes, GLP-1 agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors should be used as first-line agents, over metformin. Tirzepatide is a dual agonist that activates GIP and GLP-1 receptors. GIP is highly expressed in the brain, which may mediate satiety, promote energy expenditure, and enhance peripheral glucose metabolism. Caution should be used with GLP-1 agonists in patients with long-standing diabetes complicated by gastroparesis, as well as incompletely treated diabetic retinopathy. GI upset is not uncommon with GLP-1/GIP agonists, and switching to a different agonist is unlikely to help.  Show notes - GLP-1 Agonists: Mechanisms to Applications What are the mechanisms of action by which GLP-1 and GIP controls blood sugar and body weight? Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous hormone that is secreted in response to an oral glucose load. It promotes insulin release, inhibits glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying via the brain-intestine axis, leading to satiety. GLP-1 agonists are medications that mimic the effect of this hormone and, on average, lower hemoglobin A1C by 0.8% to 1.5%. These medications include semaglutide, liraglutide, and dulaglutide. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is also an endogenous hormone, similarly secreted by the body in response to an oral glucose load such as a meal. GIP is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus and hypothalamus, which may mediate satiety, promote energy expenditure, and enhance peripheral glucose metabolism. Tirzepatide is a dual GLP-1/GIP agonist. What is the role of GLP-1/GIP agonists in patients with overweight/obesity and/or type 2 diabetes? How does the dosing of GLP-1/GIP medications change with their intended disease target?
12/19/202343 minutes, 40 seconds
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349. Case Report: Into the Thick of It – An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic

CardioNerds cofounder Dr. Amit Goyal and cardiology fellows from the Cleveland Clinic (Drs. Alejandro Duran Crane, Gary Parizher, and Simrat Kaur) discuss the following case: A 61-year-old man presented with symptoms of heart failure and left ventricular hypertrophy. He was given a diagnosis of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He eventually underwent septal myectomy, mitral valve replacement, aortic aneurysm repair, and aortic valve replacement with findings of Fabry’s disease on surgical pathology. The case discussion focuses on the differential diagnosis for LVH and covers Fabry disease as an HCM mimic. Expert commentary was provided by Dr. Angelika Ewrin. The episode audio was edited by student Dr. Diane Masket. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic Pearls - An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic Left ventricular hypertrophy is a cardiac manifestation of several different systemic and cardiac processes, and its etiology should be clarified to avoid missed diagnosis and treatment opportunities. Fabry disease is a rare, X-linked inherited disease that can present cardiac and extra-cardiac manifestations, the former of which include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, conduction defects, coronary artery disease, conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias, and heart failure.  The diagnosis of Fabry disease includes measurement of alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity as well as genetic testing to evaluate for pathogenic variants or variants of unknown significance in the GLA gene. Family members of patients diagnosed with Fabry disease should be screened based on the inheritance pattern.   Multimodality imaging can be helpful in the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Echocardiography can show left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), reduced global strain, aortic and mitral valve thickening, and aortic root dilation with associated mild to moderate aortic regurgitation. Cardiac MRI can show hypertrophy of papillary muscles, mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement and low-native T1 signal.   The treatment of Fabry disease involves a multi-disciplinary approach with geneticists, nephrologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and primary care doctors. Enzyme replacement therapy can delay the progression of cardiac disease.    Show Notes - An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic What are the causes of left ventricular hypertrophy? LVH is extremely common. It is present in 15-20% of the general population, and is more common in Black individuals, the elderly, obese or hypertensive individuals, with most cases being secondary to hypertension and aortic valve stenosis. In general terms, it is helpful to divide the causes of LVH into three main groups: high afterload states, obstruction to LV ejection, and intrinsic myocardial problems. Increased afterload states include both primary and secondary hypertension and renal artery stenosis. Mechanical obstruction includes aortic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Lastly, several intrinsic problems of the myocardium can cause LV hypertrophy, such as athletic heart with physiological LVH, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without outflow obstruction, and infiltrative or storage diseases such as cardiac amyloidosis, Fabry’s disease, or Danon disease, among others.  How does Fabry disease present? Fabry disease is present in all races and is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the GLA gene that result in reduced alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity,
12/17/202350 minutes, 5 seconds
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348. Case Report: An Interesting Intersection of Cardiology and Hematology/Oncology – Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital

CardioNerds (Daniel Ambinder) joins Dr. Priyanka Ghosh and Dr. Ahmad Lone from the Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital for a day in the Finger Lakes region of New York. They discuss the following case. A 35-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of headache, fatigue, and chest wall pain was found to have elevated troponin levels, elevated inflammatory markers, EKG with inferior and anterolateral ST depressions, and no obstructive coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. His peripheral eosinophilia, cardiac MRI results, and bone marrow biopsy revealed eosinophilic myocarditis from acute leukemia with eosinophilia. This episode discusses this rare type of myocardial inflammation, its potential causes, and the diagnostic workup with the mention of how this patient was ultimately treated for his acute leukemia and myocarditis. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Saurabh Sharma. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, student doctor Pace Wetstein. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital Pearls - Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital Myocarditis, especially eosinophilic myocarditis, requires a high level of clinical suspicion. Eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered in a patient presenting with chest pain, normal coronary arteries, and pronounced eosinophilia levels. Causes of eosinophilic myocarditis can vary, and diagnosis requires a thorough, detailed history, which cannot be determined many times. Treatment of eosinophilic myocarditis focuses on the underlying etiology, acute management, and therapy for concomitant heart failure or cardiomyopathy. Consider the whole-patient and cardiac manifestations of non-cardiac illnesses. Show Notes - Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital What is eosinophilic myocarditis? Eosinophilic myocarditis is a type of myocardial inflammation involving eosinophilic cell infiltration and an entity that is likely under-recognized. It requires a high level of suspicion as, many times, patients may not initially present with peripheral eosinophilia, which may develop over the course of their disease process. The presentation can vary from mild cardiac injury to fulminant cardiogenic shock depending on the degree of infiltration and concurrent other organ involvement. The presentation can include heart failure symptoms as well as electrical conduction abnormalities. How is eosinophilic myocarditis diagnosed? Eosinophilic myocarditis is diagnosed by a thorough history including new medications, exposures, travel, prior allergy history, physical exam, lab work including a complete blood count differential, inflammatory markers, cardiac biomarkers, and cardiac diagnostics which should include a 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram as well as potentially cardiac MRI and/or endomyocardial biopsy. What are the causes of eosinophilic myocarditis? The causes of eosinophilic myocarditis include medication-induced, hypersensitivity reactions, infections, malignancy, and immune-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and hypereosinophilic syndromes. The hypersensitivity subtype has been reported to be the most common cause. Potential offending medications can include antibiotics, sulfonamides, anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatory medications, and diuretics. What is the treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis? Treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis is multi-faceted, including focusing on the etiology and withdrawal of any potential offending agents, management of the acute clinical presentation, and treatment of any concomitant heart failure or cardiomyopathy.
12/8/202331 minutes, 47 seconds
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347. Case Report: Heartmate 3 with a Side of Mustard – Medical University of South Carolina

CardioNerds (Dr. Josh Saef and Dr. Sumeet Vaikunth) join Dr. Sheng Fu, Dr. Payton Kendsersky, and Dr. Aniqa Shahrier from the Medical University of South Carolina for some off-shore fishing. They discuss the following featuring a patient with D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3. Expert commentary was provided by Dr. Brian Houston. The episode audio was edited by student Dr. Adriana Mares. A 39-year-old woman with a history of D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) with prior atrial switch repair (Mustard) was admitted from the clinic with cardiogenic shock. She underwent right heart catheterization which demonstrated elevated biventricular filling pressures and low cardiac index. An intra-aortic balloon pump was placed, and the patient was evaluated for advanced therapies. A liver biopsy showed grade 3 fibrosis, which, in combination with her shock state, made her a high-risk candidate for isolated heart or combined heart-liver transplantation. After a multi-disciplinary discussion, the patient underwent a Heartmate III left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implant in her systemic right ventricle. Although she did well post-operatively, she was admitted after a month with recurrent cardiogenic shock, with imaging showing her inflow cannula had become perpendicular to the septum.  The patient and family eventually decided to pursue comfort measures, and the patient passed. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 Pearls - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 Early diagnosis of cyanotic congenital heart disease is paramount for treatment and prevention of future complications. Adult congenital heart disease requires a multi-disciplinary team for management in consultation with an adult congenital cardiology specialist. Eisenmenger syndrome is related to multiple systemic complications and has a high rate of mortality. Advancement in PAH medical management can offer noninvasive treatment options for some patients. Transthoracic echocardiography is the cornerstone for diagnosis. Other modalities (e.g. cardiac CT, cardiac MRI, invasive catheterization) can aid in diagnosis and management. Pearls - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 While advances in pediatric surgery have allowed many patients born with congenital heart disease to survive into adulthood, adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients are complex and prone to numerous adverse sequalae including arrhythmias, heart failure, valvular disease, and non-cardiac organ dysfunction. Heart failure can be a challenging presentation in ACHD patients due to a longstanding history of clinical compensation. Their unique and complex anatomy, as well as highly variable clinical presentation, present unique challenges when it comes to advanced heart failure options such as durable left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) or transplantation. While durable LVAD implantation is possible in patients with systemic right ventricles, anatomic compatibility is paramount and poses ongoing challenges in their management. Goals of care discussions should be had early, as options for treatment may be limited. Show Notes - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 What are some common sequelae in ACHD patients? ACHD patients are a heterogeneous population, but atrial tachycardias are extremely frequent in this patient population, often due to re-entrant pathways around surgical suture lines. These can often be treated with radiofrequency ablation while paying clos...
11/30/20231 hour, 8 minutes, 44 seconds
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346. CardioOncology: Disparities in CardioOncology – Towards Health Equity with Dr. Javier Gomez-Valencia

CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, series chair Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, and episode FIT Lead Dr. Rachel Ohman discuss disparities in cardiooncology with Dr. Javier Gomez Valencia, the Director of Cardio-Oncology services at John H. Stronger Jr. Hospital of Cook County. Dr. Rachel Ohman drafted show notes. Audio editing by student doctor Shivani Reddy. A disproportionate burden of both cancer and cardiovascular disease affects racial and ethnic minority groups as well as lower-income communities. Similar patterns of vulnerability exist among cancer survivors with cardiovascular disease, although further investigation in these subpopulations is needed. We discuss a comprehensive approach to the cardio-oncology patient, our current understanding of the social and structural determinants of disparities in cardio-oncology populations, and other contributions to inequity in the field. Given the growing population of cancer survivors and limited accessibility to cardio-oncology specialists, these topics are of critical importance to anyone caring for cancer patients who have or are at risk for cardiovascular disease. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Disparities in CardioOncology Social and structural determinants of health are drivers of cardiovascular and cancer disparities. Existing data on cardiotoxicity outcomes suggests these determinants also contribute to disparities in cardio-oncology. Assessing social and structural determinants of health should be a routine part of evaluating a patient with an active or prior history of cancer. Customs, country of origin, and immigration status matter. Differential risk profiles among Hispanic/Latinx sub-populations require further investigation. Black patients, particularly black women with breast cancer, have elevated morbidity and mortality from cardiotoxicity. Data suggest contributions from social determinants of health. Representation in clinical trials must be diversified for applicability to our diverse patient populations. Concerted efforts should be made to recruit diverse clinical trial participants and help patients from diverse communities effectively participate in the research process, contributing to the advancement of science. Show notes - Disparities in CardioOncology How do you approach the evaluation of a new patient in cardio-oncology? How do social and structural determinants of health impact treatment-associated cardiotoxicity? The evaluation of a new patient should include an assessment of a patient’s intrinsic risk factors, risks associated with cancer treatment, and consideration of cardioprotective therapeutic strategies Social and structural vulnerabilities should also be assessed routinely as a part of risk stratification. Providers should take stock of a patient’s demographic (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender), socioeconomic (e.g., occupation, insurance status, food security, housing security), environmental (e.g., transportation, proximity to health resources, neighborhood safety), and sociocultural (e.g., psychosocial stressors, discrimination, acculturation) determinants that are in turn modulated by larger systemic forces like structural racism. This comprehensive risk assessment can guide the strategies to mitigate cardiovascular risk before, during, and after cancer treatment. What barriers to cardio-oncology care are unique to the Hispanic/Latinx popula...
11/26/202334 minutes, 9 seconds
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345. Case Report: A Case of Unrepaired Congenital Heart Disease – University of Chicago – Northshore University

CardioNerds (Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo) join Dr. Iva Minga, Dr. Kifah Hussain, and Dr. Kevin Lee from the University of Chicago - NorthShore to discuss a case of unrepaired congenital heart disease that involves D-TGA complicated by Eisenmenger syndrome. The ECPR was provided by Dr. Michael Earing. Audio editing by Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. A 25-year-old woman with an unknown congenital heart disease that was diagnosed in infancy in Pakistan presents to the hospital for abdominal pain and weakness. She is found to be profoundly hypoxemic, and an echocardiogram revealed D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) with a large VSD. As this was not repaired in childhood, she has unfortunately developed Eisenmenger syndrome with elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. She is stabilized and treated medically for her cyanotic heart disease. Unfortunately given the severity and late presentation of her disease, she has limited long-term options for care. CardioNerds discuss the diagnosis of D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome, as well as long-term management and complications associated with this entity. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Unrepaired Congenital Heart Disease Pearls - Unrepaired Congenital Heart Disease Early diagnosis of cyanotic congenital heart disease is paramount for treatment and prevention of future complications. Adult congenital heart disease requires a multi-disciplinary team for management in consultation with an adult congenital cardiology specialist. Eisenmenger syndrome is related to multiple systemic complications and has a high rate of mortality. Advancement in PAH medical management can offer noninvasive treatment options for some patients. Transthoracic echocardiography is the cornerstone for diagnosis. Other modalities (e.g. cardiac CT, cardiac MRI, invasive catheterization) can aid in diagnosis and management. Show Notes - Unrepaired Congenital Heart Disease Cyanotic congenital heart disease is often diagnosed in infancy and timely treatment is paramount. As these diseases progress over time, pulmonary over-circulation often pulmonary hypertension (PH), elevated pulmonary vascular resistance, and Eisenmenger syndrome will develop, which preclude definitive treatment. For D-TGA, before PH develops, there are surgical options such as the arterial switch procedure that can treat the disease. Unfortunately, once Eisenmenger syndrome develops, there are multiple systemic complications including hyperviscosity, thrombosis, bleeding, kidney disease, iron deficiency, arrhythmias, etc. that can occur. Management requires a multi-disciplinary team including an adult congenital cardiology specialist, but mortality rates remain high, with median survival reduced by 20 years, worse with complex cardiac defects. Bosentan is a first line treatment for patients with Eisenmenger syndrome, with PDE-5 inhibitors as a second line either by themselves or in combination with bosentan. Data are currently limited for latest-generation PH treatments in Eisenmenger syndrome and further study is still underway. References Ferencz C. Transposition of the great vessels. Pathophysiologic considerations based upon a study of the lungs. Circulation. 1966 Feb;33(2):232-41. Arvanitaki A, Gatzoulis MA, Opotowsky AR, Khairy P, Dimopoulos K, Diller GP, Giannakoulas G, Brida M, Griselli M, Grünig E, Montanaro C, Alexander PD, Ameduri R, Mulder BJM, D'Alto M. Eisenmenger Syndrome: JACC State-of-the-Art Review. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 Mar 29;79(12):1183-1198. Earing MG, Webb GD. Congenital heart disease and pregnancy: maternal and fetal risks. Clin Perinatol.
11/22/20231 hour, 26 seconds
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344. Beyond the Boards: Disease of the Peripheral Arteries with Dr. Amy Pollak

CardioNerds (Drs. Amit Goyal, Jason Feinman, and Tiffany Dong) discuss Beyond the Boards: Diseases of the Peripheral Arteries with Dr. Amy Pollak. We review common presentations of peripheral vascular disease, ranging from aortic disease to the more distal vessels in an engaging case-based discussion. Dr. Pollack talks us through these cases, including the diagnosis and management of peripheral vascular diseases. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Matt Delfiner and episode audio was edited by student doctor Tina Reddy. The CardioNerds Beyond the Boards Series was inspired by the Mayo Clinic Cardiovascular Board Review Course and designed in collaboration with the course directors Dr. Amy Pollak, Dr. Jeffrey Geske, and Dr. Michael Cullen. CardioNerds Beyond the Boards SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Disease of the Peripheral Arteries Risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysm include traditional atherosclerotic risk factors such as age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use. Screening for AAA should be for men over the age of 65 years with a history of tobacco use. If present, medical management includes blood pressure and lipid lowering therapies to decrease the risk of expansion. Decision for surgical intervention relies on size and rate of growth of AAA, with clear indications if it grows> 10 mm in a year or diameter of 5.5 cm in men and 5.0 cm in women. When diagnosis of PAD is not straightforward (presence of symptoms but ABI is normal), an exercise ankle-brachial index (ABI) test can be useful. An exercise-induced decrease in ABI by 20% or in ankle pressure by 30 mmHg is consistent with PAD. For PAD, treatment with low dose rivaroxaban and aspirin yields lower event rates than with antiplatelet therapy alone. This in combination with lifestyle therapies (diet + exercise) and risk factor management (hypertension and hyperlipidemia) are the cornerstones of therapy. Revascularization is indicated for continued PAD symptoms despite conservative therapy. Acute limb ischemia is an “acute leg attack” and is a life-threatening emergency. Common symptoms include pain, pallor, pulselesess, parasthesias, cold temperature (poikilothermia), and paralysis. Restoration of blood flow is paramount, and emergent or urgent revascularization is the first line therapy for those with symptoms < 2 weeks. Notes - Disease of the Peripheral Arteries Learning Objectives: Describe screening and therapeutic strategy for AAA management. Understand the risk factors and diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. Compare different management approaches for PAD. Be able to recognize acute limb ischemia. Describe the overall treatment strategy for acute limb ischemia. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a source of high morbidity and mortality. The US Preventative Services Task Force recommends one time screening ultrasound for AAA in men older than 65 years of age with a tobacco use history. Risk factors include age, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and tobacco use. Patients with AAA between 3-3.9 mm should be monitored every 2-3 years. Sizes 4-5 cm should be re-imaged every 6-12 months.  Additional screening can be done for individuals < 65 years who have a first degree relative with AAA. Women are more likely to have aortic dissection at smaller diameters than men, which is why intervention (open vs endovascular repair) is recommended at 5 cm diameter for women versus at 5.5 cm for men. Additionally, repair is also warranted if a AAA grows more than 5 mm in 6 months or 10 mm in one year. Risk factor management is key with AAA, including blood pressure, glucose, and lipid targeting.  The presence of an AAA should be treated as secondary ASCVD prevention like coronary a...
11/17/202342 minutes, 8 seconds
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343. Cardio-Oncology: Arrhythmias in CardioOncology with Dr. Michael Fradley

CardioNerds (Dr. Daniel Ambinder, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Kahtan Fadah, and Dr. Colin Blumenthal) discuss arrhythmias in CardioOncology with Dr. Michael Fradley. In this episode, Dr. Michael Fradley joins us in the CardioNerds CardioOncology clinic where he uses his unique dual training in cardio-oncology and electrophysiology to walk us through the complex interplay and management of these disorders. We discuss the incidence and pathophysiology of these arrhythmias, including the link with various cancer treatments, screening and detection, and complex management including rate vs rhythm control in atrial fibrillation, need for anticoagulation, effects on the QTc and so much more. Given the unique challenges with this population we also delve into how this affects their oncology care and how to approach changes to their cancer treatment. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Kahtan Fadah and episode audio was edited by student Dr. Tina Reddy. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Arrhythmias in CardioOncology Arrhythmias are common in cancer patients due to shared risk factors and bi-directional risk between cardiac and oncologic disorders. Many cancer therapeutics can be directly arrhythmogenic or lead to cardiotoxicities that pre-dispose to arrhythmias. Though incidence of arrhythmia can be significant increased with some cancer therapeutics (e.g. ibrutinib), there is not specific data to support proactive ambulatory monitoring for arrhythmia without evidence of clear symptoms. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in cancer patients and management of atrial fibrillation, as well as other tachyarrhythmias, is unchanged from management in non-cancer patients. General principles of when to start anticoagulation or rate vs rhythm control are not significantly different (e.g. still use CHA2DS2-VAsC, monitor for symptoms etc), but providers should be more mindful of drug-drug interactions with cancer therapeutics. Cancer therapeutics as well as common medications used to treat side effects or complications (e.g. antiemetics, antibiotics, etc) can prolong the QT interval and increase risk of Torsades de pointes (TdP). The QTc should be monitored with an ECG for patients on these medications. If a patient does develop a serious arrhythmia like TdP, management is similar to that in non-cancer patients. The goal of arrhythmia management in cardio-oncology is to prevent cardiovascular disease from becoming a barrier to appropriate cancer therapy. Though cancer therapeutics should be temporarily or permanently discontinued in potentially fatal events (e.g TdP from QTc prolonging meds), the overall goal is to manage the arrhythmias appropriately to allow cancer therapeutics to be continued or restarted. Show notes - Arrhythmias in CardioOncology What is the prevalence of arrhythmias in patients with cancer? Arrhythmias are common in patients with cancer due to a multitude of factors. Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in this population and occurs in approximately 5% of patients with cancer. The driving forces are multifactorial and include the direct arrhythmogenic effects of cancer therapeutics and cardiotoxicities of cancer therapeutics that make arrhythmogenesis more likely. Additionally, there is a bi-directional link between cancer and cardiac disorders. For example, not only is atrial fibrillation more common in patien...
11/1/202340 minutes, 7 seconds
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342. Case Report: A Young Woman With Recurrent ACS – National University Heart Centre Singapore

CardioNerds join Dr. Tony Li Yi Wei, Dr. Rodney Soh Yu Hang, and Dr. Zan Ng Zhe Yan from the National University Heart Centre Singapore for a cocktail drink on the top of marina bay sands. They discuss the following case featuring a young woman with recurrent ACS ultimately found to have Takayasu Arteritis. The ECPR for this episode is provided by Dr. Teng Gim Gee and Professor Tan Huay Cheem. Episode audio was edited by student Dr. Shivani Reddy. A 37-year-old woman presents with chest pain. She has a background history of Hashimoto thyroiditis, gestational diabetes, and anemia of chronic disease and possible iron deficiency. Her significant medical history includes ischemic heart disease with prior coronary angiogram showing triple vessel coronary artery disease for which she underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with LIMA-LAD, SVG-OM, SVG-RCA. After CABG, she had recurrent admissions in the subsequent year with acute coronary syndromes where she underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to SVG-OM, RI, proximal LAD, and distal LAD. She was a non-smoker and had been compliant with her medications. For her current presentation, she underwent myocardial perfusion imaging which showed a large sized area of inducible ischemia in the LCx territory.  Repeat coronary evaluation showed occluded SVG-OM, occluded LIMA-LAD where she underwent PCI. Clinically, she was noted to have weak brachial and radial pulses on the left side with systolic blood pressure difference between both arms. CT Thoracic Angiogram demonstrated concern for underlying large vessel vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis. ESR was elevated at 34. Rheumatology was consulted and she was diagnosed with Takayasu arteritis and started on prednisolone and azathioprine. Given her young age, absence of traditional atherosclerotic risk factors, and progressive coronary disease, Takayasu arteritis was deemed the underlying etiology of her coronary disease. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Recurrent ACS Pearls - Recurrent ACS Approach to accelerated CAD and/or CAD in the young: Causes of MI in young patients can be divided into four groups, although a considerable overlap exists between all groups. (1) atheromatous CAD, (2) non-atheromatous process such as spontaneous coronary artery dissection, vasculitides such as Takayasu disease, (3) hypercoagulable states leading to recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis and/or thromboembolism, and (4) recreational drug use. Clinical Presentation of Takayasu and prevalence of cardiac involvement: Takayasu’s arteritis is classified as a large-vessel vasculitis because it primarily affects the aorta and its primary branches. It has a worldwide distribution; however, the greatest prevalence is seen in Asia. Women are affected in 80 to 90 percent of cases, with an age of onset that is usually between 10 and 40 years. Management of Takayasu arteritis: As for systemic anti-inflammatory therapy, the mainstay of treatment would be systemic glucocorticoids guided by the care of a rheumatologist. A steroid sparing agent may be given in conjunction for long term suppressive therapy to achieve longer-term disease control. The choice of additional agents depends on several factors including considerations regarding comorbidities, a patient's plans for conceiving a child, cost of treatments, and availability of specific agents. Options include methotrexate, azathioprine as well as mycophenolate. There are also growing studies into anti-TNF-alpha agents such as etanercept or infliximab. Show Notes - Recurrent ACS
10/30/20230
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341. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #35 with Dr. Melissa Tracy

The following question refers to Section 4.9 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSD fellow Dr. Patrick Azcarate, and then by expert faculty Dr. Melissa Tracy. Dr. Tracy is a preventive cardiologist, former Director of the Echocardiography Lab, Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation, and solid organ transplant cardiologist at Rush University. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #35 In patients with a low risk of cardiovascular disease, which of the following is true?AAspirin does not affect the risk of ischemic strokeBAspirin increases the risk of fatal bleeding.CAspirin reduces the risk of non-fatal MI.DAspirin reduces cardiovascular mortality Answer #35 ExplanationIn 2019, an updated meta-analysis of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events found that patients with a low risk of CVD taking aspirin did not have a reduction in all-cause or cardiovascular mortality. There was a lower risk of non-fatal MI (RR 0.82) and ischemic stroke (RR 0.87). However, aspirin was also associated with a  higher risk of major bleeding (RR 1.50), intracranial bleeding (RR 1.32), and major GI bleeding (RR 1.52). There was no difference in the risk of fatal bleeding (RR 1.09).Accordingly, the ESC does not recommend antiplatelet therapy in individuals with low/moderate CV risk due to the increased risk of major bleeding (Class III, LOE A).Although aspirin should not be given routinely to patients without established ASCVD, we cannot exclude that in some patients at high or very high CVD risk, the benefits may outweigh the risks.Main TakeawayIn patients with low/moderate risk of CVD, aspirin for primary prevention is not recommended due to the higher risk of bleeding. For those at higher risk of CVD, low-dose aspirin may be considered for prevention in the absence of contraindications.Guideline Loc.Section 4.9.1, Page 3291 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
10/26/20237 minutes, 5 seconds
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340. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #30 with Dr. Shashank Sinha

The following question refers to Section 8.5 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student & CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by University of Southern California cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Trialist Dr. Michael Francke, and then by expert faculty Dr. Shashank Sinha. Dr. Sinha is an Assistant Professor of Medical Education at the University of Virginia School of Medicine and an advanced heart failure, MCS, and transplant cardiologist at Inova Fairfax Medical Campus. He currently serves as both the Director of the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit and Cardiovascular Critical Care Research Program at Inova Fairfax. He is also a Steering Committee member for the multicenter Cardiogenic Shock Working Group and Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network and an Associate Editor for the Journal of Cardiac Failure, the official Journal of the Heart Failure Society of America. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #30 Ms. V. Tea is a 55-year-old woman with a history of cardiac sarcoidosis, heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF – EF 40%), and ventricular tachycardia with CRT-D who presents with recurrent VT. She has undergone several attempts at catheter ablation of VT in the past and previously had been trialed on amiodarone which was discontinued due to hepatotoxicity. She now continues to have episodic VT requiring anti-tachycardia pacing and ICD shocks despite medical therapy with mexiletine, metoprolol, and sotalol. Her most recent PET scan showed no active areas of inflammation. Currently, her vital signs are stable, and labs are unremarkable. What is the best next step for this patient? A Evaluation for heart transplant B Evaluation for LVAD C Dobutamine D Prednisone E None of the above Answer #30 Explanation The correct answer is A – evaluation for heart transplant. For selected patients with advanced heart failure despite GDMT, cardiac transplantation is indicated to improve survival and quality of life (Class 1, LOE C-LD). Heart transplantation, in this context, provides intermediate economic value. Clinical indicators include refractory or recurrent ventricular arrhythmias with frequent ICD shocks. Patient selection for heart transplant includes assessment of comorbidities, goals of care, and various other factors. The United Network of Organ Sharing Heart Transplant Allocation Policy was revised in 2018 with a 6-tiered system to better prioritize unstable patients and minimize waitlist mortality. VT puts the patient as a Status 2 on the transplant list. There was a contemporary analysis of patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy due to cardiac sarcoidosis, published in Journal of Cardiac Failure, in 2018 that demonstrated similar 1-year and 5-year survival after heart transplant between patients with and without cardiac sarcoidosis. Choice B (evaluation for LVAD) is incorrect. While bridge to transplant with LVAD is definitely a potential next step in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, it is not recommended in patients presenting primarily with refractory ventricular arrhythmias due to granuloma-induced scarring. In this situation, patients benefit from direct heart transplant rather than bridge to transplant LVAD approa...
10/25/202310 minutes, 31 seconds
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339. ACHD: Electrophysiology in ACHD with Dr. Frank Fish

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambider) ACHD series co-chair Dr. Daniel Clark (Vanderbilt University), cardiology FIT lead Dr. Stephanie Fuentes (Houston Methodist Hospital), and Dr. Frank Fish, a Pediatric Electrophysiologist and the Director of the Pediatric Electrophysiology (EP) Lab at Monroe Carrell Jr Children’s Hospital at Vanderbilt University. He is a board certified Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) physician and has a wealth of experience performing EP procedures in adults living with congenital heart disease. Audio editing was performed by student Dr. Shivani Reddy. In this episode, we discuss key concepts and management of electrophysiologic issues that we can encounter when caring for adults with congenital heart disease.  Arrythmias in adults with congenital heart disease can be intrinsic due to the defect itself or as a consequence of the interventions that they have undergone to palliate and/or repair these defects. The complex anatomy of these patients and the years of pressure and volume load make them not only exquisitely hemodynamically sensitive to arrhythmias (that may otherwise not be of much consequence to the general population) but they also make interventions (catheter ablation or device implant) complex. We therefore embark in a case-based discussion of patients with ACHD (Fontan circulation, Ebstein’s anomaly and Tetralogy of Fallot) in an effort to highlight the presentation of arrythmias and the management strategy in this very important group of patients. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Electrophysiology in ACHD Patients with Fontan circulation have a high risk of developing atrial (and ventricular) arrhythmias and they are highly sensitive to the hemodynamic consequences that these arrythmias ensue.  The goal of therapy then should be to achieve sinus or atrial paced rhythm. Rate control should NOT the goal. Patients with Ebstein’s anomaly have high arrhythmic potential. They can have multiple accessory pathways (especially right sided) which can in turn be associated with sudden cardiac death. We should have low threshold for EPS +/- catheter ablation in patients with WPW pattern. Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot have a unique risk for SCD that warrant ICD implant apart from the standard criteria (LVEF 180 ms) and surgical repair approach. Patient’s anatomy is the major consideration when implanting devices (PPM/ICD). We ought to assess for residual intracardiac shunt at the atrial level and consider closing if feasible prior to placing a device. CRT has merit in systemic LV but less so in systemic RV. Notes- Electrophysiology in ACHD What should we know about atrial arrhythmias in a Fontan patient? Intraatrial re-entrant tachycardia (IART) is slower than typical atrial flutter with atrial rates generally
10/25/20231 hour, 6 minutes, 31 seconds
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338. Digital Health: Tips for the Digital Health Innovator with Dr. David Cho and Dr. Francoise Marvel

Join CardioNerds Co-Founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, Dr. Nino Isakadze (EP Fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital), Dr. Karan Desai (Cardiology Faculty at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview) join Digital Health Experts, Dr. Francoise Marvel (Co-Founder of Corrie Health and Co-Director of Johns Hopkins Digital Health Lab) and Dr. David Cho (Chair of the ACC Health Care Innovation Council) for another installment of the Digital Health Series. In this specific episode, we discuss pearls, pitfalls and everything in between for the emerging digital health innovator. This series is supported by an ACC Chapter Grant in collaboration with Corrie Health. Notes were drafted by Dr. Karan Desai. Audio editing was performed by student Dr. Shivani Reddy. In this series, supported by an ACC Chapter Grant and in collaboration with Corrie Health, we hope to provide all CardioNerds out there a primer on the role of digital heath in cardiovascular medicine. Use of versatile hardware and software devices is skyrocketing in everyday life. This provides unique platforms to support healthcare management outside the walls of the hospital for patients with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, evolution of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and telemedicine is augmenting clinical decision making at a new level fueling a revolution in cardiovascular disease care delivery. Digital health has the potential to bridge the gap in healthcare access, lower costs of healthcare and promote equitable delivery of evidence-based care to patients. This CardioNerds Digital Health series is made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Nino Isakadze and Dr. Karan Desai.   Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Digital Health Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Tips for the Digital Health Innovator A critical first step in developing a digital health intervention is defining the clinical problem rather than developing the technology itself. Most digital transformations – whether in medicine or other industries – require several iterations for the technology to develop and demonstrate value. A key aspect of this iterative process was human-centered design: involving patients, their families, and other end-users early in the development of the digital health intervention. Dr. Marvel and colleagues have developed a 6-step process for innovators to consider in taking a concept to product. Notes - Tips for the Digital Health Innovator In this episode, we discussed with Dr. Marvel and Dr. Cho some general concepts on how to develop digital health interventions (DHI). DHIs have a broad definition, including any software or hardware application used to improve access, quality, efficacy or efficiency and they exist in various modalities (e.g., text message, mobile apps, wearables). Dr. Marvel has previously authored a roadmap for digital health intervention that provides guidance for an interdisciplinary approach to developing effective and evidence-based DHIs. As discussed on the episode, a critical first step is defining the clinical problem an innovator is attempting to solve instead of attempting to develop the technology solution first and then adapting it to the problem. Drs. Marvel and Cho emphasized that most digital transformations – whether in medicine or other industry – require several iterations for the technology to develop and demonstrate value. Frequent assessment in a structured manner will help the intervention mature over time. Dr. Marvel noted that a key aspect of this iterative process was human-centered design: involving patients...
10/23/202347 minutes, 4 seconds
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337. Beyond the Boards: The Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis with Dr. Michael Cullen

CardioNerds (Drs. Amit Goyal, Matthew Delfiner, and Tiffany Dong) discuss infective endocarditis with distinguished clinician-educator Dr. Michael Cullen. We dive into the nuances of infective endocarditis, including native valve endocarditis, prosthetic valve endocarditis, and right-sided endocarditis. Notes were drafted by Dr. Tiffany Dong, and audio editing was performed by student Dr. Adriana Mares. The CardioNerds Beyond the Boards Series was inspired by the Mayo Clinic Cardiovascular Board Review Course and designed in collaboration with the course directors Dr. Amy Pollak, Dr. Jeffrey Geske, and Dr. Michael Cullen. CardioNerds Beyond the Boards SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes The physical exam is crucial in the evaluation of infective endocarditis and includes cardiac auscultation and a search for sequelae of endocarditis, such as immunologic and embolic phenomena. The modified Duke Criteria categorizes the diagnosis of infective endocarditis into four different buckets: definite endocarditis by pathology, definite endocarditis by clinical criteria, possible endocarditis, and rejected. The diagnosis of endocarditis may involve several different imaging modalities, including transthoracic echocardiogram, transesophageal echocardiogram, 4D CT, and nuclear imaging. For left-sided endocarditis, indications to operate include endocarditis due to S. aureus or fungi, heart failure, evidence of perivalvular complications, persistent bacteremia, and large vegetations. The management of endocarditis often involves multiple teams, including cardiology, infectious disease, addiction medicine, neurology, anesthesiology, and cardiothoracic surgery. Notes What signs/complications of endocarditis are apparent on physical exam and labs? A new or worsening cardiac murmur with possible signs of volume overload. Vascular phenomena encompass splinter hemorrhages, conjunctival hemorrhages, Janeway lesions, mycotic aneurysms, and TIA/strokes. Immunologic phenomena include glomerulonephritis, Roth spots, and Osler nodes. Positive blood cultures with 2-3 samples collected. Elevated inflammatory markers. How does the modified Duke criteria assist in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis? The modified Duke criteria separate the diagnosis of endocarditis into four categories: definite endocarditis by pathology, definite endocarditis by clinical criteria, possible endocarditis, and rejected endocarditis. Definitive endocarditis by pathology requires pathologic confirmation of “bugs under the microscope.” Definitive endocarditis by clinical criteria requires two major criteria, one major and two minor criteria, or all five minor criteria. Possible endocarditis requires one major and one minor or three minor criteria. Major criteria:Positive blood culture for typical organism Evidence of endocardial involvement (e.g., vegetation on echo) Minor CriteriaPredisposing clinical factors (e.g., intravenous drug use, known valvulopathy)FeverImmunologic phenomenaVascular phenomena Blood culture for atypical organism What is the role of TTE compared to TEE in endocarditis? TTE and TEE both have their roles in the workup for endocarditis. TTE can provide a baseline screen and yield a better understanding of ventricular size and function than transesophageal. The strength of TEE is the ability to visualize smaller vegetations along with perivalvular complications that may be missed on TTE. If clinical suspicion is high for endocarditis, repeat echocardiography is warranted. What are other tools to evaluate for endocarditis in prosthetic valves? TTE and TEE remain important and should be commonly utilized for the diagnosis of endocarditis.
10/17/202334 minutes, 7 seconds
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336. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #34 with Dr. Eileen Handberg

The following question refers to Section 4.7 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Shivani Reddy, answered first by NP Carol Patrick, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eileen Handberg.Dr. Handberg is an Adult Nurse Practitioner, Professor of Medicine, and Director of the Cardiovascular Clinical Trials Program in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Florida. She has served as Chair of the Cardiovascular Team Section and the Board of Trustees with the ACC and is the President Elect for the PCNA.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #34 Ms. BW presents after her best friend was diagnosed with hypertension and is interested in measuring her own blood pressure. According to the ESC Guidelines, what BP screening approach is recommended for making a diagnosis of hypertension? ARepeated measurements in one visitBA single measurement in a single visitCRepeated measurements in more than one visit  DReported patient history  Answer #34 Explanation The correct answer is C – Repeated measurements in more than one visit.It is recommended to base the diagnosis of hypertension on repeated office BP measurements on more than one visit except when hypertension is severe (e.g., Grade 3—defined as SBP > 180 and/ or DBP >110mmHg—and especially in high-risk patients) (Class I, LOE C). In addition to recommending repeat measurements across visits, the guidelines provide a number of considerations for appropriately measuring blood pressure, such as taking measurements when seated in a quiet environment for 5 minutes and measuring in both arms at the first visit and using the higher-level value arm for visits thereafter (see Table 14 on page 3283).Additionally, home blood pressure monitoring is recommended as an alternative to repeated office measurements. Blood pressure measurements are taken with a semiautomated, validated cuff for 3 consecutive days – and 6-7 days being preferred – in the morning and at night, averaged over that period. Notably, home blood pressure thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension are lower than for that of in-office measurements, with a daytime systolic of 135mmHg or diastolic of 85mmHg given as the level at which hypertension is diagnosed, as opposed to 140mmHg and 90mmHg for systolic and diastolic levels, respectively, given for in-office diagnosis.Main TakeawayWith the exception of those with severely elevated blood pressures, the diagnosis of hypertension requires repeated measurements across multiple office visits.Guideline Loc.Sections 4.7.1 and 4.7.2, Table 13 and 14, Figure 14 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
10/10/20239 minutes, 57 seconds
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335. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #29 with Dr. Michelle Kittleson

The following question refers to Section 7.8 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by Stony Brook University Hospital medicine resident and CardioNerds Intern Dr. Chelsea Tweneboah, answered first by Mayo Clinic Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Chief Dr. Teodora Donisan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Michelle Kittleson.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #29 A 69-year-old man was referred to the cardiology clinic after being found to have a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular hypertrophy. For the last several months he has been experiencing progressively worsening fatigue and shortness of breath while getting to the 2nd floor in his house. He has a history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and chronic low back pain. He takes no medications. On exam, his heart rate is 82 bpm, blood pressure is 86/60 mmHg, O2 saturation is 97% breathing ambient air, and BMI is 29 kg/m2. He has a regular rate and rhythm with normal S1 and S2, bibasilar pulmonary rales, and 1+ pitting edema in both legs. EKG shows normal sinus rhythm with a first-degree AV delay and low voltages. Transthoracic echocardiogram shows a moderately depressed LVEF of 35-39%, severe concentric hypertrophy with a left ventricular posterior wall thickness of 1.5 cm and strain imaging showing globally reduced longitudinal strain with apical sparring. There is also biatrial enlargement and a small pericardial effusion. A pharmacologic nuclear stress test did not reveal any perfusion defects. A gammopathy panel including SPEP, UPEP, serum and urine immunofixation studies, and serum free light chains are unrevealing. A 99mTc-Pyrophosphate scan was positive with grade 3 uptake. In addition to starting diuretics, what is the next most appropriate step for managing for this patient? A Start metoprolol succinate B Start sacubitril/valsartan C Perform genetic sequencing of the TTR gene D Perform endomyocardial biopsy Answer #29 Explanation The correct answer is C – perform genetic sequencing of the TTR gene.   This patient has findings which raise suspicion for cardiac amyloidosis. There are both cardiac (low voltages on EKG and echocardiogram showing marked LVH with biatrial enlargement and small pericardial effusion as well as a characteristic strain pattern) and extra-cardiac (bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and low back pain) features to suggest amyloidosis. The diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis requires a high index of suspicion and most commonly occurs due to a deposition of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains (AL-CM) or transthyretin (ATTR-CM). ATTR may cause cardiac amyloidosis as either a pathogenic variant (ATTRv) or as a wild-type protein (ATTRwt).   Patients for whom there is a clinical suspicion for cardiac amyloidosis should have screening for serum and urine monoclonal light chains with serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis and serum free light chains (Class 1, LOE B-NR). Immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) is preferred because serum or urine plasma electrophoresis (SPEP or UPEP) are less sensitive. Together, measurement of serum IFE, urine IFE, and serum FLC is >99% sensitive for AL amyloidosis.
10/5/202313 minutes, 1 second
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334. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #28 with Dr. Gregg Fonarow

The following question refers to Section 7.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Palisades Medical Center medicine resident & CardioNerds Academy Fellow Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by Hopkins Bayview medicine resident & CardioNerds Academy Faculty Dr. Ty Sweeny, and then by expert faculty Dr. Gregg Fonarow. Dr. Fonarow is the Professor of Medicine and Interim Chief of UCLA's Division of Cardiology, Director of the Ahmanson-UCLA Cardiomyopathy Center, and Co-director of UCLA's Preventative Cardiology Program. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #28 Mr. Gene D’aMeTi, a 53-year-old African American man with ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (LVEF 30-35%), is recently admitted with acutely decompensated heart failure and acute kidney injury on chronic kidney disease stage III. His outpatient regiment includes sacubitril-valsartan 97-103mg BID, carvedilol 25mg BID, and hydralazine 50mg TID. Sacubitril-valsartan was held because of worsening renal function. Despite symptomatic improvement with diuresis, his renal function continues to decline. He is otherwise well perfused & with preservation of other end organ function.   Throughout this hospitalization, he has steadily become more hypertensive with blood pressures persisting in the 170s/90s mmHg. What would be an appropriate adjustment to his medication regimen at this time? A Resume Losartan only B Start Amlodipine C Increase current Hydralazine dose D Start Isosorbide dinitrate therapy E Both C & D Answer #28 ExplanationThe correct answer is E – both increasing the current hydralazine dose (C) and starting isosorbide dinitrate therapy (D). Although ACEI/ARB therapy (choice A) has shown a mortality and morbidity benefit in HFrEF, caution should be used in patients with renal insufficiency. In this patient with ongoing decline in renal function, RAAS-inhibiting therapies (ACEi, ARB, ARNI, MRA) should be avoided. In this case, as his RAAS-I has been stopped, it would be reasonable to increase current therapies to target doses (or nearest dose tolerated), as these demonstrated both safety and efficacy in trials (Class 1, LOE A). Considering that his high dose ARNI was stopped, it is unlikely that either hydralazine or isosorbide dinitrate alone, even at maximal doses, would be sufficient to control his blood pressure (Options C and D, respectively). Interestingly, in the original study by Massie et. Al (1977), the decision was made to combine these therapies as the result was thought to be superior to either medication alone. ISDN would provide preload reduction, while Hydralazine would decrease afterload. Consequently, we do not have data looking at the individual benefit of either medication in isolation. In self-identified African Americans with NYHA class III or IV HFrEF already on optimal GDMT, the addition of hydralazine & isosorbide dinitrate is recommended to improve symptoms and reduce mortality and morbidity (Class 1, LOE A). In this case, as the patient has evidence of progressive renal disfunction, we are limited in using traditional RAAS-I, such as ACEI, ARB, or ARNI.
9/27/20239 minutes, 27 seconds
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333. Cardio-Oncology: Thromboembolic Disease in Cardio-oncology with Dr. Joshua Levenson

In this episode, CardioNerds Dr. Daniel Ambinder, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, and Dr. Saahil Jumkhawala discuss thromboembolic disease in cardio-oncology with faculty expert Dr. Joshua Levenson, the Associate Program Director of the cardiology fellowship and an Assistant Professor of Medicine at the University of Pittsburg School of Medicine. Venous (VTE) and arterial thromboembolic (ATE) events are precipitants of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. Here, we discuss the pathophysiology of thromboembolism, risk factors and epidemiology for ATE and VTE, the role of risk prediction and patient stratification, and the approach to treatment for and prophylaxis of thromboembolic events with anticoagulation. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Saahil Jumkhawala and episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Intern Dr. Tina Reddy. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Thromboembolic Disease in Cardio-oncology Patients with cancer are at higher risk of developing both arterial and venous thromboembolic events compared to the general population. Certain cancer subtypes are associated with a relatively higher risk of developing thromboembolic complications. Anticoagulation type and duration should be dependent on patient characteristics and risk factors, with shared decision-making between the patient and their providers. Subgroups of patients may benefit from more aggressive management of their atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk factors while being treated for cancer to reduce the risk of thromboembolic complications. Show notes - Thromboembolic Disease in Cardio-oncology What are the incidence and main manifestations of thromboembolic events (venous and arterial) in patients with active malignancy? Approximately 10% of outpatients with active cancer have venous thromboembolic events, many of which are asymptomatic. Clinically relevant VTEs are predominantly deep venous thrombosis (DVTs) with pain and/or swelling of the involved extremities or pulmonary emboli (PEs) resulting in chest pain and/or shortness of breath. VTE is the number one preventable cause of death for all hospitalized patients, and the ability to prevent and treat these events is crucial, particularly in high-risk populations such as patients with cancer. Are there any high-risk associations with specific cancer subtypes? Patients with metastatic disease and those receiving chemotherapy are more likely to develop arterial or venous thromboembolic events. Patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and thrombocytopenic patients are at the lowest risk for thromboembolic events. Multiple myeloma patients on medication such as proteasome inhibitors or lenalidomide appear at particular risk. Patients with localized, early-stage cancers such as breast, prostate, and melanoma are also at lower risk. What are the main risk factors to identify patients at a higher risk of developing thrombotic complications? Patients with a sedentary lifestyle, deconditioning, and undergoing active treatment with chemotherapy are at the highest risk of developing DVT or PE. How should we approach choosing the optimal type and duration of anticoagulation for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) in the setting of malignancy? This remains an area of active research. Historically, patients would receive systemic anticoagulation with heparin followed by warfarin.
9/26/202350 minutes, 50 seconds
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332. Digital Health: Digital Health and Health Equity with Dr. LaPrincess Brewer

Join CardioNerds Co-Founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, Dr. Nino Isakadze (EP Fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital), Dr. Karan Desai (Cardiology Faculty at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview) join Digital Health Expert, Dr. La Princess Brewer (Associate Professor of Medicine Mayo Clinic Rochester) for another installment of the Digital Health Series. In this specific episode, we discuss how digital health can both reduce and amplify health disparities. This series is supported by an ACC Chapter Grant in collaboration with Corrie Health.  Notes were drafted by Dr. Karan Desai. Audio editing was performed by student Dr. Shivani Reddy. In this series, supported by an ACC Chapter Grant and in collaboration with Corrie Health, we hope to provide all CardioNerds out there a primer on the role of digital heath in cardiovascular medicine. Use of versatile hardware and software devices is skyrocketing in everyday life. This provides unique platforms to support healthcare management outside the walls of the hospital for patients with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, evolution of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and telemedicine is augmenting clinical decision making at a new level fueling a revolution in cardiovascular disease care delivery. Digital health has the potential to bridge the gap in healthcare access, lower costs of healthcare and promote equitable delivery of evidence-based care to patients. This CardioNerds Digital Health series is made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Nino Isakadze and Dr. Karan Desai.   Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Digital Health Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes Digital redlining occurs when a particular group has limited access to key services based on race and ethnicity, perpetuating inequities. Throughout this podcast episode, Dr. Brewer emphasizes how community engagement early in the creation of digital health technologies can mitigate structural inequities.  Dr. Brewer spoke about methods to develop innovative digital health tools that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, specifically community-based participatory research (CBPR). In CBPR, community members are partners with researchers in each step of the intervention. While certain individuals and communities may have physical access to digital health tools, they still may remain inaccessible for several reasons. Notes In this episode, we focus on achieving digital health equity and how the very technologies meant to reduce health disparities can widen them. We started by discussing a paper from Dr. Brewer and colleagues that crystallized how digital health disparities can occur with the example of Pokémon Go. As described in this paper, this mobile application was one of the most used applications worldwide. It incentivized users to collect virtual goods at various physical locations termed PokéStops. For public health professionals, this mobile app represented an engaging way to promote physical activity amongst users. However, some racial and ethnic minority groups in low-income, urban areas quickly took notice of the lack of PokéStops within their neighborhoods. As researchers noted, this could be considered examples of digital redlining, or limiting a particular group from key services based on race and ethnicity. As Dr. Brewer notes in the paper, the Pokémon Go developers relied on maps that were crowdsourced from a majority white male demographic. While it may not have been deliberate, the development process created a structural digital inequity placing certain communities at a home-cour...
9/19/202334 minutes, 34 seconds
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331. Case Report: New Onset Murmur In A Pregnant Woman With A Mechanical Heart Valve – Oregon Health & Science University

CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Dan Ambinder joins CardioNerds join Dr. Pooja Prasad, Dr. Khoa Nguyen and expert Dr. Abigail Khan (Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, School of Medicine) from Oregon Health & Science University and discuss a case of mechanical valve thrombosis. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Adriana Mares.  A 23-year-old pregnant woman with a mechanical aortic valve presented to the maternal cardiac clinic for a follow-up visit. On physical exam, a loud grade three crescendo-decrescendo murmur was audible and transthoracic echocardiography revealed severely elevated gradients across the aortic valve.  Fluoroscopy confirmed an immobile leaflet disk. Thrombolysis was successfully performed using a low dose ultra-slow infusion of thrombolytic therapy, leading to normal valve function eight days later. Treatment options for mechanical aortic valve thrombosis include slow-infusion, low-dose thrombolytic therapy or emergency surgery. In addition to discussing diagnosis and management of mechanical valve thrombosis, we highlight the importance of preventing valve thrombosis during the hypercoagulable state of pregnancy with careful pre-conception counseling and a detailed anticoagulation plan. See this case published in European Heart Journal - Case Reports. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - mechanical valve thrombosis The hypercoagulable state of pregnancy presents a risk for women with mechanical heart valves with contemporary data estimating the rate of valve thrombosis during pregnancy at around 5%. Thrombolytic therapy is a (relatively) safe alternative to surgery and should be considered first line for treatment of prosthetic valve thrombosis in all patients, especially in pregnant women. Pre-conception counselling and meticulous anticoagulation management for patients with mechanical heart valves are key aspects of their care. The evaluation for prosthetic valve thrombosis in pregnant persons requires a review of anti-coagulation history and careful choice of diagnostic testing to confirm the diagnosis and minimize risks to the parent and the baby. Multi-disciplinary care with close collaboration between cardiology and obstetrics is critical when caring for pregnant persons with cardiac disease. Show Notes - mechanical valve thrombosis How can we counsel and inform women with heart disease who are contemplating pregnancy? Use the Modified World Health Organization classification of maternal cardiovascular risk to counsel patients on their maternal cardiac event rate and recommended follow-up visits and location of delivery (local or expert care) if pregnancy is pursued. To learn about normal pregnancy cardiovascular physiology and pregnancy risk stratification in persons with cardiovascular disease, enjoy CardioNerds Episode #111. Cardio-Obstetrics: Normal Pregnancy Physiology with Dr. Garima Sharma. Adapted from the 2018 ESC Guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy What is the differential diagnosis for a new murmur in a pregnant person who has undergone heart valve replacement? Normal physiology - elevated flow from hyperdynamic state and/or expansion of blood volume in pregnancy. Pathologic - increased left ventricular outflow tract flow from turbulence of flow due to pannus ingrowth, new paravalvular leak, or obstructive mechanical disk motion from vegetation or thrombus. What are diagnostic modalities for the evaluation of suspected prosthetic valve thrombosis? The 2020 ACC/AHA guidelines gave a class I recommendation for evaluation of susp...
9/12/202330 minutes, 58 seconds
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330. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #33 with Dr. Noreen Nazir

The following question refers to Section 4.5 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by pharmacy resident Dr. Anushka Tandon, and then by expert faculty Dr. Noreen Nazir.Dr. Nazir is Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she is the director of cardiac MRI and the preventive cardiology program.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #33 Mr. V is a 37-year-old man who presents to clinic after a recent admission for anterior STEMI and is status-post emergent percutaneous intervention to the proximal LAD. He has mixed hyperlipidemia and a 10 pack-year history of (current) tobacco smoking. Which of the following points related to tobacco use is LEAST appropriate for today’s visit?AProviding assessment and encouragement for smoking cessation, even if for only a 30-second “very brief advice” intervention.BReviewing and offering pharmacotherapy support options for smoking cessation if Mr. V expresses readiness to quit today.CRecommending a switch from traditional cigarettes to e-cigarettes as a first step towards cessation, as e-cigarettes are safer for use.DDiscussing that smoking cessation is strongly recommended for all patients, regardless of potential weight gain. Answer #33 ExplanationAnswer C is LEAST appropriate and therefore is the correct answer.Answer C is not appropriate. Although e-cigarettes may be more effective than nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation, the long-term effects of e-cigarettes on cardiovascular and pulmonary health are unknown. According to the 2019 ACC/AHA prevention guidelines, e-cigarettes may increase the risk of CV and pulmonary diseases; their use has been reportedly associated with arrhythmias and hypertension. Therefore, neither the ESC nor ACC/AHA suggest clinicians recommend e-cigarettes over traditional cigarettes to patients.Answer A: Smoking cessation is one of the most effective CVD risk-lowering preventive measures, with significant reductions in (repeat) myocardial infarctions or death. ESC guidelines emphasize the importance of encouraging smoking cessation even in settings where time is limited. “Very brief advice” on smoking is a proven 30-second clinical intervention, developed in the UK, which identifies smokers, advises them on the best method of quitting, and supports subsequent quit attempts. While ESC does not explicitly suggest a frequency of assessment, the 2019 ACC/AHA guidelines specifically recommend that “all adults should be assessed at every healthcare visit for tobacco use and their tobacco use status recorded as a vital sign to facilitate tobacco cessation.”Answer B: The ESC suggests (class 2) that offering follow-up support, nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion individually or in combination should be considered in smokers. A meta-analysis of RCTs in patients with ASCVD reflects that varenicline (RR 2.6), bupropion (RR 1.4), telephone therapy (RR 1.5), and individual counselling (RR 1.6) all increased quit rates versus placebo; NRT therapies were well-tolerated but had inconclusive effects on quit rates (RR 1.22 with 95% CI 0.72-2.06). The 2019 ACC/AHA recommendation to combine behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions to maximize quit rates is a class 1 recommendation.Answer D: The ESC gives a class 1 recommendation to recommending smoking cessation regardless of weight grain. Smokers who quit may expect an average weight gain of 5 kg, but the health benefits of tobacco cessation (both CVD and non-CVD related...
9/5/202311 minutes, 14 seconds
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329. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #27 with Dr. Randall Starling

The following question refers to Section 7.2 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Cleveland Clinic internal medicine resident and CardioNerds Intern Akiva Rosenzveig, answered first by UPMC Harrisburg cardiology fellow and CardioNerds Academy House Faculty Leader Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem, and then by expert faculty Dr. Randall Starling. Dr. Starling is Professor of Medicine and an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic where he was formerly the Section Head of Heart Failure, Vice Chairman of Cardiovascular Medicine, and member of the Cleveland Clinic Board of Governors. Dr. Starling is also Past President of the Heart Failure Society of America in 2018-2019. Dr. Staring was among the earliest CardioNerds faculty guests and has since been a valuable source of mentorship and inspiration. Dr. Starling’s sponsorship and support was instrumental in the origins of the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Program.  The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #27 Which of the following sentences regarding diuretics in the management of heart failure is correct? A In HF patients with minimal congestive symptoms, medical management with diuretics alone is sufficient to improve outcomes. B Prescribing a loop diuretic on discharge after a HF hospitalization may improve short term mortality and HF rehospitalization rates. C The combination of thiazide (or thiazide-like) diuretics with loop diuretics is preferred to higher doses of loop diuretics in patients with HF and congestive symptoms. D The maximum daily dose of furosemide is 300 mg. Answer #27 Explanation Choice B in correct. The guidelines give a Class 1 recommendation for diuretics in HF patients who have fluid retention to relieve congestion, improve symptoms, and prevent worsening heart failure. Recent data from the non-randomized OPTIMIZE-HF (Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) registry revealed reduced 30-day all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for HF with diuretic use compared with no diuretic use after hospital discharge for HF. Choice A is incorrect. With the exception of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs), the effects of diuretics on morbidity and mortality are uncertain. As such, diuretics should not be used in isolation, but always combined with other GDMT for HF that reduce hospitalizations and prolong survival. Choice C is incorrect. The use of a thiazide or thiazide-like diuretic (e.g., metolazone) in combination with a loop diuretic inhibits compensatory distal tubular sodium reabsorption, leading to enhanced natriuresis. In a propensity-score matched analysis in patients with hospitalized HF, the addition of metolazone to loop diuretics was found to increase the risk for hypokalemia, hyponatremia, worsening renal function, and mortality, whereas use of higher doses of loop diuretics was not found to adversely affect survival. The guidelines recommend that the addition of a thiazide (e.g., metolazone) to treatment with a loop diuretic should be reserved for patients who do not respond to moderate- or high-dose loop diuretics to minimize electrolyte abnormalities (Class...
8/30/20239 minutes, 29 seconds
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328. ACHD: Eisenmenger Syndrome with Dr. Alexander Sasha Opotowsky

Eisenmenger syndrome is an end-stage complication of congenital heart disease that occurs when a left to right shunt causes pulmonary over-circulation, leading to vascular remodeling, increased vascular resistance, and ultimately even shunt reversal. Aside from cardiac complications, this pathology has unique complications secondary to chronic cyanosis. In this episode of CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Amit Goyal, ACHD series co-chair Dr. Josh Saef, and Dr. Khaled Tuwairqi (ACHD cardiologist at King Faisal / Elite Hospitals) join Dr. Alexander (Sasha) Optowsky (Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program at Cincinnati Childrens) to discuss diagnosis and management of Eisenmenger syndrome. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Anna Scandinaro and episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Eisenmenger Syndrome First described in 1897 by Victor Eisenmenger, Eisenmenger syndrome is a long-term complication of unrepaired left to right shunts, resulting from pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension. This eventually leads to reversal of the shunt, with right to left flow causing cyanosis. Evaluation for Eisenmenger syndrome should include a comprehensive history, physical exam, ECG, echocardiogram, cardiac catheterization, and laboratory work to identify multi-system complications of cyanosis and secondary erythrocytosis. The most definitive means to diagnose Eisenmenger syndrome in a patient with a prior left-to-right shunt lesion is with a right heart cardiac catheterization showing right to left shunting (Qp:Qs < 1). Eisenmenger syndrome is a multi-organ disease and many manifestations occur due to secondary erythrocytosis. Prevention and treatment of these complications are the major goals of care in this population. Complications of Eisenmenger syndrome include gout, bilirubin gallstones, stroke, paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma, thrombophilia, retinal changes, hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, and kyphoscoliosis. Emergency non-cardiac complications of Eisenmenger syndrome include cerebral abscess and hemoptysis. Pregnancy is contraindicated in Eisenmenger syndrome due to high maternal and fetal mortality. Notes- Eisenmenger Syndrome 1. How does Eisenmenger syndrome develop? Does everyone with a left-to-right shunt develop it? Can it develop as an iatrogenic complication? The pulmonary vasculature is not used to seeing the increased flow it receives in the context of a left to right shunt. Over time this leads to an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary hypertension. When pulmonary pressures exceed systemic pressures, this causes shunt reversal with right to left shunting causing deoxygenated blood to cross from right side of the heart to the left side bypassing the lungs and causing cyanosis. The process of developing Eisenmenger syndrome is chronically progressive and so adaptive changes have time to occur. Not all persons with unrepaired shunts will develop Eisenmenger syndrome ...
8/24/20231 hour, 15 minutes, 27 seconds
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327. Cardio-Oncology: Interventional CardioOncology with Dr. Cezar Iliescu

CardioNerds CardioOncology Series Co-Chairs, Dr. Teodora Donisan and Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and FIT Lead Dr. Bala Pushparaji discuss Interventional CardioOncology with Prof. Cezar Iliescu. In this episode, we discuss the spectrum of cardiovascular diseases encountered by the interventional onco-cardiologist, with a focus on nuances in endovascular therapies tailored to cancer patients and their unique comorbidities and complications. We also discuss certain special scenarios seen in the critically ill cancer patient, such as chronic thrombocytopenia, and how they alter standard of care compared to non-cancer patients. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Bala Pushparaji and episode audio editing was performed by Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Interventional CardioOncology Cancer should be treated as a chronic illness akin to hypertension or diabetes and should not deprive patients from receiving appropriate cardiovascular treatment if otherwise indicated (e.g., PCI for acute coronary syndromes, etc.). In cancer patients with stable angina, along with maximizing medical therapy, multimodality imaging (CTA/PET), intravascular imaging (IVUS/OCT), and physiologic testing (iFR/FFR) should be used routinely to prevent unnecessary stenting. Caution is required in the cath lab for the cancer patient with thrombocytopenia. Techniques include utilizing micropuncture access, transfusing appropriate blood products based on thromboelastogram (TEG), and adjusting antiplatelet therapy regimens and duration. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now the recommended treatment for most cancer patients with symptomatic/severe aortic stenosis and, if otherwise indicated, should preferably be pursued prior to cancer treatment to optimize the patient’s cardiovascular fitness and tolerance of anti-cancer therapy. Pericardiocentesis in the cancer patient should be performed preferably under fluoroscopy with echocardiography and vascular ultrasound guidance (“triple guidance”). Show notes - Interventional CardioOncology What is the general approach to cardiovascular illness in the cancer patient? Cancer and cardiovascular diseases share numerous risk factors. In addition, cancer and cancer therapies can be atherogenic, by means of inducing pro-inflammatory and hyprecoagulable states, increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.1 In the outpatient setting, emphasis should be placed on optimizing cardiovascular risk factors and improving overall cardiovascular fitness by exercising, having a healthy diet, and having regular sleep hours as these favor survivorship after cancer treatment. Questions to be answered in the clinic are - Is the patient cardiovascularly fit? Will the patient’s heart withstand cancer treatment? Is there concern for coronary artery disease, valvular disease, pericardial disease, or pulmonary hypertension? Risk assessment and treatment for cancer patients with suspected or known cardiovascular disease should generally follow established ACC/AHA guidelines, with special considerations as outlined by the Society of Cardiovacular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI).2 Pre-chemotherapy cardioprotection for patients without coronary artery disease (CAD) with prophylactic beta-blockers, ACEi/ARB, and statins should be considered when appropriate.
8/18/202349 minutes, 45 seconds
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326. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #32 with Dr. Michael Wesley Milks

The following question refers to Section 3.4 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by early career preventive cardiologist Dr. Dipika Gopal, and then by expert faculty Dr. Michael Wesley Milks.Dr. Milks is a staff cardiologist and assistant professor of clinical medicine at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, where he serves as the Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation and an associate program director of the cardiovascular fellowship. He specializes in preventive cardiology and is a member of the American College of Cardiology's Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Leadership Council.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #32 Mr. Daniel Collins is a 58-year-old man with hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and obesity who presents to your clinic for a routine physical examination. Vitals are as follows: BP 143/79 mmHg, HR 89 bpm, O2 99% on room air, weight 106 kg, BMI 34.5 kg/m2. Recent laboratory testing revealed: creatinine 1.24 mg/dL, total cholesterol 203 mg/dL, HDL 39 mg/dL, LDL 112 mg/dL, TG 262 mg/dL. His current medications include lisinopril and rosuvastatin. You recommend increasing the dose of lisinopril to treat uncontrolled hypertension. What additional step(s) are indicated at this visit? A Order urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio B Ask the patient how often they have been bothered by trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much C Perform depression screening D All of the above Answer #32 Explanation The correct answer is D – all of the above.Answer A is correct. The ESC gives a Class I (LOE C) indication that all CKD patients, with or without diabetes, should undergo appropriate screening for ASCVD and kidney disease progression, including monitoring for changes in albuminuria. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and death among patients with CKD. Even after adjusting for risk factors, including diabetes and hypertension, there is a linear increase in CV mortality with decreasing GFR below ~60-75 mm/min/1.73m2. Specific CKD-related risk factors include uremia-mediated inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular calcification.Answer choice B is also correct. In patients with ASCVD, obesity, and hypertension, the ESC gives a Class I (LOE C) indication to regularly screen for non-restorative sleep by asking the question related to sleep quality as follows: “‘How often have you been bothered by trouble falling or staying asleep or sleeping too much?”. Additionally, if there are significant sleep problems that are not responding within four weeks to improving sleep hygiene, referral to a specialist is recommended (Class I, LOE C). However, despite the strong association of OSA with CVD, including hypertension, stroke, heart failure, CAD, and atrial fibrillation, treatment of OSA with CPAP has failed to improve hard CVD outcomes in patients with established CVD. Interventions that focus on risk factor modification, including reduction of obesity, alcohol intake, stress, and improvement of sleep hygiene, are important.Answer choice C is also correct. The ESC gives a Class I (LOE C) recommendation that mental health disorders with either significant functional impairment or decreased use of healthcare systems be considered as influencing total CVD risk. All mental disorders are associated with the development of CVD and reduced life expectancy. Additionally, the onset of CVD is associated with an approximately 2-3x increased risk of mental health disorders compared to a ...
8/16/20239 minutes, 51 seconds
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325. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #26 with Dr. Eldrin Lewis

The following question refers to Section 4.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by Texas Tech University medical student and CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by Rochester General Hospital cardiology fellow and Director of CardioNerds Journal Club Dr. Devesh Rai, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eldrin Lewis.Dr. Lewis is an Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiologist, Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at Stanford University. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #26 A 45-year-old man presents to cardiology clinic to establish care. He has had several months of progressive dyspnea on exertion while playing basketball. He also reports intermittent palpitations for the last month. Two weeks ago, he passed out while playing and attributed this to exertion and dehydration. He denies smoking and alcohol intake.   Family history is significant for sudden cardiac death in his father at the age of 50 years. Autopsy has shown a thick heart, but he is unaware of the exact diagnosis. He has two children, ages 12 and 15 years old, who are healthy.   Vitals signs are blood pressure of 124/84 mmHg, heart rate of 70 bpm, and normal respiratory rate. On auscultation, a systolic murmur is present at the left lower sternal border. A 12-lead ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with signs of LVH and associated repolarization abnormalities. Echocardiography reveals normal LV chamber volume, preserved LVEF, asymmetric septal hypertrophy with wall thickness up to 16mm, systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral valve leaflet with 2+ eccentric posteriorly directed MR, and resting LVOT gradient of 30mmHg which increases to 60mmHg on Valsalva.   You discuss your concern for an inherited cardiomyopathy, namely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In addition to medical management of his symptoms and referral to electrophysiology for ICD evaluation, which of the following is appropriate at this time? A  Order blood work for genetic testing B  Referral for genetic counseling C  Cardiac MRI D  Coronary angiogram E  All of the above Answer #26 Explanation   The correct answer is B – referral for genetic counseling.  Several factors on clinical evaluation may indicate a possible underlying genetic cardiomyopathy. Clues may be found in: ·       Cardiac morphology – marked LV hypertrophy, LV noncompaction, RV thinning or fatty replacement on imaging or biopsy ·       12-lead ECG – abnormal high or low voltage or conduction, and repolarization, altered RV forces ·       Presence of arrhythmias – frequent NSVT or very frequent PVCs, sustained VT or VF, early onset AF, early onset conduction disease ·       Extracardiac features – skeletal myopathy, neuropathy, cutaneous stigmata, and other possible manifestations of specific syndromes In select patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, referral for genetic counseling and testing is reasonable to identify conditions that could guide treatment for patients and family members (Class 2a, LOE B-NR). In first-degree relatives of selected patients with genetic or inherited cardiomyopathies, genetic screening and counseling are recommended to ...
8/14/202317 minutes, 2 seconds
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324. Case Report: Silent Compression Until it Becomes Salient – Boston University

CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Dan Ambinder joins Dr. Abdelrhman Abumoawad, Dr. Leili Behrooz from the Boston University Vascular Medicine over hot chocolate in Boston. They discuss two interesting cases of lower extremity edema caused by May-Thurner syndrome. Dr. Naomi Hamburg (Professor of Vascular Medicine and Cards at BU/BMC) provides the ECPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Synopses - May-Thurner syndrome Case 1: A 34-year-old woman with HIV on HAART presenting with left leg swelling and non-healing new foot ulcer for 3 months. She works as a cashier. On exam, her BMI is 35 kg/m2 and there are intact pulses bilaterally. Her left leg has varicose veins in the territory of the great saphenous vein, hyperpigmentation, edema, and a foot ulcer. Her right leg appears normal. Venous Duplex ultrasonography showed chronic partially occlusive thrombus in the left common femoral and profunda femoral veins and decreased doppler respiratory variation on the left side. She was treated with debridement and compression therapy for ulcer healing. She was referred to vascular surgery and underwent contrast venography that demonstrated collateral circulation from the left lower extremity (LE) to the right lower extremity, and stenotic lesion at the left common iliac vein (LCIV). She was diagnosed with May-Thurner syndrome, and a venous stent was placed, and the patient was started on aspirin 81 mg daily for 6 months. Case 2: A 71-year-old man presented with left lower extremity pain and edema. He underwent a left lower extremity venous Duplex ultrasound that showed chronic thrombus in the left proximal to distal femoral vein and acute thrombus in the left popliteal vein and was started on anticoagulation (AC). The patient was also having palpitations and was found to have paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. He underwent pulmonary vein isolation during which it was noted that his LCIV was subtotally occluded. He underwent CT venogram which showed lumbosacral osteophytic compression of the LCIV known as bony May-Thurner syndrome. Given minimal symptoms, the decision was made not to pursue interventional options and to manage conservatively with AC which the patient needs regardless. Case Media - May-Thurner syndrome Pearls - May-Thurner syndrome An often under-recognized, but treatable cause of DVT is left common iliac vein compression known as May-Thurner syndrome. Most patients who have May-Thurner anatomy are asymptomatic. Only a minority of patients with the May-Thurner anatomy present with symptoms such as left leg edema/pain and DVT. Young women are at a higher risk of developing May-Thurner syndrome compared to men.  A high degree of suspicion is needed to investigate patients with unilateral left-sided leg symptoms and venous duplex features of May-Thurner syndrome. The diagnosis is made with non-invasive imaging including venous duplex, CT/MR venography, intravascular Ultrasound (IVUS), and catheter-based venography. Although IVUS is the gold standard for diagnosis, due to its invasive nature, it has been replaced by CT/MR imaging. Treatment includes anticoagulation if a thrombus is present. Most patients receive venous stenting at the obstructed site to prevent compression of the left common iliac vein. Some patients need catheter-directed thrombolysis prior to stent placement. Show Notes -May-Thurner syndrome What is May-Thurner syndrome? Classic May-Thurner syndrome is venous outflow obstruction due to external compression of the left common iliac vein by the right common iliac arte...
8/10/202333 minutes, 52 seconds
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323. Beyond the Boards: Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction with Dr. Jeffrey Geske

CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Amit Goyal and episode leads Dr. Jaya Kanduri (FIT Ambassador from Cornell University) and Dr. Jenna Skowronski (FIT Ambassador from UPMC) discuss Complications of acute myocardial infarction with expert faculty Dr. Jeffrey Geske. They discuss various complications of acute MI such as cardiogenic shock, bradyarrythmias, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, ruptures (papillary muscle rupture, VSD, free wall rupture), and more. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Jaya Kanduri. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Tina Reddy. The CardioNerds Beyond the Boards Series was inspired by the Mayo Clinic Cardiovascular Board Review Course and designed in collaboration with the course directors Dr. Amy Pollak, Dr. Jeffrey Geske, and Dr. Michael Cullen. CardioNerds Beyond the Boards SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction Sinus tachycardia is a “harbinger of doom”! The triad for RV infarction includes hypotension, elevated JVP, and clear lungs. These patients are preload dependent and may need fluid resuscitation despite having an elevated JVP. Bradyarrythmias in inferior MIs are frequently vagally mediated. The focus should be on medical management before committing to a temporary transvenous pacemaker, such as reperfusion, maintaining RV preload and inotropy, avoiding hypoxia, and considering RV-specific mechanical circulator support (MCS). Worsening hypotension with inotropic agents (e.g., dobutamine, epinephrine, dopamine, norepinephrine) after a large anterior-apical MI should raise suspicion for dynamic left ventricular outflow tract obstruction due to compensatory hyperdynamic basal segments. The myocardium after a late presentation MI is as “mushy as mashed potatoes”! Need to look out for papillary muscle rupture, VSD, and free wall rupture as potential complications. Papillary muscle rupture can occur with non-transmural infarcts, and often presents with flash pulmonary edema. VSDs will have a harsh systolic murmur and are less likely to present with pulmonary congestion. Free wall rupture can present as a PEA arrest. All of these complications require urgent confirmation on imaging and early involvement of surgical teams. Notes - Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction How should we approach cardiogenic shock (CS) in acute myocardial infarction (AMI)? Only 10% of AMI patients present with CS, but CS accounts for up to 70-80% of mortality associated with AMI, usually due to extensive LV infarction with ensuing pump failure. Physical examSinus tachycardia is considered a “harbinger of doom”, when the body compensates for low cardiac output by ramping up the heart rateThe presence of sinus tachycardia and low pulse and/or blood pressure in a patient with a large anterior MI should raise suspicion for cardiogenic shockBe wary of giving IV beta blockers in this situation as negative inotropes can precipitate cardiogenic shock (Commit Trial) When interpreting a patient’s blood pressure in the acute setting, it is helpful to know their baseline blood pressure and if they have a significant history of hypertension. Patients <75 years of age with CS have improved survival at 6 months and at 1 year with early revascularization (SHOCK trial) Mechanical circulatory supportIntra-aortic balloon pump (IABP)No mortality benefit with IABP use in CS at 30 days and at 1 year (IABP-SHOCK II trial)ACC/AHA guidelines give IABP a class IIa recommendation for medically refractory AMI-CS in the USA, whereas the ESC guidelines give it a class III recommendation.Percutaneous left ventricular assist device (Impella)No difference in mortality between IABP or Impella use after 30 days or 6 months (IMPRESS trial)Howev...
8/8/202330 minutes, 49 seconds
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322. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #31 with Dr. Eugene Yang

The following question refers to Figures 6-8 from Sections 3.2 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Ohio State University Cardiology Fellow Dr. Alli Bigeh, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugene Yang.Dr. Yang is Professor of Medicine at the University of Washington where he is also the Medical Director of the Eastside Specialty Center and the co-Director of the Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention Program. Dr. Yang is former Governor of the ACC Washington Chapter and as well as former Chair of the ACC Prevention of CVD Section.  The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #31 The 2021 ESC CV Prevention guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to risk stratification and treatment options. What is the first step in risk factor treatment regardless of past medical history, risk factors, or established ASCVD?AInitiate statin for goal LDL <100 mg/dlBAssess family history of premature CVDCCounsel on ketogenic dietDStop smoking and lifestyle recommendations Answer #31 ExplanationThe correct answer is D – stop smoking and lifestyle recommendations. Smoking cessation and lifestyle modifications are recommended for everyone across the spectrum of ASCVD risk including for both primary and secondary prevention (Class 1). It is worth noting that many patients can move themselves towards a lower risk category without taking drugs just by stopping smoking.Option A is incorrect. While initiating statin therapy for goal LDL <100 mg/dL may be an appropriate treatment option for some patients, it is not the first step per the “stepwise approach” recommended in the ESC guidelines. Whether or not to initiate a statin depends on a multitude of factors including estimated 10-year CVD risk, age, comorbidities, established ASCVD, and patient preference. The first step for patients with established ASCVD includes LDL-C reduction to goal <70 mg/dL (class I) with intensification to a goal LDL-C <55mg/dL based on residual 10-year CVD risk, lifetime CVD risk and treatment benefit, comorbidities, frailty, and patient preference.  Primary prevention of ASCVD first targets LDL-C goal <100 (class IIa) in appropriately selected patients.Option B is incorrect. While assessing family history of premature CVD should be part of an initial evaluation and certainly considered a risk enhancing factor, it is not a modifiable risk factor with regards to treatment.Option C is incorrect. A ketogenic diet is not endorsed nor recommended by ACC/AHA or ESC.Studies have shown the benefit of a stepwise approach to treatment intensification. Attainment of treatment goals is similar, side effects are fewer, and patient satisfaction is significantly greater with such an approach. It is not recommended to stop assessment of treatment goals after the first step.Main TakeawayA stepwise approach to treatment intensification is recommended. The first steps for all patients are to stop smoking and institute lifestyle recommendations.Guideline Loc.·       3.2.3 Figures 6-8 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
8/6/20237 minutes, 21 seconds
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321. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #25 with Dr. Mark Drazner

The following question refers to Sections 6.1 and 7.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & former CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Greater Baltimore Medical Center medicine resident and CardioNerds Academy Fellow Dr. Alaa Diab, and then by expert faculty Dr. Mark Drazner. Dr. Drazner is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, Professor of Medicine, and Clinical Chief of Cardiology at UT Southwestern. He is the past President of the Heart Failure Society of America.  The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #25 A 50-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, persistent atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease with prior remote percutaneous coronary intervention, and ischemic cardiomyopathy with HFrEF (LVEF 38%) presents to your outpatient clinic. He denies dyspnea on exertion, orthopnea, bendopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, or peripheral edema. His heart rate is irregularly irregular at 112 beats per minute and blood pressure is 112/67 mmHg. Routine laboratory studies reveal a hemoglobin A1c of 7.7%. Which of the following medications should not be used to control this patient’s comorbidities? A Metoprolol succinate B Verapamil C Dapagliflozin D Pioglitizone E Both B and D Answer #25 Explanation The correct answer is E – both verapamil and pioglitazone should be avoided here. Both verapamil and pioglitizone are associated with harm in patients with LVEF < 50% (Class 3: Harm). Verapamil and diltiazem are non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. These medications can cause negative inotropic effects through inhibition of calcium influx and may be harmful in this patient population. Pioglitizone belongs to a class of diabetic medications known as the thiazolidinediones. This class of medications may increase the risk of fluid retention, heart failure, and hospitalization in patients with LVEF of less than 50%. Metoprolol succinate, and other evidence-based beta blockers, have a Class 1 recommendation for patients with reduced ejection fraction ≤ 40% to prevent symptomatic heart failure and reduce mortality. It may additionally help with rate control in this patient with atrial fibrillation and rapid ventricular response. SGLT2 inhibitors including dapagliflozin have a Class I recommendation for patients with symptomatic chronic HFrEF to reduce hospitalization for HF and cardiovascular mortality, irrespective of the presence of type 2 diabetes (Class 1, LOE A). They also have a Class I recommendation in patients with type 2 diabetes and either established CVD or at high cardiovascular risk to prevent hospitalization for HF (Class 1, LOE A). Our patient has asymptomatic, or pre-HF (Stage B) heart failure with poorly controlled diabetes, and so use of an SGLT2 inhibitor would be appropriate. Main Takeaway Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and thiozolidinediones both have Class 3 recommendations for harm in patients with reduced LV systolic dysfunction. Guideline Loc. Section 6.1 and 7.3   Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 Heart Failure Guidelines PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds Academ...
8/6/20237 minutes, 38 seconds
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320. TAVR and Stroke with Dr. Samir Kapadia

Stroke is a potentially devastating TAVR complication. In this episode, CardioNerds (Drs. Amit Goyal, Nikolaos Spilias, Ahmed Ghoneem, and Chelsea Amo-Tweneboah) discuss TAVR and stroke risk, stroke prevention strategies, and future directions with Dr. Samir Kapadia, Department chair and chief, Cardiovascular Medicine at Cleveland Clinic. They also discuss device innovation and randomized controlled trial implementation for testing device safety and efficacy. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. As an adjunct to this episode and for a deeper review of cerebral embolic protection devices, read “Cerebral Embolic Protection Devices: Current State of the Art” by Agrawal, Kapadia et al., in US Cardiology Review. CardioNerds Aortic Stenosis SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! References - TAVR and Stroke Leon MB, Smith CR, Mack M, et al. Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation for Aortic Stenosis in Patients Who Cannot Undergo Surgery. New England Journal of Medicine. 2010;363(17):1597-1607. Kapadia SR, Makkar R, Leon M, et al. Cerebral Embolic Protection during Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement. New England Journal of Medicine. 2022;387(14):1253-1263. Kapadia SR, Kodali S, Makkar R, et al. Protection Against Cerebral Embolism During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2017;69(4):367-377. Khan MZ, Zahid S, Khan MU, et al. Use and outcomes of cerebral embolic protection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A US nationwide study. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2021;98(5):959-968.
8/4/202339 minutes, 4 seconds
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319. Case Report: Caring for the Middle Child of Pulmonary Embolism – Texas Heart Institute

CardioNerds cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Daniel Ambinder join Dr. Isabel Balachandran, Dr. Diego Celli from the Texas Heart Institute. They discuss the nuances of risk stratification management of intermediate risk pulmonary embolism. The ECPR for this episode was provided by Dr. Alam Mahboob (Associate Professor of Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and the Department of Medicine and Associate Program Director for the Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship Program at Baylor). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Caring for the Middle Child of Pulmonary Embolism – Texas Heart Institute Submassive pulmonary embolism is defined as an intermediate risk group of acute pulmonary embolism, which presents with signs of RV dysfunction and myocardial injury without hemodynamic instability. The AHA, ACCP, and ESC have variable definitions of submassive PE. Non-invasive tools such as EKG, TTE, and CT are critical to defining RV dysfunction. The Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) score is a validated tool to help risk stratify patients with PE. Advanced therapies for submassive PE include systemic thrombolysis, catheter-based intervention, surgical embolectomy, and mechanical circulatory support. The decision between these therapies is based on individual patient risk profiles, local expertise, and the risk of major bleeding. There is a spectrum of long-term complications after an acute PE, ranging from post PE syndrome to CTEPH (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) caused by a maladaptive vascular remodeling from residual thrombus or arteriopathy. Thrombolytic therapies are still controversial in reducing the risk of post PE complications. PERT is a multidisciplinary group of clinicians who can rapidly assess and triage patients with acute PE, coordinate access to medical and advanced therapies, and provide the necessary follow up care. Show Notes - Caring for the Middle Child of Pulmonary Embolism – Texas Heart Institute How do you define “submassive” pulmonary embolism? Venous thromboembolism, which includes deep vein thrombosis and acute pulmonary emboli (PE) are the third most common cardiovascular disorder in the United States with approximately 900,000 cases occurring each year (1). The morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary emboli are also great, with approximately 33% of PE cases being fatal (1).Until recently, PE was previously classified into massive or non-massive. Massive PE was defined as those with cardiogenic shock. A newer group, “submassive PE”, was defined as an “intermediate” risk group. According to the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Statement on the management of massive and submassive PE, patients in this group presented with signs of RV dysfunction and myocardial necrosis without hemodynamic instability (2). Intermediate-risk PE covers a broad range of risk and management decisions remain challenging. Intermediate-risk PE convers increased risk for mortality and complications compared with low-risk PE.  How do you risk-stratify intermediate-risk pulmonary emboli? The AHA, American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) have variable definitions of submassive PE and which biomarkers should be used (1,3). The contents are summarized as below (Table 1) Each major guideline highlights the importance of the evaluation of RV dysfunction (RVD) and elevated biomarkers. To summarize, the AHA defines submassive PE with either RVD or elevated biomarkers, specifically troponin levels (2).
7/28/202346 minutes, 10 seconds
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318. Cardio-Oncology: Training and Future Directions with Dr. Stephanie Feldman

CardioNerds cofounder Dr. Daniel Ambinder, series co-chair Dr. Dinu Balanescu (FIT, Mayo Clinic), and episode lead Dr. Anjali Rao (FIT, UTSW) discuss training in cardio-oncology with Dr. Stephanie Feldman from Rutgers University. In this episode, the group discusses some of the most burning questions about educating the next wave of cardio-oncologists. As Dr. Feldman mentions, the projected number of cancer survivors is predicted to be around 24 million by 2024, underscoring the growing importance of cardio-oncology in our practice. We highlight some of the challenges facing trainees and training programs alike, including how to integrate cardio-oncology education into general cardiology training, the optimal structure for an advanced cardio-oncology fellowship, and the role of cardio-oncology in the inpatient setting. We also talk about the takeaways from the ACC Cardio-Oncology Leadership Council document. Dr. Feldman reflects on the importance of flexibility in education in the current landscape, drawing on her personal experience as a cardio-oncologist during the COVID-19 era. Notes were drafted by Dr. Anjali Rao. Audio editing was performed by student doctor, Shivani Reddy. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cardio-Oncology: Training and Future Directions It may be possible to achieve “COCATS level 2” cardio-oncology training during general cardiology fellowship. A dedicated cardio-oncology year may appeal to trainees who want to achieve “COCATS level 3”, i.e., dedicate their practice to caring for patients with complex cardio-oncology needs, become involved in clinical trials, and lead cardio-oncology clinical and training programs. Supplemental learning opportunities for general fellows can include: Rotating in a cardio-oncology clinic, ideally attached to a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center Multi-modality cardiac imaging Participating in cardio-oncology research Some currently available educational opportunities include:The International Cardio-Oncology Society (ICOS) weekly webinarsThe American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) webinars on global longitudinal strainThe American Society of Nuclear Cardiology lecture series on cardiac amyloidosis Cardio-oncology focused conferences, such as the American College of Cardiology’s (ACC) Advancing the Cardiovascular Care of the Oncology Patient and Memorial Sloan Kettering’s Cardio-Oncology Symposium. Each institution may have different inpatient cardio-oncology needs depending on whether there is a stand-alone cancer hospital or another format. Examples of inpatient consults that may benefit from having a cardio-oncologist involved include:Cardiovascular risk assessment prior to bone marrow transplant or cancer related surgery in a patient with known coronary artery diseaseImmune checkpoint inhibitor myocarditisChemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction Management of systemic anticoagulation in a patient with high CHA2DS2-VASc and chemotherapy related thrombocytopenia. Show notes - Cardio-Oncology: Training and Future Directions The need for cardio-oncology experience is undeniable given the growing population of patients with cancer and cardiovascular disease, particularly given the number of anti-neoplastic therapies with potential cardiovascular side effects. There are several strategies for incorporating cardio-oncolo...
7/17/202324 minutes, 24 seconds
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317. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #30 with Dr. Eugenia Gianos

The following question refers to Section 6.1 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by MGH internal medicine resident Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSD early career preventive cardiologist Dr. Harpreet Bhatia, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugenia Gianos. Dr. Gianos specializes in preventive cardiology, lipidology, cardiovascular imaging, and women’s heart disease; she is the Director of Women’s Heart Health at Lenox Hill Hospital and Director of Cardiovascular Prevention for Northwell Health. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #30 A 65-year-old woman with a history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease with remote PCI to the RCA presents for follow-up. She has stable angina symptoms that are well controlled with metoprolol tartrate 25 mg BID and are not lifestyle limiting. She takes aspirin 81 mg daily and atorvastatin 40 mg daily. Her LDL-C is 70 mg/dL, hemoglobin A1c is 7.0%, and eGFR is >60. In clinic, her BP is 118/80 mmHg. What is the next step in management?AIncrease atorvastatin for goal LDL-C < 55 mg/dLBNo change in managementCAdd isosorbide mononitrate 30 mg dailyDStop aspirinEStart a sulfonylurea Answer #30 Explanation The correct answer is A – increase atorvastatin for goal LDL-C < 55 mg/dL.In patients with established ASCVD, the ESC guidelines advocate for an LDL goal of < 55 mg/dL with at least a 50% reduction from baseline levels (Class I, LOE A). This patient has stable angina which is not lifestyle limiting; as such, further anti-anginal therapy is not necessary. She has known CAD with prior PCI, so aspirin therapy is appropriate for secondary prevention (Class I, LOE A). There is no indication for a sulfonylurea as her diabetes is well controlled. Notably, in persons with type 2 DM and ASCVD, the use of a GLP-1RA or SGLT2 inhibitor with proven outcome benefits is recommended to reduce CV and/or cardiorenal outcomes (Class I, LOE A).Main TakeawayFor people with established ASCVD, the ESC-recommended LDL-C goal is < 55 mg/dL with a goal reduction of at least 50%.Guideline Loc.Section 6.1 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
7/14/20238 minutes, 36 seconds
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316. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #24 with Dr. Ileana Pina

The following question refers to Sections 10.2 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student and CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Mayo Clinic Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy House Faculty Leader Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and then by expert faculty Dr. Ileana Pina. Dr. Pina is Professor of Medicine and Quality Officer for the Cardiovascular Line at Thomas Jefferson University, Clinical Professor at Central Michigan University, and Adjunct Professor of Biostats and Epidemiology at Case Western University. She serves as Senior Fellow and Medical Officer at the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #24 Mr. E. Regular is a 61-year-old man with a history of HFrEF due to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (latest LVEF 40% after >3 months of optimized GDMT) and persistent atrial fibrillation. He has no other medical history. He has been on metoprolol and apixaban and has also undergone multiple electrical cardioversions and catheter ablations for atrial fibrillation but remains symptomatic with poorly controlled rates. His blood pressure is 105/65 mm Hg. HbA1c is 5.4%. Which of the following is a reasonable next step in the management of his atrial fibrillation? A Anti-arrhythmic drug therapy with amiodarone. Stop apixaban. B Repeat catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Stop apixaban. C AV nodal ablation and RV pacing. Shared decision-making regarding anticoagulation. D AV nodal ablation and CRT device. Shared decision-making regarding anticoagulation. Answer #24 Explanation The correct answer is D – AV nodal ablation and CRT device along with shared decision-making regarding anticoagulation.” Maintaining sinus rhythm and atrial-ventricular synchrony is helpful in patients with heart failure given the hemodynamic benefits of atrial systole for diastolic filling and having a regularized rhythm. Recent randomized controlled trials suggest that catheter-based rhythm control strategies are superior to rate control and chemical rhythm control strategies with regards to outcomes in atrial fibrillation. For patients with heart failure and symptoms caused by atrial fibrillation, ablation is reasonable to improve symptoms and quality of life (Class 2a, LOE B-R). However, Mr. Regular has already had multiple failed attempts at ablations (option B). For patients with AF and LVEF ≤50%, if a rhythm control strategy fails or is not desired, and ventricular rates remain rapid despite medical therapy, atrioventricular nodal ablation with implantation of a CRT device is reasonable (Class 2a, LOE B-R). The PAVE and BLOCK-HF trials suggested improved outcomes with CRT devices in these patients. RV pacing following AV nodal ablation has also been shown to improve outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation refractory to other rhythm control strategies. In patients with EF >50%, there is no evidence to suggest that CRT is more beneficial compared to RV-only pacing. However, RV pacing may produce ventricular dyssynchrony and when compared to CRT in those with reduced EF (≤ 50%),
7/13/202310 minutes, 54 seconds
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315. Case Report: A Mystery Mass in the Heart – University of Chicago – Northshore University

In this episode, CardioNerds co-founder Amit Goyal joins Dr. Iva Minga, Dr. Kevin Lee, and Dr. Juan Pablo Salazar Adum from the University of Chicago - Northshore in Evanston, IL to discuss a case of primary cardiac diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The ECPR for this episode is provided by Dr. Amit Pursnani (Advanced Cardiac Imaging, Fellowship program director, NorthShore University HealthSystem). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. Case synopsis: A 77-year-old man with no significant medical history presents to the emergency department with progressive shortness of breath for 1 week. He reports an unintentional 15-pound weight loss in the prior month as well as constipation and abdominal/flank pain. On examination he was found to be tachycardic with a regular rhythm and further evaluation with a chest X-ray and chest CT scan demonstrated a large pericardial effusion. This was further investigated with an urgent echocardiogram that revealed a large pericardial effusion with a large mass attached to the pericardial side of the RV free wall, as well as signs of early cardiac tamponade. A pericardiocentesis was performed and 550mL of bloody fluid was withdrawn. The fluid was sent for laboratory analysis and cytology. A cardiac MRI demonstrated a large invasive mass in the pericardium and RV wall consistent with cardiac lymphoma. Cytology confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Subsequent CT and PET scans did not find any other site of malignancy, giving the patient a diagnosis of primary cardiac diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient underwent R-CHOP chemotherapy and was followed closely with repeat cardiac MRI and PET scans which demonstrated resolution of the cardiac mass at his one-year surveillance follow-up. This case was published in US Cardiology Review, the official journal of CardioNerds. To learn more, access the case report article here. CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - A Mystery Mass in the Heart - Cardiac Lymphoma The most common cause of malignant cardiac masses is metastasis. Primary cardiac tumors are rare. Cardiac tumors are separated into 2 categories: benign and malignant. They are often differentiated based on their location and their degree of tissue invasion. Multimodality imaging is essential in the diagnosis, management, and surveillance of cardiac masses. A multidisciplinary team approach is invaluable for management of patients with cardiac tumors. Show Notes - A Mystery Mass in the Heart - Cardiac Lymphoma 1. What is the clinical presentation of cardiac masses? Cardiac masses can have a variable presentation. They can present with arrhythmias, angina, heart failure symptoms, or pericardial effusion. Patients can also be asymptomatic; the masses can be found incidentally on cardiac or chest imagining. 2. What is the differential diagnosis for cardiac masses? Cardiac masses are separated into benign and malignant. The most common malignant cardiac masses are metastases from a distant source. The location of the mass is important in narrowing the differential. 3. What imaging modalities are used to diagnose cardiac masses? Multimodality imaging is needed to describe the mass in detail and guide diagnosis. An echocardiogram is usually the first imaging modality. Cardiac MRI is a great modality that allows for the...
7/12/202344 minutes, 19 seconds
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314. Mastering the Art of Patient Care with Dr. Michelle Kittleson and the CardioNerds Interns

In this episode, Dr. Gurleen Kaur (medicine resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Director of CardioNerds Internship) and CardioNerds Academy interns Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig (medicine intern at Cleveland Clinic), Dr. Chelsea Tweneboah (medicine intern at Stonybrook University), student doctor Shivani Reddy (medical student at Western Michigan University), student doctor Diane Masket (medical student at Rowan School of Osteopathic Medicine), and student doctor Tina Reddy (medical student at Tulane University School of Medicine) discuss with Dr. Michelle Kittleson (Director of Education in Heart Failure and Transplantation, Director of HF Research, and Professor of Medicine at Cedars Sinai) about Mastering the Art of Patient Care. Dr. Kittleson shares pearls of wisdom from her book on topics including career transitions, mentorship, dealing with uncertainty, learning from mistakes, delivering difficult news, and being a woman and parent in medicine.   This episode was planned by Dr. Gurleen Kaur and episode audio was edited by student doctor Tina Reddy. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
7/11/202345 minutes, 2 seconds
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313. Stimulant-Associated Cardiomyopathy with Dr. Soraya Azari and Dr. Jonathan Davis

Dr. Amit Goyal (CardioNerds co-founder), Dr. Jessie Holtzman (House Faculty in CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at UCSF), and Dr. Megan McLaughlin (CardioNerds Scholar and cardiology fellow at UCSF) discuss stimulant-associated cardiomyopathy with Dr. Jonathan Davis (Associate Professor at UCSF the Director of the Heart Failure Program at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital) and Dr. Soraya Azari (Associate Clinical professor at UCSF, with specialty in hospital medicine, primary care, HIV medicine, and addiction medicine).   Methamphetamine-associated heart failure admissions have steadily increased in the United States over the past decade. Substance use disorders more broadly are thought to complicate at least 15% of all heart failure hospitalizations and amphetamine use has been shown to be an independent predictor of heart failure readmission across the country. At safety net and public hospitals, these numbers may rise even higher. This episode reviews the pathophysiology of stimulant associated cardiomyopathy, highlights treatment options for stimulant use disorder, and discusses novel models of co-management of heart failure and substance use disorder.  Notes were drafted by Dr. Jessie Holtzman. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Pace Wetstein. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Heart Success Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Stimulant-Associated Cardiomyopathy Though there are no pathognomonic traits of stimulant-associated cardiomyopathy, common echocardiographic features include biventricular dilated cardiomyopathy and/or pulmonary hypertension with a dilated, hypokinetic right ventricle and underfilled left ventricle. Enjoy CardioNerds Episode 312. Case Report: Life in the Fast Lane Leads to a Cardiac Conundrum to learn from a case of stimulant associated pulmonary arterial hypertension.   Not all cardiomyopathy in patients who use stimulants is due to stimulant use. Do your due diligence. Patients who use stimulants should undergo a broad work-up to diagnose the etiology of cardiomyopathy.   Tips for taking a substance use history:  Ask permission to discuss the topic.  Normalize the behavior.  Use specific drug names (also, learn the local drug nicknames!).  Ask about any history of prior treatment and periods of abstinence.  Screen for risk of harm or overdose   Try using a phrase like “I’m asking you this because I want to know if the way you are using drugs can impact your health and keep you safe.”  There are no FDA-approved medications to treat stimulant use disorder. Common off-label therapies include mirtazapine and bupropion/naltrexone.   Contingency management programs work off the principle of operant conditioning; they reward patients for maintaining abstinence from substance use.   For clinicians to seek assistance in providing treatment for stimulant use disorder, important resources include:   SAMSA (national help line 1-800-662-HELP or online resource locator)  HarmReduction.Org  Never Use Alone hotline (800-484-3731)  Show notes - Stimulant-Associated Cardiomyopathy 1. What are common clinical presentations of stimulant-associated cardiomyopathy?   Stimulants have multifactorial physiologic impacts, due both to pharmacologic properties (adrenergic stimulation and vasoconstriction) and direct toxic effects. Clinical manifestations may include hypertension, tachyarrhythmias, acute myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, pulmonary hypertension, aortic dissection, and sudden cardiac death.   On echocardiogram, stimulant-associated cardiomyopathy may manifest as biventricular dilated cardiomyopathy,
7/9/202339 minutes, 39 seconds
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312. Case Report: Life in the Fast Lane Leads to a Cardiac Conundrum – Los Angeles County + University of Southern California

CardioNerds (Drs. Amit Goyal and Dan Ambinder) join Dr. Emily Lee (LAC+USC Internal medicine resident) and Dr. Charlie Lin (LAC+USC Cardiology fellow) as the discuss an important case of stimulant-related (methamphetamine) cardiovascular toxicity that manifested in right ventricular dysfunction due to severe pulmonary hypertension. Dr. Jonathan Davis (Director, Heart Failure Program at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center) provides the ECPR for this episide. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. With the ongoing methamphetamine epidemic, the incidence of stimulant-related cardiovascular toxicity continues to grow. We discuss the following case: A 36-year-old man was hospitalized for evaluation of dyspnea and volume overload in the setting of previously untreated, provoked deep venous thrombosis. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed severe right ventricular dysfunction as well as signs of pressure and volume overload. Computed tomography demonstrated a prominent main pulmonary artery and ruled out pulmonary embolism. Right heart catheterization confirmed the presence of pre-capillary pulmonary arterial hypertension without demonstrable vasoreactivity. He was prescribed sildenafil to begin management of methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy and right ventricular dysfunction manifesting as severe pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension. CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - stimulant-related (methamphetamine) cardiovascular toxicity Pearls - stimulant-related (methamphetamine) cardiovascular toxicity 1. Methamphetamine, and stimulants in general, can have a multitude of effects on the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems. Effects of methamphetamine are thought to be due to catecholamine toxicity with direct effects on cardiac and vascular tissues. Acutely, methamphetamine can cause vascular constriction and vasospasm, while chronic exposure is associated with endothelial damage. Over time, methamphetamine can cause pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmias, and dilated cardiomyopathy. 2. Methamphetamines are the second most commonly misused substances worldwide after opiates. Patients with methamphetamine-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have more severe pulmonary vascular disease, more dilated and dysfunctional right ventricles, and worse prognoses when compared to patients with idiopathic PAH. Additionally, patients with methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy and PAH have significantly worse outcomes and prognoses when compared to those with structurally normal hearts without evidence of PAH. Management includes multidisciplinary support, complete cessation of methamphetamine use, and guideline-directed treatment of PAH. 3. The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with the history and physical, followed by confirmatory testing using echocardiography and invasive hemodynamics (right heart catheterization). Initial serological evaluation may include routine biochemical, hematologic, endocrine, hepatic, and infectious testing. Though PH is traditionally diagnosed and confirmed in a two-step, echocardiogram-followed-by-catheterization model, other diagnostics often include electrocardiography, blood gas analysis, spirometry, ventilation/perfusion assessment,
6/23/20232 seconds
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311. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #29 with Dr. Laurence Sperling

The following question refers to Section 5.2 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by MGH medicine resident Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by Dr. Patrick Azcarate, and then by expert faculty Dr. Laurence Sperling. Dr. Laurence Sperling is the Katz Professor in Preventive Cardiology at the Emory University School of Medicine and Founder of Preventive Cardiology at the Emory Clinic. Dr. Sperling was a member of the writing group for the 2018 Cholesterol Guidelines, serves as Co-Chair for the ACC's Cardiometabolic and Diabetes working group, and is Co-Chair of the WHF Roadmap for Cardiovascular Prevention in Diabetes. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #29 What percentage of the European population currently meets the recommended physical activity guidelines (150 minutes moderate-intensity activity weekly or 75 minutes vigorous-intensity activity weekly)?A75% Answer #29 ExplanationThe correct answer is A: <10% of the European population currently meets the recommended physical activity guidelines.The American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, and World Health Organization all share the recommendation that adults should engage in 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity activity. They recognize that additional health benefits may be garnered from incremental increases to 300 minutes per week of moderate intensity activity or 150 minutes per week of vigorous intensity activity, with a recommendation to include both aerobic and muscular strength training activities.According to the WHO, physical inactivity is the 4th leading cause of death in the world. The statistics regarding physical inactivity are staggering. Recent studies have shown that <10% of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity. Similarly, ¼ adults and ¾ adolescents (aged 11-17) do not currently meet the global recommendations for physical activity. The World Health Organization has created a Global Action Plan on Physical Activity 2018-2030 with the goal to achieve a 15% relative reduction in the global prevalence of physical inactivity by 2030.Society level interventions to increase physical activity have been proposed including school-based activity programs, improved accessibility of exercise facilities across the socioeconomic spectrum, and governmental consideration of physical activity when designing cities (i.e. including pedestrian and cycling lanes). Other policy suggestions with varying levels of evidence include focused media campaigns, economic incentives, targeting labeling of physical activity opportunities, and work-place wellness programs.Main TakeawayDespite growing awareness of the health consequences of sedentary behavior, fewer than 10% of adults currently meet the minimum recommended quantity of physical activity. Public health leaders may continue to consider novel legislative initiatives to augment physical activity on a societal level with architectural design and financial incentives.Guideline Loc.Section 5.2 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
6/22/20239 minutes, 26 seconds
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310. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #23 with Dr. Anu Lala

The following question refers to Section 9.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Cedars Sinai medicine resident, soon to be Vanderbilt Cardiology Fellow, and CardioNerds Academy Faculty Dr. Breanna Hansen, and then by expert faculty Dr. Anu Lala.Dr. Lala is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, associate professor of medicine and population health science and policy, Director of Heart Failure Research, and Program Director for the Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant fellowship training program at Mount Sinai. Dr. Lala is Deputy Editor for the Journal of Cardiac Failure. Dr. Lala has been a champion and role model for CardioNerds. She has been a PI mentor for the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Network and continues to serve in the program’s leadership. She is also a faculty mentor for this very 2022 heart failure decipher the guidelines series.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #23 Mrs. Hart is a 63-year-old woman with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (LVEF 20-25%) presenting with 5 days of worsening dyspnea and orthopnea.   At home, she takes carvedilol 12.5mg BID, sacubitril-valsartan 24-46mg BID, empagliflozin 10mg daily, and furosemide 40mg daily.   On admission, her exam revealed a blood pressure of 111/79 mmHg, HR 80 bpm, and SpO2 94%. Her cardiovascular exam was significant for a regular rate and rhythm with an audible S3, JVD to 13 cm H2O, bilateral lower extremity pitting edema with warm extremities and 2+ pulses throughout.  What initial dose of diuretics would you give her? A Continue home Furosemide 40 mg PO B Start Metolazone 5 mg PO C Start Lasix 100 mg IV D Start Spironolactone Answer #23 Explanation The correct answer is C – start Furosemide 100 mg IV. This is the most appropriate choice because patients with HF admitted with evidence of significant fluid overload should be promptly treated with intravenous loop diuretics to improve symptoms and reduce morbidity (Class 1, LOE B-NR). Intravenous loop diuretic therapy provides the most rapid and effective treatment for signs and symptoms of congestion. Titration of diuretics has been described in multiple recent trials of patients hospitalized with HF, often initiated with at least 2 times the daily home diuretic dose (mg to mg) administered intravenously. Titration to achieve effective diuresis may require doubling of initial doses, adding a thiazide diuretic, or adding an MRA that has diuretic effects in addition to its cardiovascular benefits. Choice A is incorrect as continuing oral loop diuretics is not recommended for acute decongestion. Moreover, Ms. Hart has become congested despite her home, oral diuretic regimen. Choice B and D are incorrect as starting a thiazide diuretic or a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist are not first-line therapy for acute HF. Rather, in patients hospitalized with HF when diuresis is inadequate to relieve symptoms and signs of congestion, it is reasonable to intensify the diuretic regimen using either: a.
6/19/202318 minutes, 27 seconds
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309. Atrial Fibrillation: Situational Assessment of Stroke and Bleeding Risk with Dr. Hafiza Khan

Dr. Daniel Ambinder (CardioNerds Co-Founder), Dr. Kelly Arps (Series Co-Chair and EP fellow at Duke University), Dr. Stephanie Fuentes Rojas (FIT Lead and EP fellow at Houston Methodist), and Dr. Ingrid Hsiung (Cardiology Fellow at Baylor Scott & White Health) discuss situational assessment of stroke and bleeding risk with expert faculty Dr. Hafiza Khan (Electrophysiologist at Baylor Scott & White Health). In this episode, we discuss stroke and bleeding risk in specific situations such as prior to cardioversion, triggered episodes, and perioperatively. These are scenarios that are commonly encountered and pose specific challenges. Episode notes were drafted by Dr. Stephanie Fuentes. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This series is supported by an educational grant from the Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! Disclosures: Dr. Ellis discloses grant or research support from Boston Scientific, Abbott-St Jude, advisor for Atricure and Medtronic. CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Atrial Fibrillation: Situational Assessment of Stroke and Bleeding Risk In patients with persistent atrial fibrillation with tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy, timely restoration of normal rhythm is important. In patients not on established oral anticoagulation one option is to wait 3 weeks on oral anticoagulation prior to considering cardioversion. Another option is to pursue TEE prior to cardioversion as TEE is currently the gold standard imaging modality to exclude a LAA thrombus. Following cardioversion (chemical or electrical), anticoagulation must not be interrupted for 4 weeks due to atrial stunning. This is especially true for patients who have been in atrial fibrillation for an extended period of time. Individualizing assessment of stroke and bleeding risk is imperative when determining perioperative anticoagulation (AC) management. ACC has a helpful app (ManageAnticoag App) to make this easier. When considering AC in triggered atrial fibrillation (e.g., pneumonia, sepsis), it is important to consider the substrate that made the patient susceptible to developing atrial fibrillation. AC is favored in patients with high CHA2DS2-VAsC score and many traditional risk factors for atrial fibrillation as they are at high risk for future development of atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is a marker of poor outcomes in patients who have undergone coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. It is unclear if patients should be started on long-term AC for new onset atrial fibrillation after CABG regardless of risk factors. This is currently being investigated in the PACES trial. Notes - Atrial Fibrillation: Situational Assessment of Stroke and Bleeding Risk How do we choose an imaging modality for excluding LAA thrombus exclusion prior to cardioversion? TEE is the gold standard. It also provides other information that is important for management of atrial fibrillation (e.g. LA size/volume, presence/degree of mitral regurgitation/stenosis, ejection fraction). Gated cardiac CTA may have a growing role for evaluation of LAA thrombus. What is the data behind the recommendation for uninterrupted AC following cardioversion and what is atrial stunning? All patients should be anticoagulated for four weeks after cardioversion,
6/18/202331 minutes, 48 seconds
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308. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #28 with Dr. Roger Blumenthal

The following question refers to Section 4.7 and Table 18 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern Student Dr. Shivani Reddy, answered first by Fellow at Johns Hopkins Dr. Rick Ferraro, and then by expert faculty Dr. Roger Blumenthal.Dr. Roger Blumenthal is professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins where he is Director of the Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. He was instrumental in developing the 2018 ACC/AHA CV Prevention Guidelines. Dr. Blumenthal has also been an incredible mentor to CardioNerds from our earliest days.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #28 Mr. A. C. is a 78-year-old gentleman with a long-standing history of HTN receiving antihypertensive medications & dietary management for blood pressure control. What is the target diastolic blood pressure recommendation for all treated patients such as Mr. A.C.?A80 years) and those who are frail. Also, in these older and especially frail patients, it may be difficult to achieve the recommended target BP range due to poor tolerability or adverse effects, and high-quality measurement and monitoring for tolerability and adverse effects is especially important in these groups. Main Takeaway The first step in HTN management in all groups is a reduction to SBP < 140 mmHg and DBP < 80 mmHg, with further targets depending on age and comorbidities as specified by Table 18 of the 2021 ESC Prevention Guidelines. Guideline Loc. 1.     4.7.5.3 page 3285 2.     Table 18 page 3287 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
6/12/20239 minutes, 19 seconds
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307. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #22 with Dr. Prateeti Khazanie

The following question refers to Section 8.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student & CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by University of Southern California cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Trialist Dr. Michael Francke, and then by expert faculty Dr. Prateeti Khazanie. Dr. Khazanie is an associate professor and advanced heart failure and transplant Cardiologist at the University of Colorado. Dr. Khazanie is an author on the 2022 ACC/AHA/HFSA HF Guidelines, the 2021 HFSA Universal Definition of Heart Failure, and multiple scientific statements. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Clinical Trials Talks Question #22 You are taking care of a 34-year-old man with chronic systolic heart failure from NICM with LVEF 20% s/p CRT-D. The patient was admitted 1 week prior with acute decompensated heart failure. Despite intravenous diuretics the patient developed acute kidney injury, and ultimately placed on intravenous inotropes on which he now seems dependent. He has been following up with an advanced heart failure specialist as an outpatient and has been undergoing evaluation for heart transplantation, which was subsequently completed in the hospital.   His exam is notable for an elevated JVP, a III/VI holosystolic murmur, and warm extremities with bilateral 1+ edema. His most recent TTE shows LVEF 20%, moderate MR, moderate-severe TR and estimated RVSP 34 mmHg. His most recent laboratory data shows Na 131 mmol/L, Cr 1.2 mg/dL, and lactate 1.6 mmol/L. Pulmonary artery catheter shows RA 7 mmHg, PA 36/15 mmHg, PCWP 12 mmHg, CI 2.4 L/min/m2 and SVR 1150 dynes*sec/cm5.   The patient was presented at transplant selection committee and approved for listing for orthotopic heart transplant. What is the most appropriate next step in the management of this patient? A Refer patient for transcatheter edge-to-edge repair for MR B Continue IV inotropes as a bridge-to-transplant C Refer patient for tricuspid valve replacement D Initiate 1.5L fluid restriction Answer #22 Explanation The correct answer is B – continue IV inotropes as a bridge-to-transplant. Positive inotropic agents may improve hemodynamic status, but have not been shown to improve survival in patients with HF. These agents may help HF patients who are refractory to other therapies and are suffering consequences from end-organ-hypoperfusion. Our patient is admitted with worsening advanced heart failure requiring intravenous inotropic support. He has been appropriately evaluated and approved for heart transplant. He has demonstrated the requirement of continuous inotropic support to maintain perfusion. In patients such as this with advanced (stage D) HF refractory to GDMT and device therapy who are eligible for and awaiting MCS or cardiac transplantation, continuous intravenous inotropic support is reasonable as “bridge therapy” (Class 2a, LOE B-NR). Continuous IV inotropes also have a Class 2b indication (LOE B-NR) in select patients with stage D HF despite optimal GDMT and device therapy who are ineligible for either MCS or cardiac transplantation, as palliative therapy for symptom control and improvement in functio...
6/9/202316 minutes, 1 second
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306. Decompensated Right Ventricular Failure in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension with Dr. Mardi Gomberg-Maitland and Dr. Rachel Damico

The CardioNerds and Pulm PEEPs have joined forces to co-produce this important episode, delving into the management of decompensated right ventricular failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Joining us for this informative discussion are Pulm PEEPs co-founders, Dr. David Furfaro and Dr. Kristina Montemayor, along with Dr. Leonid Mirson (Internal Medicine Resident at Johns Hopkins Osler Medical Residency and Associate Editor of Pulm PEEPs), Dr. Bavya Varma (Internal Medicine Resident at Johns Hopkins, rising Cardiology Fellow at NYU, and CardioNerds Academy graduate), Dr. Mardi Gomberg-Maitland (Medical Director of the Pulmonary Hypertension Program at George Washington Hospital), and Dr. Rachel Damico (Pulmonologist and Associate Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Adriana Mares. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Heart Success Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Decompensated Right Ventricular Failure in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension A 21-year-old woman with a past medical history notable for congenital heart disease (primum ASD and sinus venosus with multiple surgeries) complicated by severe PAH on home oxygen, sildenafil, ambrisentan, and subcutaneous treprostinil is presenting with palpitations, chest pain, and syncope. She presented as a transfer from an outside ED where she arrived in an unknown tachyarrhythmia and had undergone DCCV due to tachycardia into the 200s and hypotension. On arrival at our hospital, she denied SOB but did endorse nausea, leg swelling, and poor medication adherence. Her initial vitals were notable for a BP of 80/50, HR 110, RR 25, and saturating 91% on 5L O2.  On exam, she was uncomfortable appearing but mentating well. She had cool extremities with 1-2+ LE edema. Her JVP was 15cm H2O. She has an RV Heave and 2/6 systolic murmur. Her lungs were clear bilaterally. Her labs were notable for Cr 2.0, an anion gap metabolic acidosis (HCO3 = 11), elevated lactate (4.1), elevated troponin to 14,  and a pro-BNP of ~5000.  Her CBC was unremarkable. Her EKG demonstrated 2:1 atrial flutter at a rate of 130. Diagnosing RV failure in patients with PH: RV dysfunction and RV failure are two separate entities. RV dysfunction can be measured on echocardiography, but RV failure can be thought of as a clinical syndrome where there is evidence of RV dysfunction and elevated right sided filling pressures. RV failure is a spectrum and can present with a range of manifestations from evidence of R sided volume overload and markers of organ dysfunction, all the way to frank cardiogenic shock. Most patients with RV failure are not in overt shock. One of the first signs of impending shock in patients with RV failure is the development of new or worsening hypoxemia. Patients with decompensated RV failure approaching shock often do not present with symptoms classic for LV low flow state. Instead, hypoxia 2/2 VQ mismatching may be the first sign and they can be otherwise well appearing. Particularly because patients with PH tend to be younger, they can often appear compensated until they rapidly decompensate. Causes of decompensation for patients with RV dysfunction and PH: Iatrogenesis (inadvertent cessation of pulmonary vasodilators by providers, surgery if providers are not familiar with risks of anesthesia), non-adherence to pulmonary vasodilators (either due to affordability issues or other reasons), infections, arrhythmias (particularly atrial arrhythmias), and progression of underlying disease. Patients with atrial arrhythmias (atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation) and pulmonary hypertension do not tolerate the loss of...
6/8/20231 hour, 13 seconds
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305. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #27 with Dr. Kim Williams

The following question refers to Section 4.3 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by medicine resident CardioNerds Academy House Chief Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem, and then by expert faculty Dr. Kim Williams.Dr. Williams is Chief of the Division of Cardiology and is Professor of Medicine and Cardiology at Rush University Medical Center. He has served as President of ASNC, Chairman of the Board of the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC, 2008-2010), and President of the American College of Cardiology (ACC, 2015-2016). The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #27 Mr. O is a 48-year-old man with a past medical history significant for obesity (BMI is 42kg/m2), hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia. His calculated ASCVD risk score today is 18.8%. You counsel him on the importance of weight loss in the context of CVD risk reduction. Which of the following weight loss recommendations is appropriate?AMaintaining a weight loss of at least 25% from baseline is required to influence blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycemic control. BHypocaloric diets lead to short term weight loss, but a healthy diet should be maintained over time to reduce CVD risk.CLiraglutide can be used to induce weight loss, as an alternative to diet and exercise.DBariatric surgery is effective for weight loss but has no ASCVD risk reduction benefit. Answer #27 Explanation The correct answer is B. Energy restriction is the cornerstone of management of obesity. All the different types of hypocaloric diets achieve similar short-term weight loss, but these effects tend to diminish by 12 months. It is a class I recommendation to maintain a healthy diet over time to achieve CVD risk reduction. The Mediterranean diet is an example of a diet that can have persistent CV benefit beyond the 12 months. Choice A is incorrect because maintaining even a moderate weight loss of 5 – 10% from baseline has favorable effects on risk factors including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycemic control, as well as on premature all-cause mortality. Choice C is incorrect because medications approved as aids to weight loss (such as liraglutide, orlistat and naltrexone/bupropion) may be used in addition to lifestyle measures to achieve weight loss and maintenance; they are not alternatives to a healthy lifestyle. Meta-analysis of medication-assisted weight loss found favorable effects on BP, glycemic control, and ASCVD mortality. Choice D is incorrect because patients undergoing bariatric surgery had over 50% lower risks of total ASCVD and cancer mortality compared with people of similar weight who did not have surgery. Bariatric surgery should be considered for obese high-risk individuals when lifestyle change does not result in maintained weight loss (Class IIa). The ACC/AHA guidelines focused primarily on lifestyle interventions for obesity and had no specific recommendations for bariatric surgery or medication-assisted weight loss. Main Takeaway Weight reduction (even as low as 5-10% from baseline) and long-term maintenance of a healthy diet are recommended to improve the CVD risk profile of overweight and obese people. Medication and/or bariatric surgery may have a useful adjunctive role in some patients. Guideline Loc. Section 4.3.3 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!
6/6/202312 minutes, 33 seconds
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304. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #21 with Dr. Nancy Sweitzer

The following question refers to Section 7.6 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by premedical student and CardioNerds Intern Pacey Wetstein, answered first by Mayo Clinic Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Chief Dr. Teodora Donisan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Nancy Sweitzer.Dr. Sweitzer is Professor of Medicine, Vice Chair of Clinical Research for the Department of Medicine, and Director of Clinical Research for the Division of Cardiology at Washington University School of Medicine. She is the editor-in-chief of Circulation: Heart Failure. Dr. Sweitzer is a faculty mentor for this Decipher the HF Guidelines series.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. /*! elementor - v3.13.3 - 28-05-2023 */ .elementor-heading-title{padding:0;margin:0;line-height:1}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title[class*=elementor-size-]>a{color:inherit;font-size:inherit;line-height:inherit}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-small{font-size:15px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-medium{font-size:19px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-large{font-size:29px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xl{font-size:39px}.elementor-widget-heading .elementor-heading-title.elementor-size-xxl{font-size:59px}Clinical Trials Talks Question #21 Ms. Betty Blocker is a 60-year-old woman with a history of alcohol-related dilated cardiomyopathy who presents for follow up. She has been working hard to improve her health and is glad to report that she has just reached her 5-year sobriety milestone. Her current medications include metoprolol succinate 100mg daily, sacubitril-valsartan 97-103mg BID, spironolactone 25mg daily, and empagliflozin 10mg daily. She is asymptomatic at rest and up to moderate exercise, including chasing her grandchildren around the yard. A recent transthoracic echocardiogram shows recovered LVEF from previously 35% now to 60%. Ms. Blocker does not love taking so many medications and asks about discontinuing her metoprolol. Which of the following is the most appropriate response to Ms. Blocker’s request? A Since the patient is asymptomatic, metoprolol can be stopped without risk B Stopping metoprolol increases this patient’s risk of worsening cardiomyopathy regardless of current LVEF or symptoms C Because the LVEF is now >50%, the patient is now classified as having HFpEF and beta-blockade is no longer indicated; metoprolol can be safely discontinued D Metoprolol should be continued, but it is safe to discontinue either ARNi or spironolactone Answer #21 Explanation The correct answer is D – continue current therapy. The patient described above was initially diagnosed with HFrEF and experienced significant symptomatic improvement with GDMT, so she now has heart failure with improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF). In patients with HFimpEF after treatment, GDMT should be continued to prevent relapse of HF and LV dysfunction, even in patients who may become asymptomatic (Class 1, LOE B-R). Although symptoms, functional capacity, LVEF and reverse remodeling can improve with GDMT,
5/31/202315 minutes, 44 seconds
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303. CCC: Management of Ventricular Tachycardia and Electrical Storm in the CICU with Dr. Janice Chyou

CardioNerds Co-Founder, Dr. Amit Goyal, along with Series Co-Chairs, Dr. Yoav Karpenshif and Dr. Eunice Dugan, and episode Lead, Dr. Sean Dikdan, had the opportunity to expand their knowledge on the topic of ventricular tachycardia and electrical storm from esteemed faculty expert, Dr. Janice Chyou. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. Electrical storm (ES) is a life-threatening arrhythmia syndrome. It is characterized by frequently occurring bouts of unstable cardiac arrythmias. It typically occurs in patients with susceptible substrate, either myocardial scar or a genetic predisposition. The adrenergic input of the sympathetic nervous system can perpetuate arrythmia. In the acute setting, identifying reversible triggers, such as ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, and heart failure, is important. Treatment is complex and varies based on previous treatments received and the presence of intra-cardiac devices. Many options are available to treat ES, including medications, intubation and sedation, procedures and surgeries targeting the autonomic nervous system, and catheter ablation to modulate the myocardial substrate. A multidisciplinary team of cardiologists, intensivists, electrophysiologists, surgeons, and more are necessary to manage this complex disease. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Management of Ventricular Tachycardia and Electrical Storm Electrical storm is defined as 3 or more episodes of VF, sustained VT, or appropriate ICD shocks within 24 hours. It occurs more commonly in ischemic compared to non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, and it is associated with a poor prognosis and high cardiovascular mortality. The classic triad of electrical storm is a trigger, a myocardial susceptible substrate, and autonomic input perpetuating the storm. Triggers for electrical storm include ischemia, heart failure, electrolyte abnormalities, hypoxia, drug-related arrhythmogenicity, and thyrotoxicosis. A thorough evaluation of possible triggers is necessary for each patient, but it is uncommonly found. The evaluation may include laboratory studies, genetic testing, advanced imaging, or invasive testing. Acute treatment options involve acute resuscitation, pharmacotherapy with antiarrhythmics and beta-blockers, device interrogation and possible reprogramming, and sedation. Subacute treatment involves autonomic modulation and catheter ablation. Surgical treatments include sympathectomies and, ultimately, heart transplant. Catheter ablation is safe and effective for the treatment of electrical storm. In select patients, hemodynamic peri-procedural hemodynamic support should be considered. Show notes - Management of Ventricular Tachycardia and Electrical Storm Simple diagram of the classic “triad” of ES (see reference 10). Treatment algorithm provided by the 2017 AHA/ACC/HRS guidelines (see reference 1). 1. Define electrical storm. Electrical storm (ES), also called “arrhythmic storm” or “VT storm” refers to a state of cardiac instability associated with 3 or more episodes of VF, sustained VT, or appropriate ICD shocks within 24 hours. Sustained VT refers to 30 seconds of VT or hemodynamically unstable VT requiring termination in < 30 seconds. Incessant VT refers to continued, sustained hemodynamically stable VT that lasts longer than one hour. VT is incessant or recurrent when it recurs promptly despi...
5/29/202341 minutes, 35 seconds
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302. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #26 with Dr. Allison Bailey

The following question refers to Sections 3.3 and 3.4 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern student Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by Brigham & Women’s medicine resident & Director of CardioNerds Internship Dr. Gurleen Kaur, and then by expert faculty Dr. Allison Bailey. Dr. Bailey is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist at Centennial Heart. She is the editor-in-chief of the American College of Cardiology’s Extended Learning (ACCEL) editorial board and was a member of the writing group for the 2018 American Lipid Guidelines.  The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #26 Ms. Priya Clampsia is a 58-year-old never-smoker with a history of hypertension. Her BMI is 29 kg/m2. She also mentions having pre-eclampsia during her pregnancy many years ago. She describes a predominately sedentary lifestyle and works as a receptionist. You see her in the clinic to discuss routine preventive care. Her most recent lipid panel results were LDL of 101 mg/dL, HDL of 45 mg/dL, and triglycerides of 190 mg/dL. What additional step will provide valuable information regarding her CVD risk profile? A Send additional lab workup including C-reactive protein and lipoprotein (a) B Measure her waist circumference C Assess her work stress D Ask her about history of preterm birth E B, C, and D Answer #26 Explanation The correct answer is E – measuring her waist circumference, assessing her occupational stress, and obtaining history about adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm birth all add valuable information for CVD risk stratification. BMI is easily measured and can be used to define categories of body weight. However, body fat stores in visceral tissue carry higher risk than subcutaneous fat and therefore, waist circumference can be a simple way to measure global and abdominal fat. When waist circumference is ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women, weight reduction is advised. While these WHO thresholds are widely accepted in Europe, it is important to note that different cut-offs may be appropriate in different ethnic groups. Work stress is important to ascertain as well because there is preliminary evidence of the detrimental impact of worse stress on ASCVD health, independent of conventional risk factors and their treatment. Work stress is determined by job strain (i.e., the combination of high demands and low control at work) and effort-reward imbalance. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increase in CVD risk by factor of 1.5-2.7 compared with all women. Both preterm (RR 1.6) and still birth (RR 1.5) are also associated with a moderate increase in CVD risk. Taking a thorough pregnancy history is important in determining future cardiovascular risk in women. The ESC guidelines give a Class IIb (LOE B) recommendation that in women with history of premature or stillbirth, periodic screening for hypertension and DM may be considered. Of note, the 2018 ACC/AHA guidelines include preeclampsia and premature menopause (occurring at age <40 years) as risk-enhancing factors for statin therapy but state that the mechanism or cause of preterm birth is often unknown, so it is difficult to include it as a risk-enhancing factor. Choice A (sending additional lab workup including CRP and LPa) is incorrect. The ESC guidelines do not recommend using routine circulating biomarkers as they do not improve risk prediction and publication bias distorts the evidence (Class III, LOE B). While some biomarkers like lipoprotein (a) are promising, further work is still needed. Conversely, the 2019 ACC/AHA guidelines do include, if measured,
5/28/202314 minutes, 29 seconds
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301. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #20 with Dr. Robert Mentz

The following question refers to Sections 7.3.2, 7.3.8, and 7.6.2 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Palisades Medical Center medicine resident & CardioNerds Intern Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by Hopkins Bayview medicine resident & CardioNerds Academy Fellow Dr. Ty Sweeny, and then by expert faculty Dr. Robert Mentz. Dr. Mentz is associate professor of medicine and section chief for Heart Failure at Duke University, a clinical researcher at the Duke Clinical Research Institute, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Cardiac Failure. Dr. Mentz is a mentor for the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Network as lead principal investigator for PARAGLIDE-HF and is a series mentor for this very Decipher the Guidelines Series. For these reasons and many more, he was awarded the Master CardioNerd Award during ACC22. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #20 Ms. Betty Blocker is a 60-year-old woman with a history of alcohol-related dilated cardiomyopathy who presents for follow up. She has been working hard to improve her health and is glad to report that she has just reached her 5-year sobriety milestone. Her current medications include metoprolol succinate 100mg daily, sacubitril-valsartan 97-103mg BID, spironolactone 25mg daily, and empagliflozin 10mg daily. She is asymptomatic at rest and up to moderate exercise, including chasing her grandchildren around the yard. A recent transthoracic echocardiogram shows recovered LVEF from previously 35% now to 60%. Ms. Blocker does not love taking so many medications and asks about discontinuing her metoprolol. Which of the following is the most appropriate response to Ms. Blocker’s request? A Since the patient is asymptomatic, metoprolol can be stopped without risk B Stopping metoprolol increases this patient’s risk of worsening cardiomyopathy regardless of current LVEF or symptoms C Because the LVEF is now >50%, the patient is now classified as having HFpEF and beta-blockade is no longer indicated; metoprolol can be safely discontinued D Metoprolol should be continued, but it is safe to discontinue either ARNi or spironolactone Answer #20 Explanation The correct answer is B – stopping metoprolol would increase her risk of worsening cardiomyopathy. Heart failure tends to be a chronically sympathetic state. The use of beta-blockers (specifically bisoprolol, metoprolol succinate, and carvedilol) targets this excess adrenergic output and has been shown to reduce the risk of death in patients with HFrEF. Beyond their mortality benefit, beta-blockers can improve LVEF, lessen the symptoms of HF, and improve clinical status. Therefore, in patients with HFrEF, with current or previous symptoms, use of 1 of the 3 beta blockers proven to reduce mortality (e.g., bisoprolol, carvedilol, sustained-release metoprolol succinate) is recommended to reduce mortality and hospitalizations (Class 1, LOE A). Beta-blockers in this setting provide a high economic value. Table 14 of the guidelines provides recommendations for target doses for GDMT medications. Specifically for beta blockers, those targets are 25-50mg twice daily for carvedilol (or 80mg once daily for the continuous release formulati...
5/25/202311 minutes, 3 seconds
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300. Case Report: A Presentation of Heart Failure and Heart Block with Elusive Genetic Origins – Cambridge University

CardioNerds (Drs. Amit Goyal and Dan Ambinder) join Dr. Mina Fares, Dr. Johannes Bergehr, and Dr. Christina Peter from Cambridge University Hospitals in the UK. They discuss a case involving a man man in his 40’s presented with progressive heart failure symptoms. He has extensive background cardiac history including prior episodes of myocarditis and complete heart block status post permanent pacemaker implantation. Ultimately a diagnosis of Danon disease is made. Dr. Sharon Wilson provides the E-CPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Hirsh Elhence. CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Summary - A Presentation of Heart Failure and Heart Block with Elusive Genetic Origins - Cambridge University A man in his 40s with a history of cardiac issues, including prior myocarditis and complete heart block, presented with progressive heart failure symptoms. Extensive cardiac investigations were conducted, revealing dilated left ventricle, mild to moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction, normal coronaries, infero-lateral late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac MRI, and low-level uptake on PET-CT. Differential diagnosis included worsening underlying cardiomyopathy, recurrent myocarditis, tachycardia-related cardiomyopathy, pacemaker-induced LV dysfunction, and sarcoidosis. The patient's condition improved with heart failure medications, and cardiac MRI showed a mildly dilated left ventricle with moderate systolic dysfunction and active inflammation in the anterior wall. Further evaluation indicated a family history of hereditary cardiomyopathy, and the patient exhibited phenotypic features such as early-onset heart disease, arrhythmias, family history of cardiomyopathy, learning problems, intellectual disability, and mild proximal myopathy. Genetic testing confirmed a LAMP2 mutation, leading to the diagnosis of Danon disease. Case Media - A Presentation of Heart Failure and Heart Block with Elusive Genetic Origins - Cambridge University Show Notes -A Presentation of Heart Failure and Heart Block with Elusive Genetic Origins - Cambridge University References - Danon, M. J., Oh, S. J., DiMauro, S., Miranda, A., De Vivo, D. C., & Rowland, L. P. (1981). Lysosomal glycogen storage disease with normal acid maltase. Neurology, 31(1), 51-7. Nishino, I., Fu, J., Tanji, K., Nonaka, I., & Ozawa, T. (2000). Mutations in the gene encoding LAMP2 cause Danon disease. Nature, 406(6798), 906-10. Tanaka, K., Nishino, I., Nonaka, I., Fu, J., & Ozawa, T. (2000). Danon disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding LAMP2, a lysosomal membrane protein. Nature, 406(6798), 902-6. Maron, B. J., Haas, T. S., Ackerman, M. J., Ahluwalia, A., Spirito, P., Nishino, I., ... & Seidman, C. E. (2009). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and sudden death in a family with Danon disease. JAMA, 301(12), 1253-9. Hashem, S., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, H., Zhang, H., Liu, L., ... & Wang, J. (2015). AAV-mediated gene transfer of LAMP2 improves cardiac function in Danon disease mice. Stem cells, 33(11), 2343-2350. Chi, L., Wang, H., Zhang, J., Zhang, Y., Liu, L., Wang, J., ... & Hashem, S. (2019). CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing of LAMP2 in patient-derived iPSCs ameliorates Danon disease phenotypes.
5/23/202356 minutes, 53 seconds
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299. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #25 with Dr. Eugene Yang

The following question refers to Section 3.2 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Mayo Clinic Fellow Dr. Teodora Donisan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugene Yang.Dr. Yang is professor of medicine of the University of Washington where he is medical director of the Eastside Specialty Center and the co-Director of the Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention Program. Dr. Yang is former Governor of the ACC Washington Chapter and chair of the ACC Prevention of CVD Section.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #25 Please choose the CORRECT statement from the ones below.ACAC scoring can be considered to improve ASCVD risk classification around treatment decision thresholds.BPatients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are considered very high CV risk, regardless of comorbidities and other risk factors.CCKD does not increase the cardiovascular risk in the absence of other risk factors.DMen and women older than 65 years old are at high cardiovascular risk. Answer #25 ExplanationOption A is correct. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring can reclassify CVD risk upwards and downwards in addition to conventional risk factors and may thus be considered in men and women with calculated risks around decision thresholds (Class IIb, Level B). If CAC is detected, its extent should be compared with what would be expected for a patient of the same sex and age. CAC scoring does not provide direct information on total plaque burden or stenosis severity and can be low or even zero in middle-aged patients with soft non-calcified plaque.Option B is false. Not all patients with diabetes are very high risk by default.·       Moderate risk: well controlled diabetes, 300 mg/g)·       Presence of microvascular disease in at least 3 different sites (e.g., microalbuminuria + retinopathy + neuropathyOption C is false. CKD carries at least a high CVD risk even in the absence of diabetes or ASCVD.·       Moderate CKD carries a high CVD risk: o   eGFR 30−44 mL/min/1.73 m2 and ACR 300·       Severe CKD carries a very high CVD risk:o   eGFR30 Option D is false. There is an age difference between men and women with regards to cardiovascular risk. Age is a major CVD risk driver, but age cutoffs should be used with flexibility.·       Women 75 years-old and men > 65 years-old are usually at high 10-year CVD risk.·       Only between the ages of 55 – 75 years in women and 40 – 65 years in men does the 10-year CVD risk vary around commonly used thresholds for intervention. Of note:·       In younger, apparently healthy patients, we also discuss lifetime CVD risk estimates since 10-year risk assessments often underestimate risk.
5/15/202311 minutes, 7 seconds
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298. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #19 with Dr. Clyde Yancy

The following question refers to Section 7.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by New York Medical College medical student and CardioNerds Intern Akiva Rosenzveig, answered first by Lahey Hospital and Medical Center internal medicine resident and CardioNerds Academy House Faculty Leader Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem, and then by expert faculty Dr. Clyde Yancy.Dr. Yancy is Professor of Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Chief of Cardiology, and Vice Dean for Diversity and Inclusion at Northwestern University, and a member of the ACC/AHA Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #19 Ms. M is a 36-year-old G1P1 woman 6 months postpartum who was diagnosed with peripartum cardiomyopathy at the end of her pregnancy. She is presenting for a follow up visit today and notes that while her leg edema has resolved, she continues to have dyspnea when carrying her child up the stairs. She also describes significant difficulty sleeping, though denies orthopnea, and notes she is not participating in hobbies she had previously enjoyed. She is currently prescribed a regimen of sacubitril-valsartan, metoprolol succinate, spironolactone, and empagliflozin.  What are the next best steps? A Screen for depression B Counsel her to follow a strict low sodium diet with goal of < 1.5g Na daily C Recommend exercise therapy and refer to cardiac rehabilitation D A & C Answer #19 Explanation   The correct answer is D – both A (screening for depression) and C (referring to cardiac rehabilitation) are appropriate at this time. Choice A is correct. Depression is a risk factor for poor self-care, rehospitalization, and all-cause mortality among patients with HF. Interventions that focus on improving HF self-care have been reported to be effective among patients with moderate/severe depression with reductions in hospitalization and mortality risk. Social isolation, frailty, and marginal health literacy have similarly been associated with poor HF self-care and worse outcomes in patients with HF. Therefore, in adults with HF, screening for depression, social isolation, frailty, and low health literacy as risk factors for poor self-care is reasonable to improve management (Class 2a, LOE B-NR).  Choice C is correct. In patients with HF, cardiac rehabilitation has a Class 2a recommendation (LOE B-NR) to improve functional capacity, exercise tolerance, and health-related QOL; exercise training (or regular physical activity) for those able to participate has a Class 1 recommendation (LOE A) to improve functional status, exercise performance, and QOL. Choice B is incorrect. For patients with stage C HF, avoiding excessive sodium intake is reasonable to reduce congestive symptoms (Class 2a, LOE C-LD). However, strict sodium restriction does not have strong supportive data and is not recommended. There are ongoing studies to better understand the impact of sodium restriction on clinical outcomes and quality of life. The AHA currently recommends a reduction of sodium intake to <2300 mg/d for general cardiovascular health promotion; however, there are no trials to support this level of restriction in patients with HF.
5/12/202311 minutes, 49 seconds
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297. Case Report: A Sinister Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death – University of Washington

CardioNerds (Daniel Ambinder) join Dr. Tomio Tran, Dr. Vid Yogeswaran, and Dr. Amanda Cai from the University of Washington for a break from the rain at the waterfront near Pike Place Market. They discuss the following case: A 46-year-old woman presents with cardiac arrest and was found to have cor triatriatum sinistrum (CTS). CTS is a rare congenital cardiac malformation in which the left atrium is divided by a fenestrated membrane, which can restrict blood flow and cause symptoms of congestive heart failure. Rarely, the condition can present in adulthood. To date, there have been no cases of sudden cardiac death attributed to CTS. Dr. Jill Steiner provides the E-CPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - A Sinister Cause of Sudden Cardiac Death – University of Washington A 40-year-old woman with a history of recurrent exertional syncope had sudden loss of consciousness while kissing her partner. The patient received bystander CPR while 911 was called. EMS arrived within 10 minutes of the call and found the patient apneic and unresponsive. Initial rhythm check showed narrow complex tachycardia at a rate of 136 BPM. ROSC was eventually achieved. A 12-lead ECG showed that the patient was in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular rate. The patient was intubated and brought to the emergency department. The patient spontaneously converted to sinus rhythm en route to the hospital. In the emergency department, vital signs were remarkable for hypotension (76/64 mmHg) and sinus tachycardia (110 BPM). The physical exam was remarkable for an inability to follow commands. Laboratory data was remarkable for hypokalemia (2.5 mmol/L), transaminitis (AST 138 units/L, ALT 98 units/L), acidemia (pH 7.12), and hyperlactatemia (11.2 mmol/L). CT scan of the chest revealed a thin membrane within the left atrium. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed normal biventricular size and function, severe tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonary artery systolic pressure of 93 mmHg, and the presence of a membrane within the left atrium with a mean gradient of 25 mmHg between the proximal and distal left atrial chambers. Vasopressors and targeted temperature management were initiated. The patient was able to be re-warmed with eventual discontinuation of vasopressors, however she had ongoing encephalopathy and seizures concerning for hypoxic brain injury. There was discussion with the adult congenital heart disease team about next steps in management, however the patient was too sick to undergo any definitive treatment for the intracardiac membrane within the left atrium. The patient developed ventilator associated pneumonia and antibiotics were initiated. The patient ultimately developed  bradycardia and pulseless electrical activity; ROSC was unable to be achieved, resulting in death. Autopsy was remarkable for the presence of a fenestrated intracardiac membrane within the left atrium and lack of other apparent congenital heart defects. There was right ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary artery intimal thickening with interstitial fibrosis suggestive of pulmonary hypertension. There were bilateral acute subsegmental pulmonary emboli present. The cause of death was declared to be arrhythmia in the setting of pulmonary hypertension and right s...
5/10/202346 minutes, 38 seconds
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296. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #24 with Dr. Jaideep Patel

The following question refers to Section 6.3 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSD cardiology fellow Dr. Harpreet Bhatia, and then by expert faculty Dr. Jaideep Patel.Dr. Patel recently graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University cardiology fellowship and is now a preventive cardiologist at the Johns Hopkins Hospital.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #24 A 65-year-old man with a history of ischemic stroke 6 months ago presents to cardiology clinic to establish care. An event monitor was negative for atrial fibrillation and TTE with agitated saline study was negative for a patent foramen ovale. Therefore, his ischemic stroke was presumed to be non-cardioembolic in origin. He is currently taking lisinopril 5 mg daily for hypertension (BP in clinic is 115/70) and atorvastatin 40 mg daily. He has no history of significant gastrointestinal or other bleeding. What do you recommend next?AStart apixaban 5 mg BIDBIncrease lisinopril to 10 mg dailyCStart aspirin 81 mg dailyDStart aspirin 81 mg daily and clopidogrel 75 mg dailyEStart aspirin 81 mg daily and ticagrelor 90 mg BID Answer #24 ExplanationThe correct answer is C – start aspirin 81mg daily.For the secondary prevention of non-cardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA, anti-platelet therapy is recommended with aspirin only (75-150 mg/day), dipyridamole + aspirin (slightly superior to aspirin), or clopidogrel alone (slightly superior to aspirin) (Class I, LOE A).DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel or aspirin and ticagrelor should be considered in the immediate period after a minor ischemic stroke or TIA (3 weeks after event, Class IIa), but not 6 months after an ischemic stroke. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel increases bleeding risk without a significant benefit over either agent alone. Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and ticagrelor increases bleeding risk, but does not improve disability incidence.Oral anticoagulation would be recommended for a cardioembolic stroke, which does not fit the clinical picture.His BP is well controlled so increasing lisinopril is not necessary.Main TakeawayFor the secondary prevention of an ischemic stroke or TIA, anti-platelet therapy with aspirin, aspirin + dipyridamole, or clopidogrel alone is recommended.Guideline Loc.6.3, page 3296-3297 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
5/5/20236 minutes, 31 seconds
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295. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #18 with Dr. Shelley Zieroth

The following question refers to Sections 3.2, 4.1, 4.3, and 4.4 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Texas Tech University medical student and CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by Baylor University cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Trialist Dr. Shiva Patlolla, and then by expert faculty Dr. Shelley Zieroth. Dr. Zieroth is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, Head of the Medical Heart Failure Program, the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority Cardiac Sciences Program, and an Associate Professor in the Section of Cardiology at the University of Manitoba. Dr. Zieroth is a past president of the Canadian Heart Failure Society. She is a steering committee member for PARAGLIE-HF and a PI Mentor for the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Program. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #18 Ms. AH is a 48-year-old woman who presents with a 3-month history of progressively worsening exertional dyspnea and symmetric bilateral lower extremity edema. She has no history of recent upper respiratory symptoms or chest pain. She denies any tobacco, alcohol, or recreational drug use. There is no family history of premature CAD or HF. On exam, her blood pressure is 110/66 mmHg, heart rate is 112 bpm, and respiration rate is 18 breaths/min with oxygen saturation of 98% on ambient room air. She has jugular venous distention of about 12cm H2O, bibasilar crackles, an S3 heart sound, and bilateral lower extremity edema. Complete blood count, serum electrolytes, kidney function tests, liver chemistry tests, glucose level, iron studies, and lipid levels are unremarkable. An electrocardiogram shows sinus tachycardia with normal intervals and no conduction delays. A transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrates a left ventricular ejection fraction of 25%, normal right ventricular size and function, and no valvular abnormalities. Which of the following diagnostic tests has a Class I indication for further evaluation? A Cardiac catheterization B Referral for genetic counseling C Thyroid function studies D Cardiac MRI Answer #18 Explanation  The correct answer is C – thyroid function studies have a Class 1 indication for the evaluation of HF.  The common causes of HF include coronary artery disease, hypertension, and valvular heart disease. Other causes may include arrhythmia-associated, toxic, inflammatory, metabolic including both endocrinopathies and nutritional, infiltrative, genetic, stress induced, peripartum, and more. It is important to evaluate for the etiology of a given patient’s heart failure as diagnosis may have implications for treatment, counseling, and family members. For patients who are diagnosed with HF, laboratory evaluation should include complete blood count, urinalysis, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, glucose, lipid profile, liver function tests, iron studies, and thyroid-stimulating hormone to optimize management (Class 1, LOR C-EO). These studies provide important information regarding comorbidities, suitability for and adverse effects of treatments, potential causes or confounders of HF, and severity and prognosis of HF.
5/4/202311 minutes, 22 seconds
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294. ACHD: Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Jamil Aboulhosn and Dr. Joanna Ghobrial – Part 2

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), ACHD series co-chairs Dr. Dan Clark and Dr. Josh Saef, and ACHD FIT lead Dr. J.D. Serfas (Duke University) and Cardiology Fellow Dr. Victoria Thomas (Vanderbilt University) join ACHD experts Dr. Jamil Aboulhosn (Professor of Medicine at UCLA and the director of the Ahmanson/UCLA Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center) and Dr. Joanna Ghobrial, Medical and Interventional Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center at Cleveland Clinic. They discuss common ACHD pathologies that benefit from interventional cardiology procedures such as transcatheter pulmonic valve replacement (TPVR) and share new advancements in transcatheter approaches to correct sinus venosus defects. They end with a brief discussion on how to become an adult cardiology interventionalist that performs ACHD interventions. Episode notes were drafted by Dr. Victoria Thomas. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig.  The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - ACHD: Interventional Cardiology The ductus arteriosus, which is formed from the distal portion of the left sixth arch, is key to fetal circulation because it allows blood to bypass Transcatheter pulmonic valve replacement (TPVR) is a treatment for many ACHD patients that can spare them repeat sternotomies. This is important as many ACHD patients hava already undergone multiple surgeries in their childhood.   Before any ACHD cardiology intervention, appropriate imaging (TEE, TTE, Cardiac MRI, Cardiac CTA, and/or 3D printing) is imperative to understanding the relevant anatomy and hemodynamics to guide procedural indication and planning.    As with other structural interventions, consider a SENTINEL device (cerebral embolic protection system) to provide embolic protection in procedures that could lead to debris/embolic dislodgement when appropriate. Sinus venosus defects can be repaired via a transcatheter approach with a covered stent in the superior vena cava (SVC).   Consider using 3D printing or 3D digital imaging when preparing for complex ACHD interventions.    Notes- ACHD: Interventional Cardiology 1. When considering a patient for TPVR there are 3 types of landing zones for pulmonic valves in ACHD patients:    Pulmonary conduits or homografts. These are typically seen in patients with TOF or prior Ross or Rastelli procedure. These may be calcified and stenotic and so pre-dilatation is often needed before valve replacement.   Bioprosthetic Valves. (Valve in Valve TPVR) Native outflow tract 2. What are some of the more severe complications to consider when talking to an ACHD patient about a TPVR?   Coronary artery compression Conduit rupture Vessel injury (including the pulmonary bed) Valve embolization Endocarditis 3. What are some of the hemodynamic measurements one would want to pay attention to in a patient with a Fontan heart?    You will see higher CVPs in patients with a Fontan palliation.
5/2/202345 minutes, 40 seconds
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293. ACHD: Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Jamil Aboulhosn and Dr. Joanna Ghobrial – Part 1

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), ACHD series co-chairs Dr. Dan Clark and Dr. Josh Saef, and ACHD FIT lead Dr. J.D. Serfas (Duke University) and Cardiology Fellow Dr. Victoria Thomas (Vanderbilt University) join ACHD experts Dr. Jamil Aboulhosn (Professor of Medicine at UCLA and the director of the Ahmanson/UCLA Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center) and Dr. Joanna Ghobrial, Medical and Interventional Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Center at Cleveland Clinic. They discuss common ACHD pathologies that benefit from interventional procedures such as transcatheter pulmonic valve replacement (TPVR) and share new advancements in transcatheter approaches to correct sinus venosus defects. They end with a brief discussion on how to become an adult cardiology interventionalist that performs ACHD interventions. Episode notes were drafted by Dr. Victoria Thomas. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig.  The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - ACHD: Interventional Cardiology The ductus arteriosus, which is formed from the distal portion of the left sixth arch, is key to fetal circulation because it allows blood to bypass Transcatheter pulmonic valve replacement (TPVR) is a treatment for many ACHD patients that can spare them repeat sternotomies. This is important as many ACHD patients hava already undergone multiple surgeries in their childhood.   Before any ACHD cardiology intervention, appropriate imaging (TEE, TTE, Cardiac MRI, Cardiac CTA, and/or 3D printing) is imperative to understanding the relevant anatomy and hemodynamics to guide procedural indication and planning.    As with other structural interventions, consider a SENTINEL device (cerebral embolic protection system) to provide embolic protection in procedures that could lead to debris/embolic dislodgement when appropriate. Sinus venosus defects can be repaired via a transcatheter approach with a covered stent in the superior vena cava (SVC).   Consider using 3D printing or 3D digital imaging when preparing for complex ACHD interventions.    Notes- ACHD: Interventional Cardiology 1. When considering a patient for TPVR there are 3 types of landing zones for pulmonic valves in ACHD patients:    Pulmonary conduits or homografts. These are typically seen in patients with TOF or prior Ross or Rastelli procedure. These may be calcified and stenotic and so pre-dilatation is often needed before valve replacement.   Bioprosthetic Valves. (Valve in Valve TPVR) Native outflow tract 2. What are some of the more severe complications to consider when talking to an ACHD patient about a TPVR?   Coronary artery compression Conduit rupture Vessel injury (including the pulmonary bed) Valve embolization Endocarditis 3. What are some of the hemodynamic measurements one would want to pay attention to in a patient with a Fontan heart?    You will see higher CVPs in patients with a Fontan palliation.
5/1/202359 minutes, 16 seconds
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292. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #23 with Dr. Eugenia Gianos

The following question refers to Section 6.1 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by Houston Methodist medicine resident Dr. Najah Khan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugenia Gianos.Dr. Gianos specializes in preventive cardiology, lipidology, cardiovascular imaging, and women’s heart disease; she is the director of Women s Heart Health at Lenox Hill Hospital and director of Cardiovascular Prevention for Northwell Health.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #23 An asymptomatic 55-year-old man with no past medical history presents to clinic after having a cardiac CT as part of an executive physical. His coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was 200 and the coronary CTA demonstrated isolated 70% stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery. He is asymptomatic and able to jog 2 miles daily without limitation. He was recently started on aspirin 81 mg daily and atorvastatin 40 mg daily by his primary care provider. His LDL is 50 mg/dL, HbA1c is 6.0%. His BP is 108/70. What would you recommend?AStop aspirin 81 mg daily as he has not had an ASCVD event or revascularizationBCardiac catheterization and stent placement in the left circumflexCIncrease atorvastatin to 80 mg dailyDStress testENo change in management Answer #23 Answer choicesAStop aspirin 81 mg daily as he has not had an ASCVD event or revascularizationBCardiac catheterization and stent placement in the left circumflexCIncrease atorvastatin to 80 mg dailyDStress testENo change in managementExplanationThe correct answer is E – no change in management.Though the patient has not had an ASCVD event or revascularization, low-dose aspirin may be considered with definite evidence of CAD on imaging (Class IIb, LOE C).He is asymptomatic and does not have high risk anatomy on CT (i.e., proximal LAD, left main disease, multivessel disease), so percutaneous coronary intervention or stress testing are not indicated.His LDL is well controlled, so increasing atorvastatin would not be appropriate at this time.Main TakeawayAspirin 75-100 md daily may be considered in the absence of MI or revascularization when there is definitive evidence of CAD on imaging (Class IIb, LOE C).Guideline Loc.Section 6.1 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
4/30/20237 minutes, 1 second
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291. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #17 with Dr. Biykem Bozkurt

The following question refers to Section 5.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Greater Baltimore Medical Center medicine resident / Johns Hopkins MPH student and CardioNerds Academy House Chief Dr. Alaa Diab, and then by expert faculty Dr. Biykem Bozkurt. Dr. Bozkurt is the Mary and Gordon Cain Chair, Professor of Medicine, Director of the Winters Center for Heart Failure Research, and an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX. She is former President of HFSA, former senior associate editor for Circulation, and current Editor-In-Chief of JACC Heart Failure. Dr. Bozkurt was the Vice Chair of the writing committee for the 2022 Heart Failure Guidelines.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #17 A 63-year-old man with CAD s/p CABG 3 years prior, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, and tobacco use disorder presents for routine follow-up. His heart rate is 65 bpm and blood pressure is 125/70 mmHg. On physical exam, he is breathing comfortably with clear lungs, with normal jugular venous pulsations, a regular rate and rhythm without murmurs or gallops, and no peripheral edema. Medications include aspirin 81mg daily, atorvastatin 80mg daily, lisinopril 20mg daily, and metformin 1000mg BID. His latest hemoglobin A1C is 7.5% and recent NT-proBNP was normal. His latest transthoracic echocardiogram showed normal biventricular size and function. Which of the following would be a good addition to optimize his medical therapy?   A DPP-4 inhibitor B Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker C SGLT2 inhibitor D Furosemide Answer #17 Explanation The correct answer is C: SGLT2 inhibitor. This patient is at risk for HF (Stage A) given absence of signs or symptoms of heart failure but presence of coronary artery disease and several risk factors including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and tobacco smoking. At this stage, the focus should be on risk factor modification and prevention of disease onset. Healthy lifestyle habits such as maintaining regular physical activity; normal weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels; healthy dietary patterns, and not smoking have been associated with a lower lifetime risk of developing HF. Multiple RCTs in patients with type 2 diabetes who have established CVD or are at high risk for CVD, have shown that SGLT2i prevent HF hospitalizations compared with placebo. The benefit for reducing HF hospitalizations in these trials predominantly reflects primary prevention of symptomatic HF, because only approximately 10% to 14% of participants in these trials had HF at baseline. As such, in patients with type 2 diabetes and either established CVD or at high cardiovascular risk, SGLT2i should be used to prevent hospitalizations for HF (Class 1, LOE A). The mechanisms for the improvement in HF events from SGLT2i have not been clearly elucidated but seem to be independent of glucose lowering. Proposed mechanisms include reductions in plasma volume, cardiac preload and afterload, alterations in cardiac metabolism, reduced arterial stiffness,
4/28/202310 minutes, 28 seconds
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290. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #22 with Dr. Eileen Handberg

The following question refers to Section 4.6 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Student Dr. Shivani Reddy, answered first by Johns Hopkins Cardiology Fellow Dr. Rick Ferraro, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eileen Handberg. Dr. Handberg is an Adult Nurse Practitioner, Professor of Medicine, and Director of the Cardiovascular Clinical Trials Program in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Florida. She has served as Chair of the Cardiovascular Team Section and the Board of Trustees with the ACC and is the President for the PCNA. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #22 Mr. HC is a 50-year-old man presenting for a routine clinic visit. He is not sure the last time he had a lipid panel drawn, and would like one today, but ate lunch just prior to your appointment – a delicious plate of 50% fruits and vegetables, 25% lean meats, and 25% whole grains as you had previously recommended. True or False: Mr. HC should return another day to obtain a fasting lipid panel. TRUE FALSE Answer #22 Answer choices TRUE FALSE Explanation  This statement is False. A non-fasting lipid panel is appropriate for risk stratification and lipid evaluation in most patients per the ESC guidelines. While no level of evidence in provided in the ESC guidelines, this recommendation is consistent with AHA/ACC cholesterol guidelines, which have also largely moved away from fasting lipid panels for most patients and give a Class 1 (LOE B) recommendation to obtaining a fasting or nonfasting plasma lipid profile for ASCVD estimation and baseline LDL-C in adults 20 years of age or older. The ESC recommendation is based upon large trials showing that results of fasting and non-fasting panels are largely similar. This is similar to the AHA/ACC guidelines, which note non-fasting and fasting LDL-C change minimal over time following a normal meal, while HDL-C and tryiglycerides appear to have similar prognostic significance with cardiovascular outcomes in fasting or nonfasting states. A fasting lipid panel should be considered in those with hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus, as consumption of food or drink can have direct and immediate effects on TG and blood glucose values. Main Takeaway A non-fasting lipid panel is appropriate for the majority of patients undergoing lipid evaluation and cardiovascular risk stratification.  Guideline Loc. Section 4.6.1 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
4/23/20238 minutes, 1 second
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289. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #16 with Dr. Harriette Van Spall

The following question refers to Sections 11.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student and CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Johns Hopkins Osler internal medicine resident and CardioNerds Academy Fellow Dr. Justin Brilliant, and then by expert faculty Dr. Harriette Van Spall. Dr. Van Spall is Associate Professor of Medicine, cardiologist, and Director of E-Health at McMaster University. Dr Van Spall is a Canadian Institutes of Health Research-funded clinical trialist and researcher with a focus on heart failure, health services, and health disparities. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #16 Ms. Augustin is a 33 y/o G1P1 woman from Haiti who seeks counseling regarding family planning as she and her husband dream of a second child.  Her 1st pregnancy 12 months ago was complicated by pre-eclampsia and peripartum cardiomyopathy (LVEF 35%). Thankfully she delivered a healthy baby via C-section. She has no other past medical history and is currently on losartan 25 mg daily and metoprolol succinate 200 mg daily.  She has been asymptomatic. Which of the following statements is recommended to medically optimize Ms. Augustin prior to her 2nd pregnancy? A No medical optimization or preconception planning is needed as her 1st pregnancy resulted in a healthy infant. B Discontinue losartan and metoprolol with no other needed pregnancy planning  C Change her medication regimen, consider repeat TTE, and provide patient-centered counseling regarding risk of a future pregnancy D Continue losartan and metoprolol and advise against repeat pregnancy  Answer #16 Explanation The correct answer is C – change her medication regimen, consider repeat TTE, and provide patient-centered counseling regarding risk of a future pregnancy. Heart failure may complicate pregnancy either secondary to an existing pre-pregnancy cardiomyopathy or as a result of peripartum cardiomyopathy. In women with history of heart failure or cardiomyopathy, including previous peripartum cardiomyopathy, patient-centered counseling regarding contraception and the risks of cardiovascular deterioration during pregnancy should be provided (Class I, LOE C-LD) Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is defined as systolic dysfunction, typically LVEF 30 years, African ancestry, multiparity, multigestation, preeclampsia/eclampsia, anemia, diabetes, obesity, and prolonged tocolysis.   The pathogenesis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is complex and it is likely a multifactorial process.  The combination of hemodynamic changes of pregnancy, inflammation of the myocardium, hormonal changes, genetic factors, and an autoimmune response have all been proposed as possible mechanisms and these may certainly be interrelated. While pregnancy is generally well-tolerated in women with cardiomyopathy and NYHA class I status pre-pregnancy, clinical deterioration can occur and so counseling a...
4/19/202314 minutes, 34 seconds
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288. 2nd Annual Sanjay V. Desai Lecture: The Humanity Deficiency in Medicine with Dr. Melanie Sulistio

The CardioNerds Academy welcomes Dr. Melanie Sulistio to give the 2nd Annual Sanjay V. Desai Lecture in Medical Education to mark the graduation of the 2022 CardioNerds Academy Class. Join us as Dr. Sulistio and CardioNerds Academy Program Director Dr. Tommy Das discuss the humanity deficiency in medicine, and how the practice of compassionate assumption can lead us to be better physicians for our patients, our colleagues, our learners, and ourselves. Credit to rising CardioNerds Academy chiefs Dr. Rawan Amir, Dr. Kate Wilcox, Dr. Alaa Diab, and Dr. Gurleen Kaur for their terrific acting in this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Pace Wetstein. Dr. Sanjay V Desai serves as the Chief Academic Officer, The American Medical Association and is the former Program Director of the Osler Medical Residency at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. Dr. Melanie Sulistio is an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Cardiology at the University of Texas Southwestern. Additionally, she is an Associate Dean for Student Affairs and Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School and co-chairs the ACC Internal Medicine Residency Program. She has a passion for medical education and promoting humanity in medicine, and is actively involved in the work of teaching communication skills that encompass meaningful care, discussions with patients, and difficult conversations with colleagues. Relevant disclosures: None CardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
4/18/20231 hour, 9 minutes, 10 seconds
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287. Case Report: When Tumors Take Your Breath Away – University of Oklahoma College of Medicine

CardioNerds join Dr. Samid Muhammad Farooqui, Dr. Hiba Hammad, and Dr. Syed Talal Hussain, from the University of Oklahoma Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Fellowship Program, in Oklahoma City. The fellows will take us in a fascinating discussion of a case of rapidly progressing dyspnea and pulmonary hypertension in a patient with metastatic breast cancer. They will then reveal an interesting etiology of pulmonary hypertension, where the secret was on the wedge! University of Oklahoma faculty and expert in pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular physiology, Dr. Roberto J. Bernardo provides the E-CPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. A septuagenarian female, with a past medical history of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma, presented to the hospital with worsening dyspnea over a period of 3 weeks. She was found to be in rapidly progressive hypoxic respiratory failure with unremarkable chest x-ray, CTA chest, and V/Q scan. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed elevated RVSP and a subsequent right heart catheterization showed pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension with a low cardiac index. She was treated for rapidly progressive RV dysfunction with inotropic support and inhaled pulmonary vasodilators until she decided to pursue comfort measures. Wedge cytology came back positive for malignant cells, confirming a diagnosis of Pulmonary Tumoral Thrombotic Microangiopathy (PTTM). CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - When Tumors Take Your Breath Away - University of Oklahoma College of Medicine Pearls - When Tumors Take Your Breath Away - University of Oklahoma College of Medicine Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disorder of the pulmonary vasculature, characterized by progressive obliteration and remodeling of the pulmonary circulation, resulting in increased pulmonary vascular resistance and increased right ventricular (RV) wall stress, abnormal right ventricular mechanics, and eventually RV dysfunction and death. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is divided into pre-capillary and post-capillary profiles, where pre-capillary PH is hemodynamically characterized by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) > 20 mmHg, pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) ≤ 15 mmHg and a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) ≥ 3 Woods Units (WU), and post-capillary PH is defined as mPAP > 20 mmHg, PAWP ≥ 15 mmHg, and PVR can be either < 3 WU (isolated post-capillary PH) or ≥ 3 WU (combined pre- and post-capillary PH). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) falls under the pre-capillary PH profile. Dyspnea on exertion is the most common manifestation of PH, and the most common initial complain. Other symptoms and physical findings such as venous congestion, peripheral edema, signs of RV dysfunction or syncope present later in the disease course. As such, PH has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea, especially in cases of undifferentiated or unexplained dyspnea. PAH is a chronic but progressive condition, where symptoms progress over the course of months to years. Subacute or rapidly progressive forms of PH (symptoms rapidly worsening over the course of weeks) should warrant consideration for alternative etiologies (i.e., pulmonary embolism or a different cardiopulmonary disorder as the main d...
4/14/202347 minutes, 9 seconds
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286. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #21 with Dr. Noreen Nazir

The following question refers to Section 4.4 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by medicine resident Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem, and then by expert faculty Dr. Noreen Nazir. Dr. Nazir is Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she is the director of cardiac MRI and the preventive cardiology program. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #21 Ms. J is a 57-year-old woman with a past medical history of myocardial infarction resulting in ischemic cardiomyopathy, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and major depressive disorder who presents today for follow-up. She reports feeling extremely overwhelmed lately due to multiple life stressors. She is on appropriate cardiovascular GDMT agents and is not prescribed any medications for her mood disorder. True or false: in addition to psychotherapy for stress management, it is appropriate to consider Ms. J for anti-depressant SSRI pharmacotherapy at this time to improve cardiovascular outcomes. A True B False Answer #21 Explanation The correct answer is FALSE. An ESC class 3 recommendation states that SSRIs, SNRIs, and tricyclic antidepressants are not recommended in patients with heart failure and major depression; this is based on data suggesting potential lack of SSRI efficacy for reducing depression or cardiovascular events, as well as safety data indicating an association between SSRI use and increased risk of CV events and all-cause as well as cardiovascular mortality among HF patients. Mental health disorders are associated with worse outcomes in patients with ASCVD and appropriate treatment effectively reduces stress symptoms and improves quality of life. Nonpharmacologic modalities of treatment (exercise therapy, psychotherapy, collaborative care) should be considered before pharmacotherapy to improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure. Of note, the ESC suggests SSRI treatment be considered for patients with coronary heart disease (without HF) and moderate-to-severe major depression based on data that SSRI treatment is associated with lower rates of CHD readmission (RR 0.63), all-cause mortality (RR 0.56), and the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality/MI/PCI (HR 0.69) vs. no treatment. This is a class 2a recommendation. ESC also gives a class 2a recommendation to consider referral to psychotherapeutic stress management for individuals with stress and ASCVD to improve CV outcomes and reduce stress symptoms. The ACC/AHA guidelines do not provide focused recommendations regarding mental health considerations in patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. Main Takeaway It is important to consider mental health treatment in patients with ASCVD as mental disorders are associated with increased CVD risk and poor patient prognosis, and data support that mental health interventions can improve overall and CVD outcomes, as well as improve quality of life. Guideline Loc. Section 4.4 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
4/11/20237 minutes, 9 seconds
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285. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #15 with Dr. Ileana Pina

The following question refers to Section 10.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student and CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Boston University cardiology fellow and CardioNerds Ambassador Dr. Alex Pipilas, and then by expert faculty Dr. Ileana Pina.Dr. Pina is Professor of Medicine and Quality Officer for the Cardiovascular Line at Thomas Jefferson University, Clinical Professor at Central Michigan University, and Adjunct Professor of Biostats and Epidemiology at Case Western University. She serves as Senior Fellow and Medical Officer at the Food and Drug Administration’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #15 Mrs. Framingham is a 65-year-old woman who presents to her cardiologist’s office for stable angina and worsening dyspnea on minimal exertion. She has a history of non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. She is taking metformin, linagliptin, lisinopril, and amlodipine. Blood pressure is 119/70 mmHg. Labs are notable for a hemoglobin of 14.2 mg/dL, iron of 18 mcg/dL, ferritin 150 ug/L, transferrin saturation 15%, and normal creatine kinase. An echocardiogram shows reduced left ventricular ejection fraction of 25%. Coronary angiography shows obstructive lesions involving the proximal left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries. In addition to optimizing GDMT, which of the following are recommendations for changes in management? A Anticoagulation, percutaneous revascularization, and IV iron B A change in her diabetic regimen, percutaneous revascularization, and PO iron C A change in her diabetic regimen, surgical revascularization, and IV iron D A change in her diabetic regimen, medical treatment alone for CAD, and PO iron E Anticoagulation and surgical revascularization Answer #15 Explanation The correct answer is C – a change in her diabetic regimen, surgical treatment and IV iron. Multimorbidity is common in patients with heart failure. More than 85% of patients with HF also have at least 2 additional chronic conditions, of which the most common are hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetes, anemia, chronic kidney disease, morbid obesity, frailty, and malnutrition. These conditions can markedly impact patients’ tolerance to GDMT and can inform prognosis. Not only was Mrs. F found with HFrEF (most likely due to ischemic cardiomyopathy), but she also suffers from severe multi-vessel coronary artery disease, hypertension, and non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition to starting optimized GDMT for HF, specific comorbidities in the heart failure patient warrant specific treatment strategies. Mrs. Framingham would benefit from a change in her diabetic regimen, namely switching from linagliptin to an SGLT2 inhibitor (e.g., empagliflozin, dapagliflozin). In patients with HF and type 2 diabetes, the use of SGLT2i is recommended for the management of hyperglycemia and to reduce HF related morbidity and mortality (Class 1, LOE A). Furthermore, as she has diabetes, symptomatic severe multi-vessel CAD, and LVEF≤35%,
4/11/202310 minutes, 57 seconds
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284. Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanical Stroke Prevention in Atrial fibrillation with Dr. Christopher Ellis

CardioNerds Amit Goyal, Dr. Colin Blumenthal, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Justice Oranefo discuss mechanical stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation with Dr. Christopher Ellis, cardiac electrophysiology lab director and director of the left atrial appendage closure program at Vanderbilt University. There has been a significant increase in the number of patients undergoing left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO). This trend is expected to continue with current and upcoming clinical data on this topic. In this episode we dive into the rationale behind LAAO and explore several historical facts. We then proceed to the current state of practice including currently available options, appropriate indications, post op care, and potential complications. Notes were drafted by Dr. Justice Oranefo. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This series is supported by an educational grant from the Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! Disclosures: Dr. Ellis discloses grant or research support from Boston Scientific, Abbott-St Jude, advisor for Atricure and Medtronic. CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanical Stroke Prevention in Atrial fibrillation Surgical or catheter based left atrial appendage occlusion results in mechanical exclusion of the left atrial appendage, which is the most common source of thrombus leading to embolic events in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation. Surgical LAAO should be considered in patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2VASC score ≥ 2 undergoing cardiac surgery for other indications. Endocardial LAAO devices such as WATCHMAN FLX and AMULET are approved for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation with a CHA2DS2VASC score ≥ 2 and have an appropriate reason to seek a non-drug alternative to anticoagulation therapy. Appropriate patient selection and post-operative anticoagulation and imaging strategy are crucial for prevention and management of complications related to LAAO. Notes - Atrial Fibrillation: Mechanical Stroke Prevention in Atrial fibrillation What are the types of LAAO device? Left atrial appendage occlusion devices can be divided into epicardial closure and endocardial closure. Epicardial techniques/devices include surgical ligation, Atriclip, and Lariat. These techniques require pericardial access (either by open thoracotomy or thoracoscopic access). The goals are complete exclusion and ischemic necrosis of the LAA. LARIAT device Atriclip device Endocardial techniques include WATCHMAN FLX and AMULET devices. These techniques require the use of nitinol-based devices which are delivered into the LAA via a transeptal approach. These devices become endothelialized over time resulting in occlusion of the LAA. AMULET device WATCHMAN FLX Who is the ideal candidate for surgical LAAO? Several studies have evaluated the efficacy of surgical LAA occlusion. The most prominent being the LAOS III trial which randomized 4770 patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2VASC ≥ 2 undergoing cardiac surgery for other reasons to surgical LAAO vs no LAAO (3,4). The primary outcome of ischemic stroke or systemic embolization occurred in 4.8% of patients in the LAAO group vs 7% of patients in control group over an average ...
4/10/20231 hour, 3 minutes, 10 seconds
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283. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Cardio-Obstetrics and Heart Failure with Dr. Mary Norine (Minnow) Walsh 

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Jenna Skowronski (Chief FIT at University of Pittsburgh) and Dr. Natalie Stokes (Formerly FIT at University of Pittsburgh and now General Cardiology Faculty at University of Pittsburgh) join transformational leader, educator and researcher, Dr. Mary Norine Walsh (Director of Heart Failure and Transplantation at Ascension St. Vincent Heart Center and Program Director of AHFT at St. Vincent) to discuss cardio-obstetrics and heart failure cases. Amongst her many accomplishments, Dr. Walsh is past president of the American College of Cardiology, Deputy Editor of JACC Case Reports, and a preeminent voice and thought leader in women’s cardiovascular health. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Pace Wetstein. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Cardio-Obstetrics and Heart Failure Case 1 Synopsis: A woman in her earlier 30s, G1P1, with a history significant for peripartum cardiomyopathy presents to clinic for pre-conception counseling.  Her prior pregnancy was in her late 20s with an uneventful pre-natal course and a spontaneous vaginal delivery at 37w2d.  Two weeks after delivery, she experienced symptoms of heart failure and was found to have a new diagnosis of HFrEF. At that time TTE showed LVEF 30-35%, LVIDd 5.1cm (top normal size), diffuse hypokinesis. At that time, she was diuresed and discharged on metoprolol succinate 25mg po daily and furosemide 20mg po daily.  She had one follow up visit 6 months postpartum and the furosemide was discontinued.  Today in your office, she has NYHA Class I symptoms with no signs of symptoms of congestion. She walks daily and does vigorous exercise 1-2 times per week, while remaining on metoprolol.  Repeat TTE with LVEF 45-50% and similar LV size. She would like to have another child and was referred to you for counseling. Case 1 Rounding Pearls: Dr. Walsh discussed extensively the importance of full GDMT in this patient who was initially undertreated with only a beta blocker.  If patients are breastfeeding, clinicians should consider the addition of ACE-Inhibitor and Spironolactone. Otherwise, if not breastfeeding, they should receive maximally tolerated doses of full GDMT. For more details on medical therapy for Heart Failure during pregnancy and after, refer to this previous CardioNerds Episode with Dr. Julie Damp. Patients with peripartum cardiomyopathy are at highest risk of worsening LV systolic function when they have persistent LV systolic dysfunction from their initial diagnosis. In this circumstance, shared decision making is paramount.  These patients should receive counseling on contraception and risk of pregnancy on worsening LV function, death, & fetal demise. In addition, counseling includes discussing with patients limited options in some states for complete, comprehensive reproductive care, including pregnancy termination. If patients with prior peripartum cardiomyopathy do become pregnant, a team-based approach including cardiologists, maternal fetal medicine, and obstetrics (amongst other team members) is essential to determine care & delivery timing/method.  These patients should also be examined for signs of decompensation throughout the pregnancy, including rales, S3 or a reported history of PND.
4/5/202335 minutes, 48 seconds
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282. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #20 with Dr. Michael Wesley Milks

The following question refers to Section 3.4 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by Brigham & Women’s medicine intern & Director of CardioNerds Internship Dr. Gurleen Kaur, and then by expert faculty Dr. Michael Wesley Milks. Dr. Milks is a staff cardiologist and assistant professor of clinical medicine at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center where he serves as the Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation and an associate program director of the cardiovascular fellowship. He specializes in preventive cardiology and is a member of the American College of Cardiology's Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Leadership Council. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #20 Ms. Ruma Toid is a 65-year-old African American woman who presents to your clinic in Ohio for routine follow up. She has a history of rheumatoid arthritis, hypertension, obesity, and sleep apnea. Her medications include methotrexate and atenolol. Her blood pressure in the office is 120/80 mmHg, heart rate 68 bpm, and oxygen saturation 99% on room air. Recent lipid testing revealed total cholesterol 165 mg/dL, HDL 42 mg/dL, and LDL 118 mg/dL. She was recently advised to talk to her doctor about taking a statin due to her risk factors but in the past has heard negative things about those medications and would like your advice on next steps. Her calculated ASCVD risk score based on the Pooled Cohort Equation is 7%. Which of the following choices would be the next step?AShe is at borderline risk for ASCVD events. A statin is not indicated at this time.BDue to her history of rheumatoid arthritis, her calculated ASCVD risk should be multiplied by 1.5, yielding an ASCVD risk of 10.5% placing her in the intermediate risk category. Moderate intensity statin would be indicated.CWhen other risk factors are present, rheumatoid arthritis is no longer an enhancing risk factor.DStatins are contraindicated when taking methotrexate. Answer #20 ExplanationThe correct answer is B. Due to her history of rheumatoid arthritis, her calculated ASCVD risk should be multiplied by 1.5, yielding an ASCVD risk of 10.5% placing her in the intermediate risk category. Moderate intensity statin would be indicated. Due to her history of rheumatoid arthritis, her calculated ASCVD risk should be multiplied by 1.5, yielding an ASCVD risk of 10.5% placing her in the intermediate risk category. Moderate intensity statin would be indicated. The ESC gives a Class IIa (LOE B) indication to multiply the calculated total CVD risk by a factor of 1.5 in adults with rheumatoid arthritis due to the observed 50% increased CVD risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This 50% increase in CVD risk attributed to RA is present beyond traditional risk factors, making answer choice C wrong. Answer A is incorrect because when borderline risk is calculated, one should still look for risk enhancers that could potentially increase ASCVD risk before final determination of statin indication. Answer choice D is false as there is no contraindication to take both methotrexate and statins together. Note that it is appropriate to use the pool cohort equations and American risk thresholds for this patient since she is in America where the PCE was validated (versus using SCORE2 risk model which would be more appropriate for European populations).Main TakeawayInflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease increase a person’s risk for ASCVD events. Specifically for rheumatoid arthritis, there is a Class IIa indication to multiply the calculated risk score by 1.5 to account for rheumatoid arthritis as a risk enhancer.
4/5/202313 minutes, 33 seconds
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281. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #14 with Dr. Javed Butler

The following question refers to Section 9.5 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.  The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Duke University cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Ambassador Dr. Aman Kansal, and then by expert faculty Dr. Javed Butler. Dr. Butler is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, President of the Baylor Scott and White Research Institute, Senior Vice President for the Baylor Scott and White Health, and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at the University of Mississippi. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #14 Mrs. Hart is a 70-year-old woman hospitalized for a 2-week course of progressive exertional dyspnea, increasing peripheral edema, and mental status changes. She has a history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure for which she takes aspirin, furosemide, carvedilol, lisinopril, and spironolactone. On physical exam, the patient is afebrile, BP is 80/60 mmHg, heart rate is 120 bpm, and respiratory rate is 28 breaths/min with O2 saturation of 92% breathing room air. She is sitting upright and is confused. Jugular venous pulsations are elevated. Cardiac exam reveals an S3 gallop. There is ascites and significant flank edema on abdominal exam. Her lower extremities have 2+ pitting edema to her knees and are cool to touch. Her labs are significant for an elevated serum Creatinine of 3.0 from a baseline of 1.0 mg/dL, lactate of 3.0 mmol/L, and liver enzyme elevation in the 300s U/L. Which of the following is the most appropriate initial treatment? A Increase carvedilol B Start dobutamine C Increase lisinopril D Start nitroprusside Answer #14 Explanation The Correct answer is B – start dobutamine. This patient with progressive congestive symptoms, mental status changes, and signs of hypoperfusion and end-organ dysfunction meets the clinical criteria of cardiogenic shock. The Class 1 recommendation is that in patients with cardiogenic shock, intravenous inotropic support should be used to maintain systemic perfusion and maintain end-organ performance (LOE B-NR). Their broad availability, ease of administration, and clinician familiarity favor such agents as first line when signs of hypoperfusion persist. Interestingly, despite their ubiquitous use for management of cardiogenic shock, there is a lack of robust evidence to suggest the clear benefit of one agent over another.  Therefore, the choice of a specific agent is guided by additional factors including vital signs, concurrent arrhythmias, and availability. For this patient, dobutamine is the only inotrope listed. Although she is tachycardic, her lack of arrhythmia makes dobutamine relatively lower risk and does not outweigh the potential benefits. Choice A – Increase carvedilol – is not correct. Beta-blockers should be continued in HF hospitalization whenever possible; however, in a patient with low cardiac output and signs of shock, beta-blockers should be discontinued due to their negative inotropic effects. Choice C – Increase lisinopril – is not correct. Afterload reduction is reasonable to decrease myocardial oxygen demand. However, given the hypotension and renal dysfunction, increasing lisinopril could be potentially dangerous by fur...
4/4/202313 minutes, 28 seconds
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280. CCC: Sedation in the Cardiac ICU with Dr. Christopher Domenico

The practice of critical care cardiology relies on the use of invasive hemodynamics, mechanical ventilation, mechanical circulatory support, and other advanced techniques to help our patients recover from critical cardiac illnesses. To facilitate these interventions, it is essential to have a broad understanding of how sedation and analgesia keep our patients comfortable and safe throughout their time in the CICU. In this episode, series co-chair, Dr. Yoav Karpenshif, and CardioNerds co-founder, Dr. Daniel Ambinder, are joined by Dr. Natalie Tapaskar, cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Ambassador from Stanford, and faculty expert, Dr. Chris Domenico, to discuss sedation in the cardiac ICU. Notes were drafted by Dr. Natalie Tapaskar. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Anusha Gandhi. We discuss the use of analgesics and sedative medications in the cardiac ICU. We dissect three cases of VT storm, heart failure associated cardiogenic shock, and cardiac arrest. We assess the hemodynamic, arrhythmic, and metabolic effects of opioids and sedatives and delve into the altered pharmacokinetics of these drugs during targeted temperature management. Most importantly, we highlight the use of structured pain and sedation scoring systems and discuss the recognition and management of ICU delirium both from a pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic standpoint. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Sedation in the Cardiac ICU with Dr. Christopher Domenico Think about analgesia and sedation as separate entities with management of analgesia first and sedation second. Frequent re-assessment of needs should be performed to reduce ICU delirium and improve long-term outcomes. Fentanyl is generally a good starting point for analgesia in the ICU since it is fast on/fast off, but can stick around for a long time the longer it is used. The choice of bolus or continuous infusion opioids depends on the clinical scenario and personal/institutional preference. Remember to administer bolus doses that are 50-100% of the hourly continuous infusion dose to reach steady state faster. When managing refractory VT storm with sedative agents (propofol, benzodiazepines and/or dexmedetomidine), you should target the deepest level of sedation necessary to suppress sympathetic drive. For cardiogenic shock patients, the choice of sedative agent is a nuanced decision. Think about etomidate first for intubation as it has the least cardiovascular and hemodynamic impact. And remember the propofol trifecta: negative inotropy, direct vasodilation, and bradycardia! Pharmacokinetics are disrupted during targeted temperature management, thus be weary of overly sedating patients due to reduced drug clearance. Show notes - Sedation in the Cardiac ICU with Dr. Christopher Domenico How do we initiate analgesics and sedatives? Analgesia first and sedation second! Analgesia: think about how to reduce a patient’s painEveryone has a different pain tolerance and critically ill patients can have moderate to severe pain at baseline. Metrics to assess pain include self-reported scales, behavioral scales, facial expressions, extremity movement, compliance with the ventilator, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypertension. Sedation: think about how to reduce a patient’s agitation or anxietyThe target depth of sedation depends on the clinical scenario.For example,
4/2/202354 minutes, 38 seconds
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279. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #19 with Dr. Eugene Yang

The following question refers to Section 3.2 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Ohio State University Cardiology Fellow Dr. Alli Bigeh, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugene Yang. Dr. Yang is professor of medicine of the University of Washington where he is medical director of the Eastside Specialty Center and the co-Director of the Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention Program. Dr. Yang is former Governor of the ACC Washington Chapter and current chair of the ACC Prevention of CVD Section.  The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #19 True or False: A 70-year-old male has an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk (using SCORE2-OP) of 7.5% which confers a very high CVD risk and necessitates treatment with a statin.  TRUE  FALSE  Answer #19 Explanation   FALSE – CVD risk thresholds for risk factor treatment are higher in apparently healthy people 70 years and older in order to prevent overtreatment in the elderly. A 10-year CVD risk ≥15% is considered “very high risk” for individuals ≥70 years of age (compared to a ≥7.5% cut-off for “very high risk” in younger patients 70 years of age, a 10-year CVD risk of 7.5 to 70 years of age, a 10-year CVD risk of <7.5 is considered “low-to-moderate risk” and would generally not qualify for risk factor treatment unless one or several risk modifiers are present.   Smoking cessation, lifestyle recommendations and a SBP <160 mmHg are recommended for all.  Main Takeaway  CVD risk assessment for patients 70-years and older is estimated using the SCORE2-OP algorithm. A predicted 10-year CVD risk score of ≥15% confers a very high CVD risk, however, this it is a class IIb indication to initiate/intensify lipid lowering therapies in these patients. Decision should be individualized and based on benefits vs risk assessment.  Guideline Loc.  3.2.3.5  CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
3/29/20236 minutes, 43 seconds
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278. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #13 with Dr. Anu Lala

The following question refers to Section 9.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.  The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Duke University cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Ambassador Dr. Aman Kansal, and then by expert faculty Dr. Anu Lala. Dr. Lala is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, associate professor of medicine and population health science and policy, Director of Heart Failure Research, and Program Director for the Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant fellowship training program at Mount Sinai. Dr. Lala is deputy editor for the Journal of Cardiac Failure. Dr. Lala has been a champion and role model for CardioNerds. She has been a PI mentor for the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Network and continues to serve in the program’s leadership. She is also a faculty mentor for this very 2022 heart failure decipher the guidelines series. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #13 Mrs. Hart is a 63-year-old woman with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (LVEF 20-25%) presenting with 5 days of worsening dyspnea and orthopnea. She takes carvedilol 12.5mg BID, sacubitril-valsartan 24-46mg BID, empagliflozin 10mg daily, and furosemide 40mg daily and reports that she has been able to take all her medications. What is the initial management for Mrs. H? A Assess her degree of congestion and hypoperfusion B Search for precipitating factors C Evaluate her overall trajectory D All of the above E None of the above Answer #13 Explanation The correct answer is D – all of the above.   Choice A is correct because in patients hospitalized with heart failure, the severity of congestion and adequacy of perfusion should be assessed to guide triage and initial therapy (Class 1, LOE C-LD). Congestion can be assessed by using the clinical exam to gauge right and left-sided filling pressures (e.g., elevated JVP, S3, edema) which are usually proportional in decompensation of chronic HF with low EF; however, up to 1 in 4 patients have a mismatch between right- and left-sided filling pressures. Hypoperfusion can be suspected from narrow pulse pressure and cool extremities, intolerance to neurohormonal antagonists, worsening renal function, altered mental status, and/or an elevated serum lactate. For more on the bedside evaluation of heart failure, enjoy Episode #142 – The Role of the Clinical Examination in Patients With Heart Failure – with Dr. Mark Drazner. Choice B, searching for precipitating factors is also correct. In patients hospitalized with HF, the common precipitating factors and the overall patient trajectory should be assessed to guide appropriate therapy (Class 1, LOE C-LD). Common precipitating factors include ischemic and nonischemic causes, such as acute coronary syndromes, atrial fibrillation and other arrhythmias, uncontrolled HTN, other cardiac disease (e.g., endocarditis), acute infections, anemia, thyroid dysfunction, non-adherence to medications or new medications. When initial clinical assessment does not suggest congestion or hypoperfusion, symptoms of HF may be a result of transient ischemia, arrhythmias, or noncardiac disease such as chronic pulmonary disease or pneumonia,
3/29/202321 minutes, 2 seconds
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277. Case Report: When Infarction Brings the Walls Down – Brigham and Women’s Hospital

CardioNerds (Amit and Dan) join Dr. Maria Pabon (cardiology fellow), Dr. Kevin Bersell (cardiology fellow), Dr. Saad Sultan Ghumman (interventional cardiology fellow), and Dr. Rhanderson Cardoso (cardiovascular imaging fellow) from Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Together, they explore a complex case of STEMI that was further complicated by ventricular free wall rupture. Additionally, Dr. Ajar Kochar, Program Director for Interventional Cardiology at Brigham and Women's Hospital, provides an insightful "ECPR" segment, adding a unique perspective to the case. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. This is the case of a patient who presented with STEMI and was found to have a moderate pericardial effusion with echogenic material within the pericardial space concerning for thrombus. Urgent CTA/CT surgery was engaged due to concern for dissection, but no evidence of dissection, rupture or intramural hematoma was found. The patient underwent an urgent pericardiocentesis which yielded 350cc of hemorrhagic fluid, leading to an improvement in hemodynamic status. A coronary angiogram was performed which showed a 100% thrombotic occlusion of OM 1, the culprit lesion for the STEMI. Due to the possibility of a delayed STEMI and high suspicion for mechanical complication of MI, aspirin and IV cangrelor were chosen as the preferred antiplatelet strategy. However, cangrelor was held and cardiac surgery was consulted, as LV free wall rupture was suspected. The patient underwent urgent repair of the LV free wall rupture, with an uneventful post-op recovery and discharge on day 8 to cardiac rehab. CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Pearls - When Infarction Brings the Walls Down - Brigham and Women’s Hospital In the era of primary PCI, mechanical complications of MI are relatively rare. Timely recognition using multi-modality imaging and prompt surgical intervention can result in favorable outcomes. An approach that involves a Heart Team can be advantageous in optimizing outcomes in such complex cases. Show Notes - When Infarction Brings the Walls Down - Brigham and Women’s Hospital Incidence of post AMI LV free wall rupture: 0.1-1% Risk factors for LV Free wall Rupture: Older age Female sex Prior HTN 1st lateral or Anterior Wall MI Protective factors towards free wall rupture: LV hypertrophy CHF Hx of prior infarcts Chronic ischemic heart disease Early use of beta blockers post MI Timely intervention Incidence of Mortality associated with mechanical rupture related to AMI: 8-10% When to suspect a mechanical complication of AMI: AMI with shock/hypotension New murmur New pericardial effusion > 10mm on bedside echo Other etiologies that can cause free wall rupture: Trauma Cardiac infection Aortic dissection Cardiac tumors Infiltrative diseases Iatrogenic from PCI or surgical procedures References - When Infarction Brings the Walls Down - Brigham and Women’s Hospital Varghese S, Ohlow MA. Left ventricular free wall rupture in myocardial infarction: A retrospective analysis from a single tertiary center. JRSM Cardiovasc Dis. 2019 Jan-Dec;8:2048004019896692. doi: 10.1177/2048004019896692. PMID: 31970072. Pineda-De Paz, D.O.,
3/28/20231 hour, 5 minutes, 22 seconds
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276. Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Renal Dysfunction with Dr. Brian Houston and Dr. Nisha Bansal

CardioNerds (Dr. Amit Goyal), Dr. Sonu Abraham (CardioNerds Ambassador from Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, MA) discuss left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) and the implications of renal dysfunction with Dr. Brian Houston and Dr. Nisha Bansal. This episode will focus on the intersection of left ventricular assist devices and renal dysfunction. Patients with a combination of heart failure and renal dysfunction overall have a guarded prognosis and their management poses unique challenges to the clinician. We initially discuss the basics of an LVAD and general approach to LVAD candidacy evaluation. We then discuss specific implications of acute kidney injury, presence of preexisting CKD, and end stage renal disease in patients with/being considered for an LVAD. Risk factor identification and prognostication allows for appropriate selection of the right candidates for an LVAD in the context of renal disease. Dr. Brian Houston is the Director of the Mechanical Circulatory Support program at Medical University of South Carolina. Dr. Nisha Bansal is an Associate Professor and the Arthur Stach Family Endowed Professor in the Division of Nephrology, an investigator at the Kidney Research Institute, the Director of Nephrology Clinical and Research Education, and the Director of the Kidney-Heart Service at the University of Washington. Notes were drafted by Dr. Sonu Abraham and episode audio was edited by student Dr. Chelsea Amo-Tweneboah. Check out the CardioNerds Failure Heart Success Series Page for more heart success episodes and content! CardioNerds Heart Success Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Renal Dysfunction End stage renal disease (CKD on dialysis) is considered an absolute contraindication for LVAD implantation. Select young patients who are being considered for heart-kidney transplantation in the near future may be candidates for an LVAD as a bridge to heart-kidney transplantation. LVAD implantation can improve kidney function in the short term in patients with AKI primarily caused by cardio-renal syndrome. Patients with pre-existing CKD (not dialysis dependent) have a greater risk of developing AKI after LVAD implantation.   Several dialysis modalities including in-center hemodialysis, home hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis are available for LVAD patients. However, there are several challenges associated with each modality. An AV graft is a useful vascular access option in LVAD patients undergoing hemodialysis due to a lower risk of infection and ease of immediate use. Causes for anemia in patients with an LVAD and renal dysfunction include anemia of chronic disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, and pump thrombosis leading to hemolysis. Show notes - Left Ventricular Assist Devices and Renal Dysfunction Notes: (drafted by Dr. Sonu Abraham) What is a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and what are its components? An LVAD supports circulation by unloading the left ventricle and providing increased cardiac output to help support organ perfusion. Use in properly selected patients is associated with improved quality of life and increased survival. The current iteration of LVADs offer continuous flow, as opposed to the older versions which employed pulsatile flow. Components of the LVAD: Inflow cannula (sucks blood from the LV) Pump Outflow cannula (dumps blood into the aorta) Percutaneous driveline Electrical controller How is a patient evaluated for LVAD candidacy? The 2 main questions to be answered during the evaluation of a patient for an LVAD are:             1. Are they sick enough? Do they have end stage heart failure?             2. Do we expect the benefits of an LVAD to outweigh the risks? ...
3/22/202357 minutes, 24 seconds
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275. Case Report: A Rare Cause Of Fatigue, Dyspnea, And Weight Loss In An Elderly Man – Brigham and Women’s Hospital

CardioNerds (Amit and Dan) join Dr. Khaled Abdelrahman, Dr. Gurleen Kaur, and Dr. Danny Pipilas from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Residency Program for Italian food and cannolis at the North End in Boston as they discuss the case of an elderly man with primary cardiac lymphoma. They review an approach to intracardiac masses, discuss advantages and disadvantages of various imaging modalities for the evaluation of intracardiac masses, and also delve into anthracycline toxicity. The E-CPR segment is provided by Dr. Ron Blankstein, Associate Director of the Cardiovascular Imaging Program and Director of Cardiac Computed Tomography at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. A 76-year-old man with a history of hyperlipidemia presented with one month of progressively worsening fatigue, weight loss, and dyspnea on exertion. Physical exam was notable for a 3/6 systolic murmur at the left upper sternal border, a flopping sound along the sternum heard throughout the cardiac cycle, and JVP elevated to the level of the mandible. TTE revealed a large heterogeneous echodensity in the right ventricular (RV) free wall that extended into the pericardium and into the RV myocardium with mobile components in the RV cavity and obstruction of the RV outflow tract. Nongated CT chest showed a solid nodule in the periphery of the left lower lung lobe. Gated cardiac CTA revealed a large heterogenous mass in the right atrioventricular groove that encased the proximal thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery and invaded the RV myocardium and RV outflow tract along with a large pericardial effusion. On cardiac MRI, the mass was isointense to the myocardium on T1-weighted images, hyperintense on T2-weighted images, and had heterogenous enhancement on late gadolinium enhancement images. Overall, the imaging findings were highly suspicious for cardiac lymphoma which was confirmed with biopsy of the lung nodule; pathology showed a large B cell lymphoma. The patient was treated with R-CHOP therapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), and TTE after 6 cycles of chemotherapy demonstrated resolution of the RV mass. CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media 1.  There is a large homogeneous mass in the right atrioventricular groove that extends anterior to the right ventricular outflow tract, pulmonary artery, and ascending aorta, measuring up to 9.4 x 7.1 cm (axial) x 13 cm (craniocaudal). The mass encases the proximal thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery. The mass invades the right ventricular myocardium, the right ventricular outflow tract, the pulmonary artery, and proximal main pulmonary artery. There is severe stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract due to obstruction by the mass. The mass encases the right coronary artery, without compression of the artery. There is enhancement of this mass on delayed contrast imaging. Collectively, these findings suggest cardiac lymphoma. 2.  There is a large pericardial effusion, circumferential, measuring up to 2.2 cm adjacent to the right atrium and up to 2.3 cm anterior to the intraventricular septum. There is pericardial enhancement, indicative of pericardial inflammation. 3.  This study was not optimized for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,
3/20/202342 minutes, 29 seconds
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274. Cardio-Oncology: Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction (CTRCD) – The Cardiologist Perspective with Dr. Joerg Hermann

CardioNerds co-founder Amit Goyal, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, Dr. Teodora Donisan, and Dr. Anjali Agarwalla get the cardiologist perspective of Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction (CTRCD) from Dr. Joerg Hermann. We previously learned from the oncologist perspective with Dr. Susan Dent in Episode #261! In this episode, we discuss the history of cancer therapies and our developing understanding of how these life-saving medications can cause cardiac toxicities. As we manage patients in the CardioNerds CardioOncology clinic, we ask Dr. Hermann how the general cardiologist should approach patients with a cancer diagnosis, when should a patient be referred to a cardiooncology specialist, and what are the common cardiotoxicities to look out for. We’ll also place a quick consult to our guest expert’s goldendoodle! Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction (CTRCD) – The Cardiologist Perspective with Dr. Joerg Hermann Patients with malignancy will incur several “hits” in addition to their malignancy and its subsequent treatment — these include their genetics, environment, and comorbidities. The role of the cardiologist is to identify how the combination of these “hits” can bring cardiovascular disease to the forefront and where we can intervene upon it. The sooner we recognize cardiotoxicity, the better the outcome for our patients. Patients should receive baseline risk assessment with TTE and biomarkers with routine surveillance. You cannot assign a percentage to cardiac risk in cancer. Patients require a multidisciplinary approach with constant monitoring and surveillance. Consider exercise testing when conducting pre-treatment risk assessment and during monitoring. Peak VO2 abnormalities is often the first marker of cardiotoxicity — though note that it correlates well with global longitudinal strain (GLS). If someone develops a cardiovascular complication of chemotherapy, this should prompt referral to cardiooncology. Show notes - Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction (CTRCD) – The Cardiologist Perspective with Dr. Joerg Hermann What types of cardiovascular pathology occur in the setting of cancer and its treatment? We conventionally thought of cardiotoxicities as being of two types: Type 1: irreversible cardiac injury that does not improve despite withdrawal of offending chemotherapeutic (protype = classic anthracycline cardiotoxicity) Type 2: reversible cardiac dysfunction that improves with discontinuation of chemotherapeutic (prototype = classic traztuzumab cardiotoxicity) However, we have begun moving away from this thought process as it has become more evident that injuries historically thought of as “type 1” may not be as relentless as previously understood, and that patients with type 2 dysfunction may not actually be returning to completely normal after the offending agent is withdrawn. As such, this episode proposes two other ways to frame our understanding of cardiotoxicities: a clinical/practical approach, based on symptoms (symptomatic vs asymptomatic — this is the approach used by the ESC guidelines), and a mechanistic approach: direct effect on cardiac myocytes, indirect effects (e.g., effect on coronaries), and inflammatory effects.
3/16/202355 minutes
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273. Digital Health: The Digital Transformation of Cardiovascular Medicine with Dr. Dipti Itchhaporia

Join CardioNerds Co-Founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, Dr. Nino Isakadze (EP Fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital), Dr. Karan Desai (Cardiology Faculty at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview) and student Dr. Shivani Reddy (Medical Student at Western Michigan University Homer Stryker SOM), as they discuss how digital health in changing the landscape of CV Disease Management with Dr. Dipti Itchhaporia (Past President of the ACC). The overall goal of this episode is to broadly describe the current landscape of digital health for cardiovascular disease, define “digital health tools” and describe their role in cardiovascular disease management. Episode audio was edited by student Dr. Shivani Reddy and show notes were developed by Dr. Nino Isakadze. In this series, supported by an ACC Chapter Grant and in collaboration with Corrie Health, we hope to provide all CardioNerds out there a primer on the role of digital heath in cardiovascular medicine. Use of versatile hardware and software devices is skyrocketing in everyday life. This provides unique platforms to support healthcare management outside the walls of the hospital for patients with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. In addition, evolution of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and telemedicine is augmenting clinical decision making at a new level fueling a revolution in cardiovascular disease care delivery. Digital health has the potential to bridge the gap in healthcare access, lower costs of healthcare and promote equitable delivery of evidence-based care to patients. This CardioNerds Digital Health series is made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Nino Isakadze and Dr. Karan Desai.   Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. CardioNerds Digital Health Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes COVID 19 pandemic accelerated the digital transformation of healthcare. Digital health tools exist for disease prediction, diagnosis and management. Digital health can increase access to care and lower overall cost expenditure. Clinicians, policy makers, and insurance providers should be involved to facilitate rapid and effective adoption of digital health interventions to better patient and population health. Notes 1. How did the COVID-19 pandemic accelerate the process of adopting digital health tools in healthcare including cardiovascular disease management? Although technological advances and technological transformation have been implemented in many aspects of our lives, their adoption in healthcare, including cardiovascular disease management has lagged behind. The COVID-19 pandemic was a force that led to the Tech-celeration as we adopted telemedicine and remote patient monitoring platforms in a short time to preserve access to healthcare. Technology became essential not to replace but to support face to face interactions. Reimbursement models were rapidly created that fit digital healthcare delivery; however it remains unclear whether these models will continue to be in effect in the post pandemic era. 2.  Can you discuss broadly the current landscape of evidence-based digital health tools available for cardiovascular disease management? Three components of digital health landscape can be broken down as follows:Virtual care/telehealth platformsRemote patient monitoring systems including implanted devices, patches, wearables, smartphone applications and more Artificial intelligence to allow meaningful use of the big data obtained from remote patient monitoring systems in therapeutic and disease management pathways    3.
3/14/202329 minutes, 34 seconds
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272. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Hemodynamics and Mechanical Circulatory Support with Dr. Daniel Burkhoff

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Karan Desai (Formerly FIT at University of Maryland Medical Center and currently faculty at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine) joins Dr. Dan Burkhoff (Director of Heart Failure, Hemodynamics and MCS Research at the Cardiovascular Research Foundation) to discuss mechanical circulatory support options through the lens of pressure-volume loops! Dr. Burkhoff is the author of Harvi, an interactive simulation-based application for teaching and researching many aspects of ventricular hemodynamics. Don’t miss this wonderfully nerdy episode with a world-renowned expert in hemodynamics and MCS! Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Hemodynamics and Mechanical Circulatory Support Case Synopsis: Case SynopsisWe focused on one case during these rounds. A man in his mid-50s presented to his local community hospital with 3 days of chest pain, nausea, and vomiting. He appeared ill in the emergency room with HR in the 150s, BP 90/70s and ECG demonstrating inferior ST elevations. He was taken emergently to the catheterization lab and received overlapping stents to his right coronary artery. Over the next 24 hours, he developed a new harsh systolic murmur heard throughout his precordium and progressed to cardiogenic shock. Echocardiogram demonstrated a large basal inferoseptum ventricular septal rupture. From this point, we discussed the hemodynamics of VSR and MCS options. Case Takeaways Dr. Burkhoff took us through the hemodynamics of VSR with pressure-volume loops to better understand the pathology and impact of various MCS options. Of note, there are no MCS devices specifically approved to treat acute ventricular septal rupture. In regards to the acute hemodynamic effects of a VSR (an abrupt left to right shunt), there are several aspects to note. First, the effective LV afterload is reduced; however, there is less “forward flow” as well and as a consequence, decreased left-sided cardiac output (“Qs”) and blood pressure. At the same time, flow through the pulmonary artery increases (the “Qp”). Additionally, due to the abrupt shunt flow, there is increased RV “loading” with increasing central venous pressure and pulmonary artery pressure. The hemodynamic priorities in treating patients with cardiogenic shock and VSR are to normalize blood pressure, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery, while attempting to minimize shunt flow to allow healing. However, medications and MCS are unlikely to completely normalize hemodynamics. For instance, if the patient was placed on peripheral VA ECMO, while total CO and BP may increase, flow across the VSR could also increase at high ECMO flows (e.g., by introducing more LV afterload). In patients with persistent cardiogenic shock and VSR, short-term MCS to divert flow away from the shunt can be an effective strategy. LV-to-aorta or LA-to-arterial MCS may provide the best single-device hemodynamic profiles by decreasing shunt flow, reducing pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and improving blood pressure. Surgical and percutaneous VSD repair are the definitive treatment options. If able to stabilize patients and pursue delayed repair,
3/12/202332 minutes, 5 seconds
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271. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #12 with Dr. Shashank Sinha

The following question refers to Section 9.5 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.  The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student & CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Brigham & Women’s medicine resident and Director of CardioNerds Internship Dr. Gurleen Kaur, and then by expert faculty Dr. Shashank Sinha. Dr. Sinha is an Assistant Professor of Medical Education at the University of Virginia School of Medicine and an advanced heart failure, MCS, and transplant cardiologist at Inova Fairfax Medical Campus. He currently serves as both the Director of the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit and Cardiovascular Critical Care Research Program at Inova Fairfax. He is also a Steering Committee member for the multicenter Cardiogenic Shock Working Group and Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network and an Associate Editor for the Journal of Cardiac Failure, the official Journal of the Heart Failure Society of America. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #12 Mr. Shock is a 65-year-old man with a history of hypertension and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (LVEF 25%) who is admitted with acute decompensated heart failure. He is currently being diuresed with a bumetanide drip, but is only making 20 cc/hour of urine. On exam, blood pressure is 85/68 mmHg and heart rate is 110 bpm. His JVP is at 12 cm and extremities are cool with thready pulses. Bloodwork is notable for a lactate of 3.5 mmol/L and creatinine of 2.5 mg/dL (baseline Cr 1.2 mg/dL). What is the most appropriate next step? A Augment diuresis with metolazone B Start sodium nitroprusside C Start dobutamine D Start oral metoprolol E None of the above Answer #12 Explanation The correct answer is C – start dobutamine.   In this scenario, the patient is in cardiogenic shock given hypotension and evidence of end-organ hypoperfusion on exam and labs. The patient’s cool extremities, low urine output, elevated lactate, and elevated creatinine all point towards hypoperfusion.   In patients with cardiogenic shock, intravenous inotropic support should be used to maintain systemic perfusion and preserve end-organ function (Class 1, LOE B-NR). Further, in patients with cardiogenic shock whose end-organ function cannot be maintained by pharmacologic means, temporary MCS is reasonable to support cardiac function (Class 2a, LOE B-NR).   The SCAI Cardiogenic Shock Criteria can be used to divide patients into stages. Stage A is a patient at risk for cardiogenic shock but currently not with any signs or symptoms, for example, a patient presenting with a myocardial infarction without present evidence of shock. Stage B is “pre-shock” – this may be a patient who has volume overload, tachycardia, and hypotension but does not have hypoperfusion based on exam and lab evaluation. Stage C is classic cardiogenic shock – the cold and wet profile. Bedside findings for Stage C shock include cool extremities, weak pulses, altered mental status, decreased urine output, and/or respiratory distress. Lab findings include impaired renal function, increased lactate, increased hepatic enzymes, and/or acidosis. Stage D is deteriorating with worsening hypotension and hypoperfusion with escalating use of pressors or mechanical circulatory support.
3/8/202316 minutes, 58 seconds
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270. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #11 with Dr. Prateeti Khazanie

The following question refers to Section 8.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.  The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student & CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Brigham & Women’s medicine resident and Director of CardioNerds Internship Dr. Gurleen Kaur, and then by expert faculty Dr. Prateeti Khazanie. Dr. Khazanie is an Associate Professor and Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiologist at the University of Colorado. She was an undergraduate at Duke University as a B.N. Duke Scholar. She spent two years at the NIH in the lab of Dr. Anthony Fauci and completed a dual MD-MPH program at Duke Medical School. When she started residency, she thought she was going to be an ID doctor, but she fell in love with cardiology at Stanford where she was an intern, resident, and then chief resident. She went back to Duke for her general cardiology and advanced heart failure/transplant fellowships as well as research training at the DCRI. Dr. Khazanie joined the University of Colorado in 2015 as a health services clinician researcher with a focus on improving health equity and bioethics in advanced heart failure care. She mentors medical students, residents, and fellows and is a faculty mentor for the University of Colorado Cardiology Fellows “House of Cards” mentoring group. She has research funding from the NIH/NHLBI K23, NIH Ethics Grant, and Ludeman Center for Women’s Health Research. Dr. Khazanie is an author on the 2022 ACC/AHA/HFSA HF Guidelines, the 2021 HFSA Universal Definition of Heart Failure, and multiple scientific statements. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #11 A 64-year-old woman with a history of chronic systolic heart failure secondary to NICM (LVEF 15-20%) s/p dual chamber ICD presents for routine follow-up. She reports several months of progressive fatigue, dyspnea, and peripheral edema. She has been hospitalized twice in the past year with acute decompensated heart failure. Efforts to optimize guideline directed medical therapy have been tempered by episodes of lightheadedness and hypotension. Her exam is notable for an elevated JVP, an S3 heart sound, and a III/VI holosystolic murmur best heard at the apex with radiation to the axilla. Labs show Na 130 mmol/L, Cr 1.8 mg/dL (from 1.1 mg/dL 6 months prior), and NT-proBNP 1,200 pg/mL. ECG in clinic shows sinus rhythm and a nonspecific IVCD with QRS 116 ms. Her most recent TTE shows biventricular dilation with LVEF 15-20%, moderate functional MR, moderate functional TR and estimated RVSP of 40mmHg. What is the most appropriate next step in management? A Refer to electrophysiology for upgrade to CRT-D B Increase sacubitril-valsartan dose C Refer for advanced therapies evaluation D Start treatment with milrinone infusion Answer #11 Explanation The correct answer is C – refer for advanced therapies evaluation. Our patient has multiple signs and symptoms of advanced heart failure including NYHA Class III-IV functional status, persistently elevated natriuretic peptides, severely reduced LVEF, evidence of end organ dysfunction, multiple hospitalizations for ADHF, edema despite escalating doses of diuretics, and progressive intolerance to GDMT. Importantly, the 2018 European Society of Cardiology revised definition of advanced HF focuses...
3/7/202318 minutes, 19 seconds
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269. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #10 with Dr. Michelle Kittleson

The following question refers to Section 7.7 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by St. George's University medical student and CardioNerds Intern Chelsea Tweneboah, answered first by Baylor College of Medicine Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Ambassador Dr. Jamal Mahar, and then by expert faculty Dr. Michelle Kittleson.Dr. Kittleson is Director of Education in Heart Failure and Transplantation, Director of Heart Failure Research, and Professor of Medicine at the Smidt Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai. She is Deputy Editor of the Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, on Guideline Writing Committees for the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association, is the Co Editor-in-Chief for the ACC Heart Failure Self-Assessment Program, and on the Board of Directors for the Heart Failure Society of America. Her Clinician’s Guide to the 2022 Heart Failure guidelines, published in the Journal of Cardiac Failure, are a must-read for everyone!The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #10 Ms. Heffpefner is a 54-year-old woman who comes to your office for a routine visit. She does report increased fatigue and dyspnea on exertion without new orthopnea or extremity edema. She was previously diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, morbid obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, and TIA. She is currently prescribed metformin 1000mg twice daily, aspirin 81mg daily, rosuvastatin 40mg nightly, and furosemide 40mg daily. In clinic, her BP is 140/85 mmHg, HR is 110/min (rhythm irregularly irregular, found to be atrial fibrillation on ECG), and BMI is 43 kg/m2. Transthoracic echo shows an LVEF of 60%, moderate LV hypertrophy, moderate LA enlargement, and grade 2 diastolic dysfunction with no significant valvulopathy. What is the best next step? A Provide reassurance B Refer for gastric bypass C Refer for atrial fibrillation ablation D Start metoprolol and apixaban Answer #10 ExplanationThe correct answer is D – start metoprolol and apixaban.Ms. Hefpeffner has a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) and has a significantly elevated risk for embolic stroke based on her CHA2DS2-VASc score of 6 (hypertension, diabetes, heart failure, prior TIA, and female sex). The relationship between AF and HF is complex and the presence of either worsens the status of the other. Managing AF in patients with HFpEF can lead to symptom improvement (Class 2a, LOR C-EO). However, large, randomized trial data are unavailable to specifically guide therapy in patients with AF and HFpEF. Generally, management of AF involves stroke prevention, rate and/or rhythm control, and lifestyle / risk-factor modification. With regards to stroke prevention, patients with chronic HF with permanent-persistent-paroxysmal AF and a CHA2DS2-VASc score of ≥2 (for men) and ≥3 (for women) should receive chronic anticoagulant therapy (Class 1, LOE A). When anticoagulation is used in chronic HF patients with AF, a DOAC is recommended over warfarin in eligible patients (Class 1, LOE A).The decision for rate versus rhythm control should be individualized and reflects both patient symptoms and the likelihood of better ventricular function with sinus rhythm. For patients with HF and symptoms caused by AF,
2/28/202311 minutes, 35 seconds
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268. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #9 with Dr. Nancy Sweitzer

The following question refers to Section 7.6 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.  The question is asked by premedical student and CardioNerds Intern Pacey Wetstein, answered first by Baylor College of Medicine Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Ambassador Dr. Jamal Mahar, and then by expert faculty Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. Dr. Sweitzer is Professor of Medicine, Vice Chair of Clinical Research for the Department of Medicine, and Director of Clinical Research for the Division of Cardiology at Washington University School of Medicine. She is the editor-in-chief of Circulation: Heart Failure. Dr. Sweitzer is a faculty mentor for this Decipher the HF Guidelines series. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #9 Mr. Flo Zin is a 64-year-old man who comes to discuss persistent lower extremity edema and dyspnea with mild exertion. He takes amlodipine for hypertension but has no other known comorbidities. In the clinic, his heart rate is 52 bpm and blood pressure is 120/70 mmHg. Physical exam reveals mildly elevated jugular venous pulsations and 1+ bilateral lower extremity edema. Labs show an unremarkable CBC, normal renal function and electrolytes, a Hb A1c of 6.1%, and an NT-proBNP of 750 (no prior baseline available). On echocardiogram, his LVEF is 44% and nuclear stress testing was negative for inducible ischemia. What is the best next step in management? A Add furosemide BID and daily metolazone B Start empagliflozin and furosemide as needed C Start metoprolol succinate D No change to medical therapy Answer #9 Explanation The correct answer is B – start empagliflozin and furosemide as needed. The patient described here has heart failure with mildly reduced EF (HFmrEF), given LVEF in the range of 41-49%. In patients with HF who have fluid retention, diuretics are recommended to relieve congestion, improve symptoms, and prevent worsening HF (Class 1, LOE B-NR). For patients with HF and congestive symptoms, addition of a thiazide (eg, metolazone) to treatment with a loop diuretic should be reserved for patients who do not respond to moderate or high-dose loop diuretics to minimize electrolyte abnormalities (Class 1, LOE B-NR). Therefore, option A is not correct as he is only mildly congested on examination, and likely would not require such aggressive decongestive therapy, particularly with normal renal function. Adding a thiazide diuretic without first optimizing loop diuretic dosing would be premature. The EMPEROR-Preserved trial showed a significant benefit of the SGLT2i, empagliflozin, in patients with symptomatic HF, with LVEF >40% and elevated natriuretic peptides. The 21% reduction in the primary composite endpoint of time to HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death was driven mostly by a significant 29% reduction in time to HF hospitalization, with no benefit on all-cause mortality. Empagliflozin also resulted in a significant reduction in total HF hospitalizations, decrease in the slope of the eGFR decline, and a modest improvement in QOL at 52 weeks. Of note, the benefit was similar irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes at baseline. In a subgroup of 1983 patients with LVEF 41% to 49% in EMPEROR-Preserved, empagliflozin, an SGLT2i, reduced the risk of the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospitalization f...
2/22/202312 minutes, 31 seconds
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267. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #8 with Dr. Gregg Fonarow

The following question refers to Section 7.3 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Palisades Medical Center medicine resident & CardioNerds Intern Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by MedStar Washington Hospital Center cardiology hospitalist & CardioNerds Academy Graduate Dr. Luis Calderon, and then by expert faculty Dr. Gregg Fonarow.Dr. Fonarow is the Professor of Medicine and Interim Chief of UCLA's Division of Cardiology, Director of the Ahmanson-UCLA Cardiomyopathy Center, and Co-director of UCLA's Preventative Cardiology Program.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #8 Ms. Flo Zinn is a 60-year-old woman seen in cardiology clinic for follow up of her chronic HFrEF management. She has a history of stable coronary artery disease, hypertension, hypothyroidism, and recurrent urinary tract infections. She does not have a history of diabetes and recent hemoglobin A1c is 5.0%. Her current medications include carvedilol, sacubitril-valsartan, eplerenone, and atorvastatin. Her friend was recently placed on an SGLT2 inhibitor and asks if she should be considered for one as well. Which of the following is the most important consideration when deciding to start this patient on an SGLT2 inhibitor? A The patient does not have a history of type 2 diabetes and so does not qualify for SGLT2 inhibitor therapy B While SGLT2 inhibitors improve hospitalization rates for HFrEF, there is no evidence that they improve cardiovascular mortality C Patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors tend to suffer a more rapid decline in renal function than patients not taking SGLT2 inhibitor therapy D Patients may be at a higher risk for genitourinary infections if an SGLT2 inhibitor is started Answer #8 Explanation   The correct answer is D – SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with increased risk of genitourinary infections. Sodium-glucose co-transporter protein 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have gathered a lot of press recently as the new kid on the block with respect to heart failure management. While they were initially developed as antihyperglycemic medications for treating diabetes, early cardiovascular outcomes trials showed reduced rates of heart failure hospitalization amongst study participants independent of glucose-lowering effects and irrespective of baseline heart failure status – only 10-14% of patients carried a heart failure diagnosis at baseline. This prompted trials to study the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with symptomatic chronic HFrEF who were already on guideline directed medical therapy irrespective of the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials showed that dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, respectively, both conferred statistically significant improvements in a composite of heart failure hospitalizations and cardiovascular death (Option B). Most interestingly, these effects were seen irrespective of diabetes history. In light of these findings, the 2022 HF guidelines recommend SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with chronic, symptomatic HFrEF with or without diabetes to reduce hospitalization for HF and cardiovascular mortality (Class I, LOE A). The benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors extend beyond cardiovascular health.
2/21/202310 minutes, 43 seconds
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266. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #7 with Dr. Robert Mentz

The following question refers to Section 7.3.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.  The question is asked by Palisades Medical Center medicine resident & CardioNerds Intern Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by MedStar Washington Hospital Center cardiology hospitalist & CardioNerds Academy Graduate Dr. Luis Calderon, and then by expert faculty Dr. Robert Mentz.  Dr. Mentz is associate professor of medicine and section chief for Heart Failure at Duke University, a clinical researcher at the Duke Clinical Research Institute, and editor-in-chief of the Journal of Cardiac Failure. Dr. Mentz is a mentor for the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Network as lead principal investigator for PARAGLIDE-HF and is a series mentor for this very 2022 heart failure Decipher the Guidelines Series. For these reasons and many more, he was awarded the Master CardioNerd Award during ACC22. Welcome Dr. Mentz!  The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #7 Ms. Valarie Sartan is a 55-year-old woman with a history of HFrEF (EF 35%) and well controlled, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus who presents to heart failure clinic for routine follow up. She is currently being treated with metoprolol succinate 200mg daily, lisinopril 10mg daily, empagliflozin 10mg daily, and spironolactone 50mg daily. She notes stable dyspnea with moderate exertion, making it difficult to do her yardwork. On exam she is well appearing, and blood pressure is 115/70 mmHg with normal jugular venous pulsations and trace bilateral lower extremity edema. On labs, her potassium is 4.0 mmol/L and creatinine is 0.7 mg/dL with an eGFR > 60 mL/min/1.73m2. Which of the following options would be the most appropriate next step in heart failure therapy?  A  Increase lisinopril to 40mg daily  B  Increase spironolactone to 100mg daily  C  Add sacubitril-valsartan to her regimen  D  Discontinue lisinopril and start sacubitril-valsartan in 36 hours  E  No change  Answer #7 Explanation   The correct answer is D – transitioning from an ACEi to an ARNi is the most appropriate next step in management.   The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) is upregulated in patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Blockade of the RAAS system with ACE inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), or angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNi) have proven mortality benefit in these patients.   The PARADIGM-HF trial compared sacubitril-valsartan (an ARNi) with enalapril in symptomatic patients with HFrEF. Patients receiving ARNi incurred a 20% relative risk reduction in the composite primary endpoint of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization. Based on these results, the 2022 heart failure guidelines recommend replacing an ACEi or ARB for an ARNi in patients with chronic symptomatic HFrEF with NYHA class II or III symptoms to further reduce morbidity and mortality (Option D). This is a class I recommendation with level of evidence of B-R and is also of high economic value. Making no changes at this time would be inappropriate (Option E).  While it would be reasonable to increase the dose of lisinopril to 40mg (Option A), this should be pursued only if ARNi therapy is not tolerated.   Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have a class I (LOE A...
2/15/202312 minutes, 20 seconds
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265. Case Report: An Unusual Case of Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic

CardioNerds co-founder Daniel Ambinder joins Dr. Essa Hariri, Dr. Anna Scandinaro, Dr. Beka Bekhdatze, and Dr. Ashley Kasper (Cleveland Clinic cardiology fellows) as well as Dr. Craig Parris from Ohio State University Medical Center for a walk at Edgewater Park in Cleveland, Ohio. Dr. Andrew Higgins (Crtitical Care Cardiology and Advanced HF / Transplant Cardiology at Cleveland Clinic) provides the ECPR for this episode. They discuss the following case involving a rare cause of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. A young African American male was admitted for cardiogenic shock following an admission a month earlier for treatment resistant psychosis. He was diagnosed with medication-induced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, which resolved with a remarkable recovery of his systolic function after discontinuation of the culprit medication, Clozapine. Episode notes were drafted by Dr. Essa Hariri. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Shivani Reddy. Enjoy this case report co-published in US Cardiology Review: Clozapine-induced Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report CardioNerds is collaborating with Radcliffe Cardiology and US Cardiology Review journal (USC) for a ‘call for cases’, with the intention to co-publish high impact cardiovascular case reports, subject to double-blind peer review. Case Reports that are accepted in USC journal and published as the version of record (VOR), will also be indexed in Scopus and the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - An Unusual Case of Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy The diagnosis of drug-induced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy is usually one of exclusion. High clinical suspicion is needed to diagnose drug-induced cardiomyopathy. Missing the culprit medication causing drug-induced cardiomyopathy could be detrimental as there is a high probability of reversing a systolic dysfunction after stopping the offending medication. Clozapine is an effective medication for the treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is associated with reduced suicide risk. Clozapine is reported to cause drug-induced cardiomyopathy and is more common with rapid drug titration. Clozapine is more commonly associated with myocarditis. Close monitoring and vigilance are critical to preventing cardiac complications associated with initiating clozapine. The management of clozapine-associated cardiomyopathy includes clozapine cessation and heart failure guideline-directed medical therapy. Show Notes - An Unusual Case of Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy We treated a case of clozapine-associated cardiomyopathy presenting in cardiogenic shock. Drug-induced cardiomyopathy is a common yet under-recognized etiology of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication frequently prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and the only antipsychotic agent that has been proven to significantly reduce suicide among this patient population. However, Clozapine is reported to be associated with several forms of cardiotoxicity, including myocarditis (most common), subclinical clozapine associated cardiotoxicity, and least commonly, drug-induced cardiomyopathy. Clozapine-associated cardiomyopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis in schizophrenic patients presenting with signs of acute heart failure.  Rapid titration of clozapine is a risk factor for clozapine-associated cardiomyopathy and clozapine-associated myocarditis. To date, there is no evidence or consensus supporting preemptive screening. According to the American Psychiatric Association, whenever clozapine-induced myocarditis or cardiomyopathy is suspected, a cardiology consult is warranted. Experts recommend, when initiating clozapine,
2/15/202353 minutes, 33 seconds
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264. CCC:  Approach to Renal Replacement Therapy in the CICU with Dr. Joel Topf

Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is routinely utilized in the CICU. Series co-chairs Dr. Eunice Dugan and Dr Karan Desai along with CardioNerds Co-founder Dr. Daniel Ambinder were joined by FIT lead and CardioNerds Ambassador from University of Washington, Dr. Tomio Tran. Our episode expert is world-renowned nephrologist Dr. Joel Topf. Dr. Topf is Medical Director of Research at St. Clair Nephrology, and editor of the Handbook of Critical Care Nephrology. In this episode, we describe a case of cardiogenic shock due to acute myocardial infarction resulting in renal failure, ultimately requiring continuous RRT (CRRT). We discuss the most common causes of AKI within the cardiac ICU, indications for initiating RRT, evidence on the timing of RRT, different modes of RRT, basic management of the RRT circuit, and how to transition patients off of RRT during renal recovery. Episode notes were drafted by Dr. Tomio Tran. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Approach to Renal Replacement Therapy in the CICU Do not commit “Renalism” - withholding lifesaving treatments from patients with renal impairment due to fear of causing renal injury. Shared decision making is key. In the ICU, most of the time, AKI is caused by ATN due to adverse hemodynamics. Nephrologists can help determine the cause if the patient has an atypical presentation. Late dialysis initiation is non-inferior to early dialysis initiation. Early initiation may lead to higher rates of prolonged time on dialysis. Slow low efficiency daily diafiltration (SLEDD) vs CRRT are equivalent in terms of outcomes and are the preferred methods among patients with hypotension. Intermittent Hemodialysis (iHD) can be used once patients are hemodynamically stable. A “Furosemide Stress Test” can be used to test intact renal function or renal recovery by challenging the nephron to make urine. Show notes - Approach to Renal Replacement Therapy in the CICU What are the risk factors and differential for AKI in the CICU? Start by using the pre-renal vs intrinsic renal vs post-renal framework. Additional considerations in cardiac patients include contrast induced nephropathy, pigment nephropathy, cardiorenal syndrome. Enjoy Episode 262. Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome in the CICU. In the ICU setting, intrinsic renal injury due to ATN is among the most common etiology of AKI. Many risk factors for AKI are not modifiable in the ICU. Optimize renal function by avoiding nephrotoxins, minimizing contrast usage, and keeping the MAP >65-75 mmHg. Contrast nephropathy as an etiology is questionable and may be a marker of a sicker patient population. Avoid “Renalism” - providing substandard care to patients with renal disease due to fear of worsening renal function. Most etiologies are treated with supportive care. What is the approach to timing of renal replacement therapy initiation? Definitions for early vs late vs very late initiation of RRT:Early – Worsening AKI without indications for RRTLate – Worsening AKI with relative indications for RRT Very late – Worsening AKI with strict indications for RRT Late initiation is noninferior in terms of mortality; early initiation is associated with higher rates of prolonged/permanent RRT.1,2,3 Very late initiation associated with worse outcomes.4 In general,
2/12/202347 minutes, 42 seconds
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263. ACHD: Patent Ductus Arteriosus & Eisenmenger Syndrome with Dr. Candice Silversides

Join CardioNerds to learn about patent ducts arteriosus and Eisenmenger syndrome! Dr. Dan Ambinder (CardioNerds co-founder), ACHD series co-chair Dr. Dan Clark,  Dr. Tony Pastor (ACHD fellow, Harvard Medical School), and Dr. Kate Wilcox, Medicine/Pediatrics Resident, Medical College of Wisconsin join Dr. Candice Silversides (Editor-in-chief #JACCAdvances) for this terrific discussion. Notes were drafted by Dr. Kate Wilcox. .Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Patent Ductus Arteriosus & Eisenmenger Syndrome The ductus arteriosus, which is formed from the distal portion of the left sixth arch, is key to fetal circulation because it allows blood to bypass the high resistance pulmonary circuit present in utero. After birth there is a significant drop in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) which generally leads to functional ductal closure within 48 hours (permanent seal takes 2-3 weeks to form). Risk factors for having a PDA include birth before 37 weeks of gestation, trisomy 21, and congenital rubella. A PDA results in a left to right shunt (qP:qS >1) which over time overloads the left side of the heart and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling. The extra workload on the left side of the heart causes left atrial (can cause atrial arrhythmias) and left ventricular dilation. If left untreated you can eventually have shunt reversal due to very high PVR (Eisenmenger physiology). There are some treatment options at this point (pulmonary vasodilators, etc) but it’s definitely better to close the PDA before this point. One interesting physical exam finding that can stem from shunt reversal in a hemodynamically significant PDA is differential cyanosis (upper body or pre-ductal saturations will be higher than lower body/post-ductal saturations). You can also see clubbing in the toes but not the hands for the same reason. Meet Our Collaborators! Adult Congenital Heart AssociationFounded in 1998, the Adult Congenital Heart Association is an organization begun by and dedicated to supporting individuals and families living with congenital heart disease and advancing the care and treatment available to our community. Our mission is to empower the congenital heart disease community by advancing access to resources and specialized care that improve patient-centered outcomes. Visit their website (https://www.achaheart.org/) for information on their patient advocacy efforts, educational material, and membership for patients and providers CHiP Network The CHiP network is a non-profit organization aiming to connect congenital heart professionals around the world. Visit their website (thechipnetwork.org) and become a member to access free high-quality educational material, upcoming news and events, and the fantastic monthly Journal Watch, keeping you up to date with congenital scientific releases. Visit their website (https://thechipnetwork.org/) for more information.
2/10/202327 minutes, 24 seconds
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262. CCC: Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome in the CICU with Dr. Nayan Arora and Dr. Elliott Miller

The Cardiorenal Syndrome is commonly encountered, and frequently misunderstood. Join the CardioNerds team as we discuss the complex interplay between the heart and kidneys with Dr. Elliott Miller (Assistant Professor of Medicine at Yale University School of Medicine and Associate Medical Director of the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit of Yale New Haven Hospital), and Dr. Nayan Arora (Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine and Nephrologist at the University of Washington Medical Center). We are hosted by FIT lead Dr. Matthew Delfiner (Cardiology Fellow at Temple University), Cardiac Critical Care Series Co-Chairs Dr. Mark Belkin (AHFTC faculty at University of Chicago) and Dr. Karan Desai (Cardiologist at Johns Hopkins Hospital), and CardioNerds Co-Found Dr. Dan Ambinder. In this episode we discuss the definition and pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome, explore strategies for initial diuresis and diuretic resistance, and management of the common heart failure medications in this setting. Show notes were developed by Dr. Matthew Delfiner. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome in the CICU Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) represents a range of clinical entities in which there is both heart and kidney dysfunction, and can be driven by one, or both, of the organs. CRS is caused by reduced renal perfusion, elevated renal congestion, or a combination of the two. Treatment therefore focuses on increasing perfusion, by optimizing cardiac output and mean arterial pressure, and reducing congestion through diuresis. Patients should be monitored for an adequate response to the initial diuretic dose within 2 hours of administration. If the response is inadequate, the loop diuretic dose should be doubled. Diuretic resistance can be managed via sequential nephron blockade, most commonly with thiazide diuretics, but also with amiloride, high-dose spironolactone, or acetazolamide, as these target different regions of the nephron. In cases of refractory diuretic resistance, hypertonic saline can be considered with the help of an experienced clinician. Continuation or cessation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in the setting of CRS should be made on a case-by-case basis. Show notes - Management of Cardiorenal Syndrome in the CICU 1. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) is a collection of signs/symptoms that indicate injury to both the heart and kidneys. Organ dysfunction in one can drive dysfunction in the other. Cardiorenal syndrome can be categorized as: Type 1 - Acute heart failure causing acute kidney injury Type 2 - Chronic heart failure causing chronic kidney injury Type 3 - Acute kidney injury causing acute heart failure Type 4 - Chronic kidney injury causing chronic heart failure Type 5 - Co-development of heart and kidney injury by another systemic process. These categories can be helpful for education, discussion, and research purposes, but they do not usually enter clinical practice on a regular basis since different categories of cardiorenal syndrome are not necessarily treated differently. 2. CRS is caused by either reduced renal perfusion, elevated renal congestion, or a combination of the two. When dealing with CRS, note that: CRS can be caused by poor kidney perfusion,
2/6/202341 minutes, 18 seconds
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261. Cardio-Oncology: Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction (CTRCD) – The Oncologist Perspective with Dr. Susan Dent

Dr. Filip Ionescu (hematology-oncology fellow at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa, FL), Dr. Teodora Donisan (cardiology fellow at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN and CardioNerds House Thomas chief), Dr. Sarah Waliany (internal medicine chief resident at Stanford University in Palo Alto, CA), Dr. Dinu Balanescu (internal medicine chief resident at Beaumont Hospital in Royal Oak, MI) and Dr. Amit Goyal (structural interventional cardiology fellow at the Cleveland Clinic, in Cleveland, OH and CardioNerds Co-Founder), discuss the cardiotoxicities of common cancer treatments with Dr. Susan Dent, a medical oncologist and one of the founders of the field of Cardio-Oncology. Using the recently published ESC Guidelines on cardio-oncology, they cover cardiovascular risk stratification in oncology patients, pretreatment testing, as well as prevention and management of established cardiotoxicity resulting from anthracyclines, trastuzumab, and fluoropyrimidines. They touch on the unique aspects of cardio-oncology encountered in patients with breast cancer, rectal cancer, and lung cancer, who are frequently the recipients of multiple cardiotoxic treatments. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. Access the CardioNerds Cardiac Amyloidosis Series for a deep dive into this important topic. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cancer Therapy-Related Cardiac Dysfunction (CTRCD) – The Oncologist Perspective with Dr. Susan Dent Formal cardiovascular risk stratification must be performed prior to initiating a potentially cardiotoxic anticancer treatment regimen. Considering both drug toxicity and patient-related factors (e.g., age, smoking, hypertension etc) is important.  Anthracyclines affect the cardiomyocyte in complex ways which lead to a largely irreversible cardiomyopathy. All patients should have a pretreatment echocardiogram and ECG.  Trastuzumab cardiotoxicity, by contrast, is more like stunning the myocardium, which manifests as a reversible decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction which generally normalizes upon discontinuation of the drug.  The treatment of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy should involve interdisciplinary discussions and shared decision making with the patient. Beyond guideline-directed medical therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, management can include temporarily holding or permanently discontinuing the offending agent.  Fluoropyrimidine-associated cardiotoxicity manifests as cardiac ischemia from coronary vasospasm. A 5FU infusion is essentially a stress test as it tends to unmask clinically silent atherosclerosis.  Show notes What is the basic pretreatment assessment of any oncology patient who is to receive a potentially cardiotoxic regimen?  Awareness and management of the cardiovascular toxicity of oncology treatments are of paramount importance to be able to deliver treatment safely and to achieve maximal efficacy guided by an expert multidisciplinary team. Thanks to Dr. Dent and her colleagues’ work, this year we have seen the publication of the first Cardio-Oncology guideline (1). Perhaps the most important recommendation is that cancer patients about to start a cardiotoxic regimen should undergo formal cardiovascular risk stratification by considering both the adverse profile of the planned treatment...
1/31/202345 minutes, 40 seconds
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260. Case Report: Cardioembolic Stroke from an Unusual Valve Pathology from The University of Alabama at Birmingham

CardioNerds Cofounder Dr. Amit Goyal join Dr. Usman Hasnie and Dr. Will Morgan from University of Alabama at Birmingham for a hike up Red Mountain. They discuss the following case: A 75-year-old woman with prior mitral valve ring annuloplasty presented with subacute, intermittent, self-limiting neurologic deficits. Brain MRI revealed multiple subacute embolic events consistent with cardioembolic phenomena. Transesophageal echochardiogram discovered a mobile mass on the mitral valve as the likely cause for cardioembolic stroke. She was taken for surgical repair of the mitral valve. Tissue biopsy confirmed that the mass was an IgG4-related pseudotumor. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Neal Miller (Assistant Professor of Cardiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Adriana Mares Check out this published case report here: IgG4-Related Disease Masquerading as Culture-Negative Endocarditis! CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Cardioembolic Stroke due to an IgG4-related pseudotumor Surgical indications for endocarditis include severe heart failure, valvular dysfunction with severe hemodynamic compromise, prosthetic valve infection, invasion beyond the valve leaflets, recurrent systemic embolization, large mobile vegetations, or persistent sepsis (in infective endocarditis) despite adequate antibiotic therapy. IgG4 related disease is rare, and likely underrecognized due to the lack of reliable biomarkers. Biopsy and histologic confirmation are imperative to clinch the diagnosis. Cardiac manifestations of IgG4-related disease are rare but are often related to aortopathies. Valvular disease is extremely rare as a manifestation of the disease. Treatment of IgG4 related disease includes steroids as the first line treatment. IgG4 related disease requires a multi-disciplinary approach to both diagnose and treat. Show Notes - Cardioembolic Stroke due to an IgG4-related pseudotumor Notes were drafted by Dr. Hasnie and Dr. Morgan IgG4-related disease has a very diverse presentation including mimicry of infection, malignancy and other autoimmune conditions. It is a fibroinflammatory condition that results in deposition of IgG4 positive plasma cells. It has been described in multiple organ systems including the pancreas, kidneys, lungs and salivary glands.  Cardiac manifestations are extremely rare and valvular disease even more so. There are thirteen cases of IgG4 related valvular disease, and of these only two had mitral valve involvement such as this case. The most commonly reported cardiovascular manifestations are related to aortopathies.  This disease remains poorly understood at this point. There are no true biomarkers that can be used to risk stratify the diagnosis for clinicians. Biopsy is imperative to the diagnosis. Even serum IgG4 levels are normal in 30% of cases despite meeting histologic criteria on biopsy making the diagnosis incredibly difficult to make.  While guidelines have not been developed to guide treatment of IgG4-related disease, steroids are considered the first line treatment option for patients. Often times dosing is 2-4 weeks with a prolonged taper. When looking for glucocorticoid sparing agents, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and methotrexate are considered alternatives.  References - Cardioembolic Stroke due to an IgG4-related pseudotumor 1. Kamisawa T, Funata N, Hayashi Y, et al. A new clinicopathological entity of IgG4- related autoimmune disease. J Gastroenterol 2003;38:982-4.  2. Deshpande V, Zen Y, Chan JK, et al. Consensus statement on the pathology of IgG4-related disease. Mod Pathol. 2012;25(9):1181-1192. doi:10.1038/modpathol.2012.72  3. Dahlgren M,
1/22/202335 minutes, 42 seconds
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259. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #6 with Dr. Randall Starling

The following question refers to Section 7.4 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by New York Medical College medical student and CardioNerds Intern Akiva Rosenzveig, answered first by Cornell cardiology fellow and CardioNerds Ambassador Dr. Jaya Kanduri, and then by expert faculty Dr. Randall Starling.Dr. Starling is Professor of Medicine and an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist at the Cleveland Clinic where he was formerly the Section Head of Heart Failure, Vice Chairman of Cardiovascular Medicine, and member of the Cleveland Clinic Board of Governors. Dr. Starling is also Past President of the Heart Failure Society of America in 2018-2019. Dr. Staring was among the earliest CardioNerds faculty guests and has since been a valuable source of mentorship and inspiration. Dr. Starling’s sponsorship and support was instrumental in the origins of the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Program.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #6 Mr. D is a 50-year-old man who presented two months ago with palpations and new onset bilateral lower extremity swelling. Review of systems was negative for prior syncope. On transthoracic echocardiogram, he had an LVEF of 40% with moderate RV dilation and dysfunction. EKG showed inverted T-waves and low-amplitude signals just after the QRS in leads V1-V3. Ambulatory monitor revealed several episodes non-sustained ventricular tachycardia with a LBBB morphology. He was initiated on GDMT and underwent genetic testing that revealed 2 desmosomal gene variants associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Is the following statement true or false? “ICD implantation is inappropriate at this time because his LVEF is >35%” True   False   Answer #6 Explanation This statement is False. ICD implantation is reasonable to decrease sudden death in patients with genetic arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with high-risk features of sudden death who have an LVEF ≤45% (Class 2a, LOE B-NR). While the HF guidelines do not define high-risk features of sudden death, the 2019 HRS expert consensus statement on evaluation, risk stratification, and management of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy identify major and minor risk factors for ventricular arrhythmias as follows: Major criteria: NSVT, inducibility of VT during EPS, LVEF ≤ 49%. Minor criteria: male sex, >1000 premature ventricular contractions (PVCs)/24 hours, RV dysfunction, proband status, 2 or more desmosomal variants. According to the HRS statement, high risk is defined as having either three major, two major and two minor, or one major and four minor risk factors for a class 2a recommendation for primary prevention ICD in this population (LOE B-NR). Based on these criteria, our patient has 2 major risk factors (NSVT & LVEF ≤ 49%), and 3 minor risk factors (male sex, RV dysfunction, and 2 desmosomal variants) for ventricular arrhythmias. Therefore, ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death is reasonable. Decisions around ICD implantation for primary prevention remain challenging and depend on estimated risk for SCD, co-morbidities, and patient preferences, and so should be guided by shared decision making weighing the possible benefits against the risks,
1/20/20239 minutes, 31 seconds
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258. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #5 with Dr. Clyde Yancy

The following question refers to Section 7.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by New York Medical College medical student and CardioNerds Intern Akiva Rosenzveig, answered first by Cornell cardiology fellow and CardioNerds Ambassador Dr. Jaya Kanduri, and then by expert faculty Dr. Clyde Yancy.Dr. Yancy is Professor of Medicine and Medical Social Sciences, Chief of Cardiology, and Vice Dean for Diversity and Inclusion at Northwestern University, and a member of the AHA/ACC/HFSA Heart Failure Guideline Writing Committee.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #5 Ms. L is a 65-year-old woman with nonischemic cardiomyopathy with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 35%, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. She has been admitted to the hospital with decompensated heart failure (HF) twice in the last six months and admits that she struggles to understand how to take her medications and adjust her sodium intake to prevent this.  Which of the following interventions has the potential to decrease the risk of rehospitalization and/or improve mortality? A Access to a multidisciplinary team (physicians, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, care managers, etc) to assist with management of her HF   B Engaging in a mobile app aimed at improving HF self-care   C Vaccination against respiratory illnesses   D A & C   Answer #5   The correct answer is D – both A (access to a multidisciplinary team) and C (vaccination against respiratory illness).   Choice A is correct. Multidisciplinary teams involving physicians, nurses, pharmacists, social workers, care managers, dieticians, and others, have been shown in multiple RCTs, metanalyses, and Cochrane reviews to both reduce hospital admissions and all-cause mortality. As such, it is a class I recommendation (LOE A) that patients with HF should receive care from multidisciplinary teams to facilitate the implementation of GDMT, address potential barriers to self-care, reduce the risk of subsequent rehospitalization for HF, and improve survival. Choice B is incorrect.  Self-care in HF comprises treatment adherence and health maintenance behaviors. Patients with HF should learn to take medications as prescribed, restrict sodium intake, stay physically active, and get vaccinations. They also should understand how to monitor for signs and symptoms of worsening HF, and what to do in response to symptoms when they occur. Interventions focused on improving the self-care of HF patients significantly reduce hospitalizations and all-cause mortality as well as improve quality of life. Therefore, patients with HF should receive specific education and support to facilitate HF self-care in a multidisciplinary manner (Class I, LOE B-R). However, the method of delivery and education matters. Reinforcement with structured telephone support has been shown to be effective. In contrast the efficacy of mobile health-delivered educational interventions in improve self-care in patients with HF remains uncertain. Choice C is correct. In patients with HF, vaccinating against respiratory illnesses is reasonable to reduce mortality (Class 2a, LOE B-NR). For example, administration of the influenza vaccine in HF patients has been shown to reduce...
1/20/202312 minutes, 2 seconds
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257. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #4 with Dr. Eldrin Lewis

The following question refers to Section 4.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Texas Tech University medical student and CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by Baylor University cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Trialist Dr. Shiva Patlolla, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eldrin Lewis. Dr. Lewis is an Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiologist, Professor of Medicine and Chief of the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at Stanford University. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #4 Mr. Stevens is a 55-year-old man who presents with progressively worsening dyspnea on exertion for the past 2 weeks. He has associated paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, intermittent exertional chest pressure, and bilateral lower extremity edema. Otherwise, Mr. Stevens does not have any medical history and does not take any medications.  Which of the following will be helpful for diagnosis at this time? A  Detailed history and physical examination B  Chest x-ray C  Blood workup including CBC, CMP, NT proBNP D  12-lead ECG E All of the above   Answer #4   The correct answer is E – All of the above.  Mr. Stevens presents with signs and symptoms of volume overload concerning for new onset heart failure. The history and physical exam remain the cornerstone in the assessment of patients with HF. Not only is the H&P valuable for identifying the presence of heart failure but also may provide hints about the degree of congestion, underlying etiology, and alternative diagnoses. As such H&P earns a Class 1 indication for a variety of reasons in patients with heart failure: 1.       Vital signs and evidence of clinical congestion should be assessed at each encounter to guide overall management, including adjustment of diuretics and other medications (Class 1, LOE B-NR) 2.       Clinical factors indicating the presence of advanced HF should be sought via the history and physical examination (Class 1, LOE B-NR) 3.       A 3-generation family history should be obtained or updated when assessing the cause of the cardiomyopathy to identify possible inherited disease (Class 1, LOE B-NR) 4.       A thorough history and physical examination should direct diagnostic strategies to uncover specific causes that may warrant disease-specific management (Class 1, LOE B-NR) 5.       A thorough history and physical examination should be obtained and performed to identify cardiac and noncardiac disorders, lifestyle and behavioral factors, and social determinants of health that might cause or accelerate the development or progression of HF (Class 1, LOE C-EO) Building on the H&P, laboratory evaluation provides important information about comorbidities, suitability for and adverse effects of treatments, potential causes or confounders of HF, severity and prognosis of HF, and more. As such, for patients who are diagnosed with HF, laboratory evaluation should include complete blood count, urinalysis, serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, glucose, lipid profile, liver function tests, iron studies, and thyroid-stimulating hormone to optimize management (Class 1, LOE C-EO). In addition, the specific cause of HF should be explored using additional laboratory testi...
1/15/202323 minutes, 42 seconds
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256. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #3 with Dr. Shelley Zieroth

The following question refers to Section 3.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Texas Tech University medical student and CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by Rochester General Hospital cardiology fellow and Director of CardioNerds Journal Club Dr. Devesh Rai, and then by expert faculty Dr. Shelley Zieroth. Dr. Zieroth is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, Head of the Medical Heart Failure Program, the Winnipeg Regional Health Authority Cardiac Sciences Program, and an Associate Professor in the Section of Cardiology at the University of Manitoba. Dr. Zieroth is a past president of the Canadian Heart Failure Society. She is a steering committee member for PARAGLIE-HF and a PI Mentor for the CardioNerds Clinical Trials Program. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #3 Which of the following is/are true about heart failure epidemiology? A Although the absolute number of patients with HF has partly grown, the incidence of HF has decreased B Non-Hispanic Black patients have the highest death rate per capita resulting from HF C In patients with established HF, non-Hispanic Black patients have a higher HF hospitalization rate compared with non-Hispanic White patients D In patients with established HF, non-Hispanic Black patients have a lower death rate compared with non-Hispanic White patients E All of the above Answer #3 Explanation    The correct answer is “E – all of the above.”   Although the absolute number of patients with HF has partly grown as a result of the increasing number of older adults, the incidence of HF has decreased. There is decreasing incidence of HFrEF and increasing incidence of HFpEF. The health and socioeconomic burden of HF is growing. Beginning in 2012, the age-adjusted death-rate per capita for HF increased for the first time in the US. HF hospitalizations have also been increasing in the US. In 2017, there were 1.2 million HF hospitalizations in the US among 924,000 patients with HF, a 26% increase compared with 2013.   Non-Hispanic Black patients have the highest death rate per capita. A report examining the US population found the age-adjusted mortality rate for HF to be 92 per 100,000 individuals for non-Hispanic Black patients, 87 per 100,000 for non-Hispanic White patients, and 53 per 100,000 for Hispanic patients.   Among patients with established HF, non-Hispanic Black patients experienced a higher rate of HF hospitalization and a lower rate of death than non-Hispanic White patients with HF.Hispanic patients with HF have been found to have similar or higher HF hospitalization rates and similar or lower mortality rates compared with non-Hispanic White patients. Asian/Pacific Islander patients with HF have had a similar rate of hospitalization as non-Hispanic White patients but a lower death rate.   These racial and ethnic disparities warrant studies and health policy changes to address health inequity. Main Takeaway Racial and ethnic disparities in death resulting from HF persist, with non-Hispanic Black patients having the highest death rate per capita, and a higher rate of HF hospitalization. Further clinical studies and health policy changes are needed to address ...
1/13/20238 minutes, 11 seconds
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255. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #2 with Dr. Mark Drazner

The following question refers to Section 6.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Mount Sinai Hospital cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Trialist Dr. Jason Feinman, and then by expert faculty Dr. Mark Drazner. Dr. Drazner is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, Professor of Medicine, and Clinical Chief of Cardiology at UT Southwestern. He is the President of the Heart Failure Society of America. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #2 A 67-year-old man with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and active tobacco smoking presents to the emergency room with substernal chest pain for the past 5 hours. An electrocardiogram reveals ST segment elevations in the anterior precordial leads and he is transferred emergently to the catheterization laboratory. Coronary angiography reveals 100% occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending artery, and he is successfully treated with a drug eluting stent resulting in TIMI 3 coronary flow. Following his procedure, a transthoracic echocardiogram is performed which reveals a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% with a hypokinetic anterior wall. Which of the following medications would be the best choice to prevent the incidence of heart failure and reduce mortality? A Lisinopril B Diltiazem C Carvedilol D Sacubitril-valsartan E Both A and C Answer #2 The correct answer is E – both lisinopril and carvedilol are appropriate to reduce the incidence of heart failure and mortality. Evidence-based beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors both have Class 1 recommendations in patients with a recent myocardial infarction and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40% to reduce the incidence of heart failure and to reduce mortality. Multiple randomized controlled trials have investigated both medications in the post myocardial infarction setting and demonstrated improved ventricular remodeling as well as benefits for mortality and development of incident heart failure. At this time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend ARNi over ACEi for patients with reduced LVEF following acute MI. The PARADISE-MI trial randomized a total of 5,661 patients with myocardial infarction complicated by a reduced LVEF, pulmonary congestion, or both to receive either sacubitril-valsartan (97-103mg twice daily) or ramipril (5mg twice daily). After a median follow up time of 22 months, there was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome of cardiovascular death or incident heart failure. At this time, ARNi have not been included in the guidelines for this specific population. Diltiazem is a non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, a family of drugs with negative inotropic effects and which may be harmful in patients with depressed LVEF (Class 3: Harm, LOE C-LD). Main Takeaway:  For patients with recent myocardial infarction and reduced left ventricular function both beta blockers and ACEi have Class 1 recommendations to reduce the incidence of heart failure and decrease mortality. Guideline Location: Section 6.1
1/10/20238 minutes, 8 seconds
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254. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #1 with Dr. Biykem Bozkurt

The following question refers to Section 2.1 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Mount Sinai Hospital cardiology fellow and CardioNerds FIT Trialist Dr. Jason Feinman, and then by expert faculty Dr. Biykem Bozkurt. Dr. Bozkurt is the Mary and Gordon Cain Chair, Professor of Medicine, Director of the Winters Center for Heart Failure Research, and an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, TX. She is former President of HFSA, former senior associate editor for Circulation, current Editor-In-Chief of JACC Heart Failure. Dr. Bozkurt was the Vice Chair of the writing committee for the 2022 Heart Failure Guidelines. The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #1 A 23-year-old man presents to his primary care physician for an annual visit. His father was diagnosed with idiopathic cardiomyopathy at 40 years of age. His blood pressure in clinic is 146/90 mmHg. He is a personal trainer and exercises daily, including both weightlifting and cardio. He denies any anabolic steroid use. He is an active tobacco smoker, approximately ½ pack per day. Review of systems is negative for symptoms. What stage of heart failure most appropriately describes his current status? A Stage A B Stage B C Stage C D Stage D E None of the above Answer #1 The correct answer is A – Stage A of heart failure. Overall, the ACC/AHA stages of HF were designed to emphasize the development and progression of disease. More advanced stages and progression are associated with reduced survival. Stage A HF is where patients are “at risk for HF”, but without current or previous symptoms or signs of HF, and without structural/functional heart disease or abnormal biomarkers. At-risk patients include those with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, exposure to cardiotoxic agents, genetic variant for cardiomyopathy, or family history of cardiomyopathy. Stage B HF is the “pre-heart failure” stage where patients are without current or previous symptoms or signs of HF but do have at least one of the following: Structural heart disease (i.e., reduced left or right ventricular systolic function, ventricular hypertrophy, chamber enlargement, wall motion abnormalities, and valvular heart disease) Evidence of increased filling pressures Risk factors and increased natriuretic peptide levels or persistently elevated cardiac troponin in the absence of an alternate diagnosis Stage C HF indicates symptomatic heart failure where patients have current or previous symptoms or signs of HF. Stage D HF indicates advanced heart failure with marked HF symptoms that interfere with daily life and with recurrent hospitalizations despite attempts to optimize guideline-directed medical therapy. Therapeutic interventions in each stage aim to modify risk factors (Stage A), treat risk and structural heart disease to prevent HF (stage B), and reduce symptoms, morbidity, and mortality (stages C and D). Given this patient’s family and social histories, along with the clinical finding of elevated blood pressure, he is best classified as having Stage A, or at risk for HF.
1/9/202312 minutes, 44 seconds
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253. The 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Perspectives from Writing Committee Chair Dr. Paul Heidenreich

Join CardioNerds (Dr. Mark Belkin and Dr. Natalie Tapaskar) as they discuss the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure with Writing Committee Chair Dr. Paul Heidenreich. They discuss how one gets involved with a guideline writing committee, the nuts and bolts of the guideline writing process, pitfalls and utility of the term “GDMT,” background behind inclusion of “Value Statements,” potential omissions from the document, clinical uptake of recommendations, and anticipated changes for the next iteration. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Pace Wetstein. This discussion is a prelude to the CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series designed to enhance understanding and uptake of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. We will be using high-impact, board-style, clinical vignette-based questions to highlight core concepts relevant to your practice. We will do so by releasing several short bite-sized Pods with one question per episode. Note that the cases used are hypothetical and created solely to illustrate core concepts. This series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 Heart Failure Guidelines PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
1/8/202338 minutes, 47 seconds
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252. Cardio-Oncology: Cardiac Amyloidosis with Dr. Omar Siddiqi

The importance of recognition and diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis is at an all-time high due to its high prevalence and improved therapeutic strategies. Here we discuss what CardioNerds need to know about the manifestations, diagnosis, and management of transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL) cardiac amyloidosis. Join Dr. Dan Ambinder (CardioNerds Cofounder), Dr. Dinu-Valentin Balanescu (Series Cochair, Chief Resident at Beaumont Health, and soon FIT at Mayo Clinic), and Dr. Dan Davies (Episode FIT Lead and FIT at Mayo Clinic) as they discuss cardiac amyloidosis with Dr. Omar Siddiqi, cardiologist at the Boston University Amyloidosis Center and program director for the general cardiovascular fellowship program at Boston University, a CardioNerds Healy Honor Roll Program. Episode notes were drafted by Dr. Dan Davies. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. Access the CardioNerds Cardiac Amyloidosis Series for a deep dive into this important topic. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes Cardiac amyloidosis is no longer considered a rare disease, especially transthyretin amyloidosis in older male patients with HFpEF and aortic stenosis. Echocardiogram is the “gate keeper” of cardiac imaging and provides initial evidence of amyloid infiltration, while cardiac MRI can help refine the presence of an infiltrative cardiomyopathy versus other causes of increased wall thickness. The most clinically important types of amyloid heart disease are transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL) amyloidosis. The workup to differentiate these disorders includes a gammopathy panel to screen for the presence of potentially amyloidogenic light chains (serum and urine electrophoresis WITH immunofixation and serum free light chains), and cardiac scintigraphy with Technetium-99m-labeled bone-seeking tracers (PYP, DPD, etc.) to identify cardiac aTTR infiltration if the gammopathy panel is unrevealing. There is still a role for endomyocardial biopsy in the diagnosis of cardiac amyloidosis! All patients in whom there is concern for cardiac amyloidosis and gammopathy panel indicates the presence of monoclonal light chains should have a biopsy to obtain a tissue diagnosis of likely AL amyloidosis. Alternatively, an endocardial biopsy may prove valuable in patients who have confusing phenotypic features between amyloid types, such as a patient with abnormal monoclonal protein and positive PYP imaging. Be suspicious of heart failure patients that do not tolerate typical medications that lower heart rate. In the restrictive cardiomyopathy of cardiac amyloidosis, patients are reliant on higher heart rates to compensate for the inability to augment stroke volume. Be suspicious of amyloidosis in patients with recurrent left atrial thrombi despite anticoagulation. Show notes CardioNerds Cardiac Amyloid, updated 1.20.21 1. What is cardiac amyloidosis and how common is it? Cardiac amyloidosis is adisorder caused by misfolding of proteins into insoluble forms which are deposited into extracellular spaces of the heart, commonly causing a stiff and thick heart with progressive diastolic dysfunction with restrictive hemodynamics and ensuing heart failure. The two most common types of amyloid protein that affect the heart are transthyretin (ATTR) and light chain (AL).
1/6/202356 minutes, 23 seconds
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251. CCC: Palliative Care and Shared Decision-Making in the CICU with Dr. Larry Allen

This episode is focused on Palliative Care and Shared Decision-Making in the CICU. In this episode, we learn about how the principles of palliative care and shared decision-making apply to our patients across the spectrum of cardiovascular care, especially in the cardiac intensive care unit. We discuss pivotal trials of specialty palliative care and decision aids in cardiology and how they might inform our practice to enhance patient quality of life and improve goal-concordant care. Finally, we discuss practical tips and communication strategies for how to engage patients about end-of-life decisions and topics that can be utilized from outpatient to inpatient to critical care settings. “We need to help patients hope for the best and plan for the worst as time goes on.” Dr. Larry Allen Series co-chairs Dr. Eunice Dugan and Dr. Karan Desai, along with CardioNerds Co-founder Amit Goyal are joined by FIT lead, Dr. Sarah Chuzi. Dr. Chuzi is a Chicagoan and completed her internal medicine residency, cardiology fellowship, AHFTC fellowship and is now Assistant Professor at Northwestern University. Our episode expert is a true national leader in shared decision-making and palliative care in heart failure – Dr. Larry Allen, Medical Director of Advanced Heart Failure and the Co-Director of the Colorado Program for Patient-Centered Decisions at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Palliative Care and Shared Decision-Making in the CICU 1. “Much of what we do in cardiology is thinking about how to make people feel better (not just improving cardiac function or length of life). So, on a day-to-day basis we are really providing primary palliative care.” – Dr. Larry Allen 2. “Risk models in cardiology can only be so accurate… While risk models can give us some grounding, we also need to embrace the concept of uncertainty, and help patients understand that there are a variety of things that might happen to them, suggest some things they might plan for, and continue to iteratively come back to the patient and reevaluate what their options are.” – Dr. Larry Allen 3. “Our goal is to help people live happy, healthy, full lives. But, everyone dies. So understanding that death is a part of life and understanding how to help them make those transitions is critical” – Dr. Larry Allen 4. “Having good deaths is a part of good healthcare. We can’t ignore that. We can’t fight against it. We should embrace it. And we have the opportunity to do that.” – Dr. Larry Allen 5. We should still keep in mind the concept of medical futility and determining what options are reasonable for patients. Part of shared decision-making includes discussing what interventions would not be feasible or helpful with patients and families Show notes - Palliative Care and Shared Decision-Making in the CICU Notes drafted by Dr. Sarah Chuzi. 1. How are the basic principles of palliative care relevant to cardiology, and can you define the key concepts of shared decision-making, primary palliative care, specialty (or secondary) palliative care, and hospice care? Throughout medicine, we confront the concepts of symptom control, difficult medical decision-making, and end-of-life. These are the principles of palliative care and they apply very easily across the spec...
1/1/202358 minutes, 50 seconds
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250. ACHD: Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (PAPVR) with Dr. Ian Harris

Partial anomalous pulmonary venous return refers to anomalies in which one or more (but not all) of the pulmonary veins connects to a location other than the left atrium. This causes left to right shunting which may have hemodynamic and therefore clinical significance, warranting repair in some patients. Join CardioNerds to learn about partial anomalous pulmonary venous return! Dr. Dan Ambinder (CardioNerds co-founder), Dr. Josh Saef (ACHD FIT at the University of Pennsylvania and ACHD Series co-chair), and Dr. Tripti Gupta (ACHD FIT at Vanderbilt University and episode lead) learn from Dr. Ian Harris (Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease program at University of California, San Francisco). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Shivani Reddy. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (PAPVR) What is partial anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR)? PAPVR refers to anomalies in which one or more (but not all) of the pulmonary veins connects to a location other than the left atrium. Often, this means one or more pulmonary veins empty into the right atrium or a systemic vein such as the superior vena cava or inferior vena cava. Physiologically, this produces a left-to-right shunt, allowing for already-oxygenated blood to recirculate into the lungs and result in excessive pulmonary blood flow.  What are the clinical features of PAPVR?Diagnosis is usually incidental on a cross sectional imaging such as CTA or CMR.The most common associated lesion is an atrial-level defect.It is unusual for a single anomalous pulmonary venous connection of only 1 pulmonary lobe to result in significant shunting. Patients with a significant degree of left to right shunting may have right heart dilatation or symptoms of dyspnea on exertion. When are some strategies for managing patients with PAPVR?A surgical correction is recommended for patients with PAPVR when functional capacity is impaired and RV enlargement is present, there is a net left-to-right shunt sufficiently large to cause physiological sequelae (aka: ratio of pulmonary flow (Qp) to systemic flow (Qs) is > 1.5:1), PA systolic pressure is less than 50% systemic pressure and pulmonary venous resistance is less than one third of systemic venous resistance.Surgical repair involves intracaval baffling of the left atrium (Warden procedure) or direct reimplantation of the anomalous pulmonary vein into the left atrium.Pregnancy is well tolerated in patients with repaired PAPVR. In patients with unrepaired lesion who may have right sided heart dilatation and/or pulmonary hypertension, preconception evaluation and counseling should address how pregnancy may affect mother’s and fetus’s health. Antibiotic prophylaxis for infective endocarditis is typically not needed unless patients are less than 6 months from recent surgery, have residual defect at the patch margin or prior history of infective endocarditi...
12/26/202243 minutes, 28 seconds
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249. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – HFpEF Diagnosis and Management with Dr. Jane Wilcox

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Loie Farina (Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Fellow at Northwestern University) joins Dr. Jane Wilcox (Chief of the Section of Heart Failure Treatment and Recovery at Northwestern University) to discuss the nuances of HFpEF diagnosis and management. Dr. Wilcox is also the Associate Director of the T1 Center for Cardiovascular Therapeutics in the Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute and Director of the Myocardial Recovery Clinic at Northwestern University. Dr. Wilcox is a prolific researcher, clinician, and thought leader in Heart Failure and we are honored to have her on CardioNerds Rounds! Notes were drafted by Dr. Karan Desai. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Speaker disclosures: None Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - HFpEF Diagnosis and Management Case #1 Synopsis: A woman in her 80s with a history of HFpEF presented with worsening dyspnea on exertion over the course of a year but significantly worsening over the past two months. Her other history includes prior breast cancer with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, permanent atrial fibrillation with AV node ablation and CRT-P, and CKD Stage III. She presented for an outpatient RHC with exercise to further characterize her HFpEF. Her echo showed normal LV size, no LVH, LVEF of 50%, decreased RV systolic function, severe left atrial enlargement, significantly elevated E/e’ and mild MR. Right heart catheterization showed moderately elevated bi-ventricular filling pressures at rest but with passive leg raise and Stage 1 exercise the wedge pressure rose significantly. We were asked to comment on management. Case #1 Takeaways Amongst the things that were discussed were the role of specific therapies in symptomatic patients with HFpEF. In patients with HFpEF and documented congestion, they will require diuretic therapy for symptomatic relief. But in addition to diuretic therapy, we discussed starting HFpEF-specific therapies. Amongst, those specific therapies mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA) and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor. In multiple trials that have included patients with HFPEF, SGLT2i have reduced the risk of hospitalization. This includes the EMPEROR-PRESERVED Trial (see the CardioNerds Journal Club discussion on the trial) in which nearly 6000 patients with NYHA Class II-IV symptoms, EF > 40% and elevated NT-proBNP with a prior HF hospitalization within the past 12 months were randomized to Empagliflozin or placebo. The primary outcome – death from CV causes or hospitalization for Heart Failure – was significantly lower in the SGLT2i arm (13.8% vs 17.1%, 95% CI 0.69-0.90, P 45% to receive either spironolactone or placebo. The primary endpoint (death from CV cause, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for HF) was not statistically different between treatment arms. Of note, however, there were concerns for regional differences which is outlined well in this NEJM Evidence piece. Case #2 Synopsis: A woman in her 70s with history of hypertension, obesity,
12/18/202239 minutes, 22 seconds
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248. Cardiovascular Genomics: Frontiers in Clinical Genetics in Cardiovascular Prevention with Dr. Pradeep Natarajan

As the burden of cardiovascular disease increases in the United States, the importance of enhanced screening tools, early risk prediction, and prevention strategies grows. Novel risk scoring methods, including polygenic risk scores (PRS), may help identify patients that benefit from early intervention and risk modification. In this episode, we discuss how a PRS is calculated, how to incorporate a PRS into clinical practice, and current barriers to the equitable implementation of risk scores. In terms of frontiers in clinical genetics we also discuss the burgeoning field of pharmacogenetics and how pharmacogenetics may be used to identify responders and non-responders to certain therapies. Join CardioNerds Dr. Jessie Holtzman (CardioNerds Academy Chief and Chief Resident and soon FIT at UCSF), Dr. Alaa Diab (CardioNerds Academy Fellow and Medicine Resident at GBMC), and student doctor Hirsh Elhence (CardioNerds Academy Intern and medical student at USC Keck School of Medicine) as they discuss frontiers in clinical genetics with Dr. Pradeep Natarajan (Director of Preventive Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. This episode was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology and is supported with unrestricted educational funds from Illumina, Inc. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. This CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs. Pearls • Notes • References CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Frontiers in Clinical Genetics in Cardiovascular Prevention For common diseases like coronary artery disease, rare mutations may confer a several-fold increased risk of disease – for instance, in familial hypercholesterolemia, a single rare mutation may confer as much as a three-fold increase in risk of coronary artery disease. However, for most common diseases, the overall cumulative impact of several common genetic variants may be greater than that of a monogenetic trait. Family history is a particularly coarse predictor of CV risk, highlighting the need for polygenic risk scores. In particular, younger patients with borderline cardiovascular risk may benefit from the use of a polygenic risk score in the determination of their overall cardiovascular risk profile. A polygenic risk score (PRS) is a weighted sum of several risk-conferring alleles. The weight assigned to an allele is determined by the strength of the association between the allele and CV disease, as determined by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The data used for genome-wide associated studies in cardiovascular disease have historically included populations primarily of European ancestry. However, more data is being collected from diverse patient cohorts to increase the external validity and broader applicability of such studies. Pharmacogenetic polygenic risk scores may be used to predict drug efficacy and toxicity, as well as to identify biologically plausible drug targets for clinical trial design. Show notes - Frontiers in Clinical Genetics in Cardiovascular Prevention What is a polygenic risk score (PRS)? Monogenic conditions are those in which a variant in a single gene causes a pathological phenotype. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia is often the result of a mutated allele in the LDL receptor gene. In contrast, polygenic risk suggests that there are variants in multiple genes that all confer risk independently, each with a small individual effect size. By aggregating many variants,
12/8/202259 minutes, 50 seconds
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247. CCC: Biventricular Failure and the Use of VA-ECMO with Dr. Ann Gage

In this episode, we discuss the utility of veno-arterial extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) for the temporary management of biventricular failure and cardiogenic shock requiring full cardiopulmonary support. Here, we define the types of ECMO and describe the unique physiology of this mechanical circulatory support platform, as well as review the potential complications and management strategies. Most notably, we highlight indications for and contraindications to the use of VA-ECMO and review the importance of patient selection.  Lastly, we discuss de-escalation and de-cannulation strategies for patients on VA-ECMO as a bridge to recovery. Join Dr. Amit Goyal (CardioNerds Cofounder and FIT at Cleveland Clinic), Dr. Yoav Karpenshif (Series Co-chair and FIT at University of Pennsylvania), and Dr. Megan Burke (Episode FIT Lead and FIT at University of Pennsylvania) as they learn about how to care for some of our sickest patients from Dr. Ann Gage, interventional and critical care cardiologist at Centennial Heart. At the beginning of the episode, enjoy a message from the very first CardioNerds Scholar, Dr. Katie Vaughan (Chief Resident and soon Cardiology Fellow at BIDMC). Episode notes were developed by Dr. Megan Burke. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Hirsh Elhence. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Biventricular Failure and the Use of VA-ECMO Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a form of temporary mechanical circulatory support that can do the work of both the heart and lungs. The ECMO circuit is a narcissist, i.e. cannulas are named in reference to the circuit and not the patient (“inflow” vs “outflow”). The decision to utilize ECMO should be made by a multidisciplinary shock team and patient selection is KEY! ECMO physiology rule #1: VA-ECMO increases LV afterload Patients on VA-ECMO should be monitored with a PA catheter and an arterial line in the right arm Show notes - Biventricular Failure and the Use of VA-ECMO Notes drafted by Dr. Megan Burke. 1. What is ECMO and what are the different types? Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a temporary form of mechanical life support that comes in two flavors: veno-arterial, or “VA” and veno-venous, or “VV.”  VV-ECMO supports extracorporeal gas exchange in the setting of acute respiratory failure VA-ECMO provides full circulatory support in addition to gas exchange, doing the work of both the heart and lungs.  2. What are the components and “anatomy” of the VA-ECMO circuit? The circuit is made up of the following major components: Venous (inflow) cannula Centrifugal Pump Oxygenator (also responsible for CO2 removal) Arterial (outflow) cannula The cannulas are named in reference to the ECMO circuit, not the patient. Dr. Gage suggests that we think of the ECMO circuit (and mechanical circulatory support in general) as narcissistic, i.e. flow is always in reference to the device. Gas exchange happens in the oxygenator. In the oxygenator blood flows through thin filaments that allow for diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Gas flows in the opposite direction of blood flow to maximize diffusion through the countercurrent effect. Oxygenation is determined by rate of blood flow through the oxygenator and FiO2 delivered. Carbon dioxide removal is determined by rate of countercurrent gas flow,
12/5/202254 minutes, 56 seconds
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246. Cardiovascular Genomics: Genetic Counseling & Family Screening in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathies with Dr. Allison Hays and Dr. Cindy James

The CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics Series continues! In this episode Dr. Dan Ambinder (CardioNerds Cofounder and Interventional Cardiologist), Dr. Anjali Wagle (FIT Ambassador at Johns Hopkins) and Dr. James Sampognaro (medicine resident at Johns Hopkins Osler Medicine Residency) learn from Dr. Allison Hays (Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins CMR researcher and Medical Director of Echocardiography) and Dr. Cindy James (Associate Professor of Medicine and certified genetic counselor at Johns Hopkins with research focusing on cardiovascular genetic counseling and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies). They discuss arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy as the context to learn about genetic counseling and family screening.  Episode script and notes were developed by Dr. Anjali Wagle. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Chelsea Amo Tweneboah. This episode was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology and is supported with unrestricted educational funds from Illumina, Inc. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. This CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs. Check out this REVIEW describing the “Multimodality Imaging in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy” by Nitin Malik, Allison Hays, and colleagues.   For related episodes, please enjoy these case-based discussions:  Ep 56. Case Report: Arrhythmogenic Desmoplakin Cardiomyopathy – Northwestern University  Ep 74. Case Report: Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – Summa Health  Pearls • Notes • References CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Genetic Counseling & Family Screening in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathies Notes (developed by Dr. Anjali Wagle)   What is the underlying pathophysiology of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy (ARVC)?  Fibrofatty replacement cardiac myocytes  Associated with genetically mediated disruption of desmosomal proteins   This leads to thinning and weakness of the heart that can lead to aneurysms and progressive dilatation and failure of the right ventricle (RV)  How is ARVC diagnosed?  2010 taskforce criteria (Marcus et al, 2010):    RV structural abnormalities including findings seen on echocardiogram, MRI, and RV angiography  Pathological criteria  Repolarization abnormalities   Depolarization/conduction abnormalities   Ventricular arrhythmias   Genetics and/or family history   How does ARVC present?   Young, healthy individual will have symptoms of arrhythmias (syncope, pre-syncope, SCD) or heart failure  Family screening   What are the inheritance and genetic factors of ARVC?  Autosomal dominant pattern  Low penetrance and variable expressivity   Half of patients who are index cases will be found to have a mutation in the desmosomal gene.   What are the most common mutations associated with ARVC?  Most commonly the genes involved are plakophilin-2 (PKP-2) and desmoplakin.   For PKP-2 the most common mutations are truncating mutations.   In patients who have inherited two truncating mutations, this will result in neonatal lethality.   Is there a difference in the genetic factors of left and right arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy?   ACM is disproportionally a right dominated cardiomyopathy. Left dominated cardiomyopathy has a different genetic profile.   Pathogenic variants in desmoplakin disproportionally cause biventricular forms of ACM or left dominated forms.  
11/30/202245 minutes, 25 seconds
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245. ACHD: Ventricular Septal Defects with Dr. Keri Shafer

Congenital heart disease is the most common birth defect, affecting 1 in 100 babies. Amongst these ventricular septal defects are very common with the majority of patients living into adulthood. In this episode we will be reviewing key features of VSDs including embryologic origin, anatomy, physiology, hemodynamic consequences, clinical presentation and management of VSDs. Dr. Tommy Das (CardioNerds Academy Program Director and FIT at Cleveland Clinic), Dr. Agnes Koczo (CardioNerds ACHD Series Co-Chair and FIT at UPMC), and Dr. Anu Dodeja (Associate Director for ACHD at Connecticut Children’s) discuss VSDs with expert faculty Dr. Keri Shafer. Dr. Shafer is an adult congenital heart disease specialist at Boston Children’s Hospital, and an assistant professor of pediatrics within Harvard Medical School. She is a medical educator and was an invited speaker for the inaugural CardioNerds Sanjay V Desai Lecture, on the topic of growth mindset. Script and notes were developed by Dr. Anu Dodeja. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Shivani Reddy. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Ventricular Septal Defects Most common VSDs: Perimembranous VSD The shunt volume in a VSD is determined largely by the size of the defect and the pulmonary vascular resistance. VSDs cause left to right shunt. The long-term effects are left sided chamber dilation, as is the case with PDAs (post-tricuspid shunts) VSDs can be associated with acquired RVOTO, double chamber right ventricle, LVOTO/sub aortic membrane formation, and aortic regurgitation from aortic valve prolapse. Eisenmenger syndrome results from long-term left-to-right shunt, usually at higher shunt volumes. The resulting elevated pulmonary artery pressure is irreversible and leads to a reversal in the ventricular level shunt, desaturation, cyanosis, and secondary erythrocytosis. Endocarditis prophylaxis is not indicated for simple VSD. It is required for 6 months post VSD closure, in patients post VSD closure with a residual shunt and in Eisenmenger patients with R—>L shunt and cyanosis. Show notes - Ventricular Septal Defects Notes (developed by Dr. Anu Dodeja): What are types OF VSD? (Please note that there are several nomenclatures) Perimembranous VSDMost common type of VSD - 80% of VSDsOccurs in the membranous septum and can be associated with inlet or outlet extensionLocated near the tricuspid and aortic valves, often time can be closed off by tissue from the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve and associated with abnormalities in the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve secondary to damage from the left to right shuntCan be associated with acquired RVOTO, double chamber right ventricle, LVOTO/sub aortic membrane formation On TTE, the parasternal short axis view at the base demonstrates this type of VSD at the 10-12 o’clock position. Muscular VSDSecond most common VSD - 15-20% of VSDsCompletely surrounded by muscle,
11/28/20221 hour, 3 minutes, 50 seconds
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244. Cardiovascular Genomics: Intro to Cardiovascular Genetics in Electrophysiology with Dr. James Daubert

The field of Cardiovascular Genomics has advanced tremendously over the past two decades, having a significant clinical impact and changing the perception of the role and scope of genetic testing in several cardiovascular domains.  To kickstart the Cardiovascular Genomics series, CardioNerds Dr. Sara Coles (FIT at Duke University), Dr. Colin Blumenthal (CardioNerds Academy faculty and FIT at UPenn), and Dr. Karla Asturias (CardioNerds Academy fellow and medicine resident at Pennsylvania Hospital) have a great discussion with Dr. James Daubert, a clinical electrophysiologist at Duke University, with a particular interest in inherited arrhythmia syndromes and sports cardiology. In this episode, we review basic concepts of cardiovascular genomics and genetics in electrophysiology while discussing when to (and when not to!) test our patients and their families and how to approach those results. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Pace Wetstein. This episode was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology and is supported with unrestricted educational funds from Illumina, Inc. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. This CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs. Pearls • Notes • References CardioNerds Cardiovascular Genomics PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Genetics in Electrophysiology The first step is identifying the right phenotype! Getting the right phenotype is crucial, as genetic testing done in a patient without a clear phenotype (or an incorrect one) would lead to significant anxiety, unnecessary tests and interventions, and potentially misleading and dangerous conclusions for patients and their families. Genetic testing typically should be reserved for patients with a confirmed or suspected diagnosis of an inherited disease or for individuals with a previously diagnosed pathogenic variant in a first-degree relative.1 Discuss with your patient! Genetic counseling is essential and recommended for all patients before and after genetic testing. It should include a thorough discussion of risks, benefits, and possible outcomes, including variants of uncertain significance.2 Cardiovascular genetics is a dynamic and rapidly evolving field. New information can cause a variant of uncertain significance to be reclassified as a pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant or to be downgraded to benign or likely benign as variant databases expand. Another possibility is that new research might identify novel genes for a particular disease, which could warrant retesting, particularly for phenotype-positive and genotype-negative patients.1 Brugada syndrome is an inherited arrhythmogenic disorder characterized by ST-segment elevation in the right precordial leads and malignant ventricular arrhythmias, with occasional conduction disease and atrial arrhythmias. It is diagnosed in patients with ST-segment elevation ≥ 2 mm in ≥ 1 lead among the right precordial leads, with a type I morphology (J-point elevation with slowly descending or concave ST segment elevation merging into a negative T wave), shown in the image below. This pattern can be observed spontaneously or after provocative drug testing (e.g., procainamide). Pathogenic genetic variants in SCN5A that result in loss of function of the cardiac sodium channel are identified in approximately 20% of cases.3,4 Image adapted from Batchvarov VN. The Brugada Syndrome – Diagnosis, Clinical Implications and Risk Stratification. Eur Cardiol Rev. 2014;9(2):82. doi:10.15420/ECR.2014.9.2.82 Measure the QT interval yourself!
11/24/202253 minutes, 55 seconds
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243. Case Report: A Rare Case of Isolated Non-Compaction Cardiomyopathy – Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami

CardioNerds Cofounder Dr. Amit Goyal is joined by Dr. Douglas Salguero (Internal medicine resident), Dr. Francisco Ujueta (Cardiology fellow), and Dr. Priscilla Wessly (Chief cardiology fellow) from the Columbia University Division of Cardiology at Mount Sinai Medical Center in Miami to discuss a rare case of isolated non-compaction cardiomyopathy. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Christos Mihos (Director, Echocardiography Laboratory, Columbia University Division of Cardiology, Mount Sinai Medical Center). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Shivani Reddy.   CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Non-Compaction Cardiomyopathy Episode Schematics & Teaching The etiology has been a constant debate since 1980. It has been debated among researchers and clinicians whether LVNC is a physiologic or a pathologic manifestation. Waning et al., classified 327 unrelated patients into 3 categories: 1) genetic, 2) probably genetic, or 3) sporadic, identifying the most common mutations: MYH7, MYBPC3 and TTN in the genetic LVNC patients, which mostly encode for sarcomere, Z-disc and nuclear-envelope proteins. This supports the hypothesis that the inherited phenotype can arise from a gene mutation possibly during embryogenesis, disrupting the physiologic compaction of normally developing myocardium, which progresses from the base to the apex of the cardiac tissue. It is estimated that genetic LVNC accounts approximately 18-44% of cases, with autosomal dominant transmission being the most common form of inheritance. Physiologic remodeling with prominent trabeculations may be noted in athletes and pregnant women, in comparison to pathologic remodeling which may be encountered in patients with cardiomyopathy (e.g. pressure or volume load).  (1) There is no pathognomonic signs or symptoms in LVNC. LVNC patients may encounter various potential clinical characteristics. Presentations are myriad and include heart failure symptoms (HFrEF or HFpEF), ventricular tachycardia (VT/VF), atrial fibrillation, thromboembolism including cerebrovascular accident (CVA), and syncope. In a cohort of 95 probands with LVNC investigated in Europe, as many as 32.3% had an ICD/CRT-D implantation, with 11.8% experiencing a cardiovascular death and 18.2% having an appropriate ICD shock. (2) Imaging plays a key role in diagnosis for LVNC. The identification and diagnosis of LVNC is evaluated using 2D echocardiography. The initial proposed method by Chin et al., evaluated the size of the trabeculation in the center. (3) The most commonly used criteria, Jenni et al. (4), entail the following four finding: Two-layer structure, with a thin compacted layer and a thick non-compacted layer measure at end-systole at the parasternal short-axis view. LVNC is defined by a ratio of N/C > 2 Absence of co-existing cardiac structural abnormalities Prominent, excessive trabeculations and deep intra-trabecular recesses Recesses supplied by intraventricular blood on color doppler Cardiac MRI has increased the diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of LVNC. It has been suggested that a NC/C ratio of > 2.3 in diastole distinguished pathological non-compaction, with sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 99%, respectively. Although studies have shown an increase specificity with cardiac MRI, caution is needed as it may overestimate the presence of LVNC. Late gadolinium enhancement which suggests myocardial fibrosis or scar has been shown to have some prognostic value in LVNC patients. (5) Management for LVNC is multifaceted. As above,LVNC has a variety of presentations and prevailing manifestations will differ among patients. Therefore, the diagnostic and management approach much be personalized for a given patient...
11/20/202246 minutes, 2 seconds
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242. ACHD: Atrial Septal Defects with Dr. Richard Krasuski

CardioNerds (Dan Ambinder), episode lead Dr. Sarah Fahnhorst (ACHD Cardiologist at Spectrum Health in Grand Rapids, Michigan), and series co-chair Dr. Agnes Koczo (fellow at UPMC) learn about ASD from Dr. Richard Krasuski (ACHD Cardiologist and Director of ACHD at Duke University). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Adriana Mares An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart disease most often diagnosed in childhood, but initial presentation can be in adulthood. ASDs are abnormal communications between the left and the right atrium.  There are four types of ASDs with different embryologic origins. If the defects are large, they will require percutaneous or surgical closure. Unrepaired defects can lead to symptoms of shortness of breath, exercise intolerance, recurrent chest infections, or pulmonary hypertension. This episode of CardioNerds will review the natural history, embryologic origin, diagnostic modalities/findings, indication for closure and long term complications of repaired and unrepaired atrial septal defects.  The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Atrial Septal Defects It’s a CLASSIC! – On physical exam a wide fixed split S2 along with a systolic ejection murmur due to increased blood flow across the pulmonary valve and potentially a diastolic rumble across the tricuspid valve are CLASSIC findings with atrial septal defects. Atrial septal defects are not all the same. There are four types of atrial septal defects: secundum ASD, primum ASD, sinus venosus and coronary sinus defects (NOTE – the latter are atrial level defects which actually do not involve the interatrial septum). The different types warrant a different approach to closure. Use your tools and if your suspicion is high for an atrial septal defect, keep looking. Sinus venosus defects can easily be missed since the superior vena cava is difficult to image in adults. Diagnostic tools include: history and physical exam (USE the stethoscope), ECG, echocardiogram, cardiac MRI, cardiac CT, and cardiac catheterization.Not all defects NEED to be closed immediately. Moderate-large defects with a shunt greater than 1.5:1 should be closed due to increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and arrhythmias, barring contraindications. Surgery was previously the gold standard for closure of ASDs, but many defects especially secundum atrial septal defects are closed in the cath lab.    Show notes - Atrial Septal Defects Notes (developed by Dr. Sarah Fahnhorst What are the four different types of atrial level defects?Secundum atrial septal defectMost common type of atrial septal defect (75%)Located in the center of the atrial septum (fossa ovalis)Hole in the primum septum due to deficiency of the septum secundumPrimum atrial septal defectAccounts for 15-20% of ASDLocated at the inferior portion of the atrial septumIn the spectrum of atrioventricular septal defects/endocardial cushion defectsDefect in the developme...
11/15/20221 hour, 15 minutes, 10 seconds
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241. Case Report: A Massive Surprise – UCLA

CardioNerds Cofounder Dr. Amit Goyal is joined by an esteemed group of UCLA cardiology fellows – Dr. Patrick Zakka (CardioNerds Academy Chief), Dr. Negeen Shehandeh (Chief Fellow), and Dr. Adrian Castillo – to discuss a case of primary cardiac angiosarcoma. An expert commentary is provided by Dr. Eric Yang, beloved educator, associate clinical professor of medicine, assistant fellowship program director, and founder of the Cardio-Oncology program at UCLA.   Case synopsis: A female in her 40s presents to the ED for fatigue that had been ongoing for approximately 1 month. She also developed night sweats and diffuse joint pains, for which she has been taking NSAIDs. She was seen by her PCP and after bloodwork was done, was told she had iron deficiency so was on iron replacement therapy. Vital signs were within normal limits. She was in no acute distress. Her pulmonary and cardiac exams were unremarkable. Her lab studies showed a Hb of 6.6 (MCV 59) and platelet count of 686k. CXR was without significant abnormality, and EKG showed normal sinus rhythm. She was admitted to medicine and received IV iron (had not consented to receiving RBC transfusion). GI was consulted for anemia work-up. Meanwhile, she developed a new-onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response seen on telemetry, for which Cardiology was consulted. A TTE was ordered in part of her evaluation, and surprisingly noted a moderate pericardial effusion circumferential to the heart. Within the pericardial space, posterior to the heart and abutting the RA/RV was a large mass measuring approximately 5.5x5.9 cm. After further imaging work-up with CMR and PET-CT, the mass was surgically resected, and patient established care with outpatient oncology for chemotherapy.  CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - primary cardiac angiosarcoma Episode Schematics & Teaching Pearls – primary cardiac angiosarcoma The pericardium is composed of an outer fibrous sac, and an inner serous sac with visceral and parietal layers.   Pericardial masses can be primary (benign or malignant) or metastatic. There are other miscellaneous pericardial masses.  Imaging modalities for the pericardium include echocardiography, cardiac CT and cardiac MRI. There is also role for PET-CT in pericardial imaging for further characterization of pericardial masses.   Cardiac angiosarcomas are extremely rare but are the most common cardiac primary malignant tumors.  Evidence-based management if lacking because of paucity of clinical data given the rarity of cardiac angiosarcomas. Surgery is the mainstay of therapy. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are often used as well.  Notes – primary cardiac angiosarcoma Pericardial Anatomy  The pericardium is a fibroelastic sac composed of two layers.   Outer layer: fibrous pericardium (<2 mm thick)  Inner layer: serous pericardium, two-layered sac.  Visceral pericardium: adherent to underlying myocardium Parietal pericardium: lines fibrous sac.  Between the serous layers, there is the pericardial cavity which normally contains up to 50 cc pericardial fluid.  Pericardial Masses  Benign  Lipoma: slow-growing, collection of adipose cells, thought to arise in AV groove Teratoma: benign germ cell tumors, often right sided. Can cause compressive symptoms of RA, SVC, PA, aortic root.  Fibroma: solid mass of connective tissue Hemangioma: vascular mass, often arising from visceral pericardium  Malignant  Sarcoma: various types including angiosarcoma and liposarcoma.  Lymphoma: usually non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma, often in immunocompromised patients Mesothelioma: no apparent association with asbestos. Pericardial effusions with nodules/plaques are seen. 
11/11/202241 minutes, 48 seconds
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240. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Antithrombotic Management with Dr. Deepak Bhatt

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Priya Kothapalli (Interventional FIT at University of Texas at Auston, Dell Medical School) joins Dr. Deepak Bhatt (Dr. Valentin Fuster Professor of Medicine and Director of Mount Sinai Heart) to discuss the nuances of antithrombotic therapy. As one of the most prolific cardiovascular researchers, clinicians, and educators, CardioNerds is honored to have Dr. Bhatt on Rounds, especially given that Dr. Bhatt has led numerous breakthroughs in antithrombotic therapy. Come round with us today by listening to the episodes of #CardsRounds! Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Speaker disclosures: None Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Antithrombotic Management with Dr. Deepak Bhatt Case #1 Synopsis: A woman in her early 70s with a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation presented with sudden-onset chest pressure and diaphoresis while at rest and was found to have an acute thrombotic 99% mid-LAD occlusion. The patient received OCT-guided PCI with a single drug-eluting stent. We discussed what the appropriate antithrombotic strategy would be for a patient with recent acute coronary syndrome and atrial fibrillation. Case #1Takeaways According to the recent 2021 revascularization guidelines, in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI and taking oral anticoagulant therapy, it is recommended to discontinue aspirin after 1 to 4 weeks while maintaining P2Y12 inhibitors in addition to a non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant or warfarin.There are two recent trials – AUGUSTUS and the ENTRUST-AF PCI trial – that evaluated regimens of apixaban and edoxaban, respectively, that support earlier findings reporting lower bleeding rates in patients maintained on oral anticoagulant plus a P2Y12 inhibitor compared to triple therapy.Of note, none of these trials were specifically powered for ischemic endpoints, but when pooling data from these trials, rates of death, MI and stent thrombosis with dual therapy were similar to those seen in patients on triple therapy.Additionally, all of these patients enrolled in these trials were briefly treated with triple therapy after PCI before the aspirin was discontinued. In the 2021 guidelines, it is noted that analyses of stent thrombosis suggest that 80% of events occur within 30 days of PCI. Thus, it is reasonable to consider extending triply therapy to 1 month after PCI in high risk patients to reduce risk of stent thromboses.In AUGUSTUS, 90% of patients received clopidogrel as their P2Y12 inhibitor Case #2 Synopsis: A man in his mid-50s with a history of peripheral vascular disease with prior SFA stent for chronic limb ischemia, hyperlipidemia, tobacco use, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease presented with a two day history of “reflux” that was worse with exertion and that improved with rest and associated with diaphoresis. He was diagnosed with an NSTEMI. His LHC revealed 99% mid-RCA thrombotic occlusion with moderate disease in the LAD. He underwent thrombectomy and PCI with a single drug-eluting stent to the RCA. We discussed his short-term and long-term antithrombotic therapy Case #2 Takeaways
11/3/202246 minutes, 54 seconds
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239. CCC: Approach to RV Predominant Cardiogenic Shock with Dr. Ryan Tedford

CardioNerd (Daniel Ambinder) and series co-chairs Mark Belkin (AHFT Fellow, University of Chicago) and Karan Desai (Cardiologist, Johns Hopkins), join fellow lead, Dr. Pablo Sanchez (FIT, Stanford) for a discussion with Dr. Ryan Tedford (Professor of Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina) about Right Ventricular (RV) predominant cardiogenic shock. In this episode we explore risk factors, pathophysiology, hemodynamics, and treatment strategies in this common and complex problem. We dissect three cases that epitomize the range of diagnostic dilemmas and management decisions in RV predominant shock, as Dr. Tedford expertly weaves us through the pathophysiology and decision-making involved in managing the “people’s ventricle.” Audio editing by Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds internship program, CardioNerds academy fellow, and IM resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital). The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - RV Predominant Cardiogenic Shock The degree of RV dysfunction and failure are modulated by stretching its capacity to tolerate insults from deranged afterload, preload, and contractility.Afterload insults are MUCH LESS tolerated than other insults and broadly comprise the most common pathophysiologic cause of both acute and chronic RV failure.RV and left ventricular (LV) function are anatomically and physiologically connected.  Progressive derangements in RV function can lead to the deadly “RV spiral,” in which poor RV function causes lower LV preload, leading to hypotension, and thus worsening RV perfusion and function.In RV failure/shock, some basic tenets including treating reversible causes, optimizing preload and afterload, and using inotropes and/or temporary MCS for as limited time as possible.Many acute RV failure patients can recover, but multiorgan injury plays an important role. Therefore, thoughtful and expeditious use of mechanical circulatory support is important. Show notes - RV Predominant Cardiogenic Shock Notes drafted by Dr. Pablo Sanchez. What is the basic difference between RV dysfunction and failure?Dysfunction: Abnormalities in systolic/diastolic function of the RV, but not necessarily to the point of leading to end-organ perfusion defects. RV dysfunction leads to poor outcomes regardless of mechanism.1Failure: Clinical syndrome of inability of RV to maintain adequate output despite adequate preload. 1 How is the RV different from the LV and what impact does it have on pathophysiology and hemodynamics?The LV and RV originate from different embryologic “heart fields.”1,2The RV wall is thinner and more compliant and has only two layers (instead of 3 like the LV).3 Furthermore, unlike the LV which has a significant proportion of endocardial and epicardial transverse myocardial fibers, the RV myocardial fibers are aligned in a longitudinal plane for the most part. Thus, a more significant proportion of RV systolic contraction is longitudinal – base of the ventricle moving towards the apex.The RV is crescent-shaped and has a large surface-to-volume ratio meaning smaller inward motion ejects the same stroke volume. 1Hemodynamically, the RV takes blood from a low-pressure venous system and gives it to a distensible system with low impedance (the normal pulmonary circuit at baseline typically has a resistance one-tenth of the systemic resistance). Therefore, volume loads (preload) are much better handled...
10/23/202238 minutes, 10 seconds
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238. Cardio-Oncology: Radiation-Associated Cardiovascular Disease with Dr. Eric Yang

CardioNerds (Dr. Patrick Azcarate, Dr. Teodora Donisan, and Amit Goyal) discuss Radiation-Associated Cardiovascular Disease (RACD) with Dr. Eric Yang, cardio-oncologist, assistant professor of medicine, and associate fellowship program director at UCLA. RACD is a consequence of radiation treatment for various mediastinal tumors (breast, lung, lymphoma). It is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients treated with mediastinal radiation for cancer. While novel techniques decrease radiation exposure during cancer treatment, the incidence is expected to increase because of historical practices and delayed onset of symptoms. The prevalence of RACD is difficult to estimate given under-recognition. Additionally, most of the data comes from patients treated with radiation techniques from decades ago. In this discussion we review every nook and cranny of RACD to help guide you the next time you see a patient with a history of chest radiation. Review this CardioNerds Case Report of radiation associated cardiovascular disease for more: Episode #169. Chest pain in a Young Man – “A Gray (Gy) Area” – UC San Diego. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Yousif Arif. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Radiation-Associated cardiovascular disease Due to the legacy effect, the incidence of RACD will continue to increase in the next few years. When treating patients with a history of mediastinal radiation, we should remember to ask: How much radiation was given? Could the heart have been exposed? Radiation can affect every part of the heart by causing coronary artery disease (CAD), valvulopathy, myocardial disease, conduction disease, and pericardial disease. Exposure to ~25-30 Gy or more significantly increases the risk but RACD can occur at lower doses. Try to delay surgery as much as possible and do all you can in one operation to avoid re-operation in the future. For revascularization, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is typically preferred over coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) but the choice should be individualized in consultation with a multidisciplinary heart team experienced in the management of RACD. In general, for aortic valve disease, transcatheter replacement is recommended over surgical aortic valve replacement. For mitral valve disease, surgical replacement is recommended over repair. Every decision should be made with a heart team approach and made unique to that specific patient. Show notes - Radiation-Associated cardiovascular disease Notes were drafted by Dr. Patrick Azkarate. 1. Understand the pathophysiology of RACD Ionizing radiation has the potential to damage DNA. Both normal cells and cancer cells get damaged, but cancer has less effective DNA repair mechanisms and therefore malignant cells are more vulnerable to radiation therapy. After radiation causes acute damage, this sets off an inflammatory cascade leading to myofibroblast activation, fibrosis and collagen deposition, and subsequent stiffening of the myocardium and vessels. 2. What may increase one’s risk of developing RACD? Young age (30 Gy) or high dose of radiation fractions (>2 Gy/day) Anterior or left chest radiation (breast cancer, lung cancer, lymphoma)
10/13/20221 hour, 2 minutes, 34 seconds
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237. CCC: Approach to LV Predominant Cardiogenic Shock with Dr. Shashank Sinha

Cardiogenic shock (CS) remains a complex, multifactorial syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The CardioNerds Critical Care Cardiology Series tackles this important syndrome in a series of several episodes including: LV-predominant Shock, RV-predominant Shock, and Bi-ventricular Shock. In this episode, we review the definitions, pathophysiology, evaluation, and contemporary management, including use of inotropes and mechanical circulatory support, of left ventricular (LV) predominant CS. Series co-chairs Dr. Eunice Dugan and Dr. Karan Desai along with CardioNerds Co-founders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Daniel Ambinder were joined by FIT lead, Dr. Vanessa Blumer, the recipient of the AHA 2021 Laennec Fellow in Training Clinician Award and currently pursuing Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant fellowship at the Cleveland Clinic. Our episode expert is Dr. Shashank Sinha, an Advanced Heart Failure, Mechanical Circulatory Support, and Cardiac Transplant cardiologist, Medical Director of the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, and Director of the Cardiovascular Critical Care Research Program at INOVA Fairfax Hospital. His illustrious career accomplishments include being a Steering Committee member and site Principal Investigator for the multicenter Cardiogenic Shock Working Group and Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Anusha Gandhi. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - LV Predominant Cardiogenic Shock LV-CS is complex! It is important to recognize that the pathophysiology of heart failure-related cardiogenic shock (HF-CS) is distinct from that of acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS), and also crucial to differentiate between LV-dominant, right ventricular (RV)-dominant and biventricular (BiV)-shock.The SCAI SHOCK Stage Classification provides a unified and standardized vocabulary when assessing severity of CS, and facilitates communication about the diagnosis, presentation, and evolving nature of CS.Norepinephrine is considered the initial vasopressor of choice in most CS patients; the initial inotrope choice is a bit more nuanced!When considering mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for LV shock, high-quality data to guide therapy is lacking but one must always consider “the right patient, for the right device, at the right time” and remember that “pumps pump blood, decisions save lives”.Multidisciplinary, team-based care is paramount to improving survival of the critically ill patient with CS. Show notes - LV Predominant Cardiogenic Shock Notes drafted by Dr. Vanessa Blumer. 1. What tools do you use to define LV CS? CS is a hemodynamically complex and multifactorial syndrome, one of the most common indications for admission to a cardiac intensive care unit, with short-term mortality ranging from 35-50%.It is defined by systemic hypoperfusion and tissue hypoxia due to a primary cardiac insult or dysfunction.Clinical criteria used to define CS typically include evidence of hypotension (classically defined as SBP 90 mmHg) AND evidence of end-organ hypoperfusion (for example, serum lactic acid > 2 mmol/L, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, altered mental status) in the setting of acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure.Laboratory markers,
10/8/202243 minutes, 15 seconds
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236. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Mitral Regurgitation with Dr. Rick Nishimura

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Natalie Stokes (Formerly FIT at University of Pittsburgh and now General Cardiology Faculty at University of Pittsburgh) and Dr. Karan Desai (formerly FIT at University of Maryland and now General Cardiology faculty at Johns Hopkins) join Dr. Rick Nishimura (Professor of Medicine at Mayo Clinic) to discuss the nuances of managing mitral regurgitation through real cases. Dr. Nishimura has been an author or Chair of the ACC/AHA valve guidelines going back 20 years and has been recognized internationally as one of the world’s best educators, so you don’t want to miss the #NishFactor on these #CardsRounds! Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Pace Wetstein. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Speaker disclosures: None Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Mitral Regurgitation with Dr. Rick Nishimura Case #1 Synopsis: A man in his 70s with a history of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (last known LVEF 15-20%) and atrial fibrillation, presented with decompensated heart failure in the setting of moderate to severe mitral regurgitation. He was diuresed, transitioned to GDMT, and referred to cardiac rehabilitation. Over the next 6 months, he continued to have debilitating dyspnea (NHYA Class IIIa) and his outpatient physicians were limited on titrating GDMT further due to hypotension. A TEE was done which demonstrated EF 15%, severe MR by color and quantitation (EROA of 0.5 cm2; Regurgitant Volume of 65 mL), systolic flow reversal in the pulmonary vein and severe tricuspid regurgitation. We were asked how we would approach this case Case #1Takeaways In attempting to keep the evaluation of chronic mitral regurgitation relatively simple, we should ask ourselves three primary questions: (1) What is causing the MR; (2) How much MR is there; and (3) What is the hemodynamic consequence of the MR.To the first question of what is the etiology of the MR – a simple framework is to think of the etiology as an issue of the valve (primary) or an issue of the ventricle/atria (secondary). There is further classification that can be made based on the Carpentier Classification which speaks to the valve leaflet movement and position (normal leaflet motion, excessive leaflet motion [e.g., prolapse], or restricted in systole and/or diastole [e.g., rheumatic heart disease]).During rounds, Dr. Nishimura provided some historical context in that the original valve guidelines had recommendations for intervention on primary mitral regurgitation and not secondary – given that it is considered a disease of the ventricle. Trials like the COAPT trial have greatly shifted our practice in treating secondary mitral regurgitation. Though, we have to be familiar with which patients with secondary MR would truly derive benefit from mitral valve interventionIn regards to the COAPT trial, patients with moderate to severe (3+) or severe (4+) mitral regurgitation who remained symptomatic despite maximally tolerated guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) were included. Dr. Nishimura makes the point that about one-third of patients intended to be enrolled in the trial were not included because they improved so much on GDMT. And thus, when evaluating patients for consideration of mitral valve intervention in secondary MR – a...
10/6/202245 minutes, 51 seconds
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235. CCC: Post-cardiotomy Shock with Dr. Gavin Hickey and Dr. David Kaczorowski

In this episode, Dr. Carly Fabrizio (Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology Physician at Christiana Care Hospital), CardioNerds Critical Care Series Co-Chair Dr. Mark Belkin (Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Fellow at University of Chicago) and CardioNerds Co-Founder Dr. Amit Goyal (Cleveland Clinic) join Dr. Gavin Hickey (Director of the AHFTC Fellowship and medical director of the left ventricular assist device program at UPMC) and Dr. David Kaczorowski (Surgical Director for the Advanced Heart Failure center, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery at UPMC) for a discussion on post-cardiotomy shock. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor, Shivani Reddy. Post-cardiotomy shock is characterized by heart failure that results in the inability to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass or develops post cardiac surgery. Patients who develop post-cardiotomy shock typically require inotropic support and may ultimately require temporary mechanical circulatory support. Post-cardiotomy shock carries a high mortality rate. However, early recognition and prevention strategies can help mitigate the risk for developing post-cardiotomy shock. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Post-cardiotomy Shock Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass is an intricate process that includes: rewarming the patient, de-airing the cardiac chambers, ensuring a perfusing heart rhythm, confirming adequate ventilation and oxygenation, removing the intracardiac catheters and cannulas and slowly reducing the blood diverted to the cardiopulmonary circuit and returning it small aliquots to the patient. Much to monitor during the process! Assessing the risk for post-cardiotomy shock prior to going to the OR is important. Consider left ventricular, right ventricular, and valvular function, and don’t forget about the value of hemodynamic assessments (pulmonary artery catheter evaluations) to ensure patients are adequately compensated. Close peri-operative monitoring of hemodynamics, hemo-metabolic derangements, and acid/base status can help identify patients who are failing therapy and may require upgrade to temporary MCS. RV assessment is challenging. Utilizing both imaging and hemodynamic evaluations can help understand which RV’s will require more support. Multi-disciplinary discussions with a heart team approach prior to cardiac surgery are valuable in identifying high risk patients for post cardiotomy shock and discussing contingency plans if issues arise. Show notes - Post-cardiotomy Shock (drafted by Dr. Carly Fabrizio) How can we diagnose post cardiotomy shock?We can diagnose post cardiotomy shock as patients who are undergoing cardiac surgery that develop hypotension and or tachycardia with hypoperfusion and end organ dysfunction. How can assess the risk of developing postcardiotomy shock prior to going to the OR?LV systolic function is not the only evaluation of cardiac functionDon’t ignore the RV!Valvular function must be evaluated in conjunction with LV/RV functionHemodynamics can be helpful prior to going to the ORFilling pressures and CO/CI evaluation --> the more normal range - the less risk of post cardiotomy shockIf going in more deranged --> more complications are likely to occurThink about what options are available post operatively if issues ariseInclude a multi-disciplinary discussions and planning prior to going to the OR ...
9/30/202228 minutes, 9 seconds
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234. Narratives in Cardiology: Structural Heart Disease and LatinX Representation in Cardiology with Dr. Mayra Guerrero – Minnesota Chapter

In this episode, Daniel Ambinder and Amit Goyal (CardioNerds co-founders), Dr. Gurleen Kaur (medicine resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Director of CardioNerds Internship), student doctor Adriana Mares (medical student at the University of Texas El Paso/Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, CardioNerds Academy Intern), and Dr. Teodora Donisan (general cardiology fellow at the Mayo Clinic and CardioNerds Academy Chief) discuss with Dr. Mayra Guerrero (Interventional Cardiologist and Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic) about challenges with diagnosing and treating valve disease in women, as well as ideas on how to increase recruitment for women in cardiology including interventional and structural cardiology. Dr. Guerrero shares her inspiring personal journey and advice for how to navigate becoming a structural cardiologist as an international medical graduate, woman, and mother. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Adriana Mares. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology is a multimedia educational series jointly developed by the Pennsylvania Chapter ACC, the ACC Fellows in Training Section, and the CardioNerds Platform with the goal to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in cardiology. In this series, we host inspiring faculty and fellows from various ACC chapters to discuss their areas of expertise and their individual narratives. Join us for these captivating conversations as we celebrate our differences and share our joy for practicing cardiovascular medicine. We thank our project mentors Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Nosheen Reza. Video Version • Notes • Production Team The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Video version - Structural Heart Disease and LatinX Representation in Cardiology with Dr. Mayra Guerrero https://youtu.be/KvKADqUwUHQ Quoatables - Structural Heart Disease and LatinX Representation in Cardiology with Dr. Mayra Guerrero “Work hard, give it your best, and your work will speak for itself. Don’t be afraid to work hard and you’ll be able to achieve anything you want.”“I’m very fortunate to have had the opportunities that I’ve had, but now it’s my responsibility and the responsibility of many to make sure that we create those opportunities and that we provide mentorship for others who may want to follow the same steps into this field.”“I get angry, it’s normal to have emotions, but what I’ve learned is to transform my anger into something good – think of a project, find a paper, do something good for your career…channel that energy to do something good.”“It’s important that even at young ages you start thinking about how to pay it forward.”“Don’t wait too long to have kids. There’s never a perfect time to be a parent. Once you decide to have a family don’t put a pause on your personal life for your career.” Notes - Structural Heart Disease and LatinX Representation in Cardiology with Dr. Mayra Guerrero Notes (by Dr. Teodora Donisan) Structural valve disease in women and valve care in the global settingHeart disease is the leading cause of death for women. However, the awareness regarding this major public health concern has been declining over the past decade. Valve disease awareness is one of the lowest, at less than 3%.Women have higher mortality than men when they undergo surgical aortic or mitral interventions, mainly because of a higher risk profile. For example, women with severe aortic stenosis usually present at older ages and have many associated comorbidities, however the outcomes are good when they are treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Despite this, women are less likely to be referred for aortic valve replacement (AVR) than men.
9/23/202239 minutes, 39 seconds
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233. Cardio-Oncology: The Need for Cardio-Oncology with Dr. Bonnie Ky

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Dan Ambinder), Series Co-Chair Dr. Dinu Balanescu (Academy House Faculty and Chief Resident at Beaumont Hospital), and Episode Lead Dr. Manu Mysore (Former CardioNerds Ambassador and Cardiologist at the University of Maryland) discuss The Need for Cardio-Oncology with Expert Faculty Dr. Bonnie Ky, Director of Penn Cardio-Oncology Translation Center of Excellence and Editor-in-Chief of JACC CardioOncology. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Yousif Arif. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. Cardio-Oncology is a burgeoning field. There is a need for cardiologists and oncologists to work together in a multidisciplinary fashion using multi-modality imaging and personalized medicine. Cardiologists in particular need to understand basic oncology, anti-cancer therapies, and address risk factors which play an important role in oncologic progression and/or adverse cardiovascular events. The field can only be furthered by research with a focus on specificity of endpoints and multidisciplinary collaboration. The future of the field is in the hands of investigators and clinicians alike. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan.  Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - The Need for Cardio-Oncology with Dr. Bonnie Ky Over 20 million new cancer cases are expected to be added annually to the global burden as novel therapies have improved cancer survivorship. These therapies may be directly associated with cardiotoxicity or may prolong life to allow time for cardiovascular disease to develop in cancer survivors. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity are modifiable risk factors that portend a poor prognosis from both an oncologic and cardiovascular perspective. Multi-modality imaging is useful in risk assessment within oncology, with echocardiography (including strain imaging) having a class I indication prior to treatment with many chemotherapeutics. Diverse trial enrollment is essential for furthering the science within Cardio-Oncology to translate clinically into personalized management. There is a need to strengthen a pipeline of young physicians and scientists to further the field of Cardio-Oncology. Show notes - The Need for Cardio-Oncology with Dr. Bonnie Ky Why should cardiologists have familiarity with cancer therapies? By 2030, 23.6 million new cancer cases are expected to be added annually to the global burden.1 Novel therapies and/or combination therapies have improved cancer survivorship but are associated with cardiovascular complications, especially in the elderly and those with pre-existing cardiovascular comorbidities.2 Cardiologists currently lack an understanding of oncologic treatments, with poor knowledge of dosing protocols and cardiotoxicities. This can lead to less aggressive protocols administered, as well as early discontinuation of important treatments for both oncologic and cardiovascular conditions.3 A multidisciplinary collaboration between pharmacists, cardiologists, oncologists, and nurse navigators is needed to improve treatment decision-making for the benefit of cancer patients. Cardiologists should have basic knowledge and understanding of some of the commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs and any adverse events during treatment courses based on clinical trials, FDA reporting, and epidemiological data. JACC Cardio-Oncology seeks to disseminate knowledge through live courses such as Advancin...
9/19/202242 minutes, 15 seconds
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232. Case Report: A String of Pearls Not Worth Keeping – Emory University

CardioNerds (Daniel Ambinder and Amit Goyal) join Dr. Arielle Schwartz (Emory University cardiology fellow), Dr. Joshua Zuniga (former Emory vascular medicine fellow and now USC cardiology fellow), and Dr. Patrick Zakka (UCLA cardiology fellow) from the Emory University School of Medicine. They discuss a case of a young woman with new onset hypertension refractory to 3 antihypertensive agents who is ultimately diagnosed renovascular hypertension due to fibromuscular dysplasia complicated by saccular aneurysm. Dr. Bryan Wells (Director of Vascular Medicine at Emory University) provides the ECPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy intern, Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media References Gornik HL, Persu A, Adlam D, Aparicio LS, Azizi M, Boulanger M, Bruno RM, de Leeuw P, Fendrikova-Mahlay N, Froehlich J, Ganesh SK, Gray BH, Jamison C, Januszewicz A, Jeunemaitre X, Kadian-Dodov D, Kim ES, Kovacic JC, Mace P, Morganti A, Sharma A, Southerland AM, Touzé E, van der Niepen P, Wang J, Weinberg I, Wilson S, Olin JW, Plouin PF. First International Consensus on the diagnosis and management of fibromuscular dysplasia. Vasc Med. 2019 Apr;24(2):164-189. doi: 10.1177/1358863X18821816. Epub 2019 Jan 16. Erratum in: Vasc Med. 2019 Oct;24(5):475. Erratum in: Vasc Med. 2021 Aug;26(4):NP1. PMID: 30648921. Olin, Circulation. 2014;129:1048-1078. Fibromuscular Dysplasia: State of the Science and Critical Unanswered Questions A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association S.H.KimMD, MPH†Jeffrey W.OlinDO‡James B.FroehlichMD, MPH§XiaokuiGuMA§J. MichaelBacharachMD‖Bruce H.GrayDO¶Michael R.JaffDO#Barry T.KatzenMD∗∗EvaKline-RogersMS, RN, NP§Pamela D.MaceRN††Alan H.MatsumotoMD‡‡Robert D.McBaneMD§§Christopher J.WhiteMD‖‖Heather L.GornikMD, MHS†. Clinical Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia Vary by Patient Sex: A Report of the United States Registry for Fibromuscular Dysplasia. JACC. Volume 62, Issue 21, 19–26 November 2013, Pages 2026-2028
9/16/202237 minutes, 41 seconds
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231. ACHD: Congenital Heart Disease and Psychosocial Wellbeing with Dr. Adrienne Kovacs and Dr. Lauren Lastinger

CardioNerds Dr. Josh Saef, Dan Ambinder, join Dr. Jim Kimber and interview experts Dr. Adrienne Kovacs, and Dr. Lauren Lastinger and discuss behavioral health needs and psychosocial wellbeing in the congenital heart disease population. In this episode, our experts tackle issues surrounding mental and behavioral health including anxiety/depression, ADHD, neurodevelopmental disabilities, psychosocial challenges, stressors unique to patients with ACHD and their families, and how the healthcare system can better optimize mental health care for the CHD patient population. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Pace Wetstein. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Congenital Heart Disease and Psychosocial Wellbeing Among patients with congenital heart disease, symptoms of anxiety are more common than symptoms of depression. “Heart-focused anxiety” relates to symptoms attributable to a heart condition including fear of appointments, surgery, or health-uncertainty. It is important to differentiate this from generalized anxiety.Predictors of depression and anxiety include patient-reported physical health status. Defect severity (mild, moderate, great complexity) and physician-diagnosed NYHA class were NOT associated with rates of depression/anxiety [2].Despite CHD, patient self-reported Quality of Life (QoL) is relatively high. Predictors of decreased QoL include older age, lack of employment, never having married, and worse self-reported NYHA functional classImportant treatment strategies include: education for patients and caregivers, early identification and referral to mental health providers, incorporation of providers into CHD teams, and encouraging physical activity and peer-interaction. Show notes - Congenital Heart Disease and Psychosocial Wellbeing Notes (developed by Dr. Jim Kimber) Mental Health Terminology: Adults with CHD face the same mental health challenges as people who don’t have a heart condition. Symptoms of depression and anxiety are the most common: Approximately 1/4 - 1/3 of CHD patients will struggle with clinically significant depression or anxiety at any one point. Up to ½ will meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for these conditions Mood and anxiety disorders differ in that they have separate diagnostic criteria. Importantly, research often uses self-reported symptoms, rather than patients who have formally met diagnostic criteria. Historically, the focus has been on depression.  However, elevated symptoms of anxiety are much more common than elevated symptoms of depression. It is important to make the distinction between “Generalized Anxiety,” and “Heart-Focused Anxiety.”Heart-Focused Anxiety: symptoms of anxiety directly related to having a heart condition, such as fear of appointments / worry about a decline in health status, getting an ICD, preparing for surgery, transplants, or having a shortened life expectancy, etc. This may also include a significant component of he...
9/12/20221 hour, 12 minutes, 41 seconds
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230. Case Report: A Tight Spot On The Right – Cleveland Clinic

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Dan Ambinder) join Dr. Radi Zinoviev, Dr. Josh Cohen, and Dr. Tiffany Dong (CardioNerds Ambassador) from the Cleveland Clinic for a day on Edgewater beach. They discuss the following case of the evaluation and management of prosthetic tricuspid valve stenosis in a patient with a history of Ebstein Anomaly. The expert commentary and review (ECPR) is provided by Dr. Jay Ramchand, staff cardiologist with expertise in multimodality cardiovascular imaging at the Cleveland Clinic. Jump to: Case media - Case teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media CXR ECG TTE RHC Final TTE TTE 1 TTE 2 TTE 3 Follow up TTE 1 Follow up TTE 2 Episode Schematics & Teaching Pearls - Tricuspid Valve Stenosis Tricuspid stenosis is uncommon ( 60cm.Structural findings that support the presence of severe tricuspid stenosis include a moderately dilated RA and a dilated IVC, though these are not specific.Right heart catheterization hemodynamics that support tricuspid stenosis include a high right atrial pressure and gradual “y” descent.Bioprosthetic tricuspid valves are generally favored over mechanical valves due to risk of thrombosis and longevity of these valves in the tricuspid position. Notes - Tricuspid Valve Stenosis What are causes of tricuspid stenosis? Causes of tricuspid stenosis can be divided into congenital and acquired causes. Congenital causes include tricuspid atresia or stenosis. Acquired causes include rheumatic heart disease, carcinoid syndrome, endocarditis, prior radiation, or fibrosis from endomyocardial procedures or placement of electrical leads. Rheumatic heart disease is the most common cause of tricuspid stenosis and is usually associated with mitral valvulopathy. What are the symptoms and physical exam findings of tricuspid stenosis? Findings revolve around right sided congestion or heart failure symptoms such as peripheral edema, abdominal distension with ascites, hepatomegaly, and jugular venous distension. When examining the jugular vein, you may see prominent a-waves and an almost absent or slow y descent reflective of delayed emptying of the right atrium (in the absence of tricuspid regurgitation). The murmur of tricuspid stenosis includes an opening snap and low diastolic murmur at the left lower sternal border with inspiratory accentuation. Patients may also report fatigue due to decreased cardiac output from obstruction. On echocardiography, what are the features supportive of severe tricuspid stenosis? Qualitatively, the leaflets may be thickened with reduced mobility and there may be diastolic dooming of the valve. Doppler may show high gradients of ≥ 5 mmHg, which may be elevated if there is coexisting tricuspid regurgitation and lower with decreased cardiac output. Associated structural changes include dilated right atrium and inferior vena cava. What is expected on right heart catheterization for tricuspid stenosis? Assuming the patient remains in sinus rhythm, patients with tricuspid stenosis would display high right atrial pressures and a gradual “y” descent. A diastolic gradient may be measured with dual catheters in the right atrium and the right ventricle. What are the treatment options for tricuspid stenosis? Medical management of tricuspid stenosis includes diuretics and addressing the underlying cause.
8/31/202233 minutes, 48 seconds
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229. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Dr. Stephanie Fuentes (EP FIT at Houston Methodist) joins Dr. Hugh Calkins (Professor of Medicine and Director of the Electrophysiology Laboratory and Arrhythmia Service at Johns Hopkins Hospital) to discuss the nuances of atrial fibrillation (AF) management through challenging cases. As an author of several guideline and expert consensus statements in the management of AF and renowned clinician, educator, and researcher, Dr. Calkins gives us many pearls on the management of AF, so don’t miss these #CardsRounds!  This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Speaker disclosures: None Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Challenging Cases - Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Hugh Calkins Case #1 Synopsis: A woman in her mid-60s presents with symptomatic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). An echocardiogram has demonstrated that she has a structurally normal heart. Her primary care doctor had started Metoprolol 50 mg twice a day but she has remained symptomatic. In office, an EKG confirms AF, but she converts to sinus while there. She is seeking advice to prevent further episodes and in general wants to avoid additional medications Case #2 Takeaways We discussed several potential options for treatment. Amongst the first things we discussed was amiodarone. In a patient of this nature without structural heart disease and under the age of 70, Dr. Calkins discussed that he would probably consider amiodarone as a 2nd line option. While amiodarone may be effective in maintaining sinus rhythm in comparison to other antiarrhythmic medications like sotalol, flecainide, and propafenone, it does have significant toxicity.If antiarrhythmic drugs (AAD) were to be considered, we also discussed the options of dofetilide versus sotalol. Dofetilide typically requires inpatient initiation due to the risk of QT prolongation and Torsades. Since women tend to have longer corrected QT (QTc) intervals, high dose dofetilide may be more proarrhythmogenic in women. Though, Dr. Calkins noted that many patients don’t tolerate sotalol due to fatigue and generally dofetilide is well tolerated.When it comes to the “pill in the pocket” approach, Dr. Calkins noted that its utility is more so in patients with persistent AF that is known to not stop on its own. For instance, an individual who has AF a few times a year that is persistent may benefit from flecainide or propafenone (“in the pocket”) instead of being brought in for an electrical cardioversion. In this scenario, the first time one of these agents is used, the patient ought to be closely monitored. For our patient, her episodes were too frequent and self-terminating for a “pill in the pocket” approach to be effective.Current guideline recommendations for catheter ablation include a Class IA recommendation for patients with paroxysmal AF refractory to AADs, and a Class IIA recommendation as first-line therapy for patients with paroxysmal AF.In the 2020 ESC Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines, catheter ablation is given a Class IA recommendation to improve symptoms of AF recurrences in patients who have failed or are intolerant of one Class I or III AADs. For patients who have failed or have been intolerant of beta blocker alone for rhythm control,
8/23/202242 minutes, 23 seconds
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228. Narratives in Cardiology: Radiation Safety & Women in Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Sheila Sahni – New Jersey Chapter

In this episode, Daniel Ambinder (CardioNerds Co-Founder), Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of CardioNerds Internship and medicine resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital), Dr. Eunice Dugan (Cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic) and Dr. Zarina Sharalaya (Interventional and Structural Cardiologist at North Texas Heart) learn from the Dr. Sheila Sahni (Interventional Cardiologist and Director of The Women’s Heart Program at The Sahni Heart Center) regarding radiation safety in the cath lab and methods of reducing radiation exposure to the operator. She also discusses radiation safety for the pregnant interventional cardiologist and how to safely manage pregnancy during the gestational period. We hear her inspirational journey as a female interventional cardiologist and her experience in starting the Women’s Heart Program at Sahni Heart Center. Special message by Dr. Jeff Lander, New Jersey ACC Chapter Governor. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Pace Wetstein. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology is a multimedia educational series jointly developed by the Pennsylvania Chapter ACC, the ACC Fellows in Training Section, and the CardioNerds Platform with the goal to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in cardiology. In this series, we host inspiring faculty and fellows from various ACC chapters to discuss their areas of expertise and their individual narratives. Join us for these captivating conversations as we celebrate our differences and share our joy for practicing cardiovascular medicine. We thank our project mentors Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Nosheen Reza. Video Version • Notes • Production Team Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode! There are no relevant disclosures for this episode. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Video version - Radiation Safety & Women in Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Sheila Sahni https://youtu.be/iIwnsu6qJ4k Tweetorial - Radiation Safety & Women in Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Sheila Sahni https://twitter.com/gurleen_kaur96/status/1563608232211296256?s=21&t=iay5zosSBDjPBLWJ4kWIAw Quoatables - Radiation Safety & Women in Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Sheila Sahni “Having anyone who can believe in you when you are really passionate about something is really all you need… the passion is what’s going to carry you through. It’s not about being male or female or pregnant or not pregnant, it’s about what you love to do and how can you master it.” “Our careers can wait, but family planning cannot. If you are fortunate enough to have the opportunity to start a family even if it’s during your training, you should”. Notes - Radiation Safety & Women in Interventional Cardiology with Dr. Sheila Sahni What are procedural techniques to utilize during a heart catheterization to reduce radiation exposure to the operator? Decrease number and length of cine acquisitions and fluoroscopy timeDecrease the frame rate - halving the frame rate reduces radiation dose by 50%Decrease the distance between the image intensifier and the patientLimit steep LAO angulationsApply collimation as much as possible which reduces overall patient dose and scatter radiationLimit digital magnification which can increase skin dose exposure by 50% What are the important dose limits to consider for a pregnant female and her fetus in the cath lab? The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory equivalent dose limit is 5mSv during the entire pregnancy of the declared pregnant woman.The annual natural background radiation dose in the US is 3mSv.The average under-lead dose to a working pregnant interventionalist over the entire gestation is ~0.3mSv.The fetus of a working pregnant interventionalist is estimated to ...
8/17/202254 minutes, 15 seconds
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227. CCC: Positive Pressure Ventilation in the CICU with Dr. Sam Brusca, Dr. Chris Barnett, and Dr. Burton Lee

The modern CICU has evolved to include patients with complex pulmonary mechanics requiring more non-invasive and mechanical ventilation. Series co-chairs Dr. Eunice Dugan and Dr. Karan Desai along with CardioNerds Co-founder Dr. Amit Goyal were joined by FIT lead, Dr. Sam Brusca, who has completed his NIH Critical Care and UCSF Cardiology fellow and currently faculty at USCF. We were fortunate enough to have two expert discussants: Dr. Burton Lee, Head of Medical Education and Global Critical Care within the National Institutes of Health Critical Care Medicine Department and master clinician educator with the ATS Scholar’s Critical Care for Non-Intensivists program, and Dr. Chris Barnett, ACC Critical Care Cardiology council member and Section Chair of Critical Care Cardiology at UCSF.  In this episode, these experts discuss the basics of mechanical ventilation, including the physiology/pathophysiology of negative and positive pressure breathing, a review of ventilator modes, and a framework for outlining the goals of mechanical ventilation. They proceed to apply these principles to patients in the CICU, specifically focusing on patients with RV predominant failure due to pulmonary hypertension and patients with LV predominant failure. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor, Shivani Reddy. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Positive Pressure Ventilation in the CICU Respiratory distress, during spontaneous negative pressure breathing can lead to high transpulmonary pressures and potentially large tidal volumes. This will increase both RV afterload (by increasing pulmonary vascular resistance) and LV afterload (by increasing LV wall stress). An analogy for the impact of negative pleural pressure during spontaneous respiration on LV function is that of a person jumping over a hurdle. The height of the hurdle does not increase, but the ground starts to sink, so it is still harder to jump over. Intubation in patients with right ventricular failure is a tenuous situation, especially in patients with chronic RV failure and remodeling (increased RV thickness, perfusion predominantly during diastole, RV pressure near or higher than systemic pressure). The key tenant to safe intubation is avoiding hypotension, utilizing induction agents such as ketamine or etomidate, infusing pressors, and potentially even performing awake intubations. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in HFrEF has hemodynamic effects similar to a cocktail of IV inotropes, dilators, and diuretics. CPAP decreases pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (LV preload), decreases systemic vascular resistance (afterload), and increases cardiac output. Airway pressure during mechanical ventilation is based on the “equation of motion”: Pressure = Volume/Compliance + Flow*Resistance + PEEP. Our goals of oxygenation on mechanical ventilation include achieving acceptable PaO2/Sat with the lowest FiO2 possible (avoiding oxygen toxicity) and optimal PEEP (which increases oxygenation but can have detrimental impact on cardiac output) Our goals of ventilation on mechanical ventilation include achieving acceptable pH and PaCO2 while preventing ventilator induced lung injury and avoiding auto-PEEP. We prevent lung injury by reducing tidal volume (ideally <8cc/kg, plateau pressure < 30 cmH20, driving pressure < 15 cmH20) and auto-peep by reducing respiratory rate (and allowin...
8/14/20221 hour, 5 minutes, 40 seconds
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226. Case Report: Fall from Grace – A Case of Pulmonary Embolism – Massachusetts General Hospital

CardioNerds (Amit and Dan) join join Dr. Andrew Dicks (Vascular medicine physician at Prisma Health, former fellow at Mass General Vascular) and Dr. Prateek Sharma (Vascular interventional & medicine fellow at MGH) for an ice-cold drinks at the Esplanade in Boston, MA to discuss a case about a patient who developed a pulmonary embolism and masterfully discuss the diagnosis and management of of pulmonary emboli. Dr. Ido Weinberg (Director, Vascular Medicine Fellowship at MGH) provides the ECPR for this episode. Case Abstract: A 59-year-old Spanish-speaking man with no significant past medical history presents after falling 15-20 feet from a ladder and landing on his back. He was found to have an L1 fracture and left radial fracture and underwent T12-L2 fusion with neurosurgery on hospital day 1 and ORIF of left radial fracture with orthopedic surgery on hospital day 2. On hospital day 5, he develops acute onset tachycardia with HR in the 130s bpm with new O2 requirement associated with mild shortness of breath at rest without any chest discomfort. His labs were notable for an elevated troponin and proBNP. He underwent CTPA which demonstrated acute bilateral occlusive pulmonary emboli (PE) extending in the right and left main pulmonary arteries. TTE demonstrated right ventricle dilation. The patient was started on a heparin infusion and a PE response team (PERT) meeting was held to discuss treatment options. Given recent surgery, use of thrombolytic therapy was felt to be too risky and thus he was taken for percutaneous thrombectomy in the cath lab. PA pressure prior to intervention was 51/21 mmHg. The patient underwent suction thromboembelectomy with the Flow Triever device with extraction of thrombus and improvement in PA pressure to 19/11 mmHg. He was treated with anticoagulation thereafter and discharged home two days after the procedure. Jump to: Case media - Case teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Acute bilateral occlusive and nonocclusive pulmonary emboli extending from the right and left main pulmonary arteries to the lobar and segmental arteries of all the lobes.  Moderate right heart strain including the right atrium and the right ventricle. RV/LV ratio > 1.0. Right ventricular cavity is dilated (RV size at the base measures to 45mm). Right ventricular systolic function is moderately decreased. Right ventricular free wall is hypokinetic with sparing of the right ventricular apex consistent with acute right ventricular strain Pulmonary angiography demonstrated extensive proximal bilateral PEs Caption: Post-procedure TTE demonstrated resolution of RV strain with normalization of RV size and function. Episode Schematics & Teaching Pearls While there are markers to suggest PE, such as ECG findings or evidence of RV dilatation, a PE cannot be confirmed without imaging.Elevation of cardiac biomarkers and evidence of RV dysfunction are used to risk stratify PE, not the degree of thrombus burden or locale of thrombus.Enoxaparin is the preferred anticoagulant to initiate at time of PE diagnosis if comorbidities allow.Optimal treatment of intermediate risk PE remains uncertain as there is little data about long-term outcomes. Aggressive treatment should be used judiciously and chosen on a case-by-case basis.PE response teams (PERT) allow for multidisciplinary expert opinion in the face of scarce evidence to determine what is felt to be the best management strategy. Notes 1. What is a PERT team and why is it helpful? We have several tools and approaches for the management of PE. There are also many subspecialities involved in the care of patients with PE, including vascular medicine,
8/4/20221 hour, 6 minutes, 57 seconds
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225. ACHD: Advanced Heart Failure Therapies (MCS/HT) Among ACHD Patients with Dr. Rafael Alonso-Gonzalez

CardioNerds (Daniel Ambinder) and ACHD series co-chair Dr. Dan Clark discuss advanced heart failure therapies including mechanical circulatory support (MCS) and heart transplantation (HT) in patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) with Dr. Rafael Alonso-Gonzalez, cardiologist and director of Adult Congenital Heart Disease program at the University of Toronto and ACHD fellow Dr. Andy Pistner (University of Washington). They cover epidemiology of heart failure in ACHD, outcomes after HT, unique challenges of HT in this population, impact of allocation policies on access to transplantation, and regionalization of advanced heart failure care. They also discuss a practical approach to advanced heart failure therapy evaluation in ACHD. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Adriana Mares. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Advanced Heart Failure Therapies (MCS/HT) Among ACHD Patients Heart failure is a major comorbidity and the leading cause of death in adults with congenital heart disease.Identification of advanced heart failure in ACHD is challenging. ACHD patients do not always self-identify exercise limitations or exertional dyspnea. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a useful tool in evaluating these patients.Patients with ACHD awaiting heart transplantation are less likely than non-ACHD patients to receive a heart transplant, and ACHD patients have an increased risk of death or delisting while awaiting heart transplantation.Evaluation of transplant candidacy and potential need for multi-organ transplantation in complex congenital heart disease (i.e., Fontan palliation) requires a multidisciplinary approach.Regionalization of care improves outcomes for ACHD patients with advanced heart failure. High volume transplant centers have better early survival for ACHD patients after heart transplant, and the highest volume ACHD transplant centers in each UNOS region have better early survival. Show notes - Advanced Heart Failure Therapies (MCS/HT) Among ACHD Patients 1. How many ACHD patients have heart failure? Patients with ACHD are a large and heterogeneous group. The signs and symptoms of heart failure vary widely depending on the underlying congenital heart disease. Patients with D-transposition of the great arteries repaired with an arterial switch operation have low rates of heart failure (~3%)1 compared to those patients Fontan palliation for single ventricle physiology (40%)2. Heart failure is the leading cause of death in patients with ACHD3,4. 2. How many patients with ACHD end up receiving a heart transplant or mechanical circulatory support? Heart transplantation for congenital heart disease in adults has been increasing in frequency since the late 1980s. Between 2010 and 2012, this accounted for 4% of all adult heart transplants in the United States5. This represents a small fraction compared to the number of adults who die due to complications of heart failure ...
7/31/20221 hour, 9 minutes, 40 seconds
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224. Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment of Stroke & Bleeding Risk with Dr. Elaine Hylek

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal), Dr. Colin Blumenthal (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty Leader and FIT at the University of Pennsylvania), and Dr. Anjali Wagle (CardioNerds Ambassador and FIT at Johns Hopkins University), discuss the baseline assessment of stroke and bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) with Dr. Elaine Hylek. Dr. Hylek is a professor of medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine and is the Director of the Thrombosis and Anticoagulation Service at Boston Medical Center. Stroke is a potentially devastating and preventable complication of AF. Understanding the balance between stroke and bleeding risk is crucial in determining who should be on anticoagulation. Join us to discuss this topic! In the next episode of the series, we will discuss situational risk assessment in the context of peri-cardioversion, peri-procedural status, triggered atrial fibrillation, and more. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Pace Wetstein. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This series is supported by an educational grant from the Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! Disclosures: Dr. Hylek discloses grant and research support from Medtronic and Janssen, and honoraria and/or consulting fees from Boehringer Ingelheim, and Bayer. CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment of Stroke & Bleeding Risk The CHA2DS2-VASc should be used to determine stroke risk in all patients. It was updated from the CHADS2 score to better separate patients into high and low risk and a score of 0 has a very low risk of a stroke. Understanding a given model’s derivation is key to application for any risk model. Understanding who was and was not included when a risk score was derived helps determine how to clinically use it. For example, mechanical valves, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac amyloidosis, and moderate to severe MS were all excluded or poorly represented and should receive AC in AF regardless of CV. The HAS-BLED score should be used to identify modifiable risk factors for bleeding and address them. It is less useful to determine when we should stop AC. Factors that go into the score are dynamic and the intention was to alert the provider of potentially modifiable factors that could be addressed to lower bleeding risk (such as better BP control). Fear the clot. Patients should be on AC unless there is a serious contraindication as embolic strokes can be devastating with a high mortality (~24% mortality at 30 days) “What am I saying by not writing the prescription... I am saying that it’s OK to have an ischemic stroke.” Survey data shows that patients are willing to experience 3.5 GI bleeds on average before 1 stroke, so favoring AC is often a patient centered approach Notes - Atrial Fibrillation: Assessment of Stroke & Bleeding Risk Notes drafted by Dr. Anjali Wagle 1. Why do strokes happen in atrial fibrillation? Why is reducing stroke risk so important? Atrial fibrillation is associated with a significantly increased risk of stroke. The mortality of strokes related to AF have been estimated to be around 25% at 30 days in early studies which included either persistent or permanent AF, though of note, these studied were biased towards larger strokes since the diagnosis was based on physical exam and not high resolution imaging.
7/26/20221 hour, 15 minutes, 28 seconds
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223. CCC: Approach to Acute Myocardial Infarction Cardiogenic Shock with Dr. Venu Menon

With the advent and rapid evolution of contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the early invasive management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has become a mainstay in therapy with significant impact on patient outcomes. However, despite modern advances in technology and system-based practices, AMI presenting with cardiogenic shock (CS) continues to portend a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Few randomized controlled clinical trials are available to guide decision-making in this uniquely challenging patient population. Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanism by which injury occurs and propagates the shock cycle can be instrumental in selecting an appropriate strategy for revascularization and left ventricular unloading. In this episode we are joined by Dr. Venu Menon, The Mehdi Razavi Endowed Chair and Professor of Medicine at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine,  section head of clinical cardiology, fellowship program director, and director of the Cardiac intensive care unit at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Menon shares his wealth of knowledge and experience to help us review the contemporary data available for AMI CS management in a case-based discussion. We are also joined by Dr. Priya Kothapalli, star chief fellow and future interventionalist from University of Texas at Austin, series co-chair Dr. Yoav Karpenshif, and CardioNerds Co-founders Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. The CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care Series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Mark Belkin, Dr. Eunice Dugan, Dr. Karan Desai, and Dr. Yoav Karpenshif. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Approach to Acute Myocardial Infarction Cardiogenic Shock with Dr. Venu Menon The H&P does matter! Age, location of infarction, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and heart failure symptoms all carry weight in determining prognosis and risk of mortality.Define functional status, comorbid conditions, and life expectancy to help guide clinical decision-making. Do a quick bedside echocardiogram if possible to elucidate the predominant mechanism driving CS and rule out mechanical complications.Act with urgency! Get to the catheterization lab to characterize coronary anatomy and revascularize the culprit vessel as soon as possible.Minimize/avoid the use of vasopressors; if needed, wean as quickly as possible to avoid worsening myocardial ischemia. Consider mechanical circulatory support early!Despite dramatic advances in AMI management, data is limited in AMI CS management. Ask the important questions, get involved in the scientific inquiry as a trainee! Show notes - Approach to Acute Myocardial Infarction Cardiogenic Shock with Dr. Venu Menon 1. Why is it important to recognize AMI complicated by CS? AMI CS occurs in 7-10% of patients presenting with AMI and has a higher prevalence among elderly patients.The SHOCK trial (1999) showed significant survival benefit at 6 months with early revascularization with balloon angioplasty compared to medical therapy alone in AMI CS.Registry data suggests that early revascularization is beneficial in AMI CS even in elderly patients. Decision-making should be guided using a holistic view of the patient’s overall biology.Despite advances in revascularization techniques and availability of mechanical support, AMI CS portends a 40-45% risk of 30-day mortality in the modern era.Significant variation in management strategy exists between centers and data to guide decision-making is li...
7/17/202247 minutes, 56 seconds
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222. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Nuances in Pulmonary Hypertension Management with Dr. Ryan Tedford

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Co-Chair, Dr. Karan Desai (previous FIT at the University of Maryland Medical Center, and now faculty at Johns Hopkins) joins Dr. Ryan Tedford (Professor of Medicine and Chief of Heart Failure and Medical Directory of Cardiac Transplantation at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, SC) to discuss the nuances of managing pulmonary hypertension in the setting of left-sided heart disease. Dr. Tedford is an internationally-recognized clinical researcher, educator, clinician and mentor, with research focuses that include the hemodynamic assessment of the right ventricle and its interaction with the pulmonary circulation and left heart. This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Speaker disclosures: None Cases discussed and Show Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - Challenging Cases - Nuances in Pulmonary Hypertension Management with Dr. Ryan Tedford Case #1 Synopsis: A woman in her late 30s presented to the hospital with 4 weeks of worsening dyspnea. Her history includes dilated non-ischemic cardiomyopathy diagnosed in the setting of a VT arrest around 10 years prior. Over the past 10 years she has been on guideline-directed medical therapy with symptoms that had been relatively controlled (characterized as NYHA Class II), but without objective improvement in her LV dimensions or ejection fraction (LVEF 15-20% by TTE and CMR and LVIDd at 6.8 cm). Over the past few months she had been noting decreased exercise tolerance, worsening orthopnea, and episodes of symptomatic hypotension at home. When she arrived to the hospital, she presented with BP 95/70 mmHg, increased respiratory effort, congestion and an overall profile consistent with SCAI Stage C-HF shock. In the case, we go through the hemodynamics at various points during her hospitalization and discuss options for management including medical therapy and mechanical support. The patient was eventually bridged to transplant with an Impella 5.5. Initial Hemodynamics Right Atrium (RA) Pressure Tracing: Right Ventricle (RV) Pressure Tracing: Pulmonary Artery (PA) Pressure Tracing: Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP) Tracing: Case 1 Rounding Pearls One of the first points that Dr. Tedford made was thinking about our classic frameworks of characterizing acute decompensated heart failure, specifically the “Stevenson” classification developed by Dr. Lynne Stevenson that phenotypes patients along two axes: congestion (wet or dry) and perfusion (warm or cold). Dr. Tedford cautioned that young patients may not fit into these classic boxes well, and that a normal lactate should not re-assure the clinician that perfusion is normal.In reviewing the waveforms, Dr. Tedford took a moment to note that besides just recording the absolute values of the pressures transduced in each chamber or vessel, it is critical to understand the morphology of the tracings themselves. For instance, with the RA pressure tracing above, there is no respiratory variation in the mean pressure. This is essentially a “resting Kussmaul’s sign,” which is typically indicative of significant RV dysfunction. Thus, even though our echocardiogram in this case did not necessarily show a significantly dilated RV with mildly reduced longitudinal function (T...
7/14/202242 minutes, 57 seconds
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221. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #18 with Dr. Jaideep Patel

The following question refers to Section 6.2 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by Houston Methodist medicine resident Dr. Najah Khan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Jaideep Patel. Dr. Patel recently graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University cardiology fellowship and is now a preventive cardiologist at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #18 A 60-year-old Black woman with a history of hypertension and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (EF 40%) presents to clinic for follow-up. She is currently doing well with NYHA class II symptoms. She is taking carvedilol 25 mg BID, sacubitril/valsartan 97/103 mg BID, and spironolactone 25 mg daily, all of which have been well tolerated. In clinic, her BP is 125/80 mmHg, and her HR is 55 bpm. Routine labs are within normal limits including Cr of 1.0, K of 4.0, and HbA1c of 6.0. What is the most appropriate next step in her management? A. No change in management B. Reduce beta blocker C. Add an SGLT2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin or empagliflozin) D. Add vericiguat E. Add hydralazine/isosorbide dinitrate Answer #18 The correct answer is C – Add an SGLT2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin or empagliflozin) For patients with symptomatic HFrEF, neurohormonal antagonists (ACEi, ARB, ARNI; BB; MRA) improve survival and reduce the risk of HF hospitalization. This patient is already on these agents. The addition of an SGLT2 inhibitor on top of neurohormonal blockade reduces the risk of CV death and worsening HF in patients with symptomatic HFrEF and is the next best step for this patient (Class I, LOE A). Vericiguat may be considered in patients with symptomatic HFrEF with HF worsening despite already being on maximally tolerated neurohormonal blockade (Class IIb, LOE B), but first-line therapies should be started first. Hydralazine/Isosorbide dinitrate should be considered in self-identified Black patients or people who have EF ≤ 35% or <45% with dilated LV with class III-IV symptoms despite maximally tolerated neurohormonal blockade (Class IIa, LOE B), but is not the next best step here. She is tolerating the beta blocker without adverse effects so there is no reason to decrease the dosage. Main Takeaway In patients with symptomatic HFrEF (EF ≤ 40%), SGLT2 inhibitors are considered first line therapy in addition to ACE-I/ARB/ARNI, BB, and MRAs to reduce the risk of HF hospitalization and death. Importantly this is irrespective of presence of diabetes. Guideline Location Section 6.2, page 3295-3296 Figure 13 page 3278; recommendation table page 3279. CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
7/12/20227 minutes, 15 seconds
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220. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #17 with Dr. Melissa Tracy

The following question refers to Section 4.9 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSD fellow Dr. Patrick Azcarate, and then by expert faculty Dr. Melissa Tracy. Dr. Tracy is a preventive cardiologist, former Director of the Echocardiography Lab, Director of Cardiac Rehabilitation, and solid organ transplant cardiologist at Rush University. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #17 A 74-year-old man with a history of hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and gastroesophageal reflux presents with chest pain and is found to have an NSTEMI due to an obstructive lesion in the proximal LAD. One drug-eluting stent is placed, and he is started on dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel. He is concerned about the risk of bleeding from his gastrointestinal tract. What would you recommend to reduce his risk of bleeding? A. Lansoprazole, a proton pump inhibitor B. Famotidine, a histamine-2 blocker C. Calcium carbonate, an antacid D. None, proton pump inhibitors are contraindicated. Answer #17 The correct answer is A. The ESC recommends that patients at high risk for GI bleeding who are receiving antiplatelet therapy take proton pump inhibitors (Class I, LOE A). High risk for bleeding includes patients who are age ≥65, history of peptic ulcer disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, dyspepsia or GERD symptoms, chronic renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and concomitant use of other antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or steroids. Coadministration of proton pump inhibitors that specifically inhibit CYP2C19 (omeprazole or esomeprazole) may reduce the pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel. Although this interaction has not been shown to affect the risk of ischemic events, coadministration of omeprazole or esomeprazole with clopidogrel is not recommended. Main Takeaway In patients with high gastrointestinal bleeding risk who are receiving antiplatelet therapy, proton pump inhibitors are recommended. Omeprazole and esomeprazole may reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel and should not be used concomitantly with clopidogrel. Guideline Location Section 4.9.3, Page 3291 Figure 13 page 3278; recommendation table page 3279. CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
7/7/20228 minutes, 51 seconds
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219. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #16 with Dr. Roger Blumenthal

The following question refers to Section 4.6 and Figure 13 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student doctor Shivani Reddy, answered first by NP Carol Patrick, and then by expert faculty Dr. Roger Blumenthal. Dr. Roger Blumenthal is professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins where he is Director of the Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. He was instrumental in developing the 2018 ACC/AHA CV Prevention Guidelines. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #16 True or False: For patients with established ASCVD, secondary prevention entails adding a PCSK9 inhibitor if goal LDL is not met on maximum tolerated doses of a statin and ezetimibe. Answer #16 The correct answer is True. The ultimate on-treatment LDL-C goal of <55 mg/dL (<1.4 mmol/L) and a reduction of at least ≥50% from baseline should be considered for primary prevention of persons <70 years of age at very high risk (Class IIa) and in those with established ASCVD (Class I). It is recommended that a high-intensity statin is prescribed up to the highest tolerated dose to reach these LDL-C goals (Class I). The combination of statin with ezetimibe brings a benefit that is in line with meta-analyses showing that LDL-C reduction has benefits independent of the approach used.  The beneficial effect of ezetimibe is also supported by genetic studies. Together, these data support the position that ezetimibe should be considered as second-line therapy, either on top of statins when the therapeutic goal is not achieved (Class I), or when a statin cannot be prescribed (Class IIa). PCSK9 inhibitors (monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9) decrease LDL-C by up to 60%, either as monotherapy or in addition to the maximum tolerated dose of statin and/or other lipid-lowering therapies, such as ezetimibe. Their efficacy appears to be largely independent of background therapy. Among patients in whom statins cannot be prescribed, PCSK9 inhibition reduced LDL-C levels when administered in combination with ezetimibe. Both alirocumab and evolocumab effectively lower LDL-C levels in patients who are at high or very high CVD risk, including those with DM, with a large reduction in future ASCVD events. Therefore, for those who do not meet LDL-C goals with maximally tolerated doses of both a statin and ezetimibe, combination therapy including a PCSK9 inhibitor may be considered for primary prevention of patients at very high risk but without familial hypercholesterolemia (Class IIa) and is recommended for secondary prevention for those with established ASCVD (Class I). In addition, for very-high-risk FH patients (that is, with ASCVD or with another major risk factor) who do not achieve their goals on a maximum tolerated dose of a statin and ezetimibe, combination therapy including a PCSK9 inhibitor is recommended (Class I). Main Takeaway Statins, ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors should be used in a stepwise approach to achieve target lipid lowering goals in accordance with their risk profile. Guideline Location Page 3279, Sections 4.6.3.1.4, 4.6.3.1.5 Figure 13 page 3278; recommendation table page 3279. CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
7/5/202211 minutes, 22 seconds
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218. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #15 with Dr. Kim Williams

The following question refers to Section 4.3 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by pharmacy resident Dr. Anushka Tandon and then by expert faculty Dr. Kim Williams. Dr. Williams is Chief of the Division of Cardiology and is Professor of Medicine and Cardiology at Rush University Medical Center. He has served as President of ASNC, Chairman of the Board of the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC, 2008-2010), and President of the American College of Cardiology (ACC, 2015-2016). The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #15 Your patient mentions that she drinks “several” cups of coffee during the day. She also describes having a soda daily with lunch and occasionally a glass of wine with dinner. Which of the following recommendations is appropriate?  A. Coffee consumption is not harmful and may even be beneficial, regardless of the number of drinks per day. B. Drinking two glasses of wine/day is safe from a cardiovascular prevention standpoint. C. Soft drinks (and other sugar-sweetened beverages) must be discouraged. D. None of the above Listen to this podcast episode!  Answer #15 The correct answer is C.  Soft drinks (and other sugar-sweetened beverages) must be discouraged. Sugar-sweetened beverages have been associated with a higher risk of CAD and all-cause mortality. The ESC guidelines give a class I recommendation for restriction of free sugar consumption (in particular sugar-sweetened beverages) to a maximum of 10% of energy intake. This is a class IIa recommendation in the ACC/AHA guidelines. Choice A is incorrect because: the consumption of nine or more drinks a day of non-filtered coffee (such as boiled, Greek, and Turkish coffee and some espresso coffees) may be associated with an up to 25% increased risk of ASCVD mortality. Moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups per day) is probably not harmful, and perhaps even moderately beneficial. Choice B is incorrect: It is a class I recommendation to restrict alcohol consumption to a maximum of 100 g per week. The standard drink in the US contains 14 g of alcohol, so 100 mg of alcohol translate to: o   84 ounces of beer (5% alcohol) o   Or 56 – 63 ounces of malt liquor (75% alcohol) or o   Or 35 ounces of wine (12% alcohol) or ONE 5 fl oz glass of wine/day. o   Or 31.5 ounces of distilled spirits (40% alcohol). The ACC/AHA guidelines recommended limiting alcohol consumption only for the management of hypertension to: ≤2 drinks daily for men and: ≤1 drink daily for women. Main Takeaway The main takeaway: ASCVD risk reduction can be achieved by restricting sugar-sweetened beverages to a maximum of 10% of energy intake. Guideline Location Section 4.3.2, Page 3271 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
7/5/20229 minutes, 51 seconds
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217. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #14 with Dr. Allison Bailey

The following question refers to Sections 3.3-3.4 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Adriana Mares, answered first by early career preventive cardiologist Dr. Dipika Gopal, and then by expert faculty Dr. Allison Bailey. Dr. Bailey is a cardiologist at Centennial Heart. She is the editor-in-chief of the American College of Cardiology's Extended Learning (ACCEL) editorial board and was a member of the writing group for the 2018 American Lipid Guidelines.  The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #14 Ms. Soya M. Alone is a 70-year-old woman of Bangladeshi ethnicity with a history of anxiety and depression. She currently lives at home by herself, does not have many friends and family that live nearby, and has had a tough year emotionally after the passing of her husband. She spends most of her time in bed with low daily physical activity and has experienced more weakness and exhaustion over the past year along with loss of muscle mass. Which of the following are potential risk modifiers in this patient when considering her risk for CVD?A. Bangladeshi ethnicity B. Psychosocial factorsC. Frailty D. History of anxiety and depressionE. All of the above Answer #14 The correct answer is E – All of the above.Traditional 10-year CVD risk scores do not perform adequately in all ethnicities. Therefore, multiplication of calculated risk by relative risk for specific ethnic subgroups should be considered (Class IIa, LOE B). Individuals from South Asia have higher CVD rates. The ESC guidelines recommend using a correction factor by multiplying the predicted risk by 1.3 for Indians and Bangladeshis, and 1.7 for Pakistanis. These correction factors are derived from data from QRISK3. In the UK, the QRISK calculator algorithm has been derived and validated in 2.3 million people to estimate CVD risk in different ethnic groups and unlike other calculators, it counts South Asian origins as an additional risk factor. The reasons for such differences remain inadequately studied, as do the risks associated with other ethnic backgrounds. Barriers to developing accurate risk prediction tools include the wide heterogeneity amongst the population.The 2019 ACC/AHA guidelines also list high-risk race/ethnicities such as South Asian ancestry as a risk-enhancing factor. However, there is no separate pooled cohort equation for different ethnicities, and consideration should be given that the pooled cohort equations will underestimate ASCVD risk in South Asians.Psychosocial stress including loneliness and critical life events are associated, in a dose-response pattern, with the development and progression of ASCVD, with relative risks between 1.2 and 2.0. Conversely, indicators of mental health, such as optimism and a strong sense of purpose, are associated with lower risk. While there is not a specific way proposed by the guidelines for psychosocial factors to improve risk classification, it is important to screen patients with ASCVD for psychological stress, and clinicians should attend to somatic and emotional causes of symptoms as well. The ESC guidelines give a Class IIa (LOE B) recommendation for assessment of stress symptoms and psychosocial stressors.This patient should also be formally screened for frailty, which is not the same as aging but includes factors such as slowness, weakness, low physical activity, exhaustion and shrinking, and makes her more vulnerable to the effect of stressors and is a risk factor for both high CV and non-CV morbidity and mortality. However, the ability of frailty measures to improve CVD risk prediction has not been formally assessed, so the guidelines do not recommend integrating it into formal CVD risk assessment. Frailty may however,
7/1/202211 minutes, 55 seconds
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216. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #13 with Dr. Eugene Yang

The following question refers to Section 3.2 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Mayo Clinic Fellow Dr. Teodora Donisan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugene Yang. Dr. Yang is professor of medicine of the University of Washington where he is medical director of the Eastside Specialty Center and the co-Director of the Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention Program. Dr. Yang is former Governor of the ACC Washington Chapter and current chair of the ACC Prevention of CVD Section. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #13 You are seeing a 45-year-old woman with a past medical history of hypertension, overweight status, hyperlipidemia, and active tobacco use disorder. Her BMI is 27 kg/m2, BP is 150/75, HbA1C is 5.8%, total cholesterol is 234 mg/dL, HDL is 59 mg/dL, and LDL is 155 mg/dL. She is from Romania, a country with very high CVD risk. Which of the following statements is CORRECT? A. LDL-C needs to be decreased by at least 50%, as small absolute LDL-C reductions would not provide clinical benefit B. Hypertension is not an important CVD risk factor in our patient, as she is young. C. Prediabetes is not a significant CV risk factor for our patient, as she is not yet diabetic. D. Smoking confers a higher CVD risk for women than for men. E. Her weight does not increase her CVD risk, as she is overweight rather than obese Answer #13 The correct answer is D – Smoking confers a higher CVD risk for women than for men. Prolonged smoking increases the CVD risk more in women than in men. Our patient is 45 years old. CVD risk in smokers < 50 years-old is 5x higher than in non-smokers. Of note, smoking is responsible for 50% of all avoidable deaths in smokers and a lifetime smoker will lose 10 years of life, on average. Secondhand smoke and smokeless tobacco can also increase the CVD risk. Option A is incorrect. The SCORE2 risk chart for populations at very high CVD risk places her at a 14% (very high) 10-year risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death. She would derive benefit even from incremental reductions in LDL-C values. The absolute benefit of lowering LDL-C depends on both the absolute risk of ASCVD and the absolute reduction in LDL-C, so even a small absolute reduction in LDL-C may be beneficial in high- or very-high-risk patients. Furthermore, the reduction in CVD risk is proportional to the decrease in LDL-C, irrespective of the medications used to achieve such change. This remains true even when lowering LDL-C values to < 55 mg/dl. Option B is incorrect. Hypertension is a major cause of CVD regardless of age, and the risk of death from either CAD or stroke increases linearly from BP levels as low as 90 mmHg systolic and 75 mmHg diastolic upwards. Particularly relevant for our patient, lifetime BP evolution differs in women compared to men, potentially resulting in an increased CVD risk at lower BP thresholds. Option C is incorrect. Type 1 DM, type 2 DM, and prediabetes are all independent risk factors for ASCVD. Of note, it would be important to address this risk factor with our patient, as women who develop type 2 diabetes have a particularly high risk for stroke. Option E is incorrect. All-cause mortality is lowest at a BMI on 20-25 kg/m2 in apparently healthy patients. Even overweight patients are at increased CVD risk. There is a linear relationship between BMI and mortality in non-smokers and a J-shaped relationship in ever-smokers. In patients with heart failure, a lower mortality risk has been observed with higher BMI – the “obesity paradox.” It would be important to evaluate the waist circumference in our patient, as both BMI and waist circumference are associated with ASCVD risk.
6/30/202211 minutes, 32 seconds
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215. Atrial Fibrillation: Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation with Dr. Ben Freedman

CardioNerds (Dr. Kelly Arps, Dr. Colin Blumenthal, Dr. Dan Ambinder, and Dr. Teodora Donisan) discuss the screening, detection, and diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) with Dr. Ben Freedman. AF is frequently undiagnosed and its first manifestation can be a debilitating stroke. European and American guidelines differ slightly with regards to guidelines for AF screening in asymptomatic individuals. There are multiple methods available to screen for AF; the setting and the clinical scenario can help guide the choice. Consumer-led screening has its own challenges, as it can detect AF in a younger population where we should prioritize aggressive management of risk factors and comorbidities. There is uncertainty regarding the minimum AF burden that increases thromboembolic risk, however a high CHAD2S2-VASc score remains the strongest predictor of stroke risk independent of AF burden. Perioperative AF associated with non-cardiac surgery has increased risk of future stroke and adverse cardiac outcomes and should likely be treated as a new diagnosis of chronic AF.    This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This series is supported by an educational grant from the Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! Disclosures: Dr. Ben Freedman disclosed that he has received grant or research support from Pfizer. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation “Stroke is a poor early sign of AF.”  AF remains frequently undiagnosed and there remains uncertainty about the optimal target population and screening methodology.  “We have to tailor AF screening to the purpose we’re using it for”  If in a primary care setting, check the pulse. If the goal is to exclude high-risk AF –  handheld ECG for heart rhythm snapshots are appropriate. If the goal is to identify or exclude AF with a high level of certainty, continuous monitors are necessary for greater sensitivity. Consumer-led screening is performed by (mostly young) individuals using commercial monitors and smart watches, facilitating earlier recognition of paroxysmal AF in this population. In these cases, we should prioritize aggressive management of risk factors and comorbidities to reduce the risk of progression to persistent AF. There is no specific cutoff for AF duration which has been identified to predict elevated stroke risk; AF is likely both a risk factor and a risk marker for stroke, suggesting an underlying atrial myopathy. Non-cardiac surgeries and procedures can be considered “AF stress tests.” If AF occurs in these settings, it is usually more clinically significant and has a higher risk of stroke and death than AF associated with cardiac surgeries.  Notes - Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis of Atrial Fibrillation Notes drafted by Dr. Teodora Donisan and reviewed by Dr. Kelly Arps 1. Why is it important to screen for AF and who should be screened?  AF is frequently undiagnosed and its first manifestation can be a debilitating stroke or death. Let’s go over a few numbers:  15% of people with AF are currently undiagnosed and 75% of those individuals would be eligible for anticoagulation.1   10-38% of individuals with ischemic strokes are found to have AF as a plausible cause, and the true proportion may be even higher,
6/27/202249 minutes, 35 seconds
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214. Lipids: Review of Icosapent Ethyl with Dr. Michael Shapiro

CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), Rick Ferraro (cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital), and Dr. Xiaoming Jia (Cardiology Fellow at Baylor College Medicine) take a closer look at the mechanism of icosapent ethyl in triglyceride lowering and ASCVD risk reduction with Dr. Michael Shapiro, the Fred M. Parrish professor of cardiology at Wake Forest University and Director of the Center for Preventative Cardiology at Wake Forest Baptist Health. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. This episode is part of the CardioNerds Lipids Series which is a comprehensive series lead by co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Tommy Das and is developed in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC). Relevant disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Icosapent Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are two major Omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil. While both have been shown to lower triglycerides, only purified EPA formulations have been shown to reduce ASCVD risk.Mechanisms of triglyceride (TG) lowering by icosapent ethyl are multiple and include reduction of hepatic VLDL production, stimulation of lipoprotein lipase activity, increased chylomicron clearance, reduced lipogenesis, increased beta oxidation, and reduced delivery of fatty acids to the liver.There was only modest reduction of triglycerides in REDUCE-IT and JELIS despite association with significant reduction in cardiovascular outcome events, suggesting likely mechanisms outside of triglyceride lowering that may contribute to ASCVD reduction.While there was an increased signal for peripheral edema and atrial fibrillation associated with icosapent ethyl in prior trials, overall side effect rates were very low.Icosapent ethyl is considered to be cost-effective based on cost-effective analysis. Show notes - Icosapent Ethyl EPA and DHA have differing biological properties that may explain differences in ASCVD risk reduction observed in cardiovascular outcome trials 1.The REDUCE-IT trial, which enrolled secondary prevention and high-risk primary prevention patients with elevated triglycerides who were on statin therapy, showed significant reduction of major adverse cardiovascular events in the icosapent ethyl group compared with a mineral oil placebo2. Only modest reductions of TG were seen in the REDUCE-IT and JELIS trials despite association with significant reduction in events 2,3.  Potential mechanisms contributing favorable effects of EPA on ASCVD risk reduction include inhibition of cholesterol crystal formation, stabilization of membrane structures, reversal of endothelial dysfunction, inhibition of lipoprotein and membrane lipid oxidation 4.Pleotropic effects of EPA include influence on platelet aggregation, lower thromboxane activity, increased prostaglandin level, and effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance and inflammation.Triglycerides are a surrogate for triglycerides-rich lipoproteins, which are likely causally associated with ASCVD 5.There is increased signal for bleeding, lower extremity edema, and atrial fibrillation with icosapent ethyl but overall side effect rates are very low 2.In order to ensure higher rates of medication access and adherence, clinicians must be cognizant of the cost to the patient. In practice, it is important to have a structured approach to improve insurance approval rate for medications that require prior authorizationsWith icosapent ethyl, cost effectiveness analyses have shown the medication is cost-effect for ASCVD risk reduction in secondary...
6/19/202232 minutes, 39 seconds
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213. ACHD: Transitions of Care in Congenital Heart Disease with Dr. Peter Ermis and Dr. Scott Cohen

CardioNerd (Amit Goyal),  ACHD series co-chair Dr. Agnes Koczo (UPMC), and episode FIT lead, Dr. Logan Eberly (Emory University, incoming ACHD fellow at Boston Adult Congenital Heart) join Dr. Peter Ermis (Program Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program at Texas Children's Heart Center), and Dr. Scott Cohen (Associate Professor and Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program at the Medical College of Wisconsin) for a discussion about transitions of care in congenital heart disease.  Audio editing by Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship and CardioNerds Academy Fellow). Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common clinically significant congenital defect, occurring in approximately 1 in 100 live births. With modern advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, over 90% of children born in the developed world with CHD will now survive into adulthood, and there are currently more adults than children living with CHD in the United States1. As these children become adults, they will need to transition their care from pediatric to adult-centered care. Unfortunately, during this transition period, there is often delayed or inappropriate care, improper timing of the transfer of care, and undue emotional and financial stress on the patients, their families, and the healthcare system. At its worst, patients are lost to appropriate follow-up. In this episode, we review the current climate in transitions of care for CHD patients from child-centered to adult-centered care, discuss the difficulties that can occur during the transitions process. We further discuss how to mitigate them, and highlight the key elements to the successful transitions of care. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Transitions of Care in Congenital Heart Disease There is a clear distinction between the TRANSFER of care and TRANSITION of care. Transfer is merely moving from a pediatric to adult provider. Transition involves the continuing education of the patient with regards to their congenital heart disease, the importance of longitudinal follow up, and leading patients toward more autonomous medical care. Transition begins in the pediatric cardiology clinic prior to the transfer of care and is an ongoing process that continues well after the physical transfer of care. A critical aspect of the transition and transfer of care is cultivating trust—that is, the new adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) provider must earn the trust of the patient and family. A failure to do so will inevitably prevent an optimal transition of care. During transition, parents are transitioning along with their children. With transition to adult care, there is also a goal to transition responsibility for medical care from the parent to the child. Setting goals and expectations can help both the parents and the child effectively make this transition. Loss to follow up is one of the most concerning complications ...
6/15/202243 minutes, 50 seconds
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212. Narratives in Cardiology: Becoming & Thriving as a Fellowship Program Director with Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Julie Damp – Tennessee Chapter

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), join  Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of CardioNerds Internship and medicine resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital),  Dr. Victoria Thomas (Cardionerds Ambassador, Vanderbilt University Medical Center) Dr. Katie Berlacher (Cardiology program director, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center), and Dr. Julie Damp (Vanderbilt University Medical Center Cardiovascular disease fellowship program director) to discuss becoming & thriving as a fellowship program director and more in this installment of the Narratives in Cardiology Series. Special message by Tennessee ACC State Chapter Governor, Dr. John L Jefferies. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology is a multimedia educational series jointly developed by the Pennsylvania Chapter ACC, the ACC Fellows in Training Section, and the CardioNerds Platform with the goal to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in cardiology. In this series, we host inspiring faculty and fellows from various ACC chapters to discuss their areas of expertise and their individual narratives. Join us for these captivating conversations as we celebrate our differences and share our joy for practicing cardiovascular medicine. We thank our project mentors Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Nosheen Reza. Video Version • Notes • Production Team Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode! There are no relevant disclosures for this episode. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Tweetorial - Becoming & Thriving as a Fellowship Program Director with Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Julie Damp https://twitter.com/gurleen_kaur96/status/1542620967733805056?s=21&t=AMSKElEz4oZZTA9nVbWBCA Video version - Becoming & Thriving as a Fellowship Program Director with Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Julie Damp https://youtu.be/E-C-SSV7LZg Notes - Becoming & Thriving as a Fellowship Program Director with Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Julie Damp Drafted by Dr. Victoria Thomas. 1. What does it mean to be a big “E” when people say they are a clinician Educator? It can mean teaching students directly at bedside.  However, it is also a sacrifice of daily mentoring and listening to students’ challenges and difficulties.Being a clinician educator is just as much of a calling as is serving in medicine.Clinician Educators focus on medicine but also the science and best practices of teaching the art of doctoring. 2. What is physician burnout? Why is this important for to CardioNerds? Physician burnout is a syndrome of chronic workplace stress that leads to emotional exhaustion and a sense of dissatisfaction and disconnection personally and professionally. 30-45% of cardiologists have reported physician burnout. 3. What factors affect physician burnout? Emotional and physical exhaustion often lead to physician burnout. First year of training as an intern or fellow and first year of serving as an attending are particularly high-risk periods. This is largely due to learning a new system and responsibilities mixed with a sense of decreased accomplishment.The sense of decreased accomplishment can lead to physicians suffering from impostor syndrome.Grit can be defined as a perseverance for long-term goals.  The level of grit was not associated with burnout among first-year Internal Medicine residents. 4. What are some of the solutions to prevent or address physician burnout? Physicians need to feel a sense of belonging and should be supported and celebrated when they have accomplished something by their colleagues and administrators. Fellows and attendings want to feel listened to and supported.Destigmatizing this idea of “perfection in medicine”.
6/3/202255 minutes, 28 seconds
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211. Case Report: A Zebra in Polka Dots – Coronary Intervention With Glanzmann Thrombasthenia – UCLA

CardioNerds (Amit and Dan) join Dr. Omid Amidi (CardioNerds Academy Graduate) and Dr. Marwah Shahid from the UCLA Cardiology Fellowship program along with Dr. Evelyn Song (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Heart Failure Hospitalist at UCSF) to discuss a complex case focused on management of severe coronary artery disease in a patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia. Dr. Rushi Parikh (Interventional cardiologist, UCLA) provides the ECPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. Glanzmann Thrombasthenia is a bleeding disorder due to impairment of platelet aggregation secondary to a mutation in the GPIIB/IIIA receptor. This case is focused on work up of stable coronary artery disease followed by a discussion on duration of dual antiplatelet therapy post percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with Glanzmann thrombasthenia.   Check out this published case in JACC: Case Reports Jump to: Case media - Case teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media See the published case in JACC: Case Reports Episode Schematics & Teaching Pearls 1. Patients with Glanzmann thrombocytopenia (GT) may have a higher risk of bleeding, depending on their disease phenotype. 2. It is unclear whether the mechanism of GT protects patient against stent thrombosis in the setting of PCI. Additionally, there is little data on the use of antiplatelet agents in patients with GT. 3. Short-term DAPT may be a reasonably safe option for patients with GT undergoing PCI. 4. We report a successful case of percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with GT with no complications at a 1 year follow up. Notes 1. What is Glanzmann thrombasthenia? GT is an inherited platelet disorder that is characterized by spontaneous bleeding with phenotypic variability ranging from minimal bruising to potentially fatal hemorrhaging.  GT is caused by autosomal recessive inheritance of quantitative or qualitative deficiencies of functional αIIbβ3 integrin coded by ITGA2B or ITGB3 genes for αIIb and β3, respectively. As a result, platelets may be stimulated, but the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor is unable to bind fibrinogen to cross-link platelets, rending them potentially ineffective. In platelet aggregation studies, there is lack of response to collagen, epinephrine, arachidonic acid, and ADP stimulation. Thus, platelet aggregation is impaired.  2. What is known about PCI and antiplatelet therapy in the setting of Glanzmann thrombasthenia? To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of percutaneous coronary intervention in the setting of GT. It is unclear if the mechanism of GT alone provides sufficient antiplatelet activity and whether antiplatelet therapy leads to significantly increased bleeding risk. The use of antiplatelet therapy is not well studied in the GT population. What we do know is that the mechanism of GT prevents platelet aggregation—the final step in platelet-related thrombosis—while oral antiplatelet therapy affects platelet activation, thus, in our patient we felt that short term DAPT was reasonable. It is important to note that in the event of an active bleed requiring platelet transfusion, donor platelets possess functional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors and thus exponentially increase the risk of stent thrombosis. Therefore, unlike our case, if a patient is not maintained on chronic oral antiplatelet therapy, initiation of oral or intravenous antiplatelet therapy should be considered to prevent stent thrombosis at the time of platelet transfusion. Like any other patient with a high bleeding risk, it is important to have clear indications to conduct a coronary angiogram in patient...
5/29/202235 minutes, 11 seconds
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210. Family History of Premature ASCVD with Dr. Ann Marie Navar

CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem (CardioNerds Academy Chief of House Taussig and medicine resident at Lahey Hospital), and Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of CardioNerds Internship and medicine resident at Brigham and Women’s Hospital) discuss family history of premature ASCVD with Dr. Ann Marie Navar, Preventive Cardiologist and Associate Professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Population and Data Sciences at UT Southwestern Medical Center. They discuss the art of soliciting a nuanced family history, refining cardiovascular risk using risk models and novel markers, counseling patients with elevated risk, and more. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem and reviewed by Dr. Gurleen Kaur. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Intern, student Dr. Adriana Mares. For related teaching, check out this Tweetorial about CAC by Dr. Gurleen Kaur, the Family History of Premature ASCVD Infographic by Dr. Ahmed Ghoneem, and the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series. CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode Page Show notes - Family History of Premature ASCVD with Dr. Ann Marie Navar Patient summary: Mr. B is a 51-year-old gentleman who is referred to CardioNerds Prevention Clinic by his PCP. He does not have a significant past medical history. He is a former smoker but quit 2 years ago. His BP in clinic today is 138/84; he is not on any antihypertensives. His most recent lipid profile 2 weeks prior showed a total cholesterol level of 250 mg/dL, a TG level of 230 mg/dL, an LDL cholesterol of 174 mg/dL, and an HDL cholesterol of 30 mg/dL. He tells us that his father had a “heart attack” at the age of 52, and he would like to further understand his own risk. We calculate his ASCVD risk score, and it is 9.8%. 1. What constitutes a positive family history (FHx) of premature ASCVD? What is an approach to the art of soliciting the FHx from our patients? Definition of family history of premature ASCVD: the history of an atherosclerotic event (e.g., myocardial infarction or stroke) in a male first degree relative before the age of 55 or a female first degree relative before the age of 65. Dr. Navar’s approach to soliciting a family history:Lead with a general question such as “what do you know about any medical conditions that run in your family?”.Then ask more specific questions about the parents and siblings, such as “Is your mother still alive? How long did she live? Has she ever had a heart attack or stroke?”If the answer is yes, ask about how old they were at the time of the event.A challenging aspect of the FHx can be eliciting the difference between atherosclerotic events and sudden cardiac death. While atherosclerotic diseases are a much more common cause of unexplained sudden death, it's important that we don't miss the opportunity to identify inherited cardiomyopathies, channelopathies, inherited aortopathies or other heritable SCD syndromes. 2. Is the “dose” of family history important (for example: the number of affected relatives, the closeness of those relationships, the age of onset)? While conducting studies to test this may be difficult, the few studies that have looked at the number of affected relatives have found a dose-response type relationship, where increasing number of relatives affected increases the risk of heart disease.1,2 3. How does a family history affect cardiovascular risk stratification? FHx of premature ASCVD does not improve the predictive ability of the Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) at a population level. Therefore, it does not factor into the ASCVD risk calculation utilizing the PCE. However, it enhances the patient’s risk at an individual level. The ACC/AHA guidelines recognize FHx of premature ASCVD as a risk-enhancing factor [together with CKD, chronic inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, primary hypercholesterolemia, high-risk ethnicity such as South Asian ancestry...
5/27/202244 minutes, 13 seconds
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209. CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases – Modern Guideline Directed Therapy in Heart Failure with Dr. Randall Starling

It’s another session of CardioNerds Rounds! In these rounds, Co-Chairs, Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes and Dr. Tiffany Dong (FIT at Cleveland Clinic) joins Dr. Randall Starling (Professor of Medicine and Director of Heart Transplant and Mechanical Circulatory Support at Cleveland Clinic) to discuss the nuances of guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT) through real cases. As a past president of the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) and author on several guidelines, Dr. Starling gives us man pearls on GDMT. Come round with us today by listening to the episodes and joining future sessions of #CardsRounds! This episode is supported with unrestricted funding from Zoll LifeVest. A special thank you to Mitzy Applegate and Ivan Chevere for their production skills that help make CardioNerds Rounds such an amazing success. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. Case details are altered to protect patient health information. CardioNerds Rounds is co-chaired by Dr. Karan Desai and Dr. Natalie Stokes.  Speaker disclosures: None Cases discussed and Show Notes • References • Production Team CardioNerds Rounds PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Show notes - CardioNerds Rounds: Challenging Cases - Modern Guideline Directed Therapy in Heart Failure with Dr. Randall Starling Case #1 Synopsis: A man in his 60s with known genetic MYPBC3 cardiomyopathy and heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction of 30% presents with worsening dyspnea on exertion over the past 6 months. His past medical history also included atrial fibrillation with prior ablation and sick sinus syndrome with pacemaker implantation. Medications are listed below. He underwent an elective right heart catheterization prior to defibrillator upgrade for primary prevention. At the time of right heart catheterization, his blood pressure was 153/99 with a heart rate of 60. His RHC demonstrated a RA pressure of 15mmHg, RV 52/16, PA 59/32 (mean 41), and PCWP 28 with Fick CO/CI of 2.8 L/min and index of 1.2 L/min/m2. His SVR  was 1900 dynes/s/cm-5. He was admitted to the cardiac ICU and started on nitroprusside that was transitioned to a regimen of Sacubitril-Valsartan and Eplerenone. His final RHC numbers were RA 7, PA 46/18/29, PCWP 16 and Fick CO/CI 6.1/2.6. His discharge medications are shown below. Takeaways from Case #1 Unless there are contraindications (cardiogenic shock or AV block), continue a patient’s home beta blocker to maintain the neurohormonal blockade benefits. A low cardiac index should be interpreted in the full context of the patient, including their symptoms, other markers of perfusion (e.g., urine output, mentation, serum lactate), and mean arterial pressure before holding or stopping beta blockade. Carvedilol, metoprolol succinate and bisoprolol are all evidence-based options for beta blockers in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.If there is concern of lowering blood pressure too much with Sacubitril/Valsartan, one method is to trial low dose of valsartan first and then transition to Sac/Val. Note, in the PARADIGM-HF trial, the initial exclusion criteria for starting Sac/Val included no symptomatic hypotension and SBP ≥ 100. At subsequent up-titration visits, the blood pressure criteria was decreased to SBP ≥ 95.In multiple studies, protocol-driven titration of GDMT has shown to improve clinical outcomes, yet titration remains poor. The following image from Greene et al. in JACC shows that in contemporary US outpatient practices that GDMT titration is poor with few patients reaching target dosing. Case #2 Synopsis: A 43 year-old male with a past medical history of familial dilated cardiomyopathy requiring HVAD placement two years prior now comes in with low flow alarms.
5/24/202245 minutes, 14 seconds
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208. Atrial Fibrillation: Epidemiology, Health Equity, & The Double Paradox with Dr. Larry Jackson

Atrial fibrillation may reach pandemic proportions in the next 2-3 decades. Factors that drive this phenomenon have been studied in predominantly White populations, leading to a significant underrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in atrial fibrillation epidemiological studies. Most atrial fibrillation epidemiology studies suggest that the non-Hispanic Black population has a lower incidence/prevalence of atrial fibrillation, despite a higher risk factor burden (“Afib paradox”). At the same time, non-Hispanic Blacks have worse outcomes compared to the White population and underrepresented populations and women are less likely than White men to receive optimal guideline-based therapies for atrial fibrillation. In this episode, CardioNerds Dr. Kelly Arps (Co-Chair Atrial Fibrillation series, Cardiology fellow at Duke University), Dr. Colin Blumenthal (Co-Chair Atrial Fibrillation series, CardioNerds Academy House Faculty Leader for House Jones, Cardiology fellow at the University of Pennsylvania), and Dr. Dinu-Valentin Balanescu (CardioNerds Academy Faculty for House Jones, rising internal medicine chief resident at Beaumont Hospital), discuss with Dr. Larry Jackson (cardiac electrophysiologist and Vice Chief of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion in the Division of Cardiology at Duke University) about atrial fibrillation epidemiology and health equity, challenges and possible solutions to improving diversity in clinical trials, and race/ethnicity/sex/gender differences in the detection, management, and outcomes of atrial fibrillation. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student doctor Akiva Rosenzveig. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This series is supported by an educational grant from the Bristol Myers Squibb and Pfizer Alliance. All CardioNerds content is planned, produced, and reviewed solely by CardioNerds. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! Disclosure: Larry R. Jackson II, MD, MHs, has the following relevant financial relationships:Advisor or consultant for: Biosense Webster Inc.Speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for: Biotronik Inc.; Medtronic Inc. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Atrial Fibrillation: Epidemiology, Health Equity, & The Double Paradox Atrial fibrillation confers an enormous public health burden. It is estimated that it will reach pandemic proportions over the next 30 years, with potentially 100-180 million people worldwide suffering from this condition.Large epidemiological atrial fibrillation registries have very small populations of underrepresented groups. More diverse enrollment in clinical trials is essential and may be obtained by increasing diversity among research staff, principal investigators, and steering committees, and use of mobile/telehealth technologies to remove bias related to differences in presentation. The CardioNerds Clinical Trials Network specifically aims pair equitable trial enrollment with trainee personal and professional development.Most atrial fibrillation epidemiology studies suggest that the non-Hispanic Black population has lower incidence/prevalence of atrial fibrillation, despite higher risk factor burden. This “paradox” is likely due to a multifactorial process, with clinical differences, socioeconomic factors, and genetic factors contributing.Underrepresented populations are less likely than White patients to receive optimal guideline-based management of atrial fibrillation.
5/20/202238 minutes, 36 seconds
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207. Lipids: REDUCE-IT Versus STRENGTH Trials – EPA in Clinical Practice with Dr. Peter Toth

CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), Rick Ferraro (cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital), and Dr. Aliza Hussain (cardiology fellow at Baylor College Medicine) take a deep dive on the REDUCE-IT trial with Dr. Peter Toth, director of preventive cardiology at the CGH medical center in Sterling, Illinois, clinical professor in family and community medicine at the University of Illinois School of Medicine, and past president of the National Lipid Association and the American Board of Clinical Lipidology.  Special introduction to CardioNerds Clinical Trialist Dr. Jeff Wang (Emory University). Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, Shivani Reddy. This episode is part of the CardioNerds Lipids Series which is a comprehensive series lead by co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Tommy Das and is developed in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC). Relevant disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - REDUCE-IT The Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with EPA-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) trial was a large randomized controlled trial that showed a significant reduction in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events with use of icosapent ethyl ester in secondary prevention patients and high risk primary prevention patients with diabetes and residual elevated triglycerides between 135 to 499 mg/dL on top of maximally tolerated statin therapy1. Despite the use of high intensity statin therapy, considerable residual risk for future atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease exists in patients with ASCVD.Elevated triglycerides (TGs) are an important marker of increased residual ASCVD risk2.There are two primary types of Omega-3 fish oils: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omege-3 fish oils have been shown to lower triglyceride levels.Low-dose combination EPA and DHA has not exhibited incremental cardiovascular benefit in either primary prevention and secondary prevention patients on top of statin therapy3-5.REDUCE-IT showed the use of high dose EPA in patients with either ASCVD or DM and one additional risk factor, and relatively well-controlled LDL-C levels on maximally tolerated statin therapy and residual hypertriglyceridemia (TG 135-499 mg/dL) results in significant reductions in cardiovascular events over a median follow-up period of 4.9 years1. Show notes - REDUCE-IT Multiple epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies have established elevated triglyceride (TG) levels as an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular events6-8. However previous clinical trials using TG-lowering medication such as niacin, fibrates and low dose omega-3 fish oil have not shown to reduce cardiovascular events when added to statin therapy in patients with or without ASCVD,9,10.The JELIS trial first demonstrated a significant reduction in cardiovascular events when 1.8g daily of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was added to low-intensity statin therapy in patients with ASCVD and hypercholesterolemia, However, the trial was limited due to open label design without placebo, use of low doses of background statin therapy, and geographic/demographic limitations to participants in Japan11.In a large international multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl–Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) randomized 8,179 patients with established atherosclerotic heart disease or diabetes and an additional risk factor, on maximally tolerated statin therapy, to 4 gm/day of icosapent ethyl (a highly purified and stable EPA ethyl ester) or miner...
5/16/202253 minutes, 59 seconds
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206. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #12 with Dr. Laurence Sperling

The following question refers to Section 4.11 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSF resident Dr. Jessie Holtzman, and then by expert faculty Dr. Laurence Sperling. Dr. Laurence Sperling is the Katz Professor in Preventive Cardiology at the Emory University School of Medicine and Founder of Preventive Cardiology at the Emory Clinic. Dr. Sperling was a member of the writing group for the 2018 Cholesterol Guidelines, serves as Co-Chair for the ACC's Cardiometabolic and Diabetes working group, and is Co-Chair of the WHF Roadmap for Cardiovascular Prevention in Diabetes. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #12 Medically supervised cardiac rehabilitation programs after ASCVD events and for patient with heart failure carries a Class I recommendation. However, placement of referrals, uptake and enrollment after referral, and rigor of rehabilitation all remain inconsistent. What minimum cumulative duration of cardiac rehabilitation has been chosen as a threshold of effectiveness for cardiac rehabilitation by the European Society of Cardiology? A. 100-300 minutes, 10 sessions B. 300-500 minutes, 16 sessions C. 500-700 minutes, 22 sessions D. 700-1000 minutes, 28 sessions E. >1000 minutes, 36 sessions Answer #12 The correct answer is E: >1000 minutes across 36 sessions. Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary intervention not just including exercise training and physical activity counselling, but also education, risk factor modification, diet/nutritional counselling, and vocational and psychosocial support. A broad evidence base demonstrates that multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation and prevention programs after ASCVD events or revascularization reduce recurrent cardiovascular hospitalizations, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. In patients with chronic HF (mainly HFrEF), exercise based cardiac rehabilitation (EBCR) may improve all-cause mortality, reduce hospital admissions, and improve exercise capacity and quality of life. Such programs include a wide array of activities including physical activity, risk factor modification, psychosocial support, nutrition counseling, and more. Despite the heterogenous design of clinical trials, cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to be a cost-effective intervention. Based upon the available review data, the European Association of Preventive Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology proposed minimum standards for secondary prevention cardiac rehabilitation programs. Based upon a comprehensive review of the literature, ESC recommends that cardiac rehabilitation be multidisciplinary, supervised by health professionals, and start as soon as possible after a cardiovascular event. Cardiac rehabilitation should include both aerobic and muscular resistance tailored to the fitness level of the participant, should carry a duration of >1000 minutes in total, and should exceed 36 sessions total. While uptake remains limited, electronic prompts within the medical record and automatic referrals should be considered to enhance referral and participation. Future research should continue to explore the benefit of home-based cardiac rehabilitation with or without telemonitoring. Lastly, studies have shown that uptake remains lower among women, and targeted programs should be undertaken to address such disparities. Main Takeaway Current European Society of Cardiology guidelines provide a Class I (LOE A) recommendation for the participation in multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation programs for the secondary prevention of ASCVD events including revascularization and in individuals with heart failure (mainly HFrEF) to improve patient outcomes.
5/13/20229 minutes, 30 seconds
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205. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #11 with Dr. Eugenia Gianos

The following question refers to Section 6.1 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen, answered first by UCSD cardiology fellow Dr. Harpreet Bhatia, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugenia Gianos. Dr. Gianos specializes in preventive cardiology, lipidology, cardiovascular imaging, and women’s heart disease; she is the director of the Women’s Heart Program at Lenox Hill Hospital and director of Cardiovascular Prevention for Northwell Health. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #11 A 70-year-old man with a history of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, peptic ulcer disease with a prior upper GI bleed, as well as coronary artery disease presents to clinic. About one year ago he suffered an NSTEMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention to the mid LAD. He is feeling well and able to walk 1 mile daily with no anginal symptoms. He is currently taking aspirin 81 mg daily, ticagrelor 90 mg BID, atorvastatin 40 mg daily, metoprolol 25 mg BID, lisinopril 5 mg daily, and lansoprazole 15mg daily. He has a preserved ejection fraction. His BP in clinic is 110/70 and HR is 65 bpm. His LDL is 50 mg/dL. What do you recommend for his further management? A. Switch ticagrelor to clopidogrel, continue indefinitelyB. Stop ticagrelor, continue aspirin indefinitelyC. Continue aspirin + ticagrelor indefinitelyD. Stop ticagrelor, start rivaroxaban 2.5 mg BIDListen to the podcast episode! Answer #11 The correct answer is B – stop ticagrelor, continue aspirin indefinitely.Twelve months of DAPT is recommended for acute coronary syndromes (Class I, LOE A). Long-term secondary prevention with dual anti-thrombotic therapy (DAPT > 12 months with a P2Y12 inhibitor and low-dose aspirin or low-dose rivaroxaban 2.5mg BID with low-dose aspirin) may be considered for patients who are at high ischemic risk without high risk of bleeding (Class IIa, LOE A). However, this patient is at increased bleeding risk (peptic ulcer disease with prior GI bleeding) and has no ischemic symptoms, and so neither would be recommended.Main TakeawayIn summary, 12 months of DAPT is recommended after ACS. Prolonged DAPT or low-dose rivaroxaban may be considered with high ischemic risk and low bleeding risk.Guideline LocationSection 6.1, Pages 3294-3295. CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention SeriesCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor RollCardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!
5/12/20228 minutes, 13 seconds
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204. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #10 with Dr. Eileen Handberg

The following question refers to Section 4.6 of the  2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by student Dr. Shivani Reddy, answered first by NP Carol Patrick, and then by expert faculty Dr. Eileen Handberg. Dr. Handberg is an Adult Nurse Practitioner, Professor of Medicine, and Director of the Cardiovascular Clinical Trials Program in the Division of Cardiovascular Medicine at the University of Florida. She has served as Chair of the Cardiovascular Team Section and the Board of Trustees with the ACC and is the President Elect for the PCNA. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #10 Ms. DW is a 67-year-old woman with a history of coronary artery disease and prior percutaneous coronary intervention in 2019 with a drug-eluting stent to the proximal left anterior descending artery. They have transitioned to your clinic from a previous provider, and their LDL is 134 mg/dL. What would be the ESC recommended goal LDL-C level for this patient?  A. <30 mg/dL B. <55 mg/dL C. <70 mg/dL D. <100 mg/dL Answer #10 The correct answer is B. The ESC guidelines outline a robust LDL-C reduction goal of <55mg/dL (<1.4mmol/L) and ≥50% reduction from baseline in those with known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, with the highest possible Class I (LOE A) recommendation for this goal. A goal LDL-C <55mg/dL with ≥50% reduction from baseline should also be considered in apparently healthy persons <70 years of age who are at very high risk (Class IIa, LOE C).  To achieve these goals, the guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment including dietary, lifestyle, and medical management. Recognizing that lower LDL-C is better, the guidelines recommend liberal intensification of treatment especially if using submaximal doses of generic or low-cost statins and side effects are not apparent. High-intensity statin is recommended to be prescribed to the highest tolerated dose to reach LDL-C goals set for each specific risk group (Class I, LOE A). If these goals are not achieved with the maximum tolerated dose of a statin, combination therapy with ezetimibe is recommended (Class I, LOE B). Choice A is incorrect. An LDL-C <30mg/dL is a more significant reduction than that recommended by the guidelines, even for patients with known ASCVD. Notably, for patients with ASCVD who experience a second vascular event within 2 years while taking maximum tolerated statin-based therapy, an LDL-C goal of <1.0 mmol/L (40 mg/dL) may be considered. Choice C is incorrect. The ESC prevention guidelines recommend considering a goal of <70mg/dL for patients in the primary prevention setting at high risk who are <70 years of age (Class IIa, LOE C). (Recall again that for those at very high risk the primary prevention recommendation is target LDL-C <55 mg/dL). Choice D is incorrect. LDL-C <100mg/dL was a frequently cited goal in older iterations of various prevention and lipid guidelines. As the data has shifted to support lower LDL-C goals, this is not a noted goal within the 2021 ESC prevention guidelines for patients <70 years of age. Main Takeaway Lower is better when it comes to LDL-C For those with known atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, liberal intensification of lipid lowering treatment is recommended.  Guideline Location Section 4.6.2.1, page 3276-3279, Figure 6 on page 3252, Figure 7 on page 3253 CardioNerds Decipher the Guidelines - 2021 ESC Prevention Series CardioNerds Episode Page CardioNerds Academy Cardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal Club Subscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter! Check out CardioNerds SWAG! Become a CardioNerds Patron!
5/11/20229 minutes, 5 seconds
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203. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #9 with Dr. Noreen Nazir

The following question refers to Section 4.3 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian, answered first by pharmacy resident Dr. Anushka Tandon, and then by expert faculty Dr. Noreen Nazir. Dr. Noreen Nazir is Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Illinois at Chicago, where she is the director of cardiac MRI and the preventive cardiology program. The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #9 Mr. A is a 28-year-old man who works as an accountant in what he describes as a “desk job” setting. He shares that life got “a little off-track” for him in 2020 between the COVID-19 pandemic and a knee injury. His 2022 New Years’ resolution is to improve his overall cardiovascular and physical health. He has hypertension and a family history of premature ASCVD in his father, who died of a heart attack at age 50. Prior to his knee injury, he went to the gym 3 days a week for 1 hour at a time, split between running on the treadmill and weightlifting. He has not returned to the gym since his injury and has been largely sedentary, although he is trying to incorporate a 20-minute daily walk into his routine. Which of the following exercise-related recommendations is most appropriate? A. A target of 75-150 minutes of vigorous-intensity or 150-300 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic physical exercise weekly is recommended to reduce all-cause mortality, CV mortality, and morbidity. B. Bouts of exercise less than 30 minutes are not associated with favorable health outcomes. C. Exercise efforts should be focused on aerobic activity, since only this type of activity is associated with mortality and morbidity benefits. D. Light-intensity aerobic activity like walking is expected to have limited health benefits for persons with predominantly sedentary behavior at baseline. Answer #9 The correct answer is A. There is an inverse relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and CV morbidity/mortality, all-cause mortality, and incidence of type 2 diabetes, with additional benefits accrued for exercise beyond the minimum suggested levels. The recommendation to “strive for at least 150-300 min/week of moderate-intensity, or 75-150 min/week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination thereof” is a Class 1 recommendation per the 2021 ESC guidelines, and a very similar recommendation (at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity or 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity) is also Class 1 recommendation per 2019 ACC/AHA primary prevention guidelines. Both the ESC and ACC/AHA provide examples of activities grouped by absolute intensity (the amount of energy expended per minute of activity), but the ESC guidelines also offer suggestions for measuring the relative intensity of an activity (maximum/peak associated effort) in Table 7, which allows for a more individualized, customizable approach to setting activity goals. Importantly, individuals who are unable to meet minimum weekly activity recommendations should still be encouraged to stay as active as their abilities and health conditions allow to optimize cardiovascular and overall health. Choice B is incorrect, as data suggests physical activity episodes of any duration, including <10 min, are associated with favorable outcomes like all-cause mortality benefit. The duration of a single exercise bout is less correlated with health benefits than the total physical activity time accumulated per week. Choice C is incorrect. Per the ESC guidelines, it is a class 1 recommendation to perform resistance exercise, in addition to aerobic activity, on 2 or more days per week to reduce all-cause mortality. Data indicate that the addition of resistance exercise to aerobic activity is assoc...
5/10/202212 minutes, 3 seconds
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202. Guidelines: 2021 ESC Cardiovascular Prevention – Question #8 with Dr. Eugene Yang

This question refers to Sections 3.1 of the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines. The question is asked by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Hirsh Elhence, answered first by internal medicine resident at Beaumont Hospital and soon to be Mayo Clinic cardiology fellow and Dr. Teodora Donisan and then by expert faculty Dr. Eugene Yang.Dr. Yang is professor of medicine of the University of Washington where he is medical director of the Eastside Specialty Center and the co-Director of the Cardiovascular Wellness and Prevention Program. Dr. Yang is former Governor of the ACC Washington Chapter and current chair of the ACC Prevention of CVD Section.The CardioNerds Decipher The Guidelines Series for the 2021 ESC CV Prevention Guidelines represents a collaboration with the ACC Prevention of CVD Section, the National Lipid Association, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Question #8 Please read the following patient vignettes and choose the FALSE statement.A. A 39-year-old man who comes for a regular physical, has normal vitals and weight, denies any significant past medical or family history – does not need systematic cardiovascular disease (CVD) assessment.B. A 39-year-old woman who comes for a regular physical, has normal vitals and weight, and has a history of radical hysterectomy (no other significant past medical or family history) – could benefit from systematic or opportunistic CVD assessment.C. A 39-year-old woman who comes for a regular physical, has normal vitals except for a BMI of 27 kg/m2 and a family history of hypertension – requires a systematic global CVD assessment.D. A 39-year-old man who comes for a regular physical, has normal vitals and weight, and has a personal history of type I diabetes – requires a systematic global CVD assessment. Answer #8 The correct answer is C.Option A is an accurate statement, as systematic CVD risk assessment is not recommended in men 40 years-old and women > 50 years-old or postmenopausal, even in the absence of known ASCVD risk factors. (Class IIb, level C)Option C is a false statement and thus the correct answer, as the recommendations for global screening in this patient are not as strong and would require shared decision making. Opportunistic screening of blood pressure can be considered in her, as she is at risk for developing hypertension. Blood pressure screening should be considered in adults at risk for the development of hypertension, such as those who are overweight or with a known family history of hypertension. (Class IIa, level B)Option D is an accurate statement, as systematic global CVD risk assessmen