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APES vs.

English, Sciences, 1 season, 62 episodes, 11 hours, 7 minutes
APES vs. is a project for Research Triangle High School's AP Environmental Science class. It is a tribute to Gimlet Media's "Science vs" podcast. Students picked a topic related to environmental science and read some scientific papers to find out what experts are saying on the topic. All voices you are hearing are those of high school students, they may be playing the part of experts for dramatic effect, but keep in mind they don't have PhDs just yet.
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APES vs Saving the Rainforest rev1

APES vs Saving the Rainforest rev1
7/1/20216 minutes, 48 seconds
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APES vs. Bird Endangerment

In this Episode, Julianna Babcock and Caroline Mohler discuss the lesser-known environmental issue of bird endangerment. Why are the populations declining? How does it affect the environment? This podcast was reviewed by Jessie Howington Disclaimer: We are high school students who are making this podcast for a project. We are not actual experts or researchers on the subject. Thaxter, C. B., Buchanan, G. M., Carr, J., Butchart, S. H., Newbold, T., Green, R. E., ... & Pearce-Higgins, J. W. (2017). Bird and bat species' global vulnerability to collision mortality at wind farms revealed through a trait-based assessment. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 284(1862), 20170829. Pearce‐Higgins, J. W., Stephen, L., Langston, R. H., Bainbridge, I. P., & Bullman, R. (2009). The distribution of breeding birds around upland wind farms. Journal of Applied ecology, 46(6), 1323-1331. Dauphiné, N. I. C. O., & Cooper, R. J. (2009, October). Impacts of free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) on birds in the United States (Vol. 205). Loss, S. R. (2013, December 12). The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States. Nature Communications.,multiple%20wildlife%20extinctions%20on%20islands.&text=We%20estimate%20that%20free%2Dranging,the%20majority%20of%20this%20mortality. Marra, P. P., & Santella, C. (2017). Cat Wars. Princeton University Press. Strycker, N. (2021, May 3). To save birds, should we kill off cats? Animals. Hallmann, C. A. (2014, July 9). Pesticides linked to bird declines. Nature. State of The Birds. (2009). Birds as Environmental Indicators. Bird Friendly Iowa.,species%2C%20and%20many%20other%20impacts.&text=Birds%20provide%20insect%20and%20rodent,in%20tangible%20benefits%20to%20people
5/28/202124 minutes, 3 seconds
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Apes Vs. Proof Of Work

We take a look at what proof of work is and explore some statistics on the energy used in cryptocurrency mining.  Written by Beckett Shulman. Sources: Nakamoto, S. (2009). Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system Digiconomist. (2021). Bitcoin Energy Consumption. Retrieved from BP Statistical review of world energy (2020) published online at retrieved from ‘’ Blandin, A., Dr. Pieters, G., Wu, Y., Eisermann, T., Dek, A., Taylor, S., & Njoki, D. (2020). 3RD GLOBAL CRYPTOASSET BENCHMARKING STUDY. Retrieved from:
5/28/20216 minutes, 2 seconds
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APES vs. Microplastics

In this episode, Emily Ford discusses the issue of marine microplastic pollution. Some topics covered include the negative effects of microplastics on the environment, scientific research on cleaning technologies, and a discussion of what individuals and nations can do to prevent further pollution. Disclaimer: This podcast was created by a high school student playing the role of a researcher. References: Shim, W. J., & Thomposon, R. C. (2015). Microplastics in the ocean. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, 69(3), 265-268. Mato, Y., Isobe, T., Takada, H., Kanehiro, H., Ohtake, C., & Kaminuma, T. (2001). Plastic resin pellets as a transport medium for toxic chemicals in the marine environment. Environmental science & technology, 35(2), 318–324. Arossa, S., Martin, C., Rossbach, S., & Duarte, C. (2019). Microplastic removal by Red Sea giant clam (Tridacna maxima). Environmental Pollution, 252, 1257–1266. Liu, S., Leung, M., Fang, J., & Chua, S. (2021). Engineering a microbial ‘trap and release’ mechanism for microplastics removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 404. Henderson, L., & Green, C. (2020). Making sense of microplastics? Public understandings of plastic pollution. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 152, 110908. Xanthos, D., & Walker, T. (2017). International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 118(1–2), 17–26. Environmental Protection Agency. (2021, April 29). Chemicals and Toxics Topics.
5/28/20219 minutes, 37 seconds
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APES vs Saving the Rainforest

This episode of APES vs discusses what humanity can gain from helping protect the valuable rainforest ecosystems on our planet
5/28/20216 minutes, 55 seconds
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APES vs. Fritz Haber

Who was Fritz Haber? What did he create? Is he the good guy?  This episode was hosted, written, and researched by Abigail Wesson, Bella Strickland, and Emmaline Rhodes. It was reviewed by Jessie Howington. References can be found at:
5/28/202113 minutes, 56 seconds
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APES vs Solar Panels

Below is a link to the script and citations for all sources used to research information and film this podcast. Enjoy this episode!
5/28/20215 minutes, 31 seconds
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APES vs. Urbanization Effects on Global Warming

Disclaimer: We are students creating this podcast for a project, our experts are also fellow students helping us out. Sources AR5 Synthesis Report: Climate Change 2014 — IPCC. (2014). Retrieved May 28, 2021, from website: Causes of Global Warming | WWF-Australia. (2018). Retrieved May 28, 2021, from website:   Climate change dilemma driven by urbanisation. (2016, December 29). Retrieved May 28, 2021, from The ASEAN Post website:,is%20damaging%20to%20the%20environment.&text=An%20increase%20in%20the%20use,climate%20change%2C%22%20said%20Lee (2018, October 20). Cities & Global Warming Have A Complex Relationship. Retrieved May 19, 2021, from CleanTechnica website: The Impact of Urbanization | Flash Parking. (2019, October 31). Retrieved May 28, 2021, from Flash Parking website:,is%20another%20factor%20of%20urbanization.&text=Modernization%3A%20New%20technology%20upgrades%20the%20infrastructure%20of%20urban%20areas Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned With. (2020). Retrieved May 28, 2021, from PRB website:
5/28/202111 minutes, 2 seconds
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APES vs. Bees

A discussion of bees. Why are populations declining? Can we replace them? What will happen if they go extinct? Sources: Chechetka, S., Yu, Y., Tange, M., & Miyako, E. (2017, February 9). Materially Engineered Artificial Pollinators. Chem. (n.d.). How do you measure hunger? Feeding America. Retrieved May 26, 2021, from Hung, K.-L., Kingston, J., Albrecht, M., Holway, D., & Kohn, J. (2018, January 10). The worldwide importance of honey bees as pollinators in natural habitats. PMC. Johnson, R. (2010, January 7). Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder. Congressional Research Service. Potts, S, et al. (2018, November 15). Robotic bees for crop pollination: Why drones cannot replace biodiversity. Science Direct. van der Sluijs, J.P., Vaage, N.S. Pollinators and Global Food Security: the Need for Holistic Global Stewardship. Food ethics, (2016). vanEngelsdorp, D, et al. (2009, August 3). Colony Collapse Disorder: A Descriptive Study. Plos One.
5/26/20218 minutes, 7 seconds
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APES vs. Chernobyl

In 1986 the Chernobyl Power plant in modern-day Ukraine exploded, resulting in 31 deaths and all local populations being evacuated. In this episode, we discuss how this happened and the effects this incident had on the surrounding human and animal populations. Find the transcript for this episode here:
5/26/20217 minutes, 7 seconds
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APES vs Urbanization (Triblehorn & J.Patel)

In this episode of APES vs, we discuss the issues related to urbanization and evaluate the question "Does urbanization pose a concerning negative impact on our environment?" Disclaimer: we are playing the roles of the experts and are really high school students taking AP Environmental Science.  Citations:  McKinney, M. L. (2008). Effects of urbanization on species richness: a review of plants and animals. Urban ecosystems, 11(2), 161-176. Bonnet-Lebrun, A. S., Manica, A., & Rodrigues, A. S. (2020). Effects of urbanization on bird migration. Biological Conservation, 244, 108423. Friedland, A., & Relyea, R. (2019). Environmental Science for the AP® Course (Third ed.). BFW High School Publishers. Moore, M., Gould, P., & Keary, B. S. (2003). Global urbanization and impact on health. International journal of hygiene and environmental health, 206(4-5), 269-278. Bradley, C. A., & Altizer, S. (2007). Urbanization and the ecology of wildlife diseases. Trends in ecology & evolution, 22(2), 95-102. Williams, D. S., Manez Costa, M., Sutherland, C., Celliers, L., & Scheffran, J. (2019). Vulnerability of informal settlements in the context of rapid urbanization and climate change. Environment and Urbanization, 31(1), 157-176. Garschagen, M., & Romero-Lankao, P. (2015). Exploring the relationships between urbanization trends and climate change vulnerability. Climatic Change, 133(1), 37-52. Music:
5/26/20218 minutes, 44 seconds
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Patrick Connor & Trinity Moriggia-Snyder: "Potential of Alternative Dietary Options"

Disclaimer: This is two high school students imitating researchers. Citations: Bao, W., Rong, Y., Rong, S., & Liu, L. (2012, October 10). Dietary iron intake, body iron stores, and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Medicine. Chen, C., Chaudhary, A., & Mathys, A. (2019, April 16). Dietary Change Scenarios and Implications for Environmental, Nutrition, Human Health and Economic Dimensions of Food Sustainability. Nutrients. European Parliament. (2002, January 28). REGULATION (EC) No 178/2002 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL. EUR-Lex. Fanzo, J. (2015, December 2). Ethical issues for human nutrition in the context of global food security and sustainable development. Global Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (n.d.). Key facts and findings. FAO. Rowe, M. (2019). Beyond the Impossible.
5/26/20215 minutes, 28 seconds
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The science and controversy behind GMOs.
5/30/202012 minutes, 38 seconds
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APES vs. Environmental Effects on Newborns

This episode was hosted and written by Afzaa Rahman and reviewed by Jessie Howington. Our posed speakers are Sara Cheifitz, Arya Joshi, Sneha Singh, Emmaline Rhodes, Rubi Runton, Hannah Grunden, Alex Harry, and Mariam Hasan. References: Beijing 2008 Highlights. (2020, April 18). Retrieved May 27, 2020, from International Olympic Committee website: Catalano, R., Bruckner, T., & Smith, K. R. (2008). Ambient temperature predicts sex ratios and male longevity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(6), 2244–2247. Chin, J. (2015, April 28). Benefits of Breathing: Beijing’s Olympic Babies Born Heavier, Study Finds. Retrieved May 27, 2020, from WSJ website: Fukuda, M., Fukuda, K., Shimizu, T., Nobunaga, M., Mamsen, L. S., & Yding Andersen, C. (2014). Climate change is associated with male:female ratios of fetal deaths and newborn infants in Japan. Fertility and Sterility, 102(5), 1364-1370.e2. Mishamandani, S. (2015, October). Improved Air Quality During Beijing Olympics Linked to Higher Birth Weights. Retrieved May 27, 2020, from Global Environmental Health Newsletter website: Rich, D. Q., Liu, K., Zhang, J., Thurston, S. W., Stevens, T. P., Pan, Y., … Zhang, J. (2015). Differences in Birth Weight Associated with the 2008 Beijing Olympics Air Pollution Reduction: Results from a Natural Experiment. Environmental Health Perspectives, 123(9), 880–887. Sram, R. J. (1999). Impact of Air Pollution on Reproductive Health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107(11), A542. World Health Organization. (2018). How air pollution is destroying our health. Retrieved from website: Wu, G., Brown, J., Zamora, M. L., Miller, A., Satterfield, M. C., Meininger, C. J., … Zhang, R. (2019). Adverse organogenesis and predisposed long-term metabolic syndrome from prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(24), 11590–11595.
5/30/20209 minutes, 27 seconds
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APES vs Sentinel Species

Voice acting by Emily and Trevor Tupper. Writing, directing, and producing by Emily Tupper. Yant, W. P. (1930). The response of Japanese waltzing mice and canaries to carbon monoxide and to atmospheres deficient in oxygen (Vol. 3040). United States Bureau of Mines. Burrell, G. A., Seibert, F. M., & Robertson, I. W. (1914). Relative effects of carbon monoxide on small animals (Vol. 62). US Government Printing Office. Van der Schalie, W. H., Gardner Jr, H. S., Bantle, J. A., De Rosa, C. T., Finch, R. A., Reif, J. S., ... & Stokes, W. S. (1999). Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals. Environmental health perspectives, 107(4), 309-315. Van der Steen, J. J., de Kraker, J., & Grotenhuis, T. (2015). Assessment of the potential of honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in biomonitoring of air pollution by cadmium, lead and vanadium. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6(02), 96. Milan, M., Coppe, A., Reinhardt, R., Cancela, L. M., Leite, R. B., Saavedra, C., ... & Bargelloni, L. (2011). Transcriptome sequencing and microarray development for the Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum: genomic tools for environmental monitoring. BMC genomics, 12(1), 234. Bossart, G. D. (2011). Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health. Veterinary pathology, 48(3), 676-690. Notes, planning, script, and quotes used can be found here: 
5/29/20209 minutes, 50 seconds
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APES vs. Birth Control

Isabel and Madhu
5/29/201918 minutes, 4 seconds
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APES vs. Dinobirds

By Kristopher Papp and Anna Wing DISCLAIMER - All individuals in the podcast are not in any way experts on the discussed subject matter, and should not be cited in any manner. The individuals are high school students, and the students encourage anyone seeking further knowledge on the issue of "Are birds dinosaurs?" to further research this question. Sources -   Harris, M. P., Hasso, S. M., Ferguson, M. W., & Fallon, J. F. (2006). The development of archosaurian first-generation teeth in a chicken mutant. Current Biology, 16(4), 371-377.   Brusatte, S. L., Benton, M. J., Desojo, J. B., & Langer, M. C. (2010). The higher-level phylogeny of Archosauria (Tetrapoda: Diapsida). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, 8(1), 3-47.   Prum, R. O. (1999). Development and evolutionary origin of feathers. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 285(4), 291-306.   Sawyer, R. H., Salvatore, B. A., Potylicki, T. T. F., French, J. O., Glenn, T. C., & Knapp, L. W. (2003). Origin of feathers: Feather beta (β) keratins are expressed in discrete epidermal cell populations of embryonic scutate scales. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part B: Molecular and Developmental Evolution  Martin, L. D., Stewart, J. D., & Whetstone, K. N. (1980). The origin of birds: structure of the tarsus and teeth. The Auk, 97(1), 86-93.   Starck, J. M., & Chinsamy, A. (2002). Bone microstructure and developmental plasticity in birds and other dinosaurs. Journal of Morphology,254(3), 232-246. doi:10.1002/jmor.10029   Rensberger, J. M., & Watabe, M. (2000). Fine structure of bone in dinosaurs, birds and mammals. Nature, 406(6796), 619. 
5/29/20198 minutes, 9 seconds
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APES vs. Renewable Energy - Transportation & Sources

By Nitin and Neel DISCLAIMER - All speakers are high school students Eckart, J. (2017). “Batteries Can Be Part of the Fight against Climate Change - If We Do These Five Things.” World Economic Forum. Retrieved from International Energy Agency (2018). “Global EV Outlook 2018 : Key Findings.” GEVO 2018. Retrieved from Ji, S., & Chen, B. (2016). LCA-based carbon footprint of a typical wind farm in china. Energy Procedia, 88, 250-256. Retrieved from Rîcă, R. (2011, December 8). Bach Cello Suite No.1 - Prelude (Yo-Yo Ma). Retrieved from   Wu, P., Ma, X., Ji, J., & Ma, Y. (2017). Review on life cycle assessment of energy payback of solar photovoltaic systems and a case study. Energy Procedia, 105, 68-74. Retrieved from Zivin, J. S. G., Kotchen, M. J., & Mansur, E. T. (2014). Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of marginal emissions: Implications for electric cars and other electricity-shifting policies. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 107, 248-268. Retrieved from 
5/29/20198 minutes, 40 seconds
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APES VS. Socioeconomic Pollution

By: Hope L. and Aidan C.  <> [Royalty Free Music] Flow — LiQWYD [Advertisement]. (2019, May 28). Retrieved from Badger, E. (2014, April 15). Pollution is segregated, too. Retrieved from Effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between atmospheric pollution and mortality. (n.d.). Retrieved from Effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between atmospheric pollution and mortality. (2007, August). Retrieved from Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate. (2016, January 28). Retrieved from Katz, C. (2012, November 1). People in Poor Neighborhoods Breathe More Hazardous Particles. Retrieved from Links between noise and air pollution and socioeconomic status. (2016, September). Retrieved from MacDonald, J. (2018, January 10). Why Air Pollution Is a Socioeconomic Issue. Retrieved from Socioeconomic disparities and air pollution exposure: A global review. (2016, December 1). Retrieved from Traffic, Air Pollution, Minority and Socioeconomic Status: Addressing Inequities in Exposure and Risk. (2015, May 12). Retrieved from
5/29/201914 minutes, 43 seconds
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APES vs. AI in Medicine

Disclaimer: We are high school students, Joseph A. and Branden M., that attend Research Triangle High School. Also, our researchers and doctors are played by high school students. Burke, H. B., Goodman, P. H., Rosen, D. B., Henson, D. E., Weinstein, J. N., Harrell, F. E., . . . Bostwick, D. G. (2000, September 27). Artificial neural networks improve the accuracy of cancer survival prediction. Retrieved from;2-Y Decision theory in expert systems and artificial intelligence. (2003, May 20). Retrieved from Ramesh, A. N., Kambhampati, C., Monson, J. R., & Drew, P. J. (2004). Artificial intelligence in medicine. Annals of The Royal College of Surgeons of England, 86(5), 334.  Sharma, N., & Aggarwal, L. M. (2010). Automated medical image segmentation techniques. Retrieved from Topol, E. J. (2019). High-performance medicine: the convergence of human and artificial intelligence. Nature medicine, 25(1), 44. 
5/29/20196 minutes, 59 seconds
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APES vs Electric Vehicles

Created by John H. and Chase C. Disclaimer: This podcast was produced by high school students playing the parts of experts in certain fields. While their research is certainly based on factual information, the students are not experts.  <<Works Cited>> Hensley, R., Knupfer, S., & Pinner, D. (2009). Electrifying cars: How three industries will evolve. McKinsey Quarterly, 3(2009), 87-96. Kettles, C. (2018). Policies that Impact the Acceleration of Electric Vehicle Adoption (No. FSEC-CR-2087-18). University of Central Florida. Electric Vehicle Transportation Center (EVTC). Holland, S. P., Mansur, E. T., Muller, N. Z., & Yates, A. J. (2016). Are there environmental benefits from driving electric vehicles? The importance of local factors. American Economic Review, 106(12), 3700-3729. Granovskii, M., Dincer, I., & Rosen, M. A. (2006). Economic and environmental comparison of conventional, hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 159(2), 1186-1193. Notter, D. A., Gauch, M., Widmer, R., Wager, P., Stamp, A., Zah, R., & Althaus, H. J. (2010). Contribution of Li-ion batteries to the environmental impact of electric vehicles.
5/29/20196 minutes, 57 seconds
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APES VS. Marijuana

Created by Maya and Tammy  <<Works Cited>> Budney, A. J., Novy, P. L., & Hughes, J. R. (2002, May 03). Marijuana withdrawal among adults seeking treatment for marijuana dependence. Retrieved from Castle, D., Murray, R. M., & D’Souza, D. C. (Eds.). (2012). Marijuana and Madness. Cambridge, NY: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from Chen, K., Kandel, D. B., & Davies, M. (1999, May 06). Relationships between frequency and quantity of marijuana use and last year proxy dependence among adolescents and adults in the United States. Retrieved from Desimone, J. (1998). Is Marijuana a Gateway Drug? Eastern Economic Journal, 24, 149-164. Retrieved from Drug Enforcement Administration, U. (2018, October). 2018 National Drug Threat Assessment. Retrieved from 2018 NDTA final low resolution.pdf ElSohly, M. A., Mehmedic, Z., Foster, S., Gon, C., Chandra, S., & Church, J. C. (2016, April 01). Changes in Cannabis Potency Over the Last 2 Decades (1995-2014): Analysis of Current Data in the United States. Retrieved from Fitzgerald, K. T., Bronstein, A.C. Newquist, K. L. (2013, February). Marijuana poisoning [Abstract]. Top Companion Anim Med, 28,8-12. Retrieved from Gable, R. S. (2004, February 12). Comparison of acute lethal toxicity of commonly abused psychoactive substances. Addiction, 99, 686-696. Retrieved from Hampson, A. J., Grimaldi, M., Axelrod, J., & Wink, D. (1998, July 07). Cannabidiol and (−)Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are neuroprotective antioxidants. Retrieved from Joy, J. E., Watson, S. J., Jr., & Benson, J. A., Jr. (n.d.). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Retrieved from Pot Books/Marijuana and Medicine 2.pdf Kleiman. (1992). Retrieved from Lessem, J. M., Hopfer, C. J., Haberstick, B. C., Timberlake, D., Ehringer, M. A., Smolen, A. Hewitt, J. K. (2006, March 25). Relationship Between Adolescent Marijuana Use and Young Adult Illicit Drug Use. Behavior Genetics, 36, 498-506. Retrieved from Purnell, & JM, G. (1975, July). Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol,, euphoria and intraocular pressure in man. Retrieved from
5/29/201912 minutes, 35 seconds
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APES vs NC's Opioid Crisis

DISCLAIMER: All speakers in this presentation are high school students giving information while acting as real professionals from credible resources
5/29/20195 minutes
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APES Vs. Household Pets

Regan C. and Jessica B. Sources: Dickman, C. R. (2009). House cats as predators in the Australian environment: impacts and management. Human-Wildlife Conflicts, 3(1), 41-48.  Longcore, T., Rich, C., & Sullivan, L. M. (2009). Critical assessment of claims regarding management of feral cats by trap–neuter–return. Conservation biology, 23(4), 887-894.  Loss, S. R., Will, T., & Marra, P. P. (2013). The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States. Nature Communications, 4, 1396.  MacDonald, M. L., Rogers, Q. R., & Morris, J. G. (1984). Nutrition of the domestic cat, a mammalian carnivore.  Okin, G. S. (2017). Environmental impacts of food consumption by dogs and cats. PloS one, 12(8), e0181301.  Swanson, K. S., Carter, R. A., Yount, T. P., Aretz, J., & Buff, P. R. (2013). Nutritional sustainability of pet foods. Advances in Nutrition, 4(2), 141-150. Verbrugghe, Adronie, and Myriam Hesta. “Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?” MDPI, Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 15 Nov. 2017,  
5/29/20196 minutes, 58 seconds
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APES vs. Impacts of veganism on the environment

DIsclaimer: We are playing the parts of researchers and are high school students  Sources:  Flexitarianism: Decarbonising through flexible vegetarianism. (2013, December 11). Retrieved from  Marangi, M., Morelli, V., Pati, S., Camarda, A., Cafiero, M. A., & Giangaspero, A. (n.d.). Acaricide Residues in Laying Hens Naturally Infested by Red Mite Dermanyssus gallinae. Retrieved from  Scarborough, P., Appleby, P. N., Mizdrak, A., Briggs, A. D., Travis, R. C., Bradbury, K. E., & Key, T. J. (2014, June 11). Dietary greenhouse gas emissions of meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the UK. Retrieved from  Springmann, M., Wiebe, K., Mason-D'Croz, D., Sulser, T. B., Rayner, M., & Scarborough, P. (n.d.). Health and nutritional aspects of sustainable diet strategies and their association with environmental impacts: A global modelling analysis with country-level detail. Retrieved from McLeod-Kilmurray, H. (2012). Commoditizing nonhuman animals and their consumers: Industrial livestock production, animal welfare, and ecological justice. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 32(1), 71-85. 
5/29/20196 minutes, 21 seconds
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APES vs. GMO Myths

By Caroline W, Jonathan W, and Sejal DISCLAIMER: These are high school students and are not actually researchers. Blancke, S., Breusegem, F. V., Jaeger, G. D., Braeckman, J., & Montagu, M. V. (2015). Trends of Plant Science. Fatal Attraction: The Intuitive Appeal of GMO Opposition, 1 – 21. Retrieved from  Celec, P., Kukučková, M., Renczésová, V., Natarajan, S., Pálffy, R., Gardlík, R.& Szemes, T. (2005). Biological and biomedical aspects of genetically modified food. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy, 59(10), 531-540.  de Vendômois, J., Cellier, D., Vélot, C., Clair, E., Mesnage, R., & Séralini, G. (2010). Debate on GMOs Health Risks after Statistical Findings in Regulatory Tests. International Journal Of Biological Sciences, 590-598. doi: 10.7150/ijbs.6.590.   Landrigan, P., & Benbrook, C. (2015). GMOs, Herbicides, and Public Health. New England Journal Of Medicine, 373(8), 693-695. doi: 10.1056/nejmp1505660. Retrieved from   Morris, E. J. (2011). A semi-quantitative approach to GMO risk-benefit analysis. Transgenic research, 20(5), 1055-1071. Retrieved from   Poulsen, L. K. (2004). Allergy assessment of foods or ingredients derived from biotechnology, gene‐modified organisms, or novel foods. Molecular nutrition & food research, 48(6), 413-423.  
5/29/20196 minutes, 32 seconds
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APES vs. Carbon Capture and Storage

Alan and Grace This podcast is made by high school students playing the roles of a podcast host (Grace) and an expert (Alan) on Carbon Capture and Storage. Sources: • American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. Documentation of the TLVs and BEIs with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. 7th Ed. CD-ROM Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634 2013., p. 1 • Boot-Handford, M. (2013). Carbon capture and storage update. Royal Society of Chemistry. • Haszeldine, S. (2009). Carbon Capture and Storage: How Green Can Black Be? Science Magazine. • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (n.d.). Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage.(B. Metz, O. Davidson, H. D. Coninck, M. Loos, & L. Meyer, Eds.). • Herzog, H., & Golomb, D. (n.d.). Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use. 
5/29/201910 minutes, 21 seconds
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APES VS Black Holes

Utkarsh and Krishna DISCLAIMER: ALL GUESTS AND HOSTS ARE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. Work Cited Franceschini, A., Vercellone, S., & Fabian, A. C. (1998). Supermassive black holes in early-type galaxies: relationship with radio emission and constraints on the black hole mass function. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 297(3), 817-824. Fryer, C. L. (1999). Mass limits for black hole formation. The Astrophysical Journal, 522(1), 413.  Shakura, N. I., & Sunyaev, R. A. (1973). Black holes in binary systems. Observational appearance. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 24, 337-355. Volonteri, M. (2012). The formation and evolution of massive black holes. Science, 337(6094), 544-547.
5/29/20195 minutes, 45 seconds
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APES vs. Wind

Written and Produced by Simi Singh (APES 4th Period, 2018-2019 school year) A full transcript of the podcast (Included as a filled out template for the script checkpoint) can be found here. Sources: Böning, C. W., Dispert, A., Visbeck, M., Rintoul, S. R., & Schwarzkopf, F. U. (2008). The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nature Geoscience, 1, 864-869.  Lamb, H. H. (1966). Climate in the 1960's Changes in the World's Wind Circulation Reflected in Prevailing Temperatures, Rainfall Patterns and the Levels of the African Lakes. The Geographical Journal, 132, 183-212. Lamb, H. H. (1977). Climatic Variation and Changes in Little Wind and Ocean Circulation: The Little Ice Age in the Northeast Atlantic. Quaternary Research, 11, 1-20. Miu, L. M. (2015). The impact of climate change on wind power production in Scotland. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 206, 239-250. Retrieved from: Pryor, S. C. & Barthelmie, R. J, Climate change impacts on wind energy: A review. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 14(1),  430-437, 2010. Stenseth, N. C., Mysterud, A., Ottersen, G., Hurrell, J. W., Chan, K. S., & Lima, M. (2002). Ecological effects of climate fluctuations. Science, vol 297(5585), 1292-1296.  Sydeman, W. J., García-Reyes, M., Schoeman, D. S., Rykaczewski, R. R., Thompson, S. A., Black, B. A., & Bograd, S. J. (2014). Climate change and wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems. Science, 345(6192), 77-80. Retrieved from: Climate change and wind intensification in coastal upwelling ecosystems. What Is Wind? (2003). University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Retrieved from 
5/29/20197 minutes, 51 seconds
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APES vs. E Waste

Disclaimer:  This episode of APES vs, is made by Research Triangle High School students Ose and Sarah. All experts in this episode were students and not the actual experts Also adding music to this episode was crashing both editors computers so enjoy this musically challenged podcast. Citation: Robinson, B. H. (2009). E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. Science of the total environment, 408(2), 183-191. Heacock, M., Kelly, C. B., Asante, K. A., Birnbaum, L. S., Bergman, Å. L., Bruné, M. N., ... & Kamel, M. (2015). E-waste and harm to vulnerable populations: a growing global problem. Environmental health perspectives, 124(5), 550-555. Schumacher, K. A. (2016). Electronic Waste Management in the US Practice and Policy. University of Delaware.  Namias, J. (2013). The Future of Electronic Waste Recycling in the United States: Obstacles and Domestic Solutions. Columbia University. 
5/29/20196 minutes, 59 seconds
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APES vs. Noise Pollution

Disclaimer: This podcast was made by high school students Ronik G. and Drew R. in the RTHS APES class, therefore the studies and facts are all secondary and made by experts.   Sources: Effect on Animals Source 1: APA citation- Kunc, H. P., Mclaughlin, K. E., & Schmidt, R. (2016). Aquatic noise pollution: Implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 283(1836), 20160839. doi:10.1098/rspb.2016.0839 Source 2: APA citation- Slabbekoorn, H., Bouton, N., Opzeeland, I. V., Coers, A., Cate, C. T., & Popper, A. N. (2010). A noisy spring: The impact of globally rising underwater sound levels on fish. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25(7), 419-427. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.04.005 Simpson, S. D., Radford, A. N., Nedelec, S. L., Ferrari, M. C., Chivers, D. P., McCormick, M. I., & Meekan, M. G. (2016). Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation. Nature communications, 7, 10544. Sources of Pollution Source 1: APA citation-Merchant, N. D., Pirotta, E., Barton, T. R., & Thompson, P. M. (2014). Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 78(1-2), 85-95. Source 2: APA citation- Ross, D. (2005). Ship sources of ambient noise. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, 30(2), 257-261. Solution to Pollution Source 1: APA citation- McCarthy, E. (2007). International regulation of underwater sound: establishing rules and standards to address ocean noise pollution. Springer Science & Business Media. Source 2: APA citation- Iduk, U., & Samson, N. (2015). Effects and solutions of marine pollution from ships in Nigerian waterways. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research,(IJSER) India, 6(9), 782-792. Simmonds, M. P., Dolman, S. J., Jasny, M., Parsons, E. C. M., Weilgart, L., Wright, A. J., & Leaper, R. (2014). Marine noise pollution-increasing recognition but need for more practical action.
5/29/20195 minutes, 31 seconds
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APES vs. Nuclear Energy

Ollie and Reeves Disclaimer: This podcast is made by high school students for an APES project and we are playing the parts of the researchers. Sources: Brook, B. W., & Bradshaw, C. J. (2015). Key role for nuclear energy in global biodiversity conservation. Conservation Biology, 29(3), 702-712. Hora, S. C., & Von Winterfeldt, D. (1997). Nuclear waste and future societies: A look into the deep future. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 56(2), 155-170. Petrescu, F. I., Apicella, A., Petrescu, R. V., Kozaitis, S., Bucinell, R., Aversa, R., & Abu-Lebdeh, T. (2016). Environmental protection through nuclear energy. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 13(9), 941-946. Vaillancourt, K., Labriet, M., Loulou, R., & Waaub, J. P. (2008). The role of nuclear energy in long-term climate scenarios: An analysis with the World-TIMES model. Energy Policy, 36(7), 2296-2307. Wang, Q., & Chen, X. (2012). Regulatory failures for nuclear safety–the bad example of Japan–implication for the rest of world. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(5), 2610-2617.
5/28/20195 minutes, 49 seconds
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APES Vs. Misinformation

Disclaimer: Noah T. and Marzuq I. are playing the roles of interviewer/researcher and are interview Sri D. All people in the podcast are high school students.  Six common misconceptions about immunization. (2013, February 19). Retrieved from    Hussain, A., Ali, S., Ahmed, M., & Hussain, S. (2018, July 03). The Anti-vaccination Movement: A Regression in Modern Medicine. Retrieved from   Vaccines: Vac-Gen/What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations. (n.d.). Retrieved from   Evrony A, Caplan A. The overlooked dangers of anti-vaccination groups' social media presence. Hum Vaccin Immunother. ;13(6):1–2. doi:10.1080/21645515.2017.1283467   Black, B. (2013). Climate change: An encyclopedia of science and history. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.    Bain, P. G., Hornsey, M. J., Bongiorno, R., & Jeffries, C. (2012, June 17). Promoting pro-environmental action in climate change deniers. Retrieved from  Linden, S. V., Leiserowitz, A., Rosenthal, S., & Maibach, E. (2017). Inoculating the Public against Misinformation about Climate Change. Global Challenges,1(2), 1600008. doi:10.1002/gch2.201600008 
5/28/201911 minutes, 49 seconds
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APES vs. Ethanol Fuel ⛽️

Disclaimer: This podcast was produced by high-school students.  Works Cited Annual Ethanol Production – Renewable Fuels Association. (n.d.). Retrieved from August 6, 2. (n.d.). Ethanol fuel from corn faulted as 'unsustainable subsidized food burning' in analysis by Cornell scientist. Retrieved from Chin, J., & Batterman, S. A. (2012, March). VOC composition of current motor vehicle fuels and vapors, and collinearity analyses for receptor modeling. Retrieved from Erickson, J. (2012, May 02). Ecosystem effects of biodiversity loss could rival impacts of climate change, pollution. Retrieved from Ethanol in Gasoline: Environmental Impacts and Sustainability Review Article. (2015, December). Retrieved from Gallagher, P. W., Ph.D, Yee, W. C., & Baumes, H. S. (2019, February). 2015 Energy Balance for the Corn-Ethanol Industry. Retrieved from Jacobson, M. Z. (2017, April 18). Effects of Ethanol (E85) versus Gasoline Vehicles on Cancer and Mortality in the United States. Retrieved from Knoll, K., West, B., Huff, S., Thomas, J., Orban, J., & Cooper, C. (2009, November 4). Effects of Mid-Level Ethanol Blends on Conventional Vehicle Emissions. Retrieved from Pimentel, D., & Patzek, T. W. (n.d.). Ethanol Production Using Corn, Switchgrass, and Wood; Biodiesel Production Using Soybean and Sunflower. Retrieved from Searchinger, T., Heimlich, R., Houghton, R. A., Dong, F., Elobeid, A., Fabiosa, J., Yu, T. (2008, February 29). Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change. Retrieved from Tessum, C. W., Hill, J. D., & Marshall, J. D. (2014, December 30). Life cycle air quality impacts of conventional and alternative light-duty transportation in the United States. Retrieved from
5/28/201911 minutes, 21 seconds
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APES vs. Ancient Diseases

Disclaimer: This podcast is created by students at Research Triangle High School, Rubi R. and Charanya S., for a project in AP Environmental Science. All the experts in the podcast are played by students; however, all the information is taken from studies written by the experts named. Sources: A. Martyn, personal communication, January 23, 2019  Craig, A. T., Kasai, T., Li, A., Otsu, S., & Khut, Q. Y. (2010). Getting back to basics during a public health emergency: a framework to prepare and respond to infectious disease public health emergencies. Public Health, 124(1), 10–13. Fox-Skelly, J. (2017, May 4). There are diseases hidden in ice, and they are waking up. Retrieved from Giant DNA virus revived from the late Pleistocene. Matthieu Legendre, Julia Bartoli, Lyubov Shmakova, Sandra Jeudy, KarineLabadie, Annie Adrait, Magali Lescot, Olivier Poirot, Lionel Bertaux, Christophe Bruley, Yohann Couté, Elizaveta Rivkina, Chantal Abergel, Jean-Michel Claverie. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Mar 2014, 111 (11) 4274-4279; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1320670111    Mayo Clinic New Network. (2016, March 23). Pandemic vs.endemic vs. outbreak: Terms to know. Retrieved from Mock, M., & Fouet, A. (2001). Anthrax. Annual Reviews in Microbiology, 55(1), 647-671. Nasidi, A., Monath, T. P., DeCock, K., Tomori, O., Cordellier, R., Olaleye, O. D., ... & van Der Laan, G. (1989). Urban yellow fever epidemic in western Nigeria, 1987. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 83(3), 401-406. Pikuta, E. V., Marsic, D., Bej, A., Tang, J., Krader, P. & Hoover, R. B. ( 2005; ). Carnobacterium pleistocenium sp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe isolated from permafrost of the Fox Tunnel in Alaska. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 55, 473–478.   Revich, B. A., & Podolnaya, M. A. (2011). Thawing of permafrost may disturb historic cattle burial grounds in East Siberia. Global Health Action, 4(1).  Sobel, J. (2005). Botulism. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 41(8), 1167-1173.  Wade, H. W., & Ledowsky, V. (1952). The Leprosy Epidemic at Nauru; a Review with Data on the Status since 1937. International Journal of Leprosy, 20(1), 1-29. Weed, D. L. (2002). Environmental epidemiology: Basics and proof of cause-effect. Toxicology, 181-182, 399–403. Retrieved from
5/28/201911 minutes, 17 seconds
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Apes Vs. Access to Fresh Foods

Shaan & Darshan DISCLAIMER: The speakers in this podcast are high school students producing this podcast for a project. Our sources can be found below: Drewnowski, A. (2010, November 18). The cost of US foods as related to their nutritive value. Retrieved from Hijazi, N., Abalkhail, B., & Seaton, A. (2000, May 22). Diet and childhood asthma in a society in transition: A study in urban and rural Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from Lopez, R. (2004). Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese. American journal of public health, 94(9), 1574-1579  Yousefian, A., Leighton, A., Fox, K., & Hartley, D. (2011). Understanding the rural food environment--perspectives of low-income parents. Rural & Remote Health, 11(2).
5/28/20198 minutes, 11 seconds
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APES vs. The Effects of Climate Change on Vector-Borne Diseases

Hattie  & Caroline F DISCLAIMER: All guests are high school students, not actual experts. (n.d.). Extreme Weather. Retrieved from Global Change website: (2019, May 23). Global Climate Change. Retrieved from NASA website: Fabrice Courtin, J. R., Tamboura, I., Serdébéogo, O., Koudougou, Z., Solano, P., & Sidibé, I. (2010, April 15). Updating the Northern Tsetse Limit in Burkina Faso (1949–2009): Impact of Global Change. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from Lindgren, E., Jaenson, T. G., Menne, B., & World Health Organization. (2006). Lyme borreliosis in Europe: influences of climate and climate change, epidemiology, ecology and adaptation measures (No. EUR/04/5046250). Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Moore, S., Shrestha, S., Tomlinson, K. W., & Vuong, H. (2011, November 09). Predicting the effect of climate change on African trypanosomiasis: Integrating epidemiology with parasite and vector biology. Retrieved May 26, 2019, from Morin, C. W., & Comrie, A. C. (2013). Regional and seasonal response of a West Nile virus vector to climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(39), 15620-15625. Ogden, N. H., Radojevic, M., Wu, X., Duvvuri, V. R., Leighton, P. A., & Wu, J. (2014). Estimated effects of projected climate change on the basic reproductive number of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis. Environmental health perspectives, 122(6), 631-638. Paz, S. (2015). Climate change impacts on West Nile virus transmission in a global context. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370(1665), 20130561.
5/28/201913 minutes, 1 second
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Apes VS Cellphone Radiation

Disclaimer: We (Jim Clayton and Gus Clingroth) are high school students at Research Triangle High School and not actual professionals. We do not have the credibility of the people were impersonate. Sources:  Kesari, K., Siddiqui, M., Meena, R., & Kumar, S., (2013). Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems. NISCAIR-CSIR, India. Singh, P. (2013). Wireless radiation: a threat to human health. International Journal of Technical Research and Applications, 1, 13-9. Usikalu, R., Soneye, O., & Akinpelu, A. (2018). Radiation From Different Parts of Laptops. IJMPERD. Retrieved from Wild, C. (2011). IARC Report to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) on the Interphone Study. IARC Publications, 1–8. Retrieved from 
5/28/20195 minutes, 27 seconds
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APES vs. Plastic

Pritika & Thao-My (Research Triangle High School) Machado, A.A., Lau, C.W., Till, J., Kloas, W., Lehmann, A., Becker, R., Rillig, M.C. (2018). Impacts of Microplastic on the Soil Biophysical Environment.  Ryan, P. G., Moore, C.J., van Franeker, J.A., & Moloney, C.L. (2009, July 27). Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Song, J.H., Narayan, M.R., Davies, G.B. (2009, July 27). Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.  Thompson, R. C., Moore, C. J., Saal, F. S., & Swan, S. H. (2009, July 27). Plastics, the environment and human health: Current consensus and future trends.  Verma, R., Vinoda, K.S., Gowda, A.N.S. (2015). Toxic Pollutants from Plastic Waste- A Review.  Vince, J., Hardesty, B.D. (2016). Plastic Pollution challenges in marine and coastal environments: from local to global governance.
5/28/20198 minutes, 41 seconds
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APES VS Invasive Species

Joe Patton and Fritz Clingroth from "APES Vs" evaluate the environmental impact of invasive species. *DISCLAIMER: EVERY EXPERT DIRECTLY QUOTED IN THIS PODCAST IS PLAYED BY THE PART OF A HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT. HOWEVER, THE INFORMATION IS DIRECTLY TAKEN FROM STUDIES BY THE MENTIONED EXPERTS* Sources: Albins, M., & Hixon, M. (2008). Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois volitans reduce recruitment of Atlantic coral-reef fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 367(233–238). Retrieved from Charles H., Dukes J.S. (2008) Impacts of Invasive Species on Ecosystem Services. In: Nentwig W. (eds) Biological Invasions. Ecological Studies (Analysis and Synthesis), 193. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg Hobb, R., Moony, H., & Pace, M. (2001). Viewing Invasive Species Removal in a Whole-ecosystem Context. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 16(8). Retrieved from Pimentel, D., Zuniga, R., & Morrison, D. (2004). Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics, 52(273–288). Retrieved from Pollen-Bankhead, N., Simon, A., Jaeger, K., & Wohl, E. (2008). Destabilization of Streambanks by Removal of Invasive Species in Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. Geomorphology, 103(363–374). Retrieved from Strayer, D., Evine, V., Jeschke, J., & Pace, M. (2006). Understanding the Long-term Effects of species Invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21(11). Retrieved from
5/28/201910 minutes, 28 seconds
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APES vs. Renewable Energy/Transition

Daniel S & Sri D Disclaimer: This episode was made by students of Research Triangle High School (Daniel Saltsgaver and Srinath Dittakavi) for a project in AP Environmental Science. Sources: Dincer, I. (2000). Renewable energy and sustainable development: A crucial review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 4(2), 157-175. doi:10.1016/s1364-0321(99)00011-8 US Department of Commerce, & National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. (2013, June 01). What percentage of the American population lives near the coast? Retrieved from Likens, G. E. (2013). Acid Rain. Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science, 259-264. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-091680-4.00015-9 Barbir, F., Veziroglu, T., & Plassjr, H. (1990). Environmental damage due to fossil fuels use. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 15(10), 739-749. doi:10.1016/0360-3199(90)90005-j Ibrahim, H., Ilinca, A., & Perron, J. (2008). Energy storage systems—Characteristics and comparisons. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(5), 1221-1250. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2007.01.023 Mr S Boyle. (1994). Renewable Energy, 4(6), 755-756. doi:10.1016/0960-1481(94)90319-0 Lund, H., & Mathiesen, B. (2009). Energy system analysis of 100% renewable energy systems—The case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050. Energy, 34(5), 524-531. doi:10.1016/ Pollution from Fossil-Fuel Combustion is the Leading Environmental Threat to Global Pediatric Health and Equity: Solutions Exist. (n.d.). Retrieved from  “15. World Energy Council . World Energy Resources 2013 Survey: Summary. World Energy Council; London, UK: 2013. p. 29. [Google Scholar] 16. U.S. Energy Information Administration . Primary Energy Consumption by Source and Sector, 2014. U.S. Energy Information Administration; Washington, DC, USA: 2014. [Google Scholar]”
5/28/20199 minutes, 12 seconds
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APES vs. A Growing Population

Alex and Karthik Disclaimer- This is an APES project for a high school class <APA> Arrow, K., Bolin, B., Costanza, R., Dasgupta, P., Folke, C., Holling, C. S., … Pimental, D. (1995). Economic Growth, Carrying Capacity, and the Environment. Science, 268, 520–521. Brooke, J. (1992, March 08). Brazil Welcomes Drop in Population Growth. Butler C. D. (2004). Human carrying capacity and human health. PLoS medicine, 1(3), e55. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010055 Cohen, J. E. (1995). Population Growth and Earth’s Human Carrying Capacity. Science, 269.  Hinrichsen, D., & Robey, B. (2000, October). Population and the Environment: The Global Challenge. Hopfenberg, R. (2003). Human Carrying Capacity Is Determined by Food Availability. Population and Environment, 25(2), 109–117. doi:10.1023/B:POEN.0000015560.69479.c1 Murphy, B. (2013). POPULATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH. Rees, W. E. (1992). Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out. Environment and Urbanization, 4(2), 121–130. Sanderson, E. W., Jaiteh, M., Levy, M. A., Redford, K. H., Wannebo, A. V., & Woolmer, G. (2002). Article Navigation The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild: The human footprint is a global map of human influence on the land surface, which suggests that human beings are stewards of nature, whether we like it or not. BioScience, 52(10), 891–904. doi:[0891:THFATL]2.0.CO;2 Wackernagel, M., & Rees, W. E. (1995). Our Ecological Footprint. New Society Publishers.
5/28/20196 minutes, 22 seconds
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APES vs. The Effects of Birth Control on Aquatic Fish

By: Abby and Lexie  APA Citations:  Berg, E.G. (2015). The Chemistry of the Pill. NCBI, doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.5b00066.  Caldwell, D.J., Mastrocco, F., Nowak, E., Johnston, J., Yekel, H., Pfeiffer, D., Hoyt, M., DuPlessie, B.M., & Anderson, P.D. (2009). An Assessment of Potential Exposure and Risk from Estrogens in Drinking Water. NCBI, doi: 10.1289/ehp.0900654.  Frankel, T. E., Meyer, M. T., Kolpin, D. W., Gillis, A. B., Alvarez, D. A., & Orlando, E. F. (2016). Exposure to the contraceptive progestin, gestodene, alters reproductive behavior, arrests egg deposition, and masculinizes development in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environmental science & technology, 50(11), 5991-5999. Gross-Sorokin, M.Y., Roast, S.D., & Brighty, G.C. (2005). Assessment of Feminization of Male Fish in English Rivers by the Environment Agency of England and Wales. Environmental health perspectives, 114 Suppl 1(Suppl 1), 147–151. doi:10.1289/ehp.8068. Iwanowicz, L.R., Blazer, V.S., Pinkney, A.E., Guy, C.P., Major, A.M., Munney, K., Mierzykowski, S., Lingenfelser, S., Secord, A., Patnode, K., Kubiak, T.J., Stern, C., Hahn, C.M., Iwanowicz, D.D., Walsh, H.L., & Sperry, A. (2015). Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 124, 50-59. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.09.035.
5/26/20197 minutes, 58 seconds